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3.0 Outline

Harmonic Excitation

Frequency Response Function

Applications

Periodic Excitation

Non-periodic Excitation

3.0 Outline

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.1 Harmonic Excitation

harmonic function, i.e. functions of sines and cosines.

This type of excitation is common to many system

involving rotating and reciprocating motion. Moreover,

many other forces can be represented as an infinite

series of harmonic functions. By the principle of

superposition, the response is the sum of the individual

harmonic response.

technique in solving the harmonic excitation problems.

This is because the response to different

excitation frequencies can be seen in one graph.

3.1 Harmonic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Let us focus on the particular solution of

mx + cx + kx = F0 cos ωt

normalize the equation of motion

x + 2ζωn x + ωn2 x = f 0 cos ωt , f 0 = F0 / m

f ( t ) = f 0 Re ⎡⎣eiωt ⎤⎦

∴ solve for z ( t ) from z + 2ζωn z + ωn2 z = f 0 eiωt

and the solution is the real part of z ( t ) ; x ( t ) = Re ⎡⎣ z ( t ) ⎤⎦

Assume the solution to have the same form as the forcing function

z ( t ) = Z ( iω ) eiωt ( same frequency as the input w/ different mag. and phase )

( −ω 2

+ i 2ζωωn + ωn2 ) Z ( iω ) eiωt = f 0 eiωt

f0 f 0 / ωn2

Z ( iω ) = 2 =

ωn − ω + i 2ζωωn 1 − (ω / ωn )2 + i 2ζω / ωn

2

F0

=

k ⎡1 − (ω / ωn ) + i 2ζω / ωn ⎤

2

⎣ ⎦

3.1 Harmonic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

F0

z (t ) = e iωt

= H ( iω ) F e iωt

k ⎡⎣1 − r 2 + i 2ζ r ⎤⎦

0

⎡ F0 ⎤

∴ x ( t ) = Re ⎢ e ⎥ , r = ω / ωn

iωt

⎢⎣ k ⎡⎣1 − r + i 2ζ r ⎤⎦ ⎥⎦

2

1

If H ( iω ) = = H ( iω ) e iθ

is the frequency response

k ⎡⎣1 − r + i 2ζ r ⎤⎦

2

∴ x ( t ) = F0 H ( iω ) cos (ωt + θ )

1

where H ( iω ) = = magnitude

k (1 − r ) + ( 2ζ r )

2 2 2

−2ζ r

θ = tan −1 = phase

1− r 2

the magnitude H ( iω ) and phase H ( iω )

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

total response = homogeneous soln. + particular soln.

Recall the homogeneous solution of the underdamped system

xh = Ce −ζωnt cos (ωd t − φ ) or xh = e −ζωnt ( A1 sin ωd t + A2 cos ωd t )

∴ x ( t ) = Ce −ζωnt cos (ωd t − φ ) + F0 H ( iω ) cos (ωt + θ )

or x ( t ) = e −ζωnt ( A1 sin ωd t + A2 cos ωd t ) + F0 H ( iω ) cos (ωt + θ )

The initial conditions will be used to determine C , φ or A1 , A2

They will be different from those of free response

because the transient term now is partly due to the excitation force

and partly due to the initial conditions

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. 1 Compute and plot the response of a spring-mass

system to a force of magnitude 23 N, driving

frequency of twice the natural frequency and i.c.

given by x0 = 0 m and v0 = 0.2 m/s. The mass

of the system is 10 kg and the spring stiffness

is 1000 N/m.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

ωn = k / m = 1000 /10 = 10 rad/s

ζ = c / ( 2mωn ) = 0

ω = 2 ×10 = 20 rad/s

1 1

H ( iω ) = = = −0.333 × 10 −3

k ⎣⎡1 − r 2 + i 2ζ r ⎤⎦ 1000 × (1 − 22 )

x ( t ) = A1 sin ωnt + A2 cos ωnt − 23 × 0.333 ×10−3 cos ωt

x ( t ) = ωn A1 cos ωnt − ωn A2 sin ωnt + ω × 23 × 0.333 × 10−3 sin ωt

i.c. x ( 0 ) = 0 = A2 − 23 × 0.333 ×10−3 , A2 = 7.667 ×10−3

x ( 0 ) = 0.2 = 10 × A1 , A1 = 0.02

∴ x ( t ) = 0.02sin10t + 7.667 ×10−3 ( cos10t − cos 20t ) m

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. 2 Find the total response of a SDOF system with

m = 10 kg, c = 20 Ns/m, k = 4000 N/m, x0 = 0.01 m,

v0 = 0 m/s under an external force F(t) = 100cos10t.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

