Problem 1
Consider the power system shown below. Choose a system power base 100MVA and a linetoline voltage
base for section 1 as 6.9kV. The load in section 3 consumes 10MVA at 0.8pf leading when the linetoline
voltage at the load is 13.8kV
(a) Determine the ohmic value of a R+jX load (R and X connected in series, as shown) in section 3 that
consumes this same amount of power at the specified voltage level (i.e., that consumes 10 MVA at 0.8
pf leading at 13.8kV linetoline).
(b) Compute the impedance base for the section 3 load.
T1 T2
S e c tio n 1 6 .8 k V /6 9 k V 7 1 k V /1 3 .8 k V
S e c tio n 2 S e c tio n 3
Solution to problem 1
V2 V2
(a) S LL Z LL
13.8 103 2
1.8519
S BASE S BASE
Problem 2
Consider the power system shown below. Choose a system power base of 100MVA and a linetoline
voltage base for section 1 as 6.9kV. Determine the appropriate values of per unit impedance for
transformers T1, T2, ad the transmission line.
T1 T2
5 j2 0
6 .8 k V /6 9 k V 7 1 k V /1 3 .8 k V
S e c tio n 1 S e c tio n 2 S e c tio n 3
10% , 50M VA 8% , 20M VA
Solution to problem 2
69 13.8
Vbase, 2 6.9 70.015, Vbase, 3 70.015 13.61 p.u.
6.8 71
2
6.8 100
X T 1, new 0.10 0.1942
6.9 50
2 2
71 100 13.8 100
X T 2, new 0.08 0.08 0.4112
70.015 20 13.61 20
Z base, 2
70.015 10
3 2
49.021 X L
5 j 20
0.102 j 0.4081
100 106 49.021
Problem 3
A generator is connected to a transmission line through a transformer having a rated turns ratio (ratio of line
to line voltages) of:
20 kV (generator side) to 100 kV (transmission line side).
The generator has a per unit reactance of 0.08 pu on a 19 kV, 50 MVA base.
Select the base voltage on the transmission line side to be 110 kV.
Solution to problem 3
(a)
20kV
Vbasegen 110 kV 22kV
100kV
(b)
2 2
V S 19kV 100MVA
X pu 2 X pu1 base1 base 2 0.08 0.11934
Vbase 2 S base1 22kV 50MVA
Problem 4
Choose a system MVA base of 100 MVA and a voltage base of 4.0 kV for the load portion of the system.
Find perunit values of impedances for both transformers and the transmission line.
T1 T2
Xline = 6
4.1kV/34.5kV 36kV/4.5kV
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
10%, 15MVA 8%, 20MVA
Solution to problem 4
36kV
Vbase 2 (4.0kV ) 32kV
4.5kV
4.1kV
Vbase 2 (32kV ) 3.803kV
34.5kV
2 2
V S 4.1kV 100MVA
T1 : X T 1 X puT 1 baseold basenew 0.10 0.7749
Vbasenew S baseold 3.803kV 15MVA
2 2
V S 4.5kV 100MVA
T 2 : X T 2 X puT 2 baseold basenew 0.08 0.506
Vbasenew S baseold 4.0kV 20MVA
Line : Z base
32kV 2 10.24 Z pu
6
0.586
100MVA 10.24
Problem 5
1. B4: You receive the following data from a manufacturer regarding a new three phase transformer:
Ratio of lineline voltages: 13.8kV/225kV
Power rating: 400 MVA
Per unit reactance on component base: 8%
You are considering replacement of an existing transformer in your threephase system with this new
one, and you want to see how it would affect the currents. Below is a circuit of your system. All data is
in per unit on a 100 MVA base. The voltage base for the transmission line is 230 kV and the voltage
base for the low side of transformer 1 is 14.1067 kV. The per unit impedances of the transmission line,
transformer 2, and the load are:
Zt=0.0004+j0.005 pu XX2=0.02 pu RL=0.8 pu
a. Compute the per unit reactance of the transformer on the system bases.
b. Compute the magnitude of the current It in the transmission line, in per unit, and in amperes.
Transformer 1 Trans. Line Transformer 2 Load
Xx1 Zt Xx2
pu + It
voltage RL

Solution to problem 5
2
a. 225 100
X x1 0.08 0.0191 pu
230 400
b.
1.0 1.0 1.0
I t , pu 1.2456  j0.0686
X x1 Z t X x2 RL j 0.0191 0.0004 j 0.005 j 0.02 0.8 0.8004 j 0.0441
And the current magnitude, in per unit, is given by It=[ (1.2456)2+(0.0686)2 ]=1.2475 pu
100 10 6
I base 251 I t 1.2475(251) 313.1 amperes
3 (230 10 3 )
To get amperes, we need the current base for the transmission line section of the system. This is: