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CE 160 Notes: Truss Deflections Using Method of Virtual Work

δH#

12 k e
δV#

20 ft 3 in2
3 in2

24 k c 1 in2
d

3 in2
3 in2
20 ft 1 in2

a 1 in2
b

15 ft 15 ft

A truss made of steel members is pin supported at point a, roller supported at point b and
subjected to a point loads at points c and e as shown. The cross sectional areas of each member
are shown on the figure. Find the horizontal and vertical deflection of point e using the Method
of Virtual Work.
Use E = 30,000 ksi.

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Real System

Find truss member forces using method of joints (or method of sections)

12 k e

20 ft (20 k) (-16 k)

24 k c (0)
d

(40 k) (-16 k)
20 ft
(-20 k)
36 k
a b

(12 k)
32 k 32 k
30 ft

Note: Tensile forces are positive

Virtual System to measure horizontal displacement at point e - δH

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e 1

20 ft

c
d

20 ft

a b

15 ft 15 ft

Find truss member forces using method of joints (or method of sections)

e
1

20 ft (1.667) (-1.333)

c (0)
d

(1.667) (0) (-1.333)


20 ft

1k a b

(0)
1.333 1.333
30 ft

Note: Tensile forces are positive

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Method of Virtual Work to find δH

!
𝐹!" 𝐿!
1 ∙ 𝛿! = 𝐹!"
𝐴! 𝐸!
!!!

𝐹!"# 𝐿!" 𝐹!"# 𝐿!" 𝐹!"# 𝐿!" 𝐹!"# 𝐿!"


1 ∙ 𝛿! = 𝐹!"# + 𝐹!"# + 𝐹!"# + 𝐹!"#
𝐴!" 𝐸 𝐴!" 𝐸 𝐴!" 𝐸 𝐴!" 𝐸

40 𝑘 25 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡 20 𝑘 25 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡
1 ∙ 𝛿! = 1.667 + 1.667
3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖 3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖
−16 𝑘 20 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡 −16 𝑘 20 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡
+ −1.333 + −1.333
3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖 3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖

𝛿! = 0.2222 𝑖𝑛 + 0.1111 𝑖𝑛 + 0.05689 𝑖𝑛 + 0.0569 𝑖𝑛

𝜹𝑯 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟕 𝒊𝒏 (positive, so deflection is in same direction as virtual load - to the right)

Virtual System to measure vertical displacement at point e – δV

1
e

20 ft

c
d

20 ft

a b

15 ft 15 ft

Find truss member forces using method of joints (or method of sections)

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1

20 ft (0) (-1.0)

c (0)
d

(0) (0) (-1.0)


20 ft

a b

(0)
1.0
30 ft

Note: Tensile forces are positive

Method of Virtual Work to find δV

!
𝐹!" 𝐿!
1 ∙ 𝛿! = 𝐹!"
𝐴! 𝐸!
!!!

𝐹!"# 𝐿!" 𝐹!"# 𝐿!"


1 ∙ 𝛿! = 𝐹!"# + 𝐹!"#
𝐴!" 𝐸 𝐴!" 𝐸

−16 𝑘 20 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡 −16 𝑘 20 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡


1 ∙ 𝛿! = −1.0 + −1.0
3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖 3 𝑖𝑛! 30,000 𝑘𝑠𝑖

𝛿! = 0.04267 𝑖𝑛 + 0.04267 𝑖𝑛

𝜹𝑽 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟖𝟓𝟑 𝒊𝒏 (positive, so deflection is in same direction as virtual load - down)

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