ωn = k / m = 20 rad/s

ζ = c / ( 2mωn ) = 0.05

r = ω / ωn = 0.5

1 1

H ( iω ) = = = 332.6 E − 6 − 0.0666

k ⎣⎡1 − r + i 2ζ r ⎦⎤ 4000 × (1 − 0.5 + i 2 × 0.05 × 0.5 )

2 2

x ( t ) = e −ζωnt ( A1 sin ωd t + A2 cos ωd t ) + F0 H ( iω ) cos (ωt + θ )

x ( t ) = −ζωn e −ζωnt ( A1 sin ωd t + A2 cos ωd t ) + e −ζωnt (ωd A1 cos ωd t − ωd A2 sin ωd t )

− ω F0 H ( iω ) sin (ωt + θ )

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

F0ωnt/(2k)

x ( t ) = X ( iω ) eiωt = A cos ωt + B sin ωt is invalid. This is because

it has the same form as the homogeneous solution.

Fω t

The correct particular solution is x p ( t ) = 0 n sin ωnt.

2k

3.1 Harmonic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Beat when the driving frequency is close to natural freq.

The total solution can be arranged in the form

v0 f0

x (t ) = sin ωnt + x0 cos ωnt + ( cos ωt − cos ωnt )

ωn ωn2 − ω 2

x02ωn2 + v02⎛ xω ⎞ 2f ⎛ ω − ω ⎞ ⎛ ωn + ω ⎞

= sin ⎜ ωn t + tan −1 0 n ⎟ + 2 0 2 sin ⎜ n t ⎟ sin ⎜ t⎟

ωn ⎝ v0 ⎠ ωn − ω ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

If the system is at rest in the beginning,

2 f0 ⎛ ω n − ω ⎞ ⎛ ωn + ω ⎞

x (t ) = sin ⎜ t ⎟ sin ⎜ t⎟

ωn − ω

2 2

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

ωn + ω

The response oscillates with frequency inside

2

2f ⎛ ω −ω ⎞

the slowly oscillated envelope 2 0 2 sin ⎜ n t⎟

ωn − ω ⎝ 2 ⎠

∴ The beat frequency is ωn − ω

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Beat when the driving frequency is close to natural freq.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.2 Frequency Response Function

The core of the particular solution to the harmonic function is

1

H ( iω ) = ; frequency response function

k (1 − r + i 2ζ r )

2

As a standard, we normalize the frequency response function

1

G ( iω ) = and then study how it varies as the

1 − r + i 2ζ r

2

It is indeed more convenient since we already normalized the frequency;

r = ω / ωn . So we can now study its variation to ζ and r.

For the fixed damping ratio, we plot G ( iω ) with r varies.

G ( iω ) has both magnitude and phase ⇒ magnitude and phase plot.

Then we repeatedly evaluate G ( iω ) by varying ζ .

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

1

H ( iω ) =

(1 − r )

2 2

+ ( 2ζ r )

2

(Bode diagram)

⎛ −2ζ r ⎞

θ = tan −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ 1 − r ⎠

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Resonance is defined to be the vibration response at

ω=ωn, regardless whether the damping ratio is zero.

At this point, the phase shift of the response is –π/2.

the response only when ζ=0. For0 < ζ < 1/ 2 ,the peak

amplitude will be at ω = ωn 1 − 2ζ 2 , slightly before ωn.

For ζ ≥ 1/ 2 , there is no peak but the max. value of the

output is equal to the input for the dc signal (of course,

for this normalized transfer function).

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. 3 Consider the pivoted mechanism with k=4x103 N/m,

l1=0.05 m, l2=0.07 m, l=0.10 m, and m=40 kg.

The mass of the beam is 40kg which is pivoted

at point O and assumed to be rigid. Calculate c

so that the damping ratio of the system is 0.2.

Also determine the amplitude of vibration of the

steady-state response if a 10 N force is applied

to the mass at a frequency of 10 rad/s.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

l − l1 ⎞

⎡⎣ ∑ M O = I Oθ ⎤⎦ Fl − mglθ − Mg ⎛⎜ ( )

⎟ θ − c l2θ l2 − k ( l1θ ) l1

⎝ 2 ⎠

⎡ 2 ( l + l1 ) ⎛ l − l1 ⎞ ⎤

2 2

= ⎢ ml + M +M⎜ ⎟ ⎥θ

⎢⎣ 12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦

0.1×10 cos10t = 0.5θ + 0.0049cθ + 59.05θ

0.0049c

ωn = 15.37, ζ = 0.2 = , c = 627.3 Ns/m

2 × 0.5 × ωn

ω = 10, r = 0.6506

1

H ( iω ) = = 0.02677 − 24.268°

59.05 ( 0.5767 + i 0.26 )

θ ss = 0.02677 cos (10t − 0.424 )

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. 4 A foot pedal for a musical instrument is modeled

as in the figure. With k=2000 kg/s2, c=25 kg/s,

m=25 kg, and F(t)=50cos2πt N, compute the

steady-state response assuming the system starts

from rest. Use the small angle approximation.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

( )

⎡⎣ ∑ M O = I Oθ ⎤⎦ F × 0.15 − k ( 0.05θ ) × 0.05 − c 0.05θ × 0.1 = m × 0.152 θ

5 100

3.75θ + θ + θ = 50 cos 2π t , positive CW

6 3

Find the parameters

ωn = 2.98, ζ = 0.0373, ω = 2π , r = 2.108

1

H ( iω ) = = 0.0087 − 177.4°

k (1 − r 2 + i 2ζ r )

since ζ ≠ 0, the transient response will die out

θ ss = F0 H ( iω ) cos (ωt + θ ) = 0.435cos ( 2π t − 3.096 )

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

measured acc. ωn z

2

10 1

= = =

actual acc. y 9.81

(1 − r 2 ) + ( 2ζ r )

2 2

(1 − r ) + ( 2ζ r )

2 2 2

= 0.962

ω r

= =1

ωd 1− ζ 2

ωd k c

ωn = = 758 rad/s = , ζ = 0.56 =

1− ζ 2 m 2mωn

k = 5745.6 N/m, c = 8.49 Ns/m

3.3 Applications

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.4 Periodic Excitation

time, called period T.

f (t ) = f (t + T )

will find the response to the input that is a periodic

function. The idea is to decompose that periodic input

into the sum of many harmonics. The response, by the

superposition principle of linear system, is then the sum

of the responses of individual harmonic. The response

of a harmonic function was studied in section 3.1

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Fourier found the way to decompose the periodic

function into sum of harmonic functions (sine & cosine)

whose frequencies are multiples of the fundamental

frequency. The fundamental frequency is the frequency

of the periodic function.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Fourier series

Fourier series in real form:

a0 ∞ 2π

f ( t ) = + ∑ ( an cos nω0t + bn sin nω0t ), ω0 =

2 n =1 T

Fourier coefficients:

T

2

an = ∫ f ( t ) cos nω0t dt , n = 0,1, 2,…

T 0

T

2

bn = ∫ f ( t ) sin nω0t dt , n = 1, 2,3,…

T 0

Fourier series in complex form:

∞

2π

f (t ) =

n =−∞

∑ Cneinω0t , ω0 =

T

Fourier cofficients (complex):

T

1

Cn = ∫ f ( t ) e − inω0t dt , n = … , −2, −1, 0,1, 2,…

T 0

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Some properties of Fourier series

1) If f ( t ) is an even function, bn = 0.

