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K.M. Sundaram*, Rita Jain

Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd, Mumbai, email: sndrmkm@yahoo.co.in

Summary

Eaton’s Equation says that if there are two levels having same over burden, one normally compacted and the other not, if

subscript n stands for normal and ze for Effective stress, then

(ze)obs = (ze)n (Yobs/Yn)k where Y is a property such as resistivity, ‘obs’ stands for ‘observed’ and k is an

exponent. …… (Ref. 1)

This approach, as well as the Equivalent Depth Method of TrangOH (Ref. 2) assume that Effective stress and

Porosity are uniquely related. Thereby pore pressure increase over normal-compaction-case pore pressure results in

lowering of Effective stress for a given overburden. And therefore, that this effective stress change is reflected in

Porosity change wrt normally compressed sediments’ porosity for same overburden.

Let us assume that the property Y is Resistivity. Rw being same for normally compacted and observed cases for same

overburden, the above equation would then reduce to :

(ze)obs =(ze)n . Øn1.8k/Øobs1.8k assuming Archies Equation with Archie cementation factor to be 1.8.

From this it is seen that constancy of (ze) . Ø1.8k is a necessary and sufficient condition for Eaton’s Equation.

This paper examines the applicability of the above condition from the perspective of the Compaction Process

adsorbed water on clay surfaces.

When changes in porosity in response to change in stress is

Suppose Porosity at Effective stress e is Øe

analyzed and a porosity effective stress relationship arrived

at,it is possible to have certain insight into Eaton equation And let Øe+Øe denote Porosity when Effective stress is

that are worth future exploration. The present paper changed from e to Qe+Qe

through the work flow presented examines these aspects. Let kØ denote the Pore Elastic modulus

Now if K stands for Compression modulus of Elasticity

Changes in Porosity in response to change in

stress: 1/Kframe = 1/Kgrain + Ø / kØ ---- (ii) ( pl. see Appendix

for proof)

Changes in Bulk Porosity of saturated Rock to changes in From Equations (i) and (ii) above we have

Vertical stress are identical to changes in Porosity of frame

to changes in Effective Stress. Øe = - {1/K frame – 1/K grain } e

Øe = - 1/K grain { K grain / K frame – 1} e ---- (iii)

K frame = AK grain (1- Øe )c ….. (iv) where C is an Subcase (a) - when Øe is << Øo :

exponent (pl. see Appendix 5 and also Ref. 3) where A is

a constant and a measure of grain to grain contact In this sub case 1/ Øea >> 1/ Øoa Consequently

elasticity. A has been taken equal to 1.0 in the present

study. Øe can be approximated to :

Thus {K grain / K frame – 1} = {(1- Øe ) -1} cØe

-C

Substituting in (iii) we get e = - (C Øe )/ K grain .

e ---- (v) Assuming Biot’s Poro Elastic constant 1

(The Equation (iv) can be written as C frame – C grain (1-

Øe = Povb - P pore

Øe)-c

which is similar to Archies Equation Ro = Rw . Øe-m

Consider 2 levels having same overburden, one part of

normally compacted sediments sequences and the other

The ‘Pore Volume’ of Archie is substituted by ‘Grain the level under observation.

volume’ c, the equivalent of Archie cementation factor

can be expected to vary with porosity). For the first case (e)n = Povb - (Ppore) …. (ix)

When rock is more and more compacted, dependance

of c on Øe becomes weaker and weaker and disappears For the second case (e)obs = Povb - (P pore)obs ….. (x)

after a critical porosity is crossed, or (as is Limestones) ie observation case

grain to grain cementation is complete, and reaches its

extreme value. Equ (x) can be written as (Ppore)obs = Povb - (e)obs =

Povb –[()obs /(e)n]. (e)n

Porosity – Effective Stress Relationship :

or ie (Ppore)obs = Povb - [Povb – (Ppore)n] . [eobs / en]

We hypothesise that C = Øe + a, where a is a +ve

…….. (xi)

number

greater than 1

Using Equ. (viii), if (Øe)obs and (Øe)n stand for

Then CØe = Øe(1+a) ---- (vi)

Porosity values for observation case and normally

compacted case,

Substituting C Øe from Equation (vi) above in Equation

(v), we get

Than (e)n = Kgrain / a . (1/( Øe)na)

Øe = - Øe (1+a)

/ K grain . Øe

(e)obs = Kgrain / a . (1/( Øe)obsa)

In terms of differentials we can write

Let Robs be resistivity for observation case and Rn be

that for normally compacted case.

Øe-(1+a) d = - 1/Kgrain . d

e e

Integrating both sides we get

Archie cementation Exponent.

