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jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;

ppf&mZ0wfr+usL;vGefr+rsm;
tjrefqHk;&yfwefŒ&ef trsKd;orD;rsm;u awmif;qdkjcif;

trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEkdifiH)
.
oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf pmwrf;

vHkòcHa&;aumifpD/ qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 1325 (2000) csrSwfcJhonfh


6 ESpf ajrmuf ESpfywfvnf tpnf;ta0;

23 - 27 atmufwdkbmv/ 2006 ckESpf


jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;

ppf&mZ0wfr+usL;vGefr+rsm;
tjrefqHk;&yfwefŒ&ef trsKd;orD;rsm;u awmif;qdkjcif;

trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEkdifiH)
.
oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf pmwrf;

vHkòcHa&;aumifpD/ qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 1325 (2000) csrSwfcJhonfh


6 ESpf ajrmuf ESpfywfvnf tpnf;ta0;

23 - 27 atmufwdkbmv/ 2006 ckESpf


jrefrmEdkifiHwGif; ppf&mZ0wfr_usK;vGefr_rsm; tjrefqHk;&yfwef@&ef
trsKd;orD;rsm;u awmif;qdkjcif;
trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEkdifiH). oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf pmwrf;
vHkòcHa&;aumifpD/ qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 1325 (2000) csrSwfcJhonfh 6ESpfajrmuf ESpfywfvnf
tpnf;ta0;
23 - 27 atmufwb kd mv/ 2006ckEpS f?

jrefrmppftpdk;&onf trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;tm;vHk;


yaysmufa&;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyf (pDa'g) udk 1997 ckESpfwGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhonf?
xd@k aemuf pDa'g pmcsKyfyg tcsurf sm;twdik ;f trsK;d orD;rsm;eSiu
hf av;rsm;. vl@tcGifhta&;udk
umuG,faqmif&GufoGm;&eftwGuf vdktyfaom vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk csrSwfxm;+yD;
jzpfa=umif; ppftpdk;&u a=unm ajymqdkcJhonf?
xdk@tjyif/ ppftpdk;&u “jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;onf vl@,Ofaus;r_ pwifxGef;um;
vmcsdef rSpI a,muFsm;rsm;ESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;rsm; &&dScHpm;ae& a=umif;” ukvor*~
tpnf;ta0;rsm;Y tpOfwpdkuf ajymqdkaecJhonf? 2000 ckESpf trsKd;orD;rsm; - 21&mpk
twGuf usm;rwef;wlnDr#r_/ zHG@®z;wdk;wufr_ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&; (ab*sif; nDvmcH 5 ESpfajrmuf)
[k trnf&aom 23 }udrfajrmuf ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcH. txl;tpnf;ta0;wGif
ppftpdk;&. ajyma&;qkdcGifh&dSol trsKd;om;wOD;u “jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;rSm trsKd;orD;awGeJ@
rdef;uav;i,fawGtay: t=urf;zufr_qdkwm[m ta&;w}uD; jy\emwcktjzpf &dSraeygbl;?”
[k ajymcJhonf? xdk@jyif ‚if;u “tpdk;&onf EdkifiHawmfudk +idrf;csrf;r_ESifh wnf+idrfr_rsm;&atmif
aqmif&GufEdkifae+yDjzpfa=umif;” ajymqdkcJhum “at;csrf;wnf+idrfI wdk;wufzHG@®z;vmaom
tajctaeatmufwGif EdkifiHawmfrS trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;. tcGifhta&;rsm; ydkrdk&&dSa&;
twGuf qxufwydk; aqmif&Guf&ef tmrcHa=umif;” qufvuf ajym=um;cJhonf?
xdk@jyif ,cifvu usif;ycJhaom vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD. 'kwd,t}udrf tpnf;
ta0;wGif ppftpdk;&. tjcm;udk,fpm;vS,fwOD;u “jrefrmEdkifiHonf ppfjzpfaeaom
wdkif;jynfwckr[kwf/ wnf+idrfat;csrf;aeaom wdkif;jynfjzpfonf”[k xyfrHajymqkdvkdufonf?
2005 ckESpfwGif usif;ycJhaom ukvor*~. trsKd;orD;a&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;qdkif&m
tvGwfoabm aqG;aEG;yJGwGif jrefrmppftpdk;&u a=unmcsufwapmif xkwfjyefcJh+yD; ‚if;wdk@
taejzifh trsKd;om; jyefvnfaoG;pnf;nDnGwfr_udk r=umrDu &&dScJh+yD; trsKd;om; nDvmcHwGif
vnf; trsKd;orD;rsm; wufºuGpGm yg0ifae+yDjzpfa=umif; ajymqdkcJhonf? odk@aomf ukvor*~u
,if;nDvmcHonf t"dy`g,fuif;rJhI 'Drdkua&pDenf; rusaoma=umifh tvkyfrjzpfEdkif[k
a0zefco hJ nf?

1
trSefpifppf jrefrmEdkifiH. vuf&dStajctaerSm ppftpdk;&u ajymqdkaeonfrsm;
ESifh vHk;0uGmjcm;aeygonf? ppftpdk;&. xdk;ppfqifr_rsm;ESifh Edkifvdkrif;xuf ðyusifhr_rsm;u
trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; qufvufI qdk;0g;aom 'kuQrsm;udk cHpm;aeapygonf?

vufeufudkifyÉdyuQ qufvufjzpfay:aer_
ppftpdk;&tqufqufESifh vlrsKd;pkawmfvSefa&;tzJG@rsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;aeaom
vufeufudkif yÉdyuQrSm ,cktcsdefY &mpk ESpf0ufausmf =umjrifhae+yDjzpfonf?
ppftpdk;&onf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;tm; “aomif;usef;ol” [k trnfwyfI
‚if;wdk@tay: ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm; qufvuf usL;vGefvsuf&Sdonf? trSefrSm ‚if;wkd@onf
wef;wlnDr#a&;ESifh vGwfvyfa&; (tcsKyftcs,frS vGwfuif;a&;) udk awmif;qdkae=uolrsm;
om jzpfonf? ppftpdk;&. wefjyefppfqifr_rsm;u wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk
ESdrfeif;&eftwGuf t&yfom;rsm;tay: wrifoufouf ypfrSwfxm; aqmif&Gufaeonf?
trsm;tm;jzifh ppftpdk;&usifhoHk;aom“jzwfav;jzwf ppfqifa&;enf;AsL[m”wGif ppfvufeuf
ozG,foHk;onfh tpDtpOfcs rk'drf;usifhr_rsm;/ ajrvSefzsufqD;ppfy&d,m,frsm; oHk;I aus;&Gm
rsm;tm; twif; t"rRae&majymif;a&$@r_ESifh zsufqD;ypfr_rsm; yg0ifaeonf?

ppftpdk;&ESifh typftcwf&yfpJxm;aom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkwyfzJG@rsm;.


e,fajr rsm;wGifyif ppftpdk;&. wyfzJG@rsm;u t&yfom;rsm;tay: ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;udk
qufvuf usL;vGefae=uonf? xdk@jyif ppftpdk;&u EdkifiHa&;t& awG@qHkaqG;aEG;&efudk
a&Smifz,fae onfhtjyif/ 2005 ckESpfrS pI ‚if;tzJG@rsm;tm; vufeufcs&ef
zdtm;ay;aeaoma=umifh vufeufudkif wdkufyJGrsm; jyeffjzpfvmap&ef wGef;ydk@onfh
+cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;vnf; wnf&dS aeayonf?