2 ) If f ( t ) is an odd function, an = 0.

a0

3) is the average value of f ( t ) over one period.

2

⎛ ∞ ⎞

4 ) If f ( t ) is real, Ck = C− k ⇒ f ( t ) = C0 + 2 Re ⎜ ∑ Cn einω0t ⎟

⎝ n =1 ⎠

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Frequency spectrum tells how much each harmonic

contributes to the periodic function f ( t ) .

In real form, the harmonic at nω0 has the amplitude an2 + bn2

In complex form, the harmonic at nω0 has the amplitude 2 Re ( Cn )

is the (discrete) frequency spectrum.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Superposition principle of linear system

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Response to harmonic excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

mx + cx + kx = F ( t ) = Cn einω0t

From section 3.1, xss = Cn H ( inω0 ) einω0t

1

where H ( inω0 ) =

⎛ ⎛ nω ⎞2 ⎛ nω0 ⎞ ⎞

k ⎜1 − ⎜ 0 ⎟ + i 2ζ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟

⎜ ⎝ ωn ⎠ ⎝ ωn ⎠ ⎠

⎝

⎛ ∞ ⎞

mx + cx + kx = F ( t ) = C0 + 2 Re ⎜ ∑ Cn einω0t ⎟

⎝ n =1 ⎠

C0 ⎛ ∞ ⎞

by superposition, xss = + 2 Re ⎜ ∑ Cn H ( inω0 ) einω0t ⎟

k ⎝ n =1 ⎠

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. Calculate the response of a damped system to

the periodic excitation f(t) depicted in the figure

by means of the exponential form of the Fourier

series. The system damping ratio is 0.1 and the

driving frequency is ¼ of the system natural freq.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Expand f ( t ) as sum of harmonic series

∞

f (t ) = ∑Ce ω

n =−∞

n

in 0t

1⎡ ⎤ 2π

T T /2 T

1

Cn = ∫ f ( t ) e − inω0t

dt = ⎢ ∫ Ae − inω0t

dt + ∫ − Ae − inω0t dt ⎥ , ω0 =

T 0 T⎣0 T /2 ⎦ T

⎧ 0, n = even

iA ⎡ ⎪

Cn = 1 − ( −1) ⎤ = ⎨ i 2 A

n

nπ ⎣ ⎦

⎪⎩− nπ , n = odd

⎛ π⎞

i 2 A inω0t 2 A i⎜⎝ nω0t − 2 ⎟⎠ 4 A ∞ 1

∴ f ( t ) = ∑ n =odd − ×e = ∑ n =odd ×e = ∑ sin nω0t

nπ nπ π n =1,3,… n

1 ω nω0 n

Gn ( iω ) = , ζ = 0.1, r = = =

1 − r 2 + i 2ζ r ωn ω n 4

1

Gn ( iω ) =

1 − ( n / 4 ) + i 0.05n

2

1 −0.05n

Gn = , Gn = tan −1

1 − ( 0.25n )

2 2

⎡1 − ( 0.25n )2 ⎤ + ( 0.05n )2

⎣ ⎦

4A ∞ 1

∴ xss ( t ) = ∑ G sin ( nω0t + Gn )

π n =1,3,… n n

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. The cam and follower impart a displacement y(t)

in the form of a periodic sawtooth function to the

lower end of the system. Derive an expression

for the response x(t) by means of Fourier analysis.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

FBD and assume y > x

⎡⎣ ∑ Fx = max ⎤⎦ mx = k2 ( y − x ) − k1 x − cx

k1 + k2 c

mx + cx + ( k1 + k2 ) x = k2 y, ωn = , ζ =

m 2mωn

Write y ( t ) in the Fourier series expansion

∞

2π A

y (t ) = ∑Ce ω

n =−∞

n

in 0t

, ω0 =

T

, y (t ) = B + t, 0 ≤ t ≤ T

T

T T T

1 1 1 A

Cn = ∫ y ( t ) e − inω0t dt = ∫ Be − inω0t dt + ∫ te − inω0t dt

T 0 T 0 T 0T

e ax e ax

Integration formula: ∫ e dx = + c and ∫ xe dx = a 2 ( ax − 1) + c

ax ax

a

T

⎡ − in 2π t ⎤ ⎡ T

2π

⎤

⎢ − in t ⎥

B⎢e T ⎥ A⎢ e T ⎛ 2π ⎞⎥ iA

Cn = ⎢ ⎥ + 2 ⎜

−in t − 1 ⎟⎥ = , n≠0

T ⎢ −in 2π ⎥ T 2 ⎢ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠ 2π n

⎣ T ⎦0 ⎢ ⎜ −in ⎟ ⎥

⎣⎝ T ⎠ ⎦0

A

C0 = B +

2

3.4 Periodic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

A ⎡ ∞ iA ⎤

∴ y ( t ) = B + + 2 Re ⎢ ∑ ( cos nω0t + i sin nω0t )⎥

2 ⎣ n =1 2π n ⎦

A A ∞ 1

y ( t ) = B + − ∑ sin nω0t

2 π n =1 n

1

Frequency response H n ( iω ) =

( k1 + k2 ) ⎡⎣1 − r 2 + i 2ζ r ⎤⎦

1

H n ( iω ) =

⎡ ⎛ nω ⎞ 2 ⎛ nω0 ⎞ ⎤

( k1 + k2 ) ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + i 2ζ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

0

⎢⎣ ⎝ ωn ⎠ ⎝ ωn ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎛ nω ⎞

−2ζ ⎜ 0 ⎟

Hn =

1

, H n = tan −1 ⎝ ωn ⎠

2

2

⎛ ⎛ nω ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ nω ⎞ ⎞

2 2 ⎛ nω0 ⎞

1− ⎜ ⎟

( k1 + k2 ) ⎜⎜1 − ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎟⎟ + ⎜ 2ζ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ωn ⎠

ω ω

⎝ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ n ⎠⎠

k2 ⎛ A ⎞ k2 A ∞ 1

xss ( t ) = ⎜B+ ⎟−

k1 + k2 ⎝

∑ H n sin ( nω0t + H n )

2 ⎠ π n =1 n

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

3.5 Non-periodic Excitation

conveniently described in the frequency domain. For

deterministic non-periodic excitation and response, time

domain technique is more suitable.

(both in the past & future) for the non-periodic excitation.

response, will be first studied. Then, this fundamental

response will be used to synthesize the response of the

LTI system to arbitrary excitation.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Impulse

δ ( t − a ) = 0 for t ≠ a

∞

∫ δ ( t − a ) dt = 1

−∞

This means that the unit impulse is zero everywhere

except in the neighborhood of t=a. Since the area

under the graph δ-t is 1, the value of δ ( t − a ) is very

large in the vicinity of t=a.

The impulse of magnitudeF̂ , which may represent a

large force acting over a short period, can be written as

F ( t ) = Fˆ δ ( t − a )

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

The unit impulse has a useful property called the

“sampling property”. Multiplying a continuous function

f ( t ) by δ ( t − a ) , and integrating w.r.t. time:

∞ ∞

∫ f ( t ) δ ( t − a ) dt = f ( a ) ∫ δ ( t − a ) dt = f ( a )

−∞ −∞

which is just the value of f(t) at t=a. This is a way in

evaluating integrals involving with impulse.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Impulse response

impulse, δ(t), applied at t=0 with zero initial conditions.

The impulse response is very important since it contains

all the system characteristics and can be used to find

the response to arbitrary excitation of LTI system via the

convolution integral theorem.

satisfy

mh ( t ) + ch ( t ) + kh ( t ) = δ ( t )

subject to i.c.

h ( 0 ) = 0, h ( 0 ) = 0

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Get rid of the impulse function by

integrating over the duration ( 0, ε ) of the impulse

ε ε

∫ ( mh + ch + kh ) dt = ∫ δ ( t ) dt = 1

0 0

to evaluate the integral on the left hand side:

ε

lim ∫ mh ( t ) dt = lim mh ( t ) = mh ( 0+ ) ≠ 0, assuming h ( t ) is not continuous