(Øe)-a / -a = -1/Kgrain . e + C1

(Robs / Rn)y = (e)obs / (e)n …….. (xii),

(where y = a/m

or (Øe)-a = a / Kgrain e + C1

Substituting from (xii) into (xi) for (e)obs / (e)n, we

At mud line e = 0. Let Øe at mud line be Øo

get

Substituting in above, we get C1 = Øo-a

(Ppore)obs = Povb – [Povb – (Ppore)n] . [Robs / Rn]y ….. (xiii),

where y = q/m

i.e e = Kgrain / a [ 1/ Øea - 1/ Øoa ] ……...(vii)

Equation (xiii) is nothing but Eaton Equation (Ref. 1)

we shall now examine 2 subcases of the above

equation. Thus we can conclude that :

(a) Applicability of Eqn. (viii), with The Derivation of Eqn (xiii) analogue and Eqn (xvii)

analogue for Sonic Compressional Travel time case is

(b) ‘a’, ‘Kgrain’ unchanging with overburden (ie illustrated at Appendix 3.

Depth)

is a necessary and sufficient condition for Eaton Application of the work discussed above to

Equation. Porosity Decline :

(c) We also note that physical meaning of Y is that it

The foregoing work leads to Porosity Decline Equation

is a/m. ‘m’ can be taken to be 1.8 with abundant

D1 = {1/(av . w )g} (Kgrain / a) . (1/ Øea) - (Appendix 2

reasonability. ‘a’ can be determined by computing

may please be referred to for a deriviation of this

a from Eqn (viii) {if they are sufficiently deep, else

equation)

from Eqn. (xiv)} from different normally compacted

levels and arriving at a reasonable measure of central

Here D1 is depth for Mud line, av is average Sediment

tendency, statistically, or forward modeled by

finding ‘c’ at different levels using log (1- Øe vs Density, w is average water density considered.

Log Kframe plots (Ref. 3)

Appendix 1

(d) Thus a ‘correctly’ framed Eaton Equation can be

used because Y is now ‘determined’ frp, actual Relation between Kframe, Øe, KØ, Kgrain

data. since y = a/1.8 with value of ‘a’ found as

discussed at (c ) above. For simplicity we can consider unit volume of frame.

(e) Eaton Equation is a special case only, when depths A stress change of e on frame causes Bula volume

are not too near mud line. change in frame of e / Kframe

Sub-case (b) - when Øe and Øe are comparable A stress change of e on frame is equivalent to a stress

change of e / (1-Øe) on frame scaffolding.

In this subcase we no longer can say 1/ Øea >> 1/ Øoa

Consequently volume change in frame scaffolding =

Consequently e = Kgrain / a [1/(Øe) a

- 1/ (Øo) ] a e/(1-Øe) . (1/Kgrain) . (1-Øe)

………..(xiv)

Change in Pore volume (Øe) is therefore equal to

(e)obs = Kgrain / a [1/( Øe)obsa a

- 1/ Øo ] = Kgrain/a Øe = e/Kframe - e/Kgrain …….(i)

[(Robs)y - (Rmudline)y] ……(xv)

By definition KØ = e / { Change in Pore volume / Øe

and }

((e)n = Kgrain /a [ 1/(Øe)na – 1/(Øo)a] = Kgrain / a [(Rnor)y – Change in Pore volume (e) = e . 1/Ko . Øe

(Rmudline)y] …xvi

where y = a/m Equating (i) and (ii) we get

We would again have Eqn (Xa)

1/Kframe - 1/Kgrain = Øe / KØ

(Ppore)obs = Povb - (e)obs = Povb - {(e)obs / (e)n) .

((e)n) } or ie 1/Kframe = 1/Kgrain + Øe/KØ

From the above, we note that 1/KØ = [1/Kframe –

Substituting into Equation above, from Eqns. Xv, xvi, 1/Kgrain] 1/Øe

we get

ie 1/KØ = 1/Kgrain . Øe [Kgrain / Kframe - 1]

y

(Ppore)obs = Povb - [Povb – (Ppore)n] . [Robs – Rmudliney] /

[Rnory - Rmudliney] …….(xvii) Kframe and Kgrain can be related through Kframe = Kgrain

(1-Øe)c

Equation (xvii) can be considered as a Generalised Eaton

Equation. Where c can have a variance with Øe

To add

We would then have 1/KØ = 1/Kgrain . Øe . [(1-Øe)-c – 1] This is the Decline Equation, that the preceeding

arguments lead to. The salient feature of the arguments

= c/Kgrain to a fair approximation. developed in this paper is that KØ is a function of

Porosity

Or KØ = Kgrain / c where c can vary with Øe, thus KØ

varies with Øc Recalling that de/doe = KØ . 1/Øe, and that d =

Pav.dD.g,

Appendix 2

the assumption of KØ being a constant would have lead

to

Implications to Porosity Decline with Depth

in case of Normal Compaction ØD / dØe (av / KØ) = 1/Øe which in turn would have

where = [Pav /KØ]

e = Kgrain / a [1/Øea - 1/Øoa] …………..(vii)

The form of equation (x) above is clearly different from

e = ovb - (pore)n …… (xviii) the above form. It is also different from the form (D-Dm)

= (10-bØe)

where (pore)n = Pore Pressure under conditions of Where b and are constants. (Ref. 5)

normal compaction. If av is average sediment density

upto Point of observation which is representative. Appendix 3

ovb = gav (D-Dm) (where Dm is Mud line depth) + Analogue of Eqn (xiii) and Eqn (xvii) when Sonic

Dm wg where w is Average water density. Interval Velocity is the Property chosen to reflect

compaction. From the standard equations for sonic

ovb = av (D-Dm)g + Dm . wg where g is interval transit time, it can be seen that when Matrix

Accelaration due to Gravity. acoustic velocity for compressional body wave >> bulk

compressional body wave velocity denoted V,

Substituting in Eqn (vii) we get, using Eqn. (xviii)

2 /Øe where X is a constant (pl. see Appendix 4) ---

av (D-Dm)g + Dm . wg - (pore)n = Kgrain / a [1/Øea – ---(A)

1/Øoa]

Consequently we would have (e)n = ( Kgrain / a )

ie D. av . g = g (av – w) Dm + (pore)n + Kgrain / a [(n2/X)a] ----(B)

[1/Øea – 1/Øoa] …...xix

(e)obs = Kgrain / a . [ V2obs/X]a where ‘n’ stands for

(pore)n = w . D.g normal compaction case and ‘obs’ for observation case.

Substituting for (pore)n from above, we get Then it is easily seen that

(pore)obs = ovb – [ovb – (pore)n] . (Vn / Vobs) y where

(D-Dm) av g = (D – Dm) wg + Kgrain / a [1/Øea - Y = 2a

1/Øoa] Similarly (pore)obs = ovb – [ovb – (pore)n] [Vny –

Vmudliney / Vobs y – Vmudline y] where y = 2a

or ie. D-Dm) (av - w) g = Kgrain / a [1/Øea - 1/Øoa]

The value of y can be estimated, from V, e

If D1 = D-Dm = Depth below Mud line, correlations. For example is S Kagens method (Ref.6)

D1 = { 1/(av – w)g} {Kgrain / a} . 1/Øea , approx. Vn = M en 1/3 where M is a constant which implies en

1/Øoa = 1, /obs =(Vn/Vobs)3, and which therefore indicates value of

y to be 3.0

which is reasonable ……………….. (x)

Appendix 4 Appendix 5

According to Gassman Equation It is known from empirical data that Vp /Vs for dry-gas

bearing clean sandstones is a constant and thus independent

K = Kframe + [{1-(Kframe / Kgrain)2} / { Øe / Kfluid + 1-O / of Porosity (Ref. 4). It is also known that Gframe and

Kgrain – Kframe / Kgrain2}] Porosity Øe are related by Gframe = Ggrain (1- Øe )c

where c is an exponent -------(a)

K/Kgrain = Kframe / Kgrain + {(1/Kgrain – Kframe / Kgrain2) (1- w

Kframe / Kgrain)] / { Øe /Kfluid + 1-Ø / Kgrain – Kframe / Kgrain2} From the above two results, it was deduced that for

porous clean sands Kframe also shall be related to Øe

Assuming Kframe / Kgrain <<1, and thereby also through Kframe = AKgrain (1- Øe)c, since independence of

neglecting Kframe / Kgrain2 in above, we get (Vp/Vs) of dry gas (approximating to frame) from Øe

implies independence of (Vp/Vs)2 from Øe which in turn

K / Kgrain = (Kframe / Kgrain) + ( 1/Kgrain . 1/ (Øe /Kframe 1- implies (Kframe + 4/3 Gframe) / Gframe to be independent of

Øe /Kgrain)) = {1/Kgrain [1/( Øe /Kfluid + 1- Øe /Kgrain) ] } + Øe and thereby Kframe / Gframe to be independent of Øe .

(1-Øe)c

This is possible only if Kframe and Kgrain are related as

Assumption of Øe to be sufficiently large, that Kframe = Akgrain, (1 - Øe )c …(b) where A is a

constant.

(1-Øe )c is << the quantity in braces, leads to K/Kgrain to

be approximately to (1/Kgrain) / { Øe /Kfluid + (1- Øe ) / This constant A is a measure of Grain + Grain contact

Kgrain } Elasticity. Similarly G grain in Eqn (b) also needs to be

replaced by BG grain where B is a measure of grain and

Under these conditions K becomes grain Contact Elasticity.

Or 1/K = Øe /Kfluid + (1- Øe )/Kgrain The validity of (b) and (c) for porosity ranges which occur is

clean sandstone reservoir has been seen (ref. 3) and hence the

Under circumstances such as above, which are true when Eqns. have been adopted.

Øe exceeds around 37% Gframe where G stands for

shear modules, and which is equal to G the bulk shear A, B have been taken to be equal to 1.0 respectively in

modules, will be low compared to K. this work.

/Kgrain

Where l is bulk density of rock. 1. Sediment Porosity being sufficiently low as compared

to mudline porosity ie levels not too near mudline is

a precondition for Eaton Equation to be valid.

Since Kgrain >> Kfluid, and where Øe is large enough,

(1- Øe ) is comparable to Øe , Øe / Kfluid >> 1- Øe

2. Eaton Equation