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International Migration Outlook 2017

and recent labour migration trends


to OECD countries from Asia
8th ADB-ADBI-OECD-ILO Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia:
BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS FOR EFFECTIVELY MANAGING
LABOR MIGRATION: LESSONS FROM ASIAN COUNTRIES
FOR THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT ON MIGRATION

Jean-Christophe Dumont
Head of the International Migration Division
Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs
OECD
Migrations to the OECD
at the highest since decades
Sharp increase of permanent migration
flows to OECD countries in 2016
Evolution of permanent migration inflows to OECD countries
Millions 5.0
5.0
4.7 4.7

4.4 4.4
4.5
4.2
4.1 4.1
4.0 4.0
4.0

3.5

3.0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 (e)
Source International Migration Outlook, (OECD, 2017)
Other
5% Work Accompanying
Distribution of permanent flows to OECD 11% family
6%
countries by category in 2015 Free
movements
33%

Family
32%
Humanitarian
13%

Source International Migration Outlook, (OECD, 2017)


Permanent migration as a share of population
ranges from 0.4 to 34 per thousand
Permanent migration to OECD countries by category as a percentage of the population, 2015

% Work Family Free movement Other 3.4


2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Source International Migration Outlook, (OECD, 2017)


All categories of temporary migration
are increasing
Temporary labour migration flows, 2015

Thousands Evolution % No countries


(2015) (2014-2015) included

Seasonal workers 597 +39% 13

Intra-corporate transfers 155 +10% 11

Posted workers 1 467 +3% 25

Trainees 143 +13% 11

Working holiday makers 474 0% 11

Source International Migration Outlook, (OECD, 2017)


Asia accounts for a growing share of
overall migration to the OECD
Top 15 Asian countries of origin
Migration flows from Asia to OECD
for migration to OECD countries,
Countries, 2000-2015
2015
2.0
Others;
Millions

1.9
5%

China; 30%
Thailand;
1.5
3%
Korea; 4%

Pakistan; 5%

1.0 Afghanistan;
7% India; 14%
1.0

Viet Nam;
8% Philippines;
10%

0.5

Source: Labour migration in Asia : building effective institutions (ADBI, ILO, OECD 2016)
Entries of international students are also
increasing
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3

1.1 1.1 1.2 Number of first permits issued to


1.0
1.0
1.0 students in the OECD 2008-2015
Millions

0.5

0.0
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Autres
34%
États-Unis
43%
Distribution by main countries of
destination, 2015

3+ million international students Australie


8% Royaume-
Uni
in OECD countries; half of them in Europe 15%

Source : Base de données de l’OCDE sur les migrations internationales.


But the share of migrant women in OECD
is … decreasing
Labour market outcomes of
migrants in the OECD
Labour market integration in Europe still feels the
aftermath of the 2007/08 economic crisis
Quarterly unemployment rate evolution by place of birth, EU28 and United States,
2008-2016 United States
EU28
Foreign-born Native-born
Foreign-born Native-born
18
18

16
16

14
14
6.3pp
12 12
5.1pp
10 10
4.4pp

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4

Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q3
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Migration made a key contribution to
labour force growth in the past decade
• Immigrants represented 65% of the increase in the labour force in the US and 21% of the
increase in the highly-educated labour force. (This compares with 92% and 17% in the EU)
• New immigrants represented 20% of labour market entries into strongly growing occupations
in the United States (22% in Europe) …
• … but they also account for about 32% of labour market entries into strongly declining
occupations (14% in Europe).

Demographic components of net occupational change by occupation growth


quintile, 2011-2015
European countries United States
New entrants Recent migrants Recent retirees Prime-age Percentage change New entrants Recent migrants Recent retirees Prime-age Percentage change
6000 12 8000 16

4500 9 6000 12

Thousand 4000 8
Thousands

3000 6
% 2000 4 %
1500 3
0 0
1 2 3 4 5
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 -2000 -4

-1500 -3 -4000 -8

-3000 -6 -6000 -12

Sources: EU Labour Force Survey and US American Community Survey


A quick update on the
“refugee crisis” in Europe
An unprecedented number of landings and
asylum applications in Europe

Evolution of the number of new asylum seekers, 1980-2016

Source: UNHCR, Eurostat, OECD calculations.

Much larger inflows in countries neighbouring Syria (>3m Syrian refugees in


Turkey, 1m in Lebanon, 650k in Jordan)
The Asia and Pacific region is home to 7.7 million people of concern to UNHCR.
They include 3.5 million refugees, 1.9 million IDPs and 1.4 million stateless
people. The majority of refugees originate from Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Changing routes … changing nationalities

Source: UNHCR
Labour market integration of family migrants
takes as much time as for refugees
Employment rate by immigrant categories and duration of stay
European OECD countries, 2014

Source : EU-OECD (2016), How are refugees faring on the labour market in Europe? A first evaluation based
on the 2014 EU labour force survey ad hoc module, DG EMPL Working Paper 1/2016.
Family migration is the blind
spot of migration and
integration policies
Family migrants make more than 40%
of all permanent migrants to the OECD
80 Percentages
72
70 67
64 64 64
62 62
59
60 56
53 51
48 50
50 45 46
42 40 42
40 33 33
32 32
28
30
20
10
0

800 754

700
Thousands
600
500
400
300
200 159
129
82 104
100 26 26 31 33 34 39 49 49
2 4 9 10 11 12 16 17 21 21
0
Family migration is quite an heterogenous
group (1/3)
Family migration is quite an heterogenous
group (2/3)
Family migration is quite a heterogenous
group (3/3)
Family migration is more and more
about mixed marriages
23/11

Thank you for your attention


For further information:
www.oecd.org/migration
jean-christophe.dumont@oecd.org