ε

ε →0 ε →0 0

0

ε

lim ∫ ch ( t ) dt = lim ch ( t ) 0 = ch ( 0+ ) = 0, assuming h ( t ) is continuous

ε

ε →0 ε →0

0

ε

ε

lim ∫ kh ( t ) dt = lim gh ( 0 ) t 0 = 0, assuming h ( t ) is continuous

ε →0 ε →0

0

∴ mh ( 0+ ) = 1

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Therefore, the effect of a unit impulse at t=0 is to

produce equivalent initial velocity (impulse-momentum)

h ( 0+ ) = 1/ m

Now, we are ready to find the impulse response. The

equivalent system is a homogeneous system with i.c.

h ( 0 ) = 0, h ( 0 ) = 1/ m

⎧ 1 −ζωnt

⎪ e sin ωd t , t ≥ 0

h ( t ) = ⎨ mωd

⎪ 0, t < 0

⎩

Note that the above i.c. is not the actual i.c.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Linear Time Invariant (LTI) system has the characteristic

that the shape of the response will not be influenced by

the time the input is applied to the system. That is

f (t ) x (t )

LTI system

f (t − a ) x (t − a )

LTI system

⎧ 1 −ζωn ( t −t0 )

⎪ e sin ωd ( t − t0 ) , t ≥ t0

h ( t ) = ⎨ mωd

⎪ 0, t < t0

⎩

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Total response of underdamped MBK with i.c. x(a)=x0

and v(a)=v0 subject to the impulse force F̂δ ( t − a )

x ( t ) = xh + x p

Fˆ −ζωn (t − a )

=e −ζωn ( t − a )

( A1 sin ωd ( t − a ) + A2 cos ωd ( t − a ) ) + mω e sin ωd ( t − a )

d

⎧⎪⎛ Fˆ ⎞ ⎫⎪

⎟ sin ωd ( t − a ) + A2 cos ωd ( t − a ) ⎬ , t ≥ a

−ζωn ( t − a )

=e ⎨⎜ A1 +

⎩⎪⎝ mωd ⎠ ⎭⎪

⎧⎪⎛ Fˆ ⎞ ⎫⎪

x ( t ) = −ζωn e −ζωn ( t − a )

⎨⎜ A1 + ⎟ sin ωd ( t − a ) + A2 cos ωd ( t − a ) ⎬

⎪⎩⎝ mωd ⎠ ⎪⎭

⎧⎪ ⎛ Fˆ ⎞ ⎫⎪

⎟ cos ωd ( t − a ) − ωd A2 sin ωd ( t − a ) ⎬

−ζωn ( t − a )

+e ⎨ωd ⎜ A1 +

⎪⎩ ⎝ mω d ⎠ ⎪⎭

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Total response of underdamped MBK with i.c. x(a)=x0

and v(a)=v0 subject to the impulse force F̂δ ( t − a )

Apply i.c. x ( a ) = x0 and x ( a ) = v0 to solve for A1 and A2 :

x0 = A2

⎛ Fˆ ⎞

v0 = −ζωn A2 + ωd ⎜ A1 + ⎟

⎝ mω d ⎠

1 ⎛ Fˆ ⎞

∴ A2 = x0 and A1 = ⎜ ζω x + v − ⎟

ωd ⎝ n 0 0 m ⎠

−ζωn ( t − a ) ⎧ 1 ⎫

∴ x (t ) = e ⎨ (ζωn x0 + v0 ) sin ωd ( t − a ) + x0 cos ωd ( t − a ) ⎬ , t ≥ a

⎩ ωd ⎭

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Arbitrary Excitation

combinations of simpler excitations. The simpler

excitations are simple enough that the response

is readily available. This concept is exactly used by

Fourier.

superposition of impulses of varying magnitude and

applied at different times. It is used when the excitation

can be easily described in time domain.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Consider the excitation F(t). We can imagine that it is

constructed from infinite impulses at different times.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Convolution integral theorm

Focus on the time interval τ < t < τ + Δτ , at which

the impulse of magnitude F (τ ) Δτ is acting. This

shifted impulse can be written as F (τ ) Δτδ ( t − τ ) .

The response of the LTI system to this particular

impulse is

Δx ( t ,τ ) = F (τ ) Δτ h ( t − τ )

Since by sampling property F ( t ) = ∑ F (τ ) Δτδ ( t − τ ),

τ

x ( t ) = ∑ F (τ ) Δτ h ( t − τ )

τ

t

In the limit as Δτ → 0, x ( t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ .

0

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Convolution integral theorm

The response of the arbitrary excitation is the

superposition of shifted impulse responses.

Interpretation

for the whole

range of time; t

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

To obtain h ( t − τ ) from h (τ ) , we need to carry out

two operation; shifting and folding. This is another interpretation

for the specific time t. The figures show the steps in evaluating the convolution.

and dτ = −d λ. With the change of the integration limits,

0 t

x ( t ) = ∫ F ( t − λ ) h ( λ )( −d λ ) = ∫ F ( t − τ ) h (τ ) dτ

t 0

To decide which formula to use depends on the nature of F ( t ) and h ( t ) .

is too complicated, we may be unable to evaluate the closed form

solution of the convolution integral. The excitation may not at all

be written as functions of time. In these cases, the integration must

be carried out numerically.

3.5 Non-periodic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. Determine the response of the underdamped MBK

to the unit step input.

u(t)

1

0 t

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

t

x ( t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ

0

shifted by t and mirrored about the vertical axis.

If t < 0, F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) = 0 because of no overlap

If t > 0, F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) = h ( t − τ )

∴ x ( t ) = 0, t < 0

t

∴ x ( t ) = ∫ h ( t − τ ) dτ , t > 0

0

Let t − τ = λ. Hence dτ = − d λ

t t

1 −ζωn λ

∴ x (t ) = ∫ h ( λ ) d λ = ∫ e sin ωd λd λ

0 0

mωd

eiωd λ − e − iωd λ e ax

Substitute sin ωd λ = and use ∫ e dx =

ax

+c

2i a

1⎡ ⎛ ζω ⎞⎤

∴ x ( t ) = ⎢1 − e −ζωnt ⎜ cos ωd t + n sin ωd t ⎟ ⎥ , t > 0

k⎣ ⎝ ωd ⎠⎦

3.5 Non-periodic Excitation

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

Ex. Find the undamped response for the sinusoidal

pulse force shown using zero i.c.

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

t

x ( t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ

0

⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞

F (τ ) = F0 sin ⎜ τ ⎟ = F0 sin ⎜ τ ⎟

⎝ 0 ⎠

2T ⎝ T0 ⎠

1

h (τ ) = sin ωnτ

mωn

h ( t − τ ) is the system impulse response shifted by t

and mirrored about the vertical axis.

If t < 0, F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) = 0 because of no overlap

∴ x ( t ) = 0, t < 0

Ch. 3: Forced Vibration of 1-DOF System

⎛π ⎞ 1

If 0 < t < T0 , F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) = F0 sin ⎜ τ ⎟ × sin ωn ( t − τ )

⎝ T0 ⎠ mωn

t

F0

t

⎛π ⎞

x ( t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ = ∫ sin ⎜ τ ⎟ sin ωn ( t − τ ) dτ

0

mωn 0 ⎝ T0 ⎠

1

using the relation sin α sin β = ⎡cos (α − β ) − cos (α + β ) ⎤⎦ and some arrangements

2⎣

F0 π ω

∴ x (t ) = ( sin ω t − r sin ω t ) , 0 < t < T where ω = , r = , k = mω 2

k (1 − r 2 ) ωn

n 0 n

T0

t T0 t

If t > T0 , x ( t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ = ∫ F (τ ) h ( t − τ ) dτ = ∫ F ( t − τ ) h (τ ) dτ

0 0 t −T0

∴ x (t ) =

F0

k (1 − r )

2 { }

[sin ωt − r sin ωnt ] − ⎡⎣sin ω ( t − T0 ) − r sin ωn ( t − T0 )⎤⎦ , t > T0

superposition of the out-of-phase shifted sine trains

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