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AUSTRALIAN MARITIME COLLEGE

MANOEUVRING

LECTURE NOTES
BY
Prasanta Sahoo

Bachelor of Engineering (NA)


Semester 2, 2007
Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................................................... 3
MANOEUVRING ................................................................................................................................................. 3
FORCES ACTING ON A VESSEL DURING MANOEUVRE........................................................................ 5
CHAPTER 2 .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
MOTION STABILITY AND LINEAR EQUATIONS ...................................................................................... 7
ASSUMPTIONS OF LINEARITY ............................................................................................................... 8
CHAPTER 3 .........................................................................................................................................................12
CONTROL FORCES AND MOMENTS...........................................................................................................12
STABILITY CRITERION ...........................................................................................................................14
CHAPTER 4 .........................................................................................................................................................19
THE DIEUDONNE SPIRAL MANOEUVER...................................................................................................19
TURNING PATH OF A SHIP .....................................................................................................................20
HEEL ANGLE DURING A TURN .............................................................................................................24
CHAPTER 5 .........................................................................................................................................................28
MODEL TESTS ...................................................................................................................................................28
CAPTIVE MODEL TESTS ................................................................................................................................29
ROTATING ARM TECHNIQUE................................................................................................................30
PLANAR MOTION MECHANISM............................................................................................................32
CHAPTER 6 .........................................................................................................................................................37
PREDICTIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF MOTIONS ................................................37
LOW ASPECT RATIO THEORY...............................................................................................................42
EMPIRICAL METHODS ............................................................................................................................47
CHAPTER 7 .........................................................................................................................................................49
STABILITY AND CONTROL ...........................................................................................................................49
DEFINITIVE MANOEUVRE .....................................................................................................................49
ZIG-ZAG, Z OR KEMPF OVERSHOOT MANOEUVRE .........................................................................49
ACCELERATING, STOPPING AND BACKING......................................................................................51
STOPPING DISTANCES ............................................................................................................................52
CHAPTER 8 .........................................................................................................................................................55
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION......................................................................................55
CHAPTER 9 .........................................................................................................................................................61
RUDDER DESIGNS ............................................................................................................................................61
RUDDER TYPES ........................................................................................................................................64
SPADE RUDDER ........................................................................................................................................65
SEMI-BALANCED RUDDERS ..................................................................................................................65
FLAP RUDDERS.........................................................................................................................................65

Manoeuvring Page No 2
Chapter 1
MANOEUVRING
Steering and manoeuvring is about the behaviour of a ship in a horizontal plane. It is the
response of the ship’s motion as a result of rudder action. This course will handle
manoeuvring aspects in a more general way since certain aspects are still not fully
understood.

The basic dynamics of manoeuvring and course keeping can be described and analysed using
Newtons Laws of Motion. Basic operations in the horizontal plane can be considered first
with reference to one set of axes fixed relative to the earth and a second set fixed relative to
the ship.

The ship’s path is normally defined as the trajectory of the ships centre of gravity. Heading
refers to the direction (ψ, angle of yaw) of the ship’s longitudinal axis with respect to one of
the fixed axes. The difference between the headings and the actual course (direction of
velocity vector at the COG) is the drift or leeway angle β. When the ship is moving along a
curved path, the drift angle is thus the difference in direction between the heading and the
tangent to the path of the COG.

In a right hand orthogonal system of reference x0, y0 directions are fixed with respect to the
surface of the earth. The positive direction of x0 axis is taken to be the general direction of the
motion, its precise direction may be arbitrary but fixed to the earth. Positive z0 is downwards
and positive y0 is towards starboard.

The motion of the ship at t = t0 is completely defined by xoG, yoG and the angle of yaw ψ.

The Newtonian equation of motion is expressed as:

Manoeuvring Page No 3
X 0 = ∆x0G (surge)
Y0 = ∆y0G (sway)
(1)
N = I zψ (yaw)

Xo, Yo = total force on xo, yo directions respectively.

N = total moment about an axis through the COG and parallel to z0 axis.

∆ = Mass of ship

Iz = Mass Moment of Inertia about z0 axis

ψ = Yaw angle in the horizontal plane measured from the vertical xo z0 plane to the x-axis of
the ship.

In spite of the simplicity, it is sometimes convenient to express with respect to x, y axis of the
moving ship. The moving axes also form right hand orthogonal system but with the exception
that the origin is at COG at all times, t.

The x-axis along the centre plane is coincident with the longitudinal axis of inertia, which
may be assumed, with very small error, to be parallel to the baseline of the ship. The direction
of x-axis is referred to as the heading, hence ψ is the heading angle as well as the yaw angle.
The z-axis is also in the centre plane of the ship, but is normal to x-axis and positive
downward, y-axis is normal to x and z and positive to starboard.

In order to convert equations (1) from fixed areas in earth to areas fixed in moving ship the
total forces X and Y in the X, Y directions, respectively are expressed as:

X = XOCosψ + YOSinψ

Y = YOCosψ - XOSinψ
Likewise

xoG = uCosψ − vSinψ


yoG = uSinψ + vCosψ

where u and v are the components of the velocity vector V along x and y directions
respectively.

Then
xoG = uCosψ − vSinψ − (uSinψ + vCosψ )ψ
yoG = uSinψ + vCosψ + (uCosψ − vSinψ )ψ (4)

Substituting equation (4) in (1) we obtain

Manoeuvring Page No 4
X = ∆ (u − vψ )
Y = ∆(v + uψ )

So the pertinent equation of motion in horizontal plane, assuming zero roll, pitch and heave.
For completeness:
Surge:

Sway: X = ∆ (u − v ψ )
Y = ∆ (v + uψ )
Yaw:
N = I Zψ

The terms − ∆vψ and ∆uψ in X and Y are the so called centrifugal force terms which
exist when systems with moving axes are considered but do not exist when axes are fixed to
earth.

FORCES ACTING ON A VESSEL DURING MANOEUVRE


The forces and movements are built up of four types of forces that act on a ship during
manoeuvre:

a) Hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull and appendages, due to ship velocity and
acceleration, rudder deflection and propeller rotation.

b) Inertial reaction forces caused by ship acceleration.

c) Environmental forces due to wind, waves and currents.

d) External forces such as tugs or thrusters.

The first two types of forces generally act in the horizontal plane and involve only surge,
sway and yaw responses, although rolling may occur. Hydrodynamic forces are due to hull
velocity through water (damping force) and those arising from hull acceleration (added mass
forces).

Effect of rudder on turning is indirect. Moving the rudder produces a moment that causes the
ship to change heading and assume an angle of attack (leeway angle β) to the direction of
motion of COG. As a result hydrodynamic forces on the hull are generated, which after a
time, cause a change of lateral movement of COG. The lateral movement is opposed by the
inertial reactions. If rudder remains fixed in a position, a steady turning condition will endure
with hydrodynamic and inertial forces and moments coming into balance.

There are several plausible scenarios in ships manoeuvoring. These could be:

Shallow water effects – quite complex.

Manoeuvring Page No 5
Interactions between vessels complicate the hydrodynamic and inertial force analysis.

Environment where wind, wave and current are prevalent may also complicate things:

• Current can be incorporated in hydrodynamic forces by considering the


relative velocities between the vessel and the water.

• Forces and moments due to wind are time dependent and generally
proportional to the above water area of the ship on square of the relation velocity
between ship and wind. May be affected due to direction of wind velocity relative to
the ship axes.

Two distinct types of wave forces act.

First order forces are important from seakeeping point of view. But the steady slowly varying
forces due to second order wave drift effects are generally more important for ship
controllability.

Wave drift forces depend primarily on ship’s length, relative magnitude of wavelength and
amplitude.

Finally the forces created by tugs and thrusters are effective at relatively slow speeds and
mostly external to hydronamic manoeuvre and treated as independent additions.

Manoeuvring Page No 6
Chapter 2

MOTION STABILITY AND LINEAR EQUATIONS


The concept of path keeping is strongly related to course stability. A body is said to be stable
in any particular state of equilibrium in rest or motion. If when momentarily disturbed by an
external force or moment, it tends to return after release from the disturbing force to a state of
equilibrium existing before the body was disturbed. In the case of path keeping the most
obvious external disturbing force would be a wave or gust of wind. For optimum path
keeping it would be desirable for the ship to resume its original path after the passage of
disturbance, with no intervention by helsman. This would depend on the kind of motion
stability possessed by the vessel.

The various winds of motion stability associated with ship are classified by the state of their
initial condition and are:

Manoeuvring Page No 7
Case I: Straight line path and final path is a straight-line after release from disturbance,
but direction has changed.

Case II: Directional stability, the final path after release of disturbance is also a straight
line attribute of the original path, its direction but a different position.

Case III: Same as II but ship passes on smoothly to the same final path.

Case IV: Positional motion stability, where ship returns to the original path with regard
to position, path and direction.

ASSUMPTIONS OF LINEARITY
The force components X, Y and the moment component N are assumed to be composed of
several parts, which are functions of ship’s velocity and acceleration.

Expressed functionally X, Y and N are:

X = F x (u , v , u , v , ψ , ψ )
Y = F y (u , v , u , v , ψ , ψ )
N = Fψ (u , v , u , v , ψ , ψ ) (6)

These functions need to be reduced to useful mathematical functions to obtain a numerical


index of motion stability. So Taylor’s expansion is mdae use of.

The linearised form of the Taylor’s expansion of a function of two variables x, y is a simple
sum of three terms:

∂f ( x, y ) ∂f ( x, y )
f ( x, y ) = f ( x1 , y1 ) + δx + δy (7)
∂x ∂y

So by analogy we can write:

Y = Fy (u1 , v1, u1 , v1,ψ 1,ψ 1 ) + (u − u1 )


∂Y
∂u
+ (v − v1 )
∂Y
∂v
( )
+ .... ψ − ψ 1
∂Y
∂ψ (8)

Where subscript 1 refers to all cases to the values of the variables at the initial equilibrium
condition and where all of the partial derivatives are evaluated at the equilibrium condition. If
the initial equilibrium condition for motion stability is a straight line motion at constant speed,
it follows that:

u1 = v1 = ψ 1 = ψ 1 = 0 (8a)

Manoeuvring Page No 8
Since vessel is symmetrical about XZ plane and travel in a straight line with zero angle of
attack, v1=0 but may not be true for ships with odd numbers of propellers.

Because of symmetry
∂Y ∂Y
= =0 (8b)
∂u ∂u

since change in forward speed or acceleration will produce no transverse force for
symmetrical ships. Finally for a ship in a straight line motion there can be no Y force acting
on it, therefore:

F y (u1 , v1 , u1 , v1 ,ψ 1 ,ψ 1 ) = 0 (9)

Only u1 is not zero but equal to the resultant velocity V in the initial equilibrium condition.

∂Y ∂Y ∂Y ∂Y
So Y= v+ v+ ψ+ ψ (9a)
∂v ∂v ∂ψ ∂ψ

Similarly the surging force and yawing moment are given by:

∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X
X= u+ u+ v+ v+ ψ+ ψ (9b)
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂ψ ∂ψ
∂N ∂N ∂N ∂N
N= v+ v+ ψ+ ψ (9c)
∂v ∂v ∂ψ ∂ψ

∂Y ∂Y ∂N ∂N
Cross-coupled derivatives , , and usually have small non-zero values since ships
∂ψ ∂ψ ∂v ∂v
are rarely symmetrical about Y-Z plane.

∂X ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y
But the derivatives , , , like and are zero due to symmetry.
∂v ∂v ∂ψ ∂ψ ∂u ∂u

∂X ∂X
So
X = u+ δu (9d)
∂u ∂u
where δu = u − u1

As per SNAME nomenclature for derivatives

∂Y
= Yv
∂v
∂N
= Nψ
∂ψ

and so on and motions restricted to horizontal plane

Manoeuvring Page No 9
ψ = r,
ψ =r

So the equations are reduced to:

− X u (u − u1 ) + (∆ − X u )u = 0
− Yv v + (∆ − Yv )v − (Yr − ∆u1 )r − Yr r = 0
(
− Nvv − Nu v − N r r + I z − N r r = 0 ) (10)

The force terms are non-dimensionalised by ρ/2 L2V2 and the moment term by ρ/2 L3V2.
Furthermore a primed symbol will be need for non-dimensionalised form of each factor.

Nv
N v′ =
ρ 3
LV
2
Iz Yv Nv
∆ I z'= Yv′ = N v′ =
∆′ = ρ 5 ρ 2 ρ 4
ρ 3 L LV L
L 2 2 2
2
rL Yr Nr
v r′ = Yr ′ = N r′ =
v′ = ρ 3
V V LV ρ 4
2 LV
vL rL2 Yv
2
v′ = r′ = Yv′ = Nr
V2 V2 ρ 3 N r′ =
L ρ 5
2 L
2

If the surge equation is neglected then equation (10) becomes in non-dimensional form:

−Yv′v′ + (∆′ − Yv′ )v′ − (Yr′ − ∆ ′)r ′ − Yr′ r ′ = 0 (11)

and

− N v′ v′ − N v′ v′ − N r′ r ′ + (I ′z − N r′ )r ′ = 0
where the main difference is that u1/V=1 for small perturbations.

Because Yv′ has entered the mass term it is known at the virtual mass coefficient. The term

Yv′ is always negative, Y acts to oppose positive v.

Manoeuvring Page No 10
It is convenient to use a notation that distinguishes forces and moments according to their
origins. So Yvv will denote the Y-component of the force acting at the COG, that is
developed as a result of angle of attack β.

Manoeuvring Page No 11
Chapter 3
CONTROL FORCES AND MOMENTS
All terms of equation (10) and (11) must include the effect of the ship’s rudder held at zero
angle (centreline). If the path of the ship with controls washing is to be determined then
forces and moments created by rudder deflection should also be in equations (10) and (11) on
the right hand side.

The Y-component of the force acting at the COG of ship due to rudder deflection is YδδR and
moment is NδδR about Z-axis.

δR – Rudder deflection, positive to port

Yδ , Nδ – Linerarised derivative of Y & N with respect to rudder deflection δR .

Equations (10) and (11) apply to small perturbations, only small deflections are admissible.

This implies that the terms Yv′ , N v′ , Yr′ , N r′ are evaluated at δR=0 and furthermore for
ship-shape Yr′ ≈ 0 and N v′ ≈ 0 .

Manoeuvring Page No 12
With these equations of motion including the rudder force and moment are:

Yaw Moment
n′z r ′ − N v′ v′ − N r′ r ′ = Nδ′ δ R (12)

Sway Force

∆ ′y v − Yv′v ′ − (Yr′ − ∆ ′) = Yδ′ δ R

Where

n′z = I z′ − N r′ ≅ 2 I ′z
∆′y = ∆′ − Yv′ ≅ 2∆′

Equation (12) has two important parameters:

Sway v′ – horizontal velocity component

Yaw r ′ – angular velocity component

Since equation (12) is a differential equation of first order, solutions, which leads to straight
line stability are:

Sway v′ = V1eσ 1t + V2eσ 2t

And Yaw r ′ = R1eσ 1t + R2 eσ 2 t (13)

V1, V2, R1 and R2 are constants of integration and σ1, σ2 are stability indexes with dimensions
of 1/t and t is time.

a) If σ1 and σ2 are negative v′ and r′ 0, which means ship will eventually resume
a new straight line direction (Case 1, Fig 3).

b) If either σ1 and σ2 is positive, v′and r′


will increase with time and straight line
path will never be resumed and ship may have a steady turn.

Solutions of (13) introduced in equation (11) will result in:

Manoeuvring Page No 13
A σ2 + Bσ + C = O (14)

A = n ′z ∆ ′y
B = − n ′z Yv′ − ∆ ′y N r′
Where
C = Yv′ N r′ − (Yr′ − ∆ ′)N v′

And roots
2
B B C
− ± −4
A A A
σ1, σ2 = 2
(14a)

From as practical standpoint σ1 > σ2 for a surface ship. So σ1 itself is a quantitative measure
of the degree of stability.

STABILITY CRITERION

C
(i) If is negative then
A

2
B C B
−4 >
A A A

whether B is (+)ve or (-) ve one value of σ will always be (+)ve.


A

B C
b) If is negative and is positive the σ1 , σ2 will always be positive.
A A

C
So conditions of stability makes the requirement that B & , both must be positive.
A A

Yv It is the slope of the Y-force with respect to the acceleration v

Manoeuvring Page No 14
Ship with a positive v acceleration taken at the midlength of the ship, where both bow and
stern experience v in positive y – direction. So inertial reaction of pressure of water being
accelerated by the hull produces forces in the (-)ve y-direction. So bow and stern effects
produce a large negative Y-force for a positive v . Slope of Yv at v = 0 would be a negative
value of large quantity.

The magnitude of N r is almost as large as Iz. In case of N v , bow and stern oppose each other
and N v is usually a relatively small quantity of uncertain sign. The sign and magnitude of A
can be shown by:

Manoeuvring Page No 15
A = n′z ∆′y = (I ′z − N r′ )(∆′ − Yv′ ) >0

In this figure the body velocity v is added to a forward velocity u, resulting in an angle of
attack β =-v/V on the body. Both bow and stern experience a lift force opposite to v. Hence
Yv is always negative.

However the bow contribution to the total force is considerably larger that that of stern, so
centre of action of total force in y-direction due to v is considerably forward of mid-length.
With origin at midlength Nv is usually a negative quantity on ships without fins/rudders.

In order to analyse the angular velocity r on Y and N locations B (forward) and S (aft) are
considered.

Manoeuvring Page No 16
When a ship is moving with a forward velocity V and an angular velocity + r is added, point
B at the bow has an angle of attack (for small r)

rd1
= V

producing a negative Y-force and negative N – moment on the bow. Similarly point S at stern
experiences an angle of attack

rd 2
= V
producing a positive Y-force and negative N moment.

Hence bow and stern add to give a large negative N-force mount for a positive r, where bow
and stern oppose each other to give either a small positive or negative Y-force, negative if
bow dominates.

So looking at the equation

2
B C
−4 we can say
A A

that B like A is always a large positive quantity for ships, independent of origin.

The condition for stability reduces from

B > 0 and C > 0 to

C > 0.

Manoeuvring Page No 17
Hence C is considered the discriminant of dynamic stability. So from equation 14

C = Yv′ N r′ − N v′ (Yr′ − ∆′) (14b)

And the equation for stability is:

Yv′ N r′ − N v′ (Yr′ − ∆′) > 0 (14c)

or

Yv′ N r′ > N v′ (Yr′ − ∆′)


or
N r′ N′
> v (14d)
Yr′ − ∆ ′ Yv′

The solution can be viewed as a relationship between lever arm of forces due to yawing and
sway.

Manoeuvring Page No 18
Chapter 4
THE DIEUDONNE SPIRAL MANOEUVER
The Dieudonne’ spiral manoeuvre identifies the directional stability characteristics of the
vessel. The manoeuver consists of the following:

1. The ship is steadied on a straight course at a preselected speed and held on this course
for a minute. Once the steady speed is established no further power plant controls are
applied.

2. After a minute the rudder is turned to an angle δR of about 15o and held until the rate of
change of yaw angle maintains a constant value for a minute.

3. The rudder angle is now decreased by an amount, say 5o and held fixed again until a
new valve of ψ is achieved and is constant for several minutes.

4. Step 3 is repeated for different rudder angles by changing in small increments. The
angles need to be changed from large starboard to large port and back to starboard
again.

The numerical measures obtained from Steps 3 and 4 are the steady yawing rates a a function
of rudder angle → ψ = r = f (δR).

Fig 13 shows the plot of Dieudonne’ Spiral Manoeuvre for two ships A & B. If the plot is a
single line as in the case of Ship – A, the ship is said to be controls-fixed, straight line
stability; which implies that it has a negative directional stability index (σ1, σ2 noted earlier).

Manoeuvring Page No 19
However if the plot is a hysteresis loop as in the case of ship-B, the ship is said to be unstable
and has positive stability index.

The height and width of loop is a numerical measure of the degree of instability. The slope of
the yaw rate at zero rudder angles is a measure of stability or instability and can be predicted
from ship trial data.

It is essential during spiral manoeuvre to slow for sufficient time for condition to steady at
each rudder angle, otherwise spurious results may be obtained.

TURNING PATH OF A SHIP


All ship manoeuvres involve turning. The response of a ship to deflection of the rudder and
the resulting forces and movements can be divided into two groups:

a) An initial transient one in which significant surge, sway and yaw accelerations occur.

b) A steady turning position in which rate of turn and forward speed are constant and
path of the ship is circular (in the absence of significant external force).

Manoeuvring Page No 20
Suppose a ship is advancing in a straight line path when its rudder is deflected and held at a
fixed angle. The resulting path of the ship can be divided into three distinct phases.

(i) First phase starts at the instant of rudder deflection and may be complete by the time
the rudder is held steady at a specified angle.

Due to this a side force YδδR and a rudder moment NδδR (yaw moment) produce accelerations
and are opposed solely by the inertial reaction of the ship, because there has not been
sufficient time for the hydrodynamic force to develop arising from substantial drift angle β, or
rotation r.

In this stage, β = v/V = r = 0.

Using equation 10 the linearised equation of motion in the first phase of timing can be written
as:

(∆ − Yv )v − Yr r = Yδ δ R
(I z − N r )r − N v v = N δ δ R (24)

The values of the accelerations at this stage v, r , can be obtained from the equation 24.
Note: If δR, rudder deflects to starboards, the transverse acceleration v is negative and
directed to port and rudder force YδδR is also to port but ship will turn to starboard.

Manoeuvring Page No 21
The accelerations v and r exist in isolation only momentarily, for they quickly give rise to
drift angle β and rotation r of the ship.

With the introduction of these parameters the ship enters the second phase of turning. Here
the accelerations co-exist with the velocities and all of the terms of equation 10 along with the
excitation terms YδδR and NδδR .

Eventually the accelerations will have been reduced to zero and the ship will be in
equilibrium in a steady turn with the force and moment induced by the rudder angle balanced
by those induced by the sway and yaw velocity.

The second phase of turning ends with the establishment of the final equilibrium of forces.
When this equilibrium is reached the ship settles down to a turn of constant radius. This is the
third and steady phase of the turn. Here v, r are non zero values but v and r = 0.

So equation 10 is the linearized equation of motion in steady turn is:

−Yv v − (Yr − ∆′u1 )r = Yδ δ R


− N v v − N r r = Nδ δ R (25)

These two equations can be solved for r and v provided the stability derivatives Yv, Yr, Nv,
Nr and the control derivatives Yδ and Nδ are known.

Thus to summarise:

before first phase v =0 r =0 , v=0, r=0 t<0

First Phase: v ≠0 r ≠0 , v≈0, r≈0


second phase v ≠0 r ≠0 , v=0, r=0

third phase v =0 r =0 , v≠0, r≠0

Noting that
rL
r′ = ψ =
V
and
R=V/r steady turning radius
and r’=L/R and solving equation 25
L Yv′ (N r′ − ∆′xOG ) − N v′ (Yr′ − ∆′)
R=−
δR Yv′ N δ′ − N v′ Yδ′ (26)

Nδ′ (Yr′ − ∆ ′) − Yδ′ N r′


v′ = − β = δ R
and Yv′ N r′ − N v′ (Yr′ − ∆′) (27)

Manoeuvring Page No 22
where β and δR are in radians and a positive R denotes a starboard turn.

So as per theory R would be proportional to ships length L and inversely proportional to


rudder deflection angle δR and drift angle β is directly proportional to δR .

Equations 26 and 27 are useful to estimate the steady turning radius and drift angles of ships
with fairly large diameter turns of about 4 ship lengths. It would be useful to measure the
turning radius at less than maximum rudder angles.

a) Yv′ is always negative


Nδ′ is always negative for rudder at stern

In figure δR is negative as per sign convention.


But movement N is positive for negative δR or N is negative for a positive δR . Hence
derivative Nδ is always negative.

From Fig 22, force Y from negative δR is also negative and Y is positive for positive δR
Hence derivative Yδ is always positive and hence product is also positive.

b) Yδ′ is always positive, N v′ is almost always negative and hence subtracting their product

will add positively to Yv′ N δ′ .

c) If N v′ is positive (rarely) its magnitude is really small so the larger positive Yv′ N δ′
will determine the sign of the denominator.

Manoeuvring Page No 23
HEEL ANGLE DURING A TURN
When a ship turns it can heel at first into the turn and then out of it. To understand this we
must first study the forces involved during the three phases of a turn.

In the first phase the rudder is providing the side force, YδδR, low down approximately
midspan of the rudder, which is contracted only by the mass of the ship ∆ (usually with its
centre above the WL) and the added mass of entrained water which has its centre about mid
draft.

So rearranging equation 24 we can write this as

Yδ δ R + Yv v + Yr r − ∆v = 0 (28)

- Yδ is always positive and δR is negative for a starboard turn, so YδδR is negative or


directed to port.

Manoeuvring Page No 24
- Yv is always negative and v is negative in first phase of starboard turn.

- Yr may be positive or negative so sign of Yr r is not predictable from equation


28.

- Yr r is generally very small compared to Yv v .

- Finally ∆ is positive but v is negative so − ∆v is positive or directed to


starboard.

In the third phase of the turn, the equation of motion as per equation 25 is:

−Yv v − (Yr − ∆′u1 )r = Yδ δ R


− N v v − N r r = Nδ δ R (25) rewritten

If moments are taken about the centre of gravity of the ship it would be seen that the heel
angle φ is likely to be part (negative) since:

Yv v + Yr r must be much large than YδδR in order to enforce a starboard turn.

Thus between the first phase and third phase the heel angle φ has changed its sign.

Manoeuvring Page No 25
High speed planning craft with low, highly loaded rudders and low centre of gravity usually
heel into the turn throughout.
For simplicity with a conventional displacement craft it is possible to neglect the force on the
rudder in a steady turn. This will give a greater heel angle than actually would exist.
However, it would be the case if the rudder was returned to amidships – perhaps because of
concern that the heel angle was too large. Thus if the heel angle is too large it would be
prudent to reduce speed and not reduce rudder angle.

If H is the vertical distance between COG of vessel and the centre of lateral resistance, R is
the radius of turn and V is the velocity of ship (m/s) then heeling lever can be obtained from
the expression.

V 2H
Heeling lever = gR

The heeling lever should be plotted on the GZ curve and the intersection should give the
steady angle of heel.

GZ

HEEL ANGLE φ

V 2H
GZ = gR

Since for small angles GZ = GM Sinφ

V 2H
GM Sinφ = gR
or

V 2H
Sinφ = gRGM

If the centre of lateral resistance is assumed to be level with centre of buoyancy then

Manoeuvring Page No 26
H = BG Cosφ

And the heel angle is given by

V 2 BGCosφ
Sinφ = gRGM

V 2 BG
or Tanφ = gRGM

For passenger ships the heel caused by turning is not to exceed 10o and is calculated using:

H = 0.005 V2 (KG – 0.5T)/∆L


V = Service speed in knots.
L = Length on watertline in m.
∆ = Displacement at the appropriate loading condition in tonnes.
T = Draft at midships for the towing condition in m.
KG = Height of COG above baseline correction for free surface in m.

Manoeuvring Page No 27
Chapter 5
MODEL TESTS
There are two types of model tests used in calculations of ship controllability:

a) forced captive model tests, and

b) free running model tests.

Free running model tests are more direct and make use of a self-propelled model of the ship
fitted with appendages and remote control so that actual manoeuvres can be performed and
controllability evaluated.

This also requires a large basin for determining and recording Xo, and Yo coordinates of the
origin of the model, the model heading angle ψ and if desired the heel angle φ, all as a
function of time. Using instructions like those of a full-scale ship, the turning, zig-zag and
reverse spiral definitive manoeuvres can be carried out.

As per Martinussen and Linnerad (1987), five conditions are to be met at the start of a
manoeuvre:

(i) Forward velocity equal to approach velocity with corresponding propeller


revolution, rudder angle at neutral, sway and yaw velocities at zero.
(ii) Sometimes it is difficult to satisfy all five when testing large models of unstable
ships.
(iii) Priority is therefore given to forward speed, propeller RPM and yaw velocity over
rudder angle.

In order that free running model test results may be directly applicable to full scale ship,
following additional conditions, added to that of geometrical similitude should be satisfied:

a) The non-dimensional mass moment of inertia of model about z-axis I ′z should be


identical to that of the ship.

b) The model rudder should be deflected to the same maximum angle as the ship rudders at
the time non-dimensional deflection rate as that of the ship, i.e.,
δ L δ L

δ RM = δ S′ = m m = s s
Vm Vs (m for model and s for ship values)

c) If the ship heel in manouvers is to be properly simulated, I ′x the of the model as well
as its non-dimentional metacentric height (GM) must be identical to that of the ship.
(Difficult to fulfil in practice)

d) Slip ratio of model propeller to be identical to full scale propeller ship ratio. This is
important if rudder is placed in propeller race.

e) If the speed loss in manoeuvres is to be properly simulated, the response of the motor

Manoeuvring Page No 28
that drives the model propeller to an augment in model resistance should duplicate the
response of the power plant of the full scale ship to a corresponding augment in ship
resistance.
To summarise Free Running Model Experiments:

• Does not require a mathematical model.


• Gives the end product (the path record).
• Advantageous only when ship’s behaviour is required in a particular channel.
• Disadvantageous, due to the involvement of several factors and how these factors have
an overall influence on the manoeuvring characteristics.
• Possible to use System Identification Techniques to utilise the model experimental
data to obtain coefficients for a mathematical model.

CAPTIVE MODEL TESTS


Captive model tests in tanks are carried out using a planar motion mechanism (PMM) or a
rotating arm. The model is tested for:

a) Drift angle, β
b) Yaw rate, ψ
c) Sway acdeleration, v
d) Yaw acceleration, ψ
e) Propeller RPM
f) Rudder angle, δR

and results analysed to determine the hydrodynamic coefficients.

The velocity dependent derivatives Yv and Nv at any draft or trim can be determined from
measurements of a model of a ship, towed at a constant velocity V corresponding to the
required Froude number, at various angle of attack β, to the model path.

Manoeuvring Page No 29
From the orientation it is seen that a transverse velocity component along Y-axis is:

v=-Vsinβ (sign convention adopted)

A dynamometer at origin O measures the force Y and moment N experienced by model at


each β tested.

Results are plotted as function of v (Fig. 10) and slopes of the curves at v=0 gives numerical
values for Yv and Nv. These values are non-dimensionalised in the usual method. It is
however important that origin of dynamometer and COG of ship be located at the same
position.

This technique could also be used to determine Yδ and Nδ, where model is orientated to zero
angle of attack (β=0) to the flow but model towed down the tank at various rudder angles δR.
Plot of these values against δR will indicate the values of the derivatives Yδ and Nδ .

ROTATING ARM TECHNIQUE


To measure the rotary derivatives Yr and Nr on a model, rotating arm is generally employed.
In this angular velocity is imposed on the model by rotating the arm about a vertical axis fixed
in the tank as shown.

The model is orientated with X-axis and Z-axis normal to the radial arm and attached to the
model, preferably at mid length. As a result of this orientation the model revolves about the
tank axis at rate r while the transverse component v is at all times is zero, along with yaw
angle of attack β=0, and its axial velocity component u1, is identical to its linear speed. The
model is rotated at a constant linear speed u1, and dynamometer measures the force Y and
moment N on the model.

Manoeuvring Page No 30
Since angular velocity

r=u1/R

the only way to vary r is to vary R since u1 is constant.

The derivatives Yr and Nr are obtained by evaluating the slopes at r = 0.

Since the rotating arm tests are done with r = 0 , the results are independent of model radius
of gyration.

If the radial arm is attached to the model at its mid length, a distance xG from LCG of model
then dynamometer results would yield:

Yr − ∆u1
and
N r − ∆xG u1
since

Manoeuvring Page No 31
∆, xG and u1, are known quantities, Yr and Nr could then be obtained.

The rotating arm facility can also be used to determine Yv and Nv along with Yr and Nr. This
can be accomplished by varying β for each r value. The tests should include both plus and
minus values of r. By cross plotting the values of Yv, Nv obtained at each r value against r,
the values of Yv and Nv ar r = 0 could be determined.

Major disadvantages of rotating arm facility are:

• Specialised facility with large tank..


• Model must be accelerated and date obtained within a single revolution, otherwise
model will run in its own wake and its velocity with respect to fluid will not be
known.
• To obtain value of Yr, Nr, Yv, Nv at r = 0, data points at small values of r are
required. This implies that radius of turn R to model length L ratio to be very large.
• Small models will also lead to scale effects.

PLANAR MOTION MECHANISM


Basically PMM consists of two oscillators, one of which produces transverse oscillations at
the bow and the other at the stern, while the model moves down the tank at a constant velocity
u0. The subscript 0 is now to designate the velocity at CL of tank along X0-axis fixed to the
tank. The resultant velocity vector V is strictly not constant but for small motions

V=u0

The set up has been shown in Fig. 34. Bow point B is situated at a distance xs forward of
origin O (taken at midships) is oscillated transversely with a small amplitude a0 and at angular
frequency ω. Point S near the stern is also at a distance xs from midships is also oscillated
with some amplitude a0 and some frequency ω. Phasing of the oscillation can be adjusted by
an amount ε. If ε = 0 then motion is sway with yaw = 0, as shown in Fig. 35.

The sway oscillation takes the form

Manoeuvring Page No 32
y0 = y = a0 cos ωt
dy
= v = −a0 sin ωt
dt
(45)
d2y 2
= v = −a0ω cos ωt
2
dt

Dynamometers located the B & S measure the oscillatory Y-forces experienced by the model.
Let these values be YB and YS.

The velocity v is a sine function and is 900 but of phase with displacement and the

acceleration v. Hence the measurements of YB and YS taken when time variable is 90o out

of phase with displacement are forces arising out of v and not from v as at these times v =
0.

So

Yv =
[
dY ± (YB )out + (YS )out
=
]
dv − a0ω

Nv = =
[
dN ± (YB )out − (YS )out x s ] (46)
dv − a 0ω

Where ‘out’ designates 900 out of phase.

To obtain the coefficients of linear acceleration the terms of eqn(10), the in-phase amplitude

of YB, YS must be measured as shown in Fig. 36 and this corresponds to the times when v is
a maximum and v = 0.

Manoeuvring Page No 33
Yv − ∆ =
[
± (YB )in + (YS )in ]
− a 0ω 2

N v − ∆x G =
[ ]
± (YB )in − (YS )in x s
(47)
2
− a 0ω

Where ‘in’ indicates to the amplitudes of YB and YS taken in phase with the displacement.

To obtain the rotary derivatives Yr, Nr for planar motion test measurements must be made
when

r =0
v=0
v=0
Similarly for Yr and N r the measurements are to be taken at

Manoeuvring Page No 34
r =0
v=0
v=0
In order to impose an angular velocity and an angular acceleration on the body with v=0 and
v = 0 , the model must be towed down the tank with centreline of model always tangent to
its path.

In order to achieve the motion shown in Fig.37, Goodman (1960) proposes that the phase
velocity angle ε between bow and stern accelerators should satisfy

2
ωx s
1−
u0
cos ε =
2
ωx s
1+
u0

ε ωx s
tan =
which is equivalent to 2 u0

The Yaw oscillation shown in Fig.37, is of the form

Manoeuvring Page No 35
ε
ψ = −ψ 0 cos ωt −
2
ε
ψ = r = ψ 0ω sin s ωt −
2
(48)
2 ε
ψ = r = ψ 0ω cos ωt −
2

Where ψ0 = amplitude of Yaw oscillation.

Here r is out of phase with ψ and r is in phase with ψ. Therefore amplitudes of YB and YS
measured 900 out of phase with Ψ will determine the force and moment due to rotation r and
the amplitudes of YB and YS measured in phase with Ψ will determine the force and moment
due to angular acceleration r . The force and moment derivatives with respect to r and r are
then:

Yr − ∆u1 =
[
± (YB )out + (YS )out ]
− ψ 0ω

N r − ∆xG u1 =
[
± (YB )out − (YS )out x s ]
− ψ 0ω

Yr − ∆xG =
[
± (YB )in + (YS )in ]
− ψ 0ω 2 (49)

Nr − Iz =
[
± (YB )in − (YS )in x s ]
− ψ 0ω 2

Equation (49) depends on ship’s mass moment of inertia, radius of gyration and xG.

To determine the values of the derivatives at zero frequency from planar motion tests, it is
necessary to plot the derivatives against frequency and to extrapolate to zero frequency.

For motions in waves we are also interested in derivatives which are frequency dependent.

Van Leeuwen (1964) presents extensive plots of the hydrodynamic derivatives of series 60,
CB=0.70 model as a function of frequency of oscillation and speed.

Manoeuvring Page No 36
Chapter 6
PREDICTIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF MOTIONS
There are three methods of obtaining the coefficients without carrying out model experiments.

1. Slender Body Theory


2. Low Aspect Ratio Theory
3. Empirical Methods

Hydrodynamic body forces results from the change of momentum (mass x velocity) of the
water near the ship. Most important is the transverse force acting upon the hull per unit
length in the x-direction. As per slender body theory, this force is equal to the time rate of
change of transverse momentum of the water in a ‘strip’ between two transverse plans spaced
one unit length. In such a strip the water near the ship’s side mostly follows the transverse
motion of the respective ship section. Whereas water farther from the hull is less influenced
by transverse ship motions. The total effect of this water motion on the transverse force is the
same as if a certain added mass per unit length m1 moved exactly like the ship section in
transverse direction.

The added mass m1 may be determined by (for any ship section)

1
m′ = πρTx2C y
2
Tx – Section draft
Cy = a co-efficient and found from Fig.5.2 shown below.

Manoeuvring Page No 37
Neglecting the influence due to heel velocity and heel acceleration the time rate of change of
transverse momentum of the “added mass” per length is”

∂ ∂
f ( x, t ) = −u [m′(v + xr )]
∂t ∂x


= takes into account of the local change in momentum for fixed x with time t
∂t


u = results from the convective change of momentum due to the longitudinal motion of the
∂x
water ‘strip’ along the hull with appropriate velocity -u (from bow to stern)

v+xr = is the transverse velocity of the section in the Y-direction resulting from both
transverse velocity v at midships section and the Yaw rate r.

The total transverse force is obtained by integrating the above expression over the underwater
ships length L.

The Yaw moment is obtained by multiplying each element with respective lever x and the
heel moment is obtained by using the vertical movement ZYm’ where ZY is the depth co-
ordinate of COG of the added mass. For Lewis section this quantity can be calculated
theoretically.

Manoeuvring Page No 38
Based on this we obtain the slender body contribution to the forces as

∂ ∂
f ( x, t ) = −u [m ′(v + xr )] = − m′(v + rx) + u ∂ [m′(v + xr )]
∂t ∂x ∂x

Now

L/2 L/2
Yv = f ( x, t )dx = − (v + rx )m′dx + u (v + rx )m′ ]bow
stern
−L / 2 −L / 2

L/2
So N = f ( x, t ) xdx
−L / 2

Manoeuvring Page No 39
∂ ∂
f ( x, t ) x = −u [m′(v + xr )]x = −(v + rx)m′x − m′(v + rx ) ∂x + u ∂ [(v + rx )m′]x
∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x

= −(v + rx )m′x − m′(v + rx )u + u [(v + rx )m′]x
∂x

L/2 L/2

So
N =− (v + rx )m′xdx − u (v + rx )m′dx + u (v + rx )m′x ]bow
stern
−L / 2 −L / 2
We had expressed before

Y = Yv v + Yr r + Yv v + Yr r

And N = N v v + N r r + N v v + N r r

The coefficients can now be obtained as follows:

Yv = − m′dx

Yr = N v = − m′xdx

N r = − m′x 2 dx

Yv = −um′(xs )
Yr = −uxs m′(xs )

N v = −uxs m′(x s ) − u m′dx

N r = −uxs2 m′(x s ) − u m′xdx

Assuming m′(xb ) = 0

The slender body contribution to X is zero.

1. The term involving ∂/∂t for the acceleration dependent parts of the forces, correction
factor K1, K2 should be applied. They consider the lengthwise flow of water around
bow and stern which is initially disregarded in determining the sectional added mass
m ’.

K1 and K2 are approximated by regression formulae, derived from results of three


dimensional flow calculations for accelerated ellipsoids:

K1 = 1 − 0.245ε − 1.68ε 2

K 2 = 1 − 0.765ε − 4.41ε 2

Manoeuvring Page No 40
Where ε=2Tx/L

2. The slender body theory disregards longitudinal forces associated with the added mass
of the ship in the longitudinal direction. Can be obtained from the potential theory of
Newman (1977). The added mass mx for longitudinal motion may be approximated
by a formula which was also fitted to theoretical values for ellipsoids:

m
mx =
L3
π − 14

∇ = volume of displacement

3. Because the slender body theory neglects flow separation in transverse flow around
ship sections an additional ‘cross flow resistance’ of ship sections has to be added.
The absolute value of this resistance component per unit length is

1
ρTx v x2C D
2
where vx = v+xr transverse velocity of section
CD = cross flow resistance coefficient

Contribution to body forces can be written as:

X 0
Y 1 −1
= ρ (v + xr ) v + x.r Tx C D dx
K 2 zD
L
N −x
zD = z coordinate (measured downward from COG of ships mass m) to the action line
of the cross flow resistance.
= KG-0.65T for cargo ships while for tugs KG-(1+/-0.1)T
CD = 1 for container ships & 0.5 to 0.7 for fuller ships.
CD Values

Cargo Ship Tanker Tanker Container Twin Screw Tug

L/B 6.66 5.83 6.11 7.61 5.21

B/T 2.46 2.43 2.96 2.93 2.25

CB 0.66 0.84 0.81 0.58 0.58

CD 0.562 0.983 0.594 0.791 0.826

CD 10oheel 0.511 1.151 - 1.014 -

Manoeuvring Page No 41
LOW ASPECT RATIO THEORY
A ship’s hull can be considered to be a large low aspect ratio lifting surface. At low speeds the
water surface can be treated as a ground board.

For small values of V relative to U, the angle of attack is given by

β = v/u and resultant velocity

v = u 1+ β 2 ≈ u

The Y force and N moment produced as a result of angle of attack are given by

Y = -Lcosβ-Dsinβ
Where L and D are the lift and drag forces.

dY dY dβ
Yv = =
dv dβ dv

dY dL dD
= L sin β − cos β − D cos β − sin β
dβ dβ dβ

For β=0 gives

dY dL
=− −D
dβ dβ
1
L= ρAv 2C L
2
and 1
D = ρAv 2 C D
2
dL 1 dC L
= ρAv 2
dβ 2 dβ

substituting for dL/dβ and D in above equation gives

dY 1 dC L
= − ρAv 2 + CD
dβ 2 dβ
1 dC L
Yv = − ρAv + CD
2 dβ
dβ 1 1
since = ≈
dv u v

Manoeuvring Page No 42
For very low aspect ratios, the so called Jones formulae is adequate to describe the slope of the
life curve:

dC L π T
= AReff = π
dβ 2 L A Reff = Effective aspect ratio

Non-dimensionalzing with respect to ρ, L, T and v

Yv T
Yv′ = = −π + C D
1 L
ρLTv
2

Where CD is obtained at β = 0.

The moment on a slender body at a small angle of attack is made up of two parts. The first part
which would occur in an ideal fluid is the so called “Munk Moment” and second is the
correction for the real fluid.

The Munk Moment is due to the fact that in an ideal fluid a slender body with small angle of
attack experiences a couple tending to increase the angle.

Manoeuvring Page No 43
The magnitude of this moment as per Fig 49 is

(N )i = 2lYB

∂YB
So that (Nv)i = 2l where l is always taken positive and YB is negative if directed to port at
∂v
the bow and positive if towards starboard –

By non-dimensionalising we obtain

∂YB
(N v )i 2l
∂v
(N v′ )i = −(K 2 − K1 )∆′ = ρ 2
=
ρ 2
L Tv L Tv
2 2
where K2 = coefficient of accession to inertia in lateral y direction, as given by Lamb (1945)

K1 = Lamb co-efficient of accession to inertia in longitudinal x-direction

∆’= non dimensional mass of ellipsoids.

Thus following from Fig 49, the total moment is

N = 2YBl + xpYL
Where xp = distance from origin (taken at midship) to the point of application of the real fluid
lateral force YL (negative if YL is aft of O).

Manoeuvring Page No 44
Nv 2l∂YB x p ∂YL
So N v ′ = ρ =
ρ 2 ∂v
+
ρ 2 ∂v
L2Tv L Tv L Tv
2 2 2
x p ∂YL′
Or Nv′ = −(K 2 − K1 )∆′ + L ∂v′

For surface ships Jacobs (1964) wrote an analogous expression:

xp
(Nv′ )h = −(∆′2 − K1∆′) + (Yv′ )h
L

Where ∆’ = mass of ship nondimensionalised by ρ/2L2T

stern
∆2 K2 L ρ
= πC s h 2 dx
∆’2 = ρ 2 ρ 2 T 2
LT LT bow
2 2

CS = two dimensional lateral added mass coefficient (sectional inertia


coefficient) determined for each section strip of width dx along x-axis. Refer
to Fig 50 for Cs.

K1∆’= added mass of ship in the longitudinal x-direction.

∆’2 = added mass of ship in the transverse Y direction.

h = local draft at each station

Manoeuvring Page No 45
K1, K2 = as shown in Fig 48.

Manoeuvring Page No 46
EMPIRICAL METHODS
There are a number of different empirical methods for obtaining the linear coefficients. The
following 4 methods are all taken from Clarke, “The Application of Manoeuvring Criteria in
Hull Design Using Linear Theory”, TRINA (1982).

Wagner Smith

2 2
T T
Yv′ = −5 = −π (1.59)
L L
2 2
T T
Yr′ = +1.02 = −π (− 0.32)
L L
2 2
T T
N v′ = −1.94 = −π (0.62)
L L
2 2
T T
N r′ = −0.65 = −π (0.21)
L L

Narbin:

2
T C B
Yv′ = −π 1.69 + 0.08 B
L πT
2
T C B
Yr′ = −π − 0.645 + 0.38 B
L πT
2
T C B
N v′ = −π 0.64 − 0.04 B
L πT
2
T C B
N r′ = −π 0.47 − 0.18 B
L πT
Inoue et al

2
T C B
Yv′ = −π 1.0 + 1.4 B
L πT
2
T 1
Yr′ = −π −
L 2
2
T 2
N v′ = −π
L π
2
T 1.04 T
N r′ = −π − 4.0
L π πL

Manoeuvring Page No 47
and Clarke

2
Yv′ B B
− = 1 + 0.16CB − 5.1
2 T L
T
π
L
2
Yr′ B B
− = 0.67 − 0.0033
2 L T
T
π
L
Nv′ B B
− = 1.1 − 0.041
2 L T
T
π
L
N r′ 1 C B B
− = + 0.017 B − 0.33
2 12 T L
T
π
L
Yv′ B
− = 1 + 0.4CB
2 T
T
π
L
Yr′ 1 B B
− =− + 2.2 − 0.08
2 2 L T
T
π
L
Nv′ 1 T
− = + 2.4
2 2 L
T
π
L
N r′ 1 B B
− = + 0.039 − 0.56
2 4 T L
T
π
L

Manoeuvring Page No 48
Chapter 7
STABILITY AND CONTROL
Path keeping and path changing ability of a ship depends on:

a) The magnitude and frequency of any yawing moments and sway forces acting to disturb
the ship from the desired path.

b) The character of the response of the ship with controls fixed to these disturbances.

c) The rapidity with which the error between the ship’s path and the desired path can be
detected, and with which corrective action can be initiated.

d) The rate at which the corrective action is translated into movement of the rudder. This is
a function of the play between the third and fourth elements of the control loop and the
rate at which the steering gear can deflect the rudder.

e) The magnitude of the control force and moment applied to the ship by the rudder.

DEFINITIVE MANOEUVRE
The naval architect is mainly concerned with elements (b), (d) and (e). Therefore somee
definitive manoeuvres have been devised to demonstrate the efficiency of these element fo the
control loop and to exclude as much as possible the elements of (c). Essentially the basic
stability and control characteristics of a ship can be determined from:

a) Direct or Reversed Spiral (Dieudonne Spiral Manoeuvre – already discussed).

b) Zig-zag, Z or Kempf overshoot; and

c) Turning path (already discussed).

ZIG-ZAG, Z OR KEMPF OVERSHOOT MANOEUVRE


The results of this manoeuvre are indicative of the ability of a ship’s rudder to control the
ship. The typical procedure for conducting the test is as follows (Gertler 1959):

a) Steady the ship as in step (a) of spiral manoeuvre.

b) Deflect the rudder at maximum rate to a preselected change in heading angle say 20o, is
reached.

c) At this point deflect the rudder at maximum rate to an opposite angle of 20o and hold
until the execute change of heading angle on the opposite side is reached. This completes
the overshoot test.

d) If a zig-zag test is to be completed again deflect the angle at maximum rate to the same
angle in the first direction.

Manoeuvring Page No 49
The numerical measures of control obtained from this manoeuvre are:

(i) the time to reach the second execute yaw angle


(ii) the overshoot yaw angle; and
(iii) the overshoot width of the path.

All of these are important operational parameters. The first is a direct measure of the ability
of a ship to rapidly change course.

The second and thirds are numerical measures of counter-manoeuvring ability and are
indicative of the amount of anticipation required of a helmsman while operating in restricted
waters. It has been shown that yaw-angle overshoot decreases with increased stability but
increases with increased rudder effectiveness. On the other hand overshoot width of the path
decreases with both increased stability and increased rudder effectiveness.

Manoeuvring Page No 50
The results of zig-zag manoeuvre are speed dependent. In general for any given ship the time
to reach execute decreases with increasing speed and the overshoot yaw angle and the
overshoot width of path increase with increasing speed. However, the non-dimensional time
to reach executes increases with increasing speed. However, the non-dimensional time to
reach executes increases with increasing speed because of the influence of the rate of rudder
deflection δ R .
R δ L

When δ R is non-dimensionalised δ R = V , it may be interpreted as degrees of rudder
deflection per ship length of travel.

At low speeds this non-dimensional rate is much higher than at higher speeds since δR is
essentially independent of speed.

ACCELERATING, STOPPING AND BACKING


Accelerating means increasing ship speed from rest or from a particular ahead speed to a
higher head speed.

Manoeuvring Page No 51
Stopping is decelerating the ship from any given ahead speed until the ship comes to rest.
Backing a ship is a manoeuvre of accelerating from rest to a given astern speed or distance.

A method for determining the acceleration of a ship is given by Peach (1963). The value is
the difference between the value of as ship’s net trust, Tφ available at that speed and the ship’s
resistance Rt.

So Rt + Tφ (l-t) = (∆ − Xu )u
Rt = ship’s resistance positive for positive ahead speed.
Tφ = is the ship’s net thrust +ve if thrust if thrust direction I ahead
Xù = Added mass in x direction
u = acceleration in the x direction.
dV
u=
dt
dV
dt =
u
dV
t=
u
S = Vdt
V = ships velocity
t = is any time
S = is the distance travelled by the ship in any time.

For a submarine Rt = kv2 where k is a constant determined from similar submarines. For a
given ship and propeller configuration and at a speed less than the maximum speed Tφ can be
calculated using a diagram combining the propeller characteristics and torque characteristics
as shown in Fig 60.

STOPPING DISTANCES
Stopping is a manoeuvre of interest primarily from the point of view of avoiding collisions,
ramming or groundings.

The distance in the original direction travelled by a ship in coming to a stop is called the head
reach.

A method for calculating head reach and time to stop was developed by Chase et al (1957)
based on theoretical and empirical consideration. This method considers the finite time for
the thrust to change from steady ahead to steady astern.

Manoeuvring Page No 52
Relationship between time velocity and distance are as follows:

This is applicable to any ship at any speed through use of an expression where

R = kVn

Where n = any number greater than zero.

Chase showed that good correlation between calculated and measured values of head reach
and time to stop is obtained by assuming that the time required to achieve constant astern

Manoeuvring Page No 53
thrust is the same as that required to close the ahead and open the astern throttle. This time t
may be estimated from experience or 20 seconds used for modern vessels with automated
controls.

fig-62

TABLE

Approximate values of n in R = kvn as function of V/√L for destroyer types of vessels.

V CP 0.6 0.65
L
L/B 9.6 10.0
<0.70 2.0 2.0
0.7-1.2 2.3 2.5
1.2-1.3 3.9 2.5
1.3-1.5 3.9 3.9
1.5-1.8 2.1 2.1
>1.8 1.5 1.5

CV = ∇/L3

Manoeuvring Page No 54
Chapter 8
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION

International Maritime Organization RR742-83-4

A 18/Res. 751
22 November 1993
Original: ENGLISH

ASSEMBLY – 18th session


Agenda item 11

RESOLUTION A.751(18)
Adopted on 4 November 1993

INTERIM STANDARDS FOR SHIP MANOEUVRABILITY

THE ASSEMBLY,

RECALLING Article 15(j) of the Convention on the International Maritime


Organization concerning the functions of the Assembly in relation to regulations and
guidelines concerning maritime safety and the prevention and control of marine pollutions
from ships,

RECALLING Further that by MSC/Circ.389 the Maritime Safety Committee


approved interim guidelines for estimating manoeuvring performance in ship design, whereby
Member Governments were invited to apply the guidelines on a trial basis so that they may be
assessed in the light of practical experience gained with a view to their possible further
development,

RECALLING ALSO resolutions A.160 (ES.IV), A.209 (VII) and A.601(15)


concerning information on ship manoeuvring,

RECOGNIZING the manoeuvring capability of ships to be an important contribution


to the safety of navigation,

BELIEVING that the development and implementation of standards for ship


manoeuvrability, particularly to large ships and ships carrying dangerous goods in bulk, will
improve maritime safety and enhance marine environment protection,

HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations made by the Maritime Safety


Committee at its sixty-second session,

1. ADOPTS the Interim Standards for Ship Manoeuvrability, set out in the Annex to the
present resolution.

Manoeuvring Page No 55
2. RECOMMENDS Governments to encourage those responsible for the design,
construction, repair and operation of ships to apply the Standards;

3. INVITES governments to collect data obtained by the application of the Standards and
report them to the Organization;

4. REQUESTS the Maritime Safety Committee to keep the Standards under review on
the basis of the information and data collected;

5. AUTHORIZES the Maritime Safety Committee to amend the Standards as necessary.

ANNEX

INTERIM STANDARDS FOR SHIP MANOEUVRABILITY

1 Principles

1.1 The standards should be used with the aim of improving ship manoeuvring
performance and with the objective of avoiding building ships that do not comply with
the criteria.

1.2 The standards contained in this document are based on the understanding that the
manoeuvrability of ships can be evaluated from the characteristics of conventional
trial manoeuvres. The following two methods can be used to demonstrate compliance
with these standards:

.1 Scale model tests and/or computer predictions using mathematical models


can be performed to predict compliance at the design stage. In this case
full-scale trials should be conducted to validate these results. The ship
should then be considered to meet these standards regardless of full-scale
trial results, except where the Administration determines that the prediction
efforts were substandard and/or the ship performance is in substantial
disagreement with these standards;

.2 The compliance with the standards can be demonstrated based on the results
of the full-scale trials conducted in accordance with the standards, If a ship
is found in substantial disagreement with the interim standards, then the
Administration may require remedial action.

1.3 The standards presented herein are considered interim for a period of 5 years from the
date of their adoption by the Assembly. The standards and method of establishing
compliance should be reviewed in the light of new information and the results of
experience with the present standards and ongoing research and developments.

2 Application

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2.1 The standards should be applied to ships of all rudder and propulsion types, of 100 m
in length and over, and chemical tankers and gas carriers regardless of the length,
which are constructed on or after 1 July 1994.
2.2 In case ships referred to in paragraph 2.1 undergo repairs, alterations and
modifications which in the opinion of the Administration may influence their
manoeuvrability characteristics the continued compliance with the standards should be
verified.
2.3 Whenever other ships, originally not subject to the standards, undergo repairs,
alterations and modifications, which in the opinion of the Administration are of such
an extent that the ship may be considered to be a new ship, then that ship should
comply with these standards. Otherwise, if the repairs, alterations and modifications
in the opinion of the Administration may influence the manoeuvrability
characteristics, it should be demonstrated that these characteristics do not lead to any
deterioration of the manoeuvrability of the ship.
2.4 The standards should not be applied to the high speed craft as defined in the relevant
Code.

3. Definitions

a. Geometry of the ship

.1 Length (L) is the length measure between the aft and forward perpendiculars;

.2 Midship point is the point on the centreline of a ship midway between the aft
and forward perpendiculars;

.3 Draught (Ta) is the draught at the aft perpendicular;

.4 Draught (Tf) is the draught at the forward perpendicular;

.5 Mean draught ™ is defined as Tm = (Ta + Tf)/2.

b. Standard manoeuvres and associated terminology

Standard manoeuvres and associated terminology are as defined below:

.1 The test speed (V) used in the standards is a speed of at least 90% of the ship’s
speed corresponding to 85% of the maximum engine output.

.2 Turning circle manoeuvre is the manoeuvre to be performed to both starboard


and port with 35° rudder angle or the maximum rudder angle permissible at the
test speed, following a steady approach with zero yaw rate.

.3 Advance is the distance travelled in the direction of the original course by the
midship point of a ship from the position at which the rudder order is given to
the position at which the heading has changed 90° from the original course.

.4 Tactical diameter is the distance travelled by the midship point of a ship from
the position at which the rudder order is given to the position at which the
heading has changed 180° from the original course. It is measured in a
direction perpendicular to the original heading of the ship.

Manoeuvring Page No 57
.5 Zig-zag test is the maoeuvre where a known amount of helm is applied
alternately to either side when a know heading deviation from the original
heading is reached.

.6 10°/10° zig-zag test is performed by turning the rudder alternately by 10° to


either side following a heading deviation of 10° from the original heading in
accordance with the following procedure:

.1 after a steady approach with zero yaw rate, the rudder is put over to 10°
to starboard/port (first execute);

.2 when the heading has changed to 10° off the original heading, the
rudder is reversed to 10° to port/starboard (second execute);

.3 after the rudder has been turned to port/starboard, the ship will continue
turning in the original direction with decreasing turning rate. In response to
the rudder, the ship should then turn to port/starboard. When the ship has
reached a heading of 10° to port/starboard of the original course the rudder is
again reversed to 10° to starboard/port (third execute).

.7 The first overshoot angle is the additional heading deviation experienced in the
zig-zag test following the second execute.

.8 The second overshoot angle is the additional heading deviation experienced in


the zig-zag test following the third execute.

.9 20°/20° zig-zag test is performed using the procedure given in .6 above using
20° rudder angles and 20° change of heading, instead of 10° rudder angles and
10° change of heading, respectively.

.10 Full astern stopping test determines the track reach of a ship from the time an
order for full astern is given until the ship stops in the water.

.11 Track reach is the distance along the path described by the midship point of a
ship measured from the position at which an order for full astern is given to the
position at which the ship stops in the water.

4. Standards

a. The standard manoeuvres should be performed without the use of any


manoeuvring aids, which are not continuously and readily available in normal
operation.

b. Conditions at which the standards apply

In order to evaluate the performance of a ship, manoeuvring trials should be conducted


to both port and starboard and at conditions specified below:

.1 deep, unrestricted water;

Manoeuvring Page No 58
.2 calm environment;

.3 full load, even keel condition;

.4 steady approach at the test speed.

c. Criteria

The manoeuvrability of the ship is considered satisfactory, if the following criteria are
complied with:

.1 Turning ability

The advance should not exceed 4.5 ship lengths (L) and the tactical diameter
should not exceed 5 ship lengths in the turning circle manoeuvre;

.2 Initial turning ability

With the application of 10° rudder angle to port/starboard, the ship should not
have travelled more than 2.5 ship lengths by the time the heading has changed
by 10° from the original heading;

.3 Yaw checking and course keeping abilities

.1 The value of the first overshoot angle in the 10°/10° zig-zag test should
not exceed:

- 10°, if L/V is less than 10 seconds;


- 20°, if L/V is 30 seconds or more; and
- (5 + ½ (L/V)) degrees, if L/V is 10 seconds or more but less
than 30 seconds,

where L and V are expressed in m and m/s, respectively;

.2 The value of the second overshoot angle in the 10°/10° zig-zag test
should not exceed the above criterion values for the first overshoot by
more than 15°;

.3 The value of the first overshoot angle in the 20°/20° zig-zag test should
not exceed 25°;

.4 Stopping ability

The track reach in the full astern stopping test should not exceed 15 ship
lengths. However, this value may be modified by the Administration where
ships of large displacement make this criterion impracticable.

5. Additional considerations

5.1 In case the standard trials are conducted at a condition different from those specified
in 4.2.3 necessary corrections should be made in accordance with the guidelines

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contained in the explanatory notes on the standards for ship manoeuvrability
developed by the Organization.

5.2 Where standard manoeuvres indicate dynamic instability, alternative test may be
conducted to define the degree of instability. Guidelines for alternative tests such as
spiral test or pull-out manoeuvre are included in the explanatory notes on the
standards for ship manoeuvrability developed by the Organization.

Manoeuvring Page No 60
Chapter 9
RUDDER DESIGNS
RUDDER

Rudders are hydrofoils pivoting on a vertical axis. They are normally placed at the ship’s
stern behind the propeller to produce a transverse force and a steering movement about the
vessels CG by deflecting the water flow to a direction of the foil plane.

Rudders are placed at the ships stern for the following reasons:

• The transverse force on the rudder and an oppositely acting transverse force on this
ship’s full acting near the bow create the rudder moment turning the ship. This
moment increases with distance between rudder force and the full force.

• Rudders outside the propeller ship stream are ineffective at small or zero ship speed.

Bow rudders not exceeding the draft of the hull are ineffective in ahead motion because the
hull redirects the oblique water flow generated by the turned rudder longitudinally. These
transverse forces on a bow rudder and on the forward moving hull cancel each other.

The rudder effectiveness in manoeuvring is mainly determined by the maximum transverse


force acting on the rudder (within the range of rudder angles achievable by rudder gear).

• Rudders arrangement in propeller ship steam.


• Increasing rudder area.
• Better rudder type (eg spade rudder instead of semi balanced rudder).
• Rudder engine, which allows large rudder angles than the customary 35°.
• Shorter rudder steering time.

The moment about a vertical axis though the leading edge (nose) of rudder (positive
clockwise) is turned QN.

The movement about rudder stock at a distance d behind the leading edge is

QR = QN + Ld Cosα+ Dd Sinα

Stagnation pressure q=ρ/2 V2

AR
And mean chord length Cm = b
B = rudder height
AR = rudder area
C = chord length
D = drag
L = Lift
T = thickness
V = flow velocity

Manoeuvring Page No 61
b
z = vertical rudder co-ordinate at
z
α = ange of attack
δ = rudder angle
2
b
∧ = aspect ratio =
AR

Lift Coeff CL = L/qAR

Drag Coeff CD = D/qAR

Nose Moment Coeff CQN = QN/(qARCm)

Stock Moment Coeff CQR = QR/(qARCm)

So CQR = CQN + d/Cm (CL Cosα + CD Sinα)

Figure 5-12

Manoeuvring Page No 62
For low fuel consumption of the ship we want to minimize CL/CD for typical small angles of
attack as encountered in usual course keeping mode.

Angle of attach of typically 10 to 15° (with opposing sign below and above the propeller and
shaft) occur for zero deflected rudders.

The stock movement is zero if the centre of effort for the transverse rudder force lies on the
rudder stock axis.

The position of the centre of effort behind the leading edge (nose is)

cCQN
Cs =
C L cos α + C D sin α

CL, CD and CQN can be determined in wind tunnel tests or computations. Practically these
data allow rough estimates only of rudder forces and movements of ships because in reality
the flow to the rudder is irregular and highly turbulent and has higher Reynolds number than
the experiments.

∧(∧ + 0.7 )
C L = 2π sin α + C Q sin α sin α cos α
(∧ +1.7 )2

C L2 3
CD = + CQ sin α + C DO
π∧
∧ +2
CQN = −(C L1 cosα + C D1 sin α ) 0.47 − − 0.75(C L 2 cos α + C D 2 sin α )
4(∧ +1)
∧(∧ + 0.7 )
C L1 = 2π sin α
(∧ +1.7)2
C L 2 = CQ sin α sin α cos α

C L2
C D1 =
π∧
3
C D 2 = C Q sin α
0.075
C DO = 2.5
(log Rn − 2)2
CD0 refers to the rudder area which is about half the wetted area of the rudder. In addition a
form factor has been taken into account to account for 2.5.

RN =Vc/υ

The formulas for CL, CD and CQN do not take into account the profile shape. The profile
shape mainly affects the stall angle αS, the point of max lift co-efficient. The values are
generally valid for α < αS

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The stall angle αS depends primarily on:

-the aspect ratio ∧


-profile shape and thickness
-RN
-probably on the surface roughness
-the turbulence of the inflow
-the spatial distribution of the inflow velocity

Because of different stall angles αS and lift curve slopes of rudders of different aspect ratios it
would be advantageous to use an effective rudder angle δeff instead of the geometrical rudder
angle δ from rules.

2. 2 ∧
δ eff = δ
∧ + 2. 4

For aspect ratios ∧ < 3 which are typical of ship rudders, the vertical distribution of lift force
in homogenous, unbounded flow is practically elliptic.

2
L 4 z
Lift force per unit length = 1−
b π b/2

2
4C L z Lift force per unit length
C Ll = 1− =
π b/2 cq

Where z = vertical distance from the mean height between the lower and upper edge of the
rudder.

A simple global correction for the lift force of a rudder behind a propeller (to be added to the
lift computed by the usual empirical formula for rudders in free stream as given by (Soding
1998 a, b)

1
∆L = T 1 + sin δ
1 + CTh

1
∆D = T 1 + (1 − cos δ )
1 + CTh

RUDDER TYPES
Rudder with heel bearing (simplex)

The most common rudder type formally built was a rectangular profile rudder with heel
bearing. The heel has to have considerable width to withstand the horizontal forces. Flow
separation at the heel increases resistance and the non-homogeneity of the wake field at the
propeller plane which in turn induces propeller induced vibrations.

Manoeuvring Page No 64
SPADE RUDDER
This type of rudder is commonly applied on ferries, ro-ro ships and special crafts. Rudder
stock is subjected to high bending movements especially for high-sped and large rudder
height. Diameter of stock > 1m is to be avoided.

SEMI-BALANCED RUDDERS
A fixed guide head (called rudder horn) extends over the upper part of the rudder. This type
of rudder has the following properties:

-decreased rudder bending movement compared to spade rudders

-reduced rudder effectiveness. For steady turning circles the semi-balanced rudder produces
only approximately half the transverse force than a spade rudder of the same area.

FLAP RUDDERS
Consists of a moveable rudder with a trailing edge flap activated by a mechanical or hydraulic
system, thus producing a variable flap angle as a function of rudder angle. Flap rudders give
a much higher lift for rudder angle and a 60° to 70° higher maximum lift compared to a
conventional rudder of same shape, size and area.

Manoeuvring Page No 65
RUDDER DESIGN

The know recommendation give the rudder area as a % of the underwater lateral area LT as
per DNV is

2
AR B
≥ 0.01 1 + 25
LT L

This gives the rudder area of approximately 1.5% of underwater lateral area.

This information is insufficient to determine the rudder effectiveness.

The rudder effectiveness depends on the rudder side force, the rudder force component
normal to the ship’s centre line.

YR = CYR ρ/2 AR UR2

AR = rudder area m2

Manoeuvring Page No 66
CYR = rudder side force coeff

α= rudder angle of attack

UR = average speed of the relative inflow at this rudder

Out of the propeller slipstream the inlow velocity

UA = V (1-w) V = ship’s speed


w = wake fraction

Within the propeller slip stream the relative inflow velocity contains an additional jet
velocity:

( )
u j = U A k m 1 + CTh − 1
Where km = depends on the distance of leading edge of rudder to propeller plane

x/D 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0


km .50 .79 .88 .94 .96

8 KT 2T
CTh = = = Thrust loading coefficient
2
πJ ρV A2 AP

D = propeller diameter

Manoeuvring Page No 67
So one obtains:

URS = UA + Uj

( (
= U A 1 + k m 1 + CTh − 1 ))
= UA . Cj

Defining Cj = jet velocity coefficient


( (
= 1 + k m 1 + CTh − 1 ))
With regard to the rudder area in the propeller ship stream the rudder side force can be
calculated approximately by:

YR = CYR.ρ/2UA2.AR (1 + ARP/ARO (Cj2 – 1))

ARP = Rudder area in propeller slip stream

ARO = geometric rudder area = b2/∧

Relating the gradient of the rudder side force coeff CYR to speed and underwater lateral areas
of ship one obtains the rudder effectiveness CYδ.

CYδ = CYR
AR
LT
(
(1 − w)2 1 + ARP C 2j − 1
ARO
)
To realise certain rudder effectiveness the following need to be considered:

1. The gradient to be determined experimentally or by empirical formulae as given by :


Mandel CYRδ = 1.8π ∧
∧ 2 +4 + 1.8

Soeding CYR = 2π ∧ (∧ +2 1)
(∧ +2)
2. The effective ratio ∧ determined from geometrical aspect ratio ∧G = b/c (b = height, c
= mean chord length).
3. The rudder area in the propeller ship stream should be calculated in consideration of
the propeller jet contraction.

[ (
1 + 0.5 CTh +1 − 1 )] ,
1 + [k m ( CTh + 1 − 1)]
ARP = DRc DR = D c = mean chord length

Manoeuvring Page No 68