2005 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvu pI ppftpdk;&onf u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;odk@ t}uD;


tus,f xdk;ppfqifcJh&m/ xdkppfqifa&;rsm;onf usef&dSaeaom vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;
teufrS t}uD;qHk;jzpfonhf u&iftrsKd;om; tpnf;t&Hk; (autJef,l) udk &nf&G,f xdk;ppf
qifcJhjcif; jzpfonf? 2003 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif autJef,lESifh ppftpdk;&wdk@ t=um;
&&dScJhonfh E_wfuwd oabmwlnDcsuft& wdkufcdkufr_rsm; &yfpJ&rnhftpm; ppftpdk;&u
autJef,l e,fajrrsm;twGif;odk@ qufvufxdk;ppfqifcJhonf? jrefrmEdkifiHta&S@ydkif;&dS
ppftpdk;&. vuf&dS wdkufcdkufaeaom xdk;ppfonf 1997 ckESpf aemufydkif; xkd;ppfrsm;xJrS
tjyif;xefqHk; jzpfI txl;ojzifh trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;tygt0if t&yfom;rsm;
tay: qdk;qdk;0g;0g; xdcdkufapcJh&m/ ,ae@xd tenf;qHk; t&yfom; ESpfaomif;ausmf u&if
jynfe,f ppfyJGjzpfyGm;&m e,fajrrsm;udk pGef@cGmI xGufajy;ae=u&onf? xdk@jyif ppftpkd;&.
wkdufcdkufr_rsm;u jynfwGif;wGif vSnfhvnfykef;atmif;ae=uaom ae&mtdk;tdrfrJh 'kuQonf
rsm;ESifh xdkif;EdkifiHwGif;odk@ xGufajy;vmaeaom 'kuQonfOD;a&udk ydkI wdk;jrifhaeaponf?

2
ppftiftm;wdk;csJcsxm;r_
ppftpdk;&u ykefuefr_rsm;tm; acsr_ef;&ef[laom rlrrSefonfh ta=umif;jycsufjzifh
wdkif;&if;om; jynfolrsm;. wef;wlnDr#a&;twGuf w&m;0if awmif;qdkr_udk ESdrfeif;&eftwGuf
ppfwyfrsm;udk wdk;csJhcsxm;aeonf? vuf&dS jrefrmppfwyfwGif ppftiftm; ig;odef; cef@&dS+yD;
EdkifiHhtoHk;p&dwf. 40 &mcdkifE_ef;ausmfudk ppfwyf wnfaqmufa&;twGuf oHk;pGJaeonf?
ppftpdk;&. ppfvufeufwifoGif;r_onf tjcm;ukefypPnf; wifoGif;r_ESifh Ed_if;,SOfygu/ (5)
qausmf&dSa=umif; ukvor*~zHG@®z;r_ tpDtpOfrS xkwfjyefonfh pm&if;Z,m;wGif az:jyxm;
onf? ppftpdk;&tm; t"du ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm; axmufyHhay;aeaom EdkifiHrsm;rSm w&kwf/
ygupPwef/ tpPa&;/ puFmyl/ ,lu&def;/ &k&SESifh tdEdN,wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;onfhtcsufrSm ajrmufudk&D;,m;u ppftpdk;&tm; tEkjrLqdkif&m enf;
ynmrsm;jzifh yhHydk;ay;aea=umif; owif;rsm; &&Sdaejcif;jzpfonf?1 2003 ckESpfu ajrmufudk&D;,m;
u jrefrma&wyfoabFmtcsKd@wGif ajrjyifrS ajrjyifypf 'Hk;usnfrsm; wyfqifay;&ef ynm&Sif
wzJG@udk &efukefodk@ apv$wfcJhonf? ,if;ESpfwGifyif ajrmufudk&D;,m;u jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
tEkjrL"gwfaygif;zdk wnfaqmuf&ef taxmuftyHhrsm;ay;cJha=umif; owif;&&Sdonf?
,ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (12) &ufae@. atyDowif;XmerS aqmif;yg;wyk'fwGif jrefrm
EdkifiHonf “òyH,rf; (ajrmufudk&D;,m;tpdk;&) u or&dk;us ppfvufeufrsm;jzpfonfh c&kZf
'Hk;usnfESifh tjcm;ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm; a&mif;csa&; oabmwlnDcsufrsm; &&dSaeonfh
EdkifiHwcktjzpf ,Hk=unf&a=umif;” az:jycJhonf? ,if;owif;aqmif;yg;u ppftpdk;&
taejzifh tEkjrLvufeuf wnfaqmufvmEdkifbG,f&m &Sdonf[laom pdk;&drfr_rsm;udk
jrifhwufapcJhonf?

vuf&dS jzpfysufaeaom tpDtpOfcs usK;vGefaeaom ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;ESifh vlom;rdsK;


ðyef;wD;r_ qdkif&m &mZ0wfr_rsm;
ppftpdk;&. ppftiftm;wdk;csJ@csxm;a&;ay:vpDu rk'drf;r_/ vdifu|efðyr_/ ESdyfpuf
n‡Of;yef;r_/ tpkvdkuf tòyHvdkuf ae&majymif;a&$@r_/ t"rRvkyftm;ay;apcdkif;r_ESifh &Hk;wifppfaq;
jcif;r&dSbJ owfjzwfr_rsm; tygt0if ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;ESifh vlom;rsKd;ðyef;wD;r_qdkif&m &mZ0wf
r_ rsm;udk ydkrdkus,fjyef@pGm jzpfay:aeaponf? 1991-1992 rSpwifI jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m
ukvor*~ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHESifh vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m
aumfr&Sifodk@ wifoGif;aomtpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif ppftpdk;&u usL;vGefaeaom qdk;0g;vSonfh
vltcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_ESifhywfoufaom oufaoxGufqdkcsuf tajrmuftrsm; yg0ifcJhonf?

ppftpdk;&. zHG@®z;wdk;wufa&;qdkif&mrl0g'rsm;a=umifh jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; vltcGifhta&;


tajctaersm; ydkrdkqdk;0g;vmaeonf? ,if;rl0g'rsm;u EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiG&&dSa&;udk tav;xm;

1
ppftpdk;&onf ajrmufudk&D;,m;xHrS 1990ckESpfwGif vufeufi,fusnq
f Hrsm; 0,f,lcJhI 1998 ckESpfu
130 rDvDrDwm tajrmuf 16 vuf0,f,lcJhonf?
3
ae+yD; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk a'orsm;wGif obm0o,HZmwrsm;tm; tjrwfxkwf a&mif;csum
&&dSaom EdkifiHjcm;aiGrsm;jzifh ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm; 0,f,lI ppftiftm;udk wdk;jrifh
wnfaqmufaeonf? txl;ojzihf r[mpGrf;tifpDrHudef;rsm;udk ppftpkd;&u vkyfaqmif
ae+yD;/ xdkpGrf;tifudk EdkifiHjcm;aiG&&dS&eftwGuf tdrfeD;csif;wdkif;jynfrsm;xH a&mif;csaeonf?
,if;pDrHudef;rsm;udk umuG,f&ef ppftiftm;rsm; wdk;csJ@csxm;jcif;a=umifh/ ppftpdk;&
wyfzJG@0ifrsm;. a'ocHjynfolrsm;tay: t"rRðyusifhr_ESifh twif;tusyf ae&majymif;a&$@r_
ponhf vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_rsm;/ ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmaeonf? ,if;pDrHudef;rsm;wGif
jrefrmEdkifiHawmifydkif;rS &wemESifh &JwHcGef obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvkdif; pDrHudef;ESifh &Srf;jynfe,f
ESifh u&ifjynfe,ftwGif; oHvGifjrpfay:wGif wnfaqmufrnhf t}uD;pm;a&tm; v#yfppf
pDrHudef; (4) ckwdk@ yg0ifonf? xdk@jyif jrefrmEdkifiHtaemufzufurf;ajca'orS aemufqHk;
awG@&dSxm;aom a&$obm0"gwfaiG@wGif;rS ydkufvdkif;wnfaqmufrnhf pDrHudef;vnf; yg0ifonf?
,if;pDrHudef;wGif awmifudk&D;,m;rS a'0l;ukr`%Dtygt0if tjcm;EdkifiHjcm; ukr`%Drsm;u
&if;ESD;ðryfESHxm;um ,if;pDrHudef;a=umifh &cdkifjynfe,ftwGif;&dS a'ocH jynfolrsm; vltcGifh
ta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk ydkI cHpm;ae=u&onf?

trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh uav;i,frsm;tay: xdcdkufapr_


ppftpdk;&u ppftoHk;p&dwftay: OD;pm;ay;aer_a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom tusKd;qufrsm;
ppftpdk;&u EdkifiHawmftoHk;p&dwfudk ppfwyftwGuf OD;pm;ay;oHk;pJGaer_a=umihf
usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&;qdkif&m vlr_a&;u¾rsm;udk qdk;0g;pGm xdcdkufaeapygonf? usef;rma&;
ESifh ynma&;u¾wdk@wGif ppftpdk;&u EdkifiHom;wOD;twGuf wESpfv#if wpfa':vmjynfh
atmif oHk;pJGjcif;r&dSay?2 urBmhusef;rma&;tzJG@csKyf. oHk;oyfcsuft& urBmhEdkifiHaygif;
(191) EdkifiH teuf/ jrefrmEdkifiHonf usef;rma&;pepf vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsuf tqifh
(190) Y a&mufaeonf?
ppftpdk;&onf vlxk0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm;twGuf EdkifiHtoHk;p&dwfaiGudk rqdk
pavmufom owfrSwfxm;onhf tjyif EdkifiHwumtzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh ukvor*~ qdkif&m
tzJG@tpnf;rsm;. usef;rma&;ESifh vlr_tusKd;ðy vkyfief;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;udkvnf; uef@owf
xm;onf? ,if;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;udk owfrSwfxm;aom e,fajrrsm;wGifom vkyfief;aqmif
&Guf cGifhðy+yD; ,if;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;. 0efxrf;rsm; owfrSwfxm;onhf vkyfief;e,fajrrsm;odk@
oGm;vm&mwGif tpdk;&xHrS w&m;0ifcGifhðycsuf &,l&onf? xdk@a=umifh ,if;vkyfief;pOfrsm;
aqmif&Guf&mwGif =uef@=umr_rsm;udk r=umc% &ifqdkifae&onf? 2006 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv
u ppftpdk;&u jrefrmEdkifiHwGif; vkyfief;aqmif&Gufaeaom a'owGif;ESifh EdkifiHwumrS

2
tm&SzHG@òzd;a&;b%f . 2002 ckESpf {+yDv tpD&ifcHpmt&/ zHG@òzd;wdk;wufvmaeaom pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m wdrf;
!$wfr_ESifh tvm;tvm? “tajccHynma&;ESifh usef;rma&;qdkif&m vkyfief;rsm;wGif axmufyHhr_rsm;odompGm
avsmhenf;vmr_ ” “vlwOD;csif; pDtwGuf aiGa=u;oHk;pJGr_rSm jynfwGif; tom;wifxkwfvkyfr_. 0 '\r 5
&mcdkifE_H; xufavsmhenf;aer_? ”
4
tpkd;&r[kwfaomtzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh ukvor*~tzJG@tpnf;rsm;twGuf ydkIwif;usyfonfh
pnf;rsOf;opfrsm;csrSwfcJhonf?3 ppftpdk;&u ,if;tzJG@tpnf;rsm; tm;vHk;. vkyfief;rsm;udk
xdef;csKyf&ef EdkifiHxdyfydkif;rS aus;&Gmtxd tqifhqifhaom tm%mydkifrsm;. vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;
udk wdk;jr‡ifhay;cJhonf? uef@owfcsuftopfrsm;a=umifh 2006 ckESpf rwfvwGif jyifopf
tajcpdkuf e,fjcm;rJh q&m0efrsm;tzJG@ (MSF) onf jrefrmEdkifiHrS xGufcGm oGm;onf?
2005 ckESpfwGif AIDS ath'fpf/ iSufzsm;ESifh wDbDa&m*grsm;twGuf axmufyHhaeaom
ukvor*~. urBm&HyHkaiGtzJG@ (Global Fund) E_wfxGuf oGm;cJhonf?

ukvor*~ uav;rsm;&HyHkaiGtzJG@. pm&if;tif;rsm;t& jrefrmEdkifiHwGif rdcifrsm;


aoqHk;r_rSm tvGefjrifhrm;aeum cef@rSef;ajctm;jzifh trsKd;orD; wpfodef;v#if 230 cef@ aoqHk;
aeonf? ausmydk;tdwfusef;rma&; aq;vkyfom;tzJG@u u&if/ u&ifeDESifh rGefjynfe,f
wdk@wGif 2000ckESpfrSpI aumuf,lcJhaom ppfwrf;ay: tajccHum 2006 ckESpf pufwifbmv
wGif emwm&Snfuyf a&m*gqdk;/ jrefrmjynfta&S@ydkif;rS usef;rma&;ESifh vltcGifhta&;
tajctae trnf&dS tpD&ifcHpmxkwfc&Jh m/ xdktpD&ifcHpmt& ,if;a'orsm;wGif uav;
arG;zGm;ol wpfodef;v#if wpfaxmifrS ESpfaxmiftxd aoqHk;aea=umif; - ydkIjrifhrm;aom
aoE_ef;udk wifjyxm;ygonf? Txdwfvef@wkefv_yfzG,f&m aoE_ef;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI
ppftpdk;&onf vHk;0wm0ef&Sdoljzpf+yD; ,if;udef;*%ef;onf urBmay:wGif tjrifhrm;qHk;jzpf
onf? ,ckwzef EdkifiHwumtzJG@tpnf;rsm;tay: uef@owfr_topfrsm; xkwfjyefvdkufjcif;
u rlvqdk;0g;+yD; tajctaersm;udk ydkrdkI qdk;0g;aeaponf?
xdk@jyif q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm ppftpdk;&. rSm;,Gif;aom pDrHcef@cJGr_rsm;/ xdef;r&
aom vmbfpm;r_rsm;ESifh ppftoHk;p&dwf tvGeftu|HoHk;pGJr_rsm;a=umifh ukvor*~. vl
om;qdkif&m zHG@®z;r_!¸ef;udef;wGif jrefrmEdkifiHonf urBmhtqif;&JqHk; EdkifiH (50) wGif wEdkifiH
tygt0if jzpfvmonf? qif;&JrJGawr_u trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;i,frsm;tm;
rdom;pkudk axmufyHhEdkifa&; 0ifaiG&SmazG&eff ‚if;wdk@.aetdrf odk@r[kwf ynmoif=um;r_rsm;udk
twif;tusyf pGef@cGmapI ‚if;wdk@tm; vlukeful;cH&rnfhtajctaersm;odk@ wGef;ydk@aeonf?
ta0;odk@ wGef;ydk@jcif; 4 trnf&dS tpD&ifcHpmwGif vlukeful;cH&aom tr_ (63) r_udk az:jy
xm;+yD; ,if;jzpf&yfrsm;onf 2000 rS 2004 ckESpftwGif; jzpfyGm;cJh+yD; trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav;
i,f (85) a,muf vlukeful;cHcJhum trsm;pkrSm touf (14) ESpf ESifh (20) ESpf t=um;

3
Oyrmtm;jzifh 0ef}uD;XmetqifhrS vkyfief;pDrHudef;udk cGifhðy+yD; yl;aygif;aqmif&u G fr_/ pDrHudef; taumif
txnfaz:r_/ vkyfief;cGif&Hk;rsm;zGifhvSpfr_ESifh rSwfyHkwifr_/ 0efxrf;cef@xm;r_/ jynfwGif;c&D;oGm;vmr_/ pDrHcef@cJGr_
ESifh &Hk;ypPnf;rsm;0,f,lr_/ ponfwdk@udk jynfe,f/ wdkif;ESifh òrd@e,ftqifh (rl&if;/ trsdK;om; pDrHudef;ESihf pD;yGm;
a&; zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_qdkif&m 0ef}uD;Xme - jrefrmEdkifiH? 2006ckESpf? ukvor*~Xmersm;/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif vkyfief;
aqmif&Gufaeaom EkdifiHwumESifh jynfwGif;&dS tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzJG@tpnf;rsm;twGuf vrf;!¸efcsuf?
trsKd;om; pDrHudef;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_qdkif&m 0ef}uD;Xme/ &efukef)
4
trsdK;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) . tzJG@0ifjzpfaom ucsiftrsKd;orD;tpnf;t&Hk; (xkdif;EdkifiH) rS xkwfa0aom
tpD&ifcHpm/ tao;pdwfudk www.womenofburma.org wGif=unhfyg?
5
jzpfonf? ,if;vlukeful;r_rsm;u ppftpdk;&. wdk;jr‡ifhaqmif&Gufaeonf qdkaom vlukeful;
r_wdkufzsufa&; pDrHenf;vrf;rsm; xda&mufr_vHk;0 r&dSa=umif; udk jyqdkaeonf?
ppftpdk;&u ,if;wdk@wdk;csJ@xm;aom ppfwyftajccHtaqmuftODudk t&Snf
ojzifh wnfwef@ae&ef vdktyfr_onf ppfwyfzJG@0ifrsm;tm; w&m;r0if rl;,pfaq;0g;xkwf
vkyfonfh vkyfief;pOf tqifhqifhwGif yg0ifywfoufr_rsm; ydkIjzpfaponf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
bdef;ESifh bdef;jzLxkwfvkyfr_rsm; atmifjrifpGm avsmhcsEdkifcJha=umif; EdkifiHwum todkif;t0dkif;
odk@ a=unmaeonfh wcsdefwnf;rSmyif/ rl;,pfaq;arSmifcdk a&mif;0,fr_rsm; wdk;jrifhjcif;
tm;jzifh ppfwyfu tjrwfrsm; &ae=uonf? 2006ckESpf =o*kwfvu xkwfjyefvkdufaom
“tvdkwl tvdkyg ” 5 qdkonfh tpD&ifcHpmwGif rl;,pfaq;0g;ukeful;r_tqifhwdkif;Y jrefrm
ppfwyf. yg0ifywfoufr_rsm;udk oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;udk tao;pdwfaz:jyxm;
onf? ppftpdk;&. bdef;xkwfvkyfr_ jrifhwufjcif;wGif wdkuf&dkuf yg0ifywfoufaejcif;ESifh
rll;,pfaq;0g;oHk;pJGolrsm; wdk;yGm;vmjcif;u aq;pJGolrsm;. ZeD;onfrsm;ESifh uav;i,frsm;
udk qdk;0g;pGm xdcdkufaeaponf [k tqdyfoifhyef;rsm; 6 trnf&dS tpD&ifcHpmwGif az:jyxm;
onf? rjzpfpavmufaom ynma&;ESifh usef;rma&; axmufyhHr_rsm;ESifhtwl tvGeftrif;
qif;&JrJGawr_atmufwGif aexdkifae=u&aom trsKd;orD;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@ rdom;pkukd yhHydk;&ef
wOD;wnf; &kef;uef=u&aom tajctaeodk@ twif;t=uyf a&muf&dSaponf? tcsKd@
rdom;pkrsm;wGif om;orD; (10) a,muftxd rsm;jym;wwf=uygonf?

ppftpdk;&u trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: tpDtpOfcs t=urf;zufaer_rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:aeaom


tusKd;qufrsm;
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ppftpdk;&. umv=umjrifhpGmtkyfpdk;xm;r_atmufwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh
rdef;uav;rsm;onf trsKd;om;rsm;ESifh wef;wltcGit hf a&;r&onft h jyif/ wd;k rsm;vmaeaom
t=urf;zufr_rsm;udk cHpm;ae=u&onf? rk'drf;r_ESifh vdifydkif;qdkif&mt=urf;zufr_ trsKd;rsKd;
twGuf ‚if;wdk@onf ppfom;rsm;. ypfrSwfrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfcH=u&onf? rk'drf;r_onf EdkifiHa&;
t& aoG;xdk;v_H@aqmfxm;onfh ppf&mZ0wfr_jzpfonf? rk'drf;r_onf e,fajrESifh o,HZmw
t&if;tjrpfrsm;tay: xdrf;csKyf&ef&nf&, G I
f vlrsKd;pkwikd ;f &if;om;rsm;tay: xd;k ESuf&ef/ t&Suf
wuJG jzpfap&ef/ pdwf"gwfusqif;ap&eftwGuf ppftpdk;&wyfzJG@rsm; usifhoHk;aeonhf ppfyJG
enf;AsL[mwck jzpfonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) omru tjcm; jrefrmEdkifiH
ta&;udk yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufaeaom vl@tcGifhta&;tzJG@rsm;u wEdkifiHvHk; twdkif;twm
jzifh ppftpd;k &. tpDtpOfcs usK;vGeaf eonfh rk'drf;r_rsm;ESifh ywfoufaom tao;pdwf
tcsuftvufrsm;udk tpD&ifcHpmrsm; xkwfjyefI wifjycJh=uonf? ,if;usL;vGefr_rsm;onf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd;pk e,fajrrsm;wGif trsm;tm;jzifh jzpfymG ;cJo h nf?

5
&Srf;oHawmfqifh owif;XmerS xkwfjyefaom tpD&ifcHpm? tao;pdwfudk www.shanland.org wGif =unhfyg?
6
trsdK;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) .tzJG@0ifjzpfaom yavmiftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&Hk;rS xkwfjyefaom
tpD&ifcHpm ? tao;pdwfudk www.womenofburma.org wGif=unhfyg?
6
1996 ckESpf ESifh 2001 ckESpftwGif;Y &Srf;jynfe,f&dS tpdk;&wyf&if; (52) &if;rS
ppfom;ESifh t&m&dSrsm; usL;vGefcJhaom rk'drf;r_ (173) r_ESihf trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav; (625)
a,muf tay: usL;vGefaom tjcm;vdifydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufr_trsKd;rsKd;udk 2002 ckESpf
wGif rk'drf;usifhcGifhvdkifpif 7 trnf&dS tpD&ifcHpmY az:jycJhonf?
1988rS 2004 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvtwGif; u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;jzpfyGm;cJhaom
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vdifydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufr_ (125) r_udk 2001 ckESpfwGif wdwfqdwfr_udk òzdcGif;jcif;
trnf &dS tpD&ifcHpm xkwfjyefcJhonf? ,if;r_cif;rsm;. wpf0ufcef@rSm ppftpdk;&ppfwyfrS
tqifhjrifh t&m&dSrsm;u usL;vGefcJhjcif;jzpfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHta&S@ydkif; rGefjynfe,f&dS typftcwf&yfpJxm;aoma'owGif jrefrm
ppftpdk;& wyfrsm;u touf (14) ESpfrS (50) twGif;&dS trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav; (50)
a,muftay: usL;vGefaom vdifydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufr_rsm;udk 2005 ckESpfwGif
ppfbm;wdkufrsm;qDodk@ tvSjy av#mufoGm;jcif; 9 trnfjzifh xkwfjyef cJhonf? 2003-
2004 ckESpftwGif;wGif a&;òrd@e,f awmifydkif;&dS aus;&Gm (15) &GmrS trsKd;orD;rsm;udk
vdifu|efðy&eftwGuf t"rRaumuf,lcJha=umif;ESifh ppfwyft&m&dSrsm;udk ajzazsmf&eftwGuf
ausmif;olrsm;yif twif;t=uyf udk,f[efjy vrf;av#mufapcJha=umif; wifjyxm;onf?
tpD&ifcHpmrsm;u xkwfaz:xm;onfh trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: EdkifiHa&;t& usL;vGef
aeaom rk'drf;r_ ta&twGufpm&if;rsm;udk =unhfygu rsm;jym;vSonf awG@&rnfjzpfonf?
tjypfay; ta&;,ljcif;r&Sdonfhpepf/ ta=umufw&m;v$rf;rdk;onhf tpOftvmESifh vufwHk@
jyef &efrlcH&jcif; ponfwdk@u wpHkwa,mufxH rk'drf;usifhcH&ol trsKd;orD;rsm;u wdkif=um;
jcif; rðyatmif wm;qD;aeaoma=umifh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif wifjyxm;aom udef;*%ef;rsm;
rSm ppfwyf. trSefwu,fusL;vGefaom rk'drf;r_ESifh vdift=urf;zufr_ta&twGuf wpdwf
wydkif;r#om jzpfa=umif;udkvnf; todtrSwfðy&ayrnf?
‚if;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;tay: EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;u tav;teufxm; wkH@jyef
cJh&m 2002 ckESpfrS pI urBm@ukvor*~ vltcGifhta&;aumfr&SifESifh taxGaxGnDvmcH
wdk@wGif vdift=urf;zufr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJh+yD;/ ppftpdk;&xHodk@vnf;
trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_rsm;qef@usifa&;qdkif&m ukvor*~txl;udk,fpm;vS,frS
uef@uGufpmrsm; ay;ydk@cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;rSm ,ae@
wdkif rk'drf;usifhcHae=u&qJ jzpfonf?

7
trsdK;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) .tzJG@0if - &Srf;trsdK;orD;a&;&m qufoG,fv_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufa&;
toif;ESifh &Srf;vltcGifhta&;rÀdKifrS yl;wGJxkwfa0aom tpD&ifcHpm? tao;pdwfudk www.shanwomen.org ESifh
www.shanland.org wGif =unhfyg?
8
trsdK;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEkdifiH) .tzJG@0ifjzpfaom u&iftrsdK;orD;tpnf;t&Hk;rS xkwfjyefaom tpD&if
cHpm? tao;pdwfudk www.karenwomen.org wGif =unhfyg?
9
trsdK;orD;ESifh uav;rsm;qdkif&mtcGifhta&; vkyfief;pDrHcsuf? rGefjynf vltcGifhta&;azgifa';&Sif;rS xkwfa0
aom tpD&ifcHpm? tao;pdwfudk www.rehmonnya.org/catwalk-to-the-barracks.php wGif=unhfyg?
7
2002 ckESpfrS ,ae@txd &Srf;jynfe,fY tenf;qHk; trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav;
aygif; (252) a,mufcef@onf wyf&if; (42) &if;rS ppfom;rsm;. rk'drf;usifhjcif;udk cHcJh&onf?
,ckESpf ZEM0g&DrS {+yDvtwGif;Yyif &Srf;jynfe,fwGif tenf;qHk; yavmiftrsKd;orD; (29)
OD;onf ppfwyfrS t&m&dSESifhppfom;rsm;. tkyfpkzJG@ rk'drf;usifhr_/ vdifu|efðyr_ESihf aoonfhwdkif
ESdyfpuf n‡Of;yef;r_rsm; tygt0if vdift=urf;zufr_rsm; cHcJh=u&onf? trsKd;orD;ESif rdef;uav;
i,frsm;onf uif;vSnfhvmaom ppfom;rsm;. zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif;udk cHcJh&um (5) ncef@
vdifydkif;qdkif&mtapmfum;cHcJh=u&onf? aus;&Gmw&GmwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;onf óud;wkwfcH
xm;&aom ‚if;wkd@ cifyGef;rsm;a&S ‹arSmufwiG f rk'rdf ;f usichf =H u&onf? ppfom;rS qHGt aeaom
trsKd;orD;wOD;udk aoonfw h ikd f &du
k Ef u
S I
f &GmjyifY ypfxm;chJonfh tr_wckvnf; &SdcJhonf?
xdkvkyf&yfrsm;onf trsKd;orD;rsm;tay:wGif usL;vGefaeaom t=urf;zufr_rsm;
jzpf+yD; EdkifiHwum oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;u ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfxm;onf?
“xdu k ohJ @kd trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: qd;k qd;k 0g;0g; cJjG cm; qufqrH o
_ nf trsKd;om;rsm;ESifh wef;wlnD
aprnfh tajccHtcsufjzpfaom tcGihfta&;ESifh vGwfvyfr_wdk@udk cHpm;Edkifonfh trsKd;orD;rsm;.
pGrf;&nfrsm;udk uef@owfaeonf?” (CEDAW General Recommendation No.19)
,if;uJhodk@aom t=urf;zufr_rsm;onf atmufyg tcGifhta&;ESifh vGwfvyfr_rsm;udk csKd;azmuf
aeonf? ,if;wkd@rSm touf&SifaexdkifcGifh/ n‡if;yef;EdSyfpufr_ESifh &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfr_/
vlrqefr_/ *k%foduQmusqif;apaom qufqHr_ odk@r[kwf ta&;,lr_rsm;rS uif;vGwfcGifh/
EdkifiHwum odk@r[kwf jynfwGif;ppfyJGrsm;wGif vlom;qdkif&m pHt& wef;wltumtuG,f
ay;cH&r_/ wOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfvHkòcHpGmaexdkifydkifcGifh/ &kyfydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&mt& tjrifhqHk;
pHudk &,lcHpm;ydkifcGifh wdk@jzpfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHY jypf'%fcwf ta&;,lonfhpepf r&dSr_ESifh EdkifiHa&;t& jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;
vHk;0uif;rJhaer_rsm;a=umifh ppf&mZ0wfr_jzpfaom EdkifiHa&;t& rk'dfrf;usifhr_rsm; qufvufjzpf
yGm;aejcif;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif ppftpdk;&u tm%mudk wif;=uyfpGm qufvuf qkyfudkifxm;+yD;
ukvor*~u ppftpdk;&tay: wdusI jyif;xefaom ta&;,lr_rsm; r&dSIvnf; jzpfonf?
vdifydki;f qdkif&m ppf&mZ0wffr_rsm;onf ppfwyftwGif;rS qdk;oGrf;olrsm;a=umifh
omru ppftpdk;&. vkyfenf;vkyf[eftay: A[dkðyjzpfyGm;aejcif; jzpfa=umif; trsKd;orD;rsm;
tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) u xyfrH axmufjyvdkygonf? ,if;jypfr_rsm;onf tpDtpOfwus
qufpyf wnf&dSaeonf? jrefrmwEdkifiHvHk;wGif wyHkpHwnf;aom rk'dfrf;r_rsm; ae&mtESH
jzpfyGm;aeonf? ppfom;rsm;onf rk'drf;r_usL;vGefaoma=umifh tjypf'%fcwfcH&rnf
r[kw[ f k pdwfcs,=kH unfae=uum/ olw@kd onfom tºuGif;rJt h m%mudk csKyfuikd fxm;a=umif;
od&dSae=uonf? xdk@a=umifh trsKd;orD;rsm;/ rdef;uav;i,frsm;ESifh vlr_todkif;t0dkif;u
vufwHk@jyef ta&;,lcH&rnfpdk;I rwdkif=um;&J=uay? ppfwyfrS rk'drf;usifhjcif;ESifh vdift=urf;
zufr_udk ta&;r,lbJ xm;jcif;onf ppfyJGjzpfyGm;&ma'orsm;wGif omru ppftpdk;&u
xdef;csKyfxm;aom typftcwf &yfpJxm;onhf a'orsm;wGifyg jzpfyGm;aeonf? rk'dfrf;usifhr_udk
ppftpdk;&u w&m;0ifvspfvsL&_xm;aoma=umifh ppfwyfzJG@0if rsm;onf rk'dfrf;r_ usL;vGef&mwGif
ydkrdktwifh&Jvmum vljrifuGif;Y rk'drf;usihfonffudkyif &Suf& a=umuf&rSef; rod=uawmhay?

8
jynfwiG f;ae&m td;k tdrfrEhJ iS hf 'kuQonftrsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf umuG,fapmifah &Smufr/_ tajccH
vdktyfcsufESifh vlr_a&;0efaqmif vkyfief;r&dSjcif;
ppftpdk;&. xkd;ppfrsm;/ ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;/ vdift=urf;zufr_tygt0if vlom;rsKd;
ysufokOf;r_qdkif&m &mZ0wfr_rsm;ESifh ppftpdk;&. zdESdyfaomrl0g'rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom
tvGeftrif; cufcJ=uyfwnf;r_rsm;onf jrefrmjynfolrsm;tm; jynfwGif; ae&mtdk;tdrfrJh
'kuQonf (IDP) ESifh tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;wGif 'kuQonf jzpfvmaponfh t"du w&m;cH
jzpfonf? cef@rSef;ajctm;jzifh jynfwGif;ae&mtdk;tdrfrJh 'kuQonfta&twGuf (6) odef;
cef@&dSum trsm;pkonf u&if/ u&ifeD/ &Srf;/ xm;0,fESifh rGefwdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm; jzpf=u
onf? xdk@jyif tdrfeD;csif;wdkif;jynfrsm; jzpfonhf xdkif;/ b*Fvm;a'h&SfESifh tdEdN,wdk@wGif
'kuQonf aygif; cef@rSef;ajc (727 100) cef@ a&muf&Sdae=uonf?10 trSefwu,fwnf
&dSaom udef;*%ef;rsm;rSm ,ckazmfjyxm;onfxuf ydkEdkifygonf?
tdk;tdrfpGef@cGmI tajcysuftaeysuf xGufajy;vmcsdefwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh
uav;i,frsm;onf tvGef}uD;rm;onfh tcuftcJrsm;ESifh aw@GóuHcJh=u&onf? oef@&Sif;r_
r&dSaom ae&mwGif aexdkif&r_/ tpm;a&pm jywfvyfr_/ aq;0g;ESihf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m zdpD;r_rsm;
twGuf tultnD r&&dSjcif;wdk@u arG;uif;paoqHk;r_ESifh taotaysmufE_ef;xm;rsm;udk
ydkI wdk;jrifhaponf?
txl;ojzifh xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ 0ifa&mufvm=uaom &Srf;jynfe,frS 'kuQonfrsm;onf
'kuQonf tjzpf todtrSwf tðyrcH=u&ay? ‚if;wdk@twGuf EdkifiHwum tzJG@tpnf;rsm;
tultnDay;aeaom 'kuQonfpcef;rsm;vnf; r&dSay? xdk@a=umifh ‚if;wdk@onf a&$@ajymif;
tvkyform;rsm; tjzpfjzifh npfywfaom/ cufcJaom/ tEW&m,frsm;aom tvkyfrsm;udk
rdom;pk touf&Sif&yfwnfr_twGuf vkyfudkif=u&um vHkavmufaom vkyftm;crsm; r&&dS
onfhtjyif w&m;r0ifaexdkif=u&onf? ‚if;wdk@onf acgif;yHkjzwfcH&aom tajctaersm;wGif
tvkkyfvkyfudkif=u&+yD; rw&m;apmfum;cH&vG,faom taetxm;Y usa&mufaeonf?
tdEdN,EdkifiHwGif w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifxm;jcif;r&dSaom 'kuQonf (7) aomif;cef@
&dS+yD; trsm;pkrSm jrefrmEdkifiHe,fpyf a'owGif aexdkifae=uum (1800) cef@rSm e,l;a'vDòrd@
&dS qif;&Jom;&yfuGufrsm;wGif aexdkifae=uonf?

10
owif;Zpfjrpf? urBmh 'kuQonfrsm;qdkif&m ppfwrf;? 'DZifbm 2005?
<http://www.refugees.org/data/wrs/06/docs/principal_sources_of_ refugees.pdf>

9
trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;onf tvkyf&Sif. rk'drf;usifhr_tygt0if vdifydkif;qdkif&m
apmfum;r_trsKd;rsKd;ESifh twif;tusyf vufxyfr_rsm;

2000 ckESpfwGif urBm@ukvor*~ 'kuQonfrsm;qdkif&m r[mrif;}uD;&Hk;u tdEdN,


EkdifiH&dS 'kuQonfrsm;udk wwd,EdkifiHrsm;wGif tajccsaexdkif&ef axmufcHay;r_udk &yfqdkif;
vdkufonfhtjyif uav;rsm;. ausmif;vc tygt0if axmufyHha=u;rsm;udk jzwfawmufvkduf
aoma=umifh 'kuQonfrsm;twGuf }uD;rm;aom tcufudk awG@aponf? txl;ojzifh trsKd;orD;
rsm;tm; rdom;pkudk au|;arG;&ef ntcgwGif aps;rsm;Y pGef@ypfxm;aom tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh
[if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;udk oGm;a&mufaumuf,l&aom tajctaeodk@ twif;t=uyf wGef;ydk@cJh
onf? tcsKd@trsKd;orD;rsm; ntcsdefwGif aps;rsm;Y tpm;tpmrsm;&SmazGpOf rk'dfrf;usifhcH&onfh
owif;rsm;vnf; &&dSonf?
todtrSwftðycH&aom 'kuQonfjzpfap/ odk@r[kwf todtrSwf tðyrcH&aom
'kuQonfjzpfap/ a&$@ajymif; tvkyform;jzpfap jrefrmjynfae&ma'o toD;oD;rS a&muf&Sd
vmaom trsKd;orD;wdkif;onf tajccHusef;rma&; apmifha&Smufr_qdkif&m owif;tcsuf
tvufESifh touf&Sifaexdkifr_qkdif&m twwfynmrsm;ESifhtwl vlom;rsm;tjzpf tajccH
&ykdifcGifh qdkif&m owif;tcsuftvufrsm;yif r&&dS=uay? tajccHtm;jzihf olwdk@a&muf&dS
ae&m EdkifiHwGif EdkifiHrJhrsm;tjzpfESifh w&m;r0ifaexdkifolrsm;tjzpf aexdkif=u&onf? odk@a=umifh
jrefrmEdkifiHrS trsKd;orD;rsm;onf zrf;qD;cH&r_/ ae&yf&if;odk@ jyefydk@cH&r_ponfh +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;
ESifh awG@óuH=u&um ‚if;wdk@ acwWaexdkifae&aom EdkifiHwGif jynfwGif;Oya't& xda&mufaom
umuG,fay;r_rsm; tenf;tusOf;om &&Sdonf?

'kuQonfESifh a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;vltodkif;t0dkif;&dS trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;. ta&;ay:


vdktyfcsufrsm;rSm-
• tumtuG,fay;r_/ vlom;csif;qdkif&m tajccHtaxmuftyhHrsm;ESifh vlr_ todkif;t0dkif;
udk tajccHaom axmufyHhr_pepfrsm;
• ‚if;wdk@ESifh teD;uyf vkyfudkifulnDay;aeaom a'ocHtzJG@tpnf;rsm;tm; tum
tuG,af y;r_
• vlr_tzJG@tpnf;udk tajcðyaom enf;AsL[mESihf ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;t& trsKd;
orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_udk od&dSem;vnf&efESifh umuG,f&ef twGuf jrefrmEdkifiHrS
vmaom trsKd;orD;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;twGuf pGrf;&nfjr‡ifhwifay;a&; vkyfief;rsm;
aqmif&Gufa&;

10
jrefrmjynfolrsm; &ifqdkifae&aom jy\emrsm;. t"du t&if;tjrpfrSm vuf&dS usifhoHk;
aeaom ppftm%m&Sif pHepfjzpfonf?

jrefrmEdkifiH. vltcGifhta&;tajctaeESifh ywfoufI urBmukvor*~ taxG


axGnDvmcH (1991 ckESpfrS pI) ESifh ukvor*~. vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m aumfr&Sif (1992
ckESpfrS pI) u ESpfpOf csrSwfcJhaom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;wGif ae&mtESH@ jzpfyGm;aeaom rk'drf;r_rsm;
tygt0if vuf&dSjrefrmppftpdk;&. tpDtpOfcs usL;vGefaeaom vltcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_
rsm;tay: pdk;&drfylyefa=umif; xkwfaz:cJh+yD; EdkifiHa&;t& ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm; vkyf&ef
awmif;qdkcJhonf? ppftpdk;&u qHk;jzwfcsuw f dkif;udk vspfvsL&_um jiif;y,fcJhonf? vuf&dS
usL;vGefaeaom ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;udk &yfwef@I awG@qHkaqG;aEG;r_rsm; pwifEdkif&eftwGuf
ukvor*~. jrefrmEdkifiH vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,f ay:vdk qm*sD,dk yDnJ&dk;/
ukvor*~ txl;udk,fpm;vS,f &mZmvD tpPar;vf/ ukvor*~ EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m 'kwd, taxG
axGtwGif;a&;r–;csKyf tDA&m[if *rfbm&D ESifh taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r–;csKyfudk,fwdkif ppftpdk;&tm;
qJGaqmifpnf;&Hk;aom }udK;yrf;cJhr_rsm;onfvnf; ratmifjrifcJhay? ppftpdk;&onf ukv
or*~ Xmersm; txl;ojzifh taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;csKyf&Hk;rS vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnhf t}uH
ðycsufrsm;udk tpOfrjywf jiif;qefaecJhonf?

jrefrmEdkifiHrS 'kuQonftrsKd;orD;rsm;. +idrf;csrf;a&;awmif;qdkr_


trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: v$rf;rdk;aeaom pdwfqENrsm;rSm jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;&dS rdrdwdk@
aqGpOfrsKd;quf aexdkifcJh&m ae&yf&if;odk@jyefI t=urf;zufr_rsm;udk a=umufvef@ae&r_rS
uif;a0;um +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;ESifh aevdkaom qENjzpfonf? oufqdkif&mtzJG@tpnf; tm;vHk;
yg0ifI ppfyJGrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;jzihf tjrefqHk;tqHk;owf&efESifh ppfwyftkyfcsKyfr_
udk tqHk;owfap&ef trsKd;orD;rsm;u vdkvm;=uonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;onf wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd;pke,fajrrsm;rS jrefrmppfwyfzJG@rsm;udk &kwfodrf;I a=umuf&HG@r_ESifh tapmfum;cH&r_rsm;
rS uif;a0;cGifh &vdk=uonf?
xdk@a=umifh trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) u vHkòcHa&;aumifpDodk@ atmufyg tcsufrsm;
wdkufwGef; vdkygonf?

• vHkòcHa&;aumifpD. qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 1325 . tydk'f 9/ 10/ 11/ 12 wdk@udk tajccHI


jrefrmEdkifiH ta&;udk 0ifa&mufta&;,l aqmif&Guf&ef
• vHkòcHa&;aumifpD. qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 1325 . tydk'f 1/ 7/ 8/ 13/ 14/ 15 wdk@udk
yÉdyuQwGif yg0ifaom tzJG@tpnf;wdkif;u vkdufemapatmif aqmif&Guf&ef

11
trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) u vHkòcHa&;aumifpD.tzJG@0ifrsm;ESihf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;tm;
atmufygtwdkif; awmif;qdkygonf?
ukvor*~ vHkòcHa&;aumifpDudk jrefrmEdkifiHwGif +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pD&&dSa&;udk aqmifusOf;
ay;&eftwGuf
1) jrefrmppftpdk;&udk wwdkif;jynfvHk; typftcwf&yfpJ&ef/ t&yfom;rsm;tay: usL;vGef
aeaom ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm; csufjcif;&yfwef@&efESifh ppfwyfzJG@rsm;udk wdkif;&if;om; e,fajr
rsm;rS &kwfodrf;&eftwGuf zdtm;ay;jcif;
2) EdkifiHa&;ygwD tzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ wdkif;&if;om;tzJG@tpnf;rsm; yg0ifaom oHk;yGifhqdkif
aqG;aEG;yJGudk pwifjcif; (A/C.3/58/L.68/Rev.12003 ckESpf/ 58 }udrfajrmuf ukv
or*~ taxGaxGnDvmcH. jrefrmEdkifiH vltcGifh ta&; tajctaeESifh ywfoufaom
qHk;jzwfcsuf tydk'f trSwf 4'D/ 5 tdwfcsf t&)

3) jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t&yfom;rsm;tay: usL;vGefaeaom ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm; &yfwef@r_


r&Sdrcsif;ESifh ppfrSefaom 'Drdkua&pDodk@ ajymif;vJr_r&dSrcsif; jrefrmEdkifiHESifh ukefoG,fr_rsm;/
&if;ESD;ðryfESHr_rsm;tm;vHk; qkdif;iHhxm;&efESihf ppftpdk;&tm;ay;aeonfh acs;aiGrsm;tm;vHk;
&yfqdkif;xm;jcif;

4) jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t&yfom;rsm;tay: usL;vGefaeaom ppf&mZ0wfrsm; &yfwef@r_ r&Sdrcsif;


ESifh ppfrSefaom 'Drdkua&pDodk@ ajymif;vJr_wdk@ r&dSrcsif; ppfvufeufypPnf; wifoGif;r_rsm;
tygt0if ppftpdk;&tay: us,fjyef@aom ydwfqdk@ta&;,lr_rsm;udk ukvor*~. oufqkdif
&mXmersm;u wm0ef,l aqmif&Gufa&;udk awmif;qdkjcif;

5) jrefrmEdkifiHta&;ESifh ywfoufI ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;ðyvkyf&mwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;


qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfonhf ae&mrsm;Y &Sdaeapa&;ESifh trsKd;orD;tay: oufa&mufrnfh
tusKd;qufrsm;udk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&ef vdktyfjcif;

trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_qef@usifa&;qdkif&m vkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif&Guf


Edkifa&;/ vlr_todkif;t0kdif;udk tajcðyaom enf;AsL[mrsm;/ ta&;,l aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;
tm;jzifh +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf aqmif&GufEdkifa&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsKd;om;jyefvnf
oifhjrwfa&;qdkif&m vkyfief;tqifhwdkif;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfonfh vkyfief;pOf tqifhqifhwGif
trsKd;orD;rsm;. yg0ifr_ wdk;jrifhvmap&eftwGuf jrefrmEdkifiHrS trsKd;orD;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;.
pGrf;&nfjr‡ifhrm;a&;udk aqmif&Gufay;jcif;?

12
trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG@csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) u vHkòcHa&;aumifpDESifh tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;tm; atmufyg
tcsufrsm; awmif;qdkygonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH. tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;tm;- ukvor*~ 'kuQonfa&;&m r[mrif;}uD;&Hk;ESifh
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufapa&; twGuf wkdufwGef;&ef
EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;tm;-
• ‚if;wdk@ EdkifiHrsm;wGif cdkv_HcGifh awmif;cHaeaom t&yfom;rsm;tm;vHk;tm; 'kuQonf
rsm;qdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufwGif owfrSwfxm;onfhtwkdif; EdkifiHwum umuG,f
apmifha&Smufr_ay;&ef

• ‚if;wdk@EdkifiHwGif aexdkifvsuf&Sdaom 'kuQonfrsm;. tajccH0efaqmifr_rsm;ESifh aetdrfrsm;


&&Sda&; taxmuftulay;&ef/ txl;ojzihf trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf rsKd;yGm;om;zGm;jcif;
qdkif&m usef;rma&; ulnDapmifha&Smufr_rsm;ay;I 'kuQonfrsm; touf&Sif &yfwnfa&;
twGuf 0ifaiG&Edkifaom tcGifhtvrf;rsm;ay;&ef

• jynfwGif;&dS tdk;tdrfpGef@cGmxGufajy;ae=u&aom 'kuQonfrsm;tm; e,fpyfjzwfausmf


axmufyHhaeonhf vlom;csif;pmemr_qdkif&m vkyfief;tpDtpOfrsm;udk ulnDaxmufyHh
ay;jcif;rsm; cGifhðy&ef

• rk'dfrf;usifhcHcJh&olESifh vdifydkif;qkdif&m t=urf;zufcH&olrsm;udk olwdk@a&mufaeaom


EdkifiHrsm;wGif pdwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh aq;0g;ydkif;qdkif&m tygt0if vdktyfaom 0efaqmifr_
ESifh axmufulr_rsm;ay;&ef/
• t=urf;zufr_cHcJh&aom trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav;i,frsm;tm; ulnDaxmufyHhay;ae
aom odk@r[kwf trsKd;orD;ESifh rdef;uav;i,frsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_rsm; &yfwef@oGm;
ap&ef aqmif&Gufaeaom vlwOD;csif;pDESifh trsKd;orD;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;. ab;uif;vHkòcH
a&;twGuf tmrcHay;&ef

13
trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG‹csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH)

trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG‹csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) onf jrefrmEdkifiHrS orkdif;a=umif;aemufcH uGJjym;onfh


wdkif;&if;om;trsKd;orD;tzJG‹tpnf;toD;oD;jzifh pkaygif;zJG‹pnf; xm;aom yxrOD;qHk; tzJG‹
jzpfonf? TtzJG‹csKyfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHESifh e,ferdwfcsif; xdpyfaeonfh b*Fvm;a'h&Sf/
tdENd,ESifh xdkif;EkdifiHwdk‹rS e,fpyfa'orsm;&Sd trsKd;orD;tzJG‹tpnf; (12) zJG‹ yg0ifonf?
1999 ckESpf 'DZifbm (9) &ufwGif wnfaxmifzJG‹pnf;cJhonf?

trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG‹csKyf (jrefrmEdkifiH) onf trsKd;orD;rsm;. tqifhtwef; wdk;wufjrifhrm;


vmapa&;ESifh t&nftcsif;jynfh0apa&;twGufomru t&nftcsif;jr‡ihfwifjcif;/ pnf;&Hk;
csOf;uyfjcif;/ okawoeðyjcif;ESifh rSwfwrf;wifjcif;rsm;rSwqifh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_/
+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsKd;om;jyefvnf oifhjrwfa&;tygt0if u¾tm;vHk;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;
ydkrdkyg0ifvkyfudkifvmapa&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufaeonfh tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfonf?

Women’s League of Burma (WLB)

P.O. Box 413 GPO


Chiang Mai 50000 Thailand
Email: wlb@womenofburma.org
Website: www.womenofburma.org
trsKd;orD;rsm;tzJG‹csKyf (jrefrmEkdifiH) tzGJ‹0if tzGJ‹tpnf;rsm;

jrefrmhtrsKd;orD;or*~ (BWU)

ucsiftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (xkdif;EkdifiH) (KWAT)

u&iftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (KWO)

u&ifeDtrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (KnWO)

uluD;trsKd;orD;qkdif&m vl@tcGifhta&; tpnf;t&kH;


(KWHRO)

vm;[ltrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (LWO)

yavmiftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (PWO)

ytkd0fhtrsKd;orD; or*~ (PWU)

&ckdiftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&kH; (RWU)

&Srf;trsKd;orD;a&;&m qufoG,fv_yf&Sm; aqmif&Gufa&;toif;


(SWAN)

xm;0,ftrsKd;orD;or*~ (TWU)

jrefrmEkdifiH trsKd;orD;a&;&mESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&mtzGJ@


(WRWAB)