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through which a fluid flows. The usual purpose of an

orifice is the measurement or control of the flow.

sharp.

square, or rectangular in cross section.

ORIFICE

Because of simplicity of design and construction,

sharp-edged circular orifices are most common for

fluid measurement and have been most thoroughly

investigated by experiment.

ORIFICE

neglecting unequal distribution of velocity in the cross

section,

Va2

p V 2

p Va 2 p p

h a t b and Vt 2g h a b

2g w 2g w 2g w w

ORIFICE

that both surface are exposed to the atmosphere,

then

Va 2

Vt 2g h

2g

ORIFICE

channel leading to the orifice is large in

comparison with the area of the orifice, the

velocity of approach becomes negligible, and

Vt 2 gh

ORIFICE

Coefficient Velocity – the actual velocity in the jet is

less than the theoretical velocity because of the

frictional resistance that occurs as the fluid enters and

passes through the orifice. The ratio of the actual

mean velocity V to the velocity Vt which would exist

without friction is called the coefficient of velocity and

is designated as Cv. Thus Cv = V/Vt and

V CvVt Cv 2 gh

ORIFICE

Coefficient Contraction – is the ratio of the actual area

of the contracted section of the stream or jet to the

area of the opening through which the fluid flows.

Cc=a/A

a = CcA

If V is the actual mean velocity in the vena contracta, the

discharge through the orifice is

Q = a V = CcA x Cv 2gh

ORIFICE

The section ab where

the contraction

caused by the orifice

ceases is called the

vena contracta

ORIFICE

Coefficient Discharge – It is usual to replace the

product CcCv with a single coefficient C, called the

coefficient of discharge. The equation for the discharge

of a fluid through an orifice thus becomes

Q = CA 2gh

ORIFICE

Head Lost

A2 V 2

2

1

HL 2 1 1

Cv A1 2 g

directly from a tank where A1 is

very much greater than A2, then

the velocity of approach is

negligible,

1 V2

HL 2 1

Cv 2g

ORIFICE

Example:

Calculate the (a) theoritical velocity and (b) actual discharge

in liters per second through a 100-mm diameter orifice

under a head of 5.5m of water. Assume Cc = 0.61 and Cv =

0.98.

ORIFICE

Example:

Calculate the discharge through the 140-mm diameter orifice

shown. Assume C = 0.62.

ORIFICE

Example:

An open cylindrical tank, 2.4m in diameter and 6m tall has

1m of glycerin (Sg = 1.5), 2.5m of water, and 1.5 of oil (So =

0.82). Determine the discharge through the 125mm

diameter located at the bottom of the tank. Assume C =

0.65.

ORIFICE

Example:

A calibration test of a 12.5-mm-diameter circular sharp-edged

orifice in a vertical side of large tank showed a discharge of

590N of water in 81 seconds at a constant head of 4.7om.

Measurement of the jet showed that it traveled 2.35m

horizontally while dropping 300mm. Compute the three

orifice coefficients.

ORIFICE

Example:

An 80-mm-diameter circular sharp-edged orifice at the side

of a tank discharges water under a head of 6m. If the

coefficient of contraction Cc = 0.65 and the head lost is

200mm, Compute the discharge and the coefficients of

velocity Cv and discharge C.

ORIFICE

Submerged orifice

ORIFICE

Example: (Submerged orifice)

Two chambers (1) and (2) separated by a vertical wall with a circular

orifice through which the liquid from chamber (1) to chamber (2)

passes. Under the following given conditions, find the jet’s: (a)

theoretical velocity, (b) actual velocity, & (c) discharge. h1 = 8m, h2 =

3m, Ø0 = 4cm, Cc=0.65 (sharp-edged); Cv = 0.97.

ORIFICE

Unsteady (Qi<Qo)

ORIFICE

Unsteady (Qi>Qo)

ORIFICE

Unsteady (Qi=0)

ORIFICE

Constant Cross Section

h1

h2

ORIFICE

Submerged orifice

ORIFICE

Submerged orifice Example:

Two vertical cylindrical tanks 1 & 2 having diameters 2m and 3m,

respectively, are connected with a 200-mm-diameter tube at its lower

portion, and having C = 0.60. when the tube is closed, the water surface

in tank 1 is 5 m above tank 2. How long will it take after opening the

tube, for the water surface in tank 2 to rise by 1 meter?

ORIFICE

Example:

An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in

diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest

point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,

the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,

after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?

ORIFICE

Example:

An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in

diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest

point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,

the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,

after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?

ORIFICE

Example:

An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in

diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest

point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,

the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,

after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?

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