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# Navya Deepthi

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## Conversion Formulas for h-parameters:

The h-parameters of CC and CB in terms of h-parameters of CE are as shown in below table:
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Limitations of h Parameters:

## Determination of h-parameters from Transistor Characteristics:

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Miller’s Theorem:

The Miller’s theorem establishes that in a linear circuit, if there exists a branch with impedance Z,
connecting two nodes with nodal voltages V1and V2, we can replace this branch by two branches
connecting the corresponding nodes to ground by impedances respectively Z / (1-K) and KZ / (K-1),
where K = V2 / V1.
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As all the linear circuit theorems, the Miller’s theorem also has a dual form:

## Miller's dual theorem

If there is a branch in a circuit with impedance Z connecting a node, where two currents I1 and I2
converge, to ground, we can replace this branch by two conducting the referred currents, with
impedances respectively equal to (1+ ) Z and (1+ ) Z / , where  = I2 / I1.

## Let us apply above theorem to Inverting Amplifier as shown below:

Then As per Miller’s theorem, it states that, for inverting amplifiers, the capacitance between the input
and output is equivalent to separate input and output capacitances to ground.

Av is the absolute value of the gain. For the input capacitance, the gain has a large effect on the
equivalent capacitance, which is an important consideration when using inverting amplifiers.
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## Comparison of CB, CE and CC configurations

Typical h-parameters values for a transistor

Note: In the above table for CE, negative sign for Ai and Av values indicates that output of CE Amplifier is
1800 out of phase with input signal.
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UNIT 3
PREVIOUS YEARS EXTERNAL QUESTIONS

## 1. a) Define h-parameters. How do you determine h-parameters from transistor characteristics?

7Marks
b) Draw the circuit diagram of CB amplifier circuit and its h-parameter equivalent circuit. List
the characteristics of a CB amplifier. 7 Marks
(OR)
2. a) Draw the small signal hybrid model of CE amplifier and derive the expression for its AI,
AV, Ri and Ro. 7 Marks
b) Using h-parameters, derive the expressions for AI = I2/I1, AV = V2/V1, Ri and Yo of a
transistor amplifier in general configuration shown in following figure. 7 Marks

## [SDC Regular Nov 2015]

3. a) Draw the circuit for Darlington pair and derive the expressions for Ai, Av, Ri and Ro.
b) Derive Millers theorem and dual of Millers theorem. [SDC Supply Nov 2015]

## 4. a) What are the advantages of h-parameter?

b) A CE amplifier has Rc = 10K Ω, Re = 2k Ω, hie = 2 Ω, hfe = 60μmhos, hre = 1x10-4..
Calculate Ai and Av.
[SDC Supply May 2015]

## 5. a) State and explain Miller’s theorem.

b) Indicate active, cutoff and saturation regions of output characteristics of CE amplifier and
explain significance of curve qualitatively. [SDC Regular Nov 2014]

6.Derive the expression for Av, Ai, I/P impedance and O/P impedance of CE amplifier using
exact and approximate models.
. [SDC Supply June 2014]
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7. For the transistor amplifier shown below, Compute AI = Io / Ii, Av, Avs and Ri. Assume hie =
1100ohms, hfe = 50 , hre = 2.5 X 10-4 hoe = 24 uA/V

## . [SDC Regular Jan 2014 & Regular Nov 2011]

8. Derive the expression for Av, Ai, I/P impedance and O/P impedance of CE amplifier using
exact and approximate models. [SDC Supply June 2014]

9. Draw the small signal equivalent circuit for CE transistor amplifier and deduce the expressions
for current gain, input impedance, output impedance and voltage gain with and without voltage
source.
[SDC Supply June 2013]

10. a) Draw the circuit for Darlington pair and derive the expressions for Ai, Av, Ri and Ro.
[Out of Syllabus Question]
b) Derive Millers theorem and dual of Millers theorem.
[SDC Regular Nov 2012]

11. a) Give the comparison of CE,CC and CB amplifiers with respect to voltage gain current gain
, Input impedance and output impedance.
b) Find expressions for voltage gain, current gain, Input impedance and output impedances of
CC amplifier using simplified hybrid model.
[SDC Supply May 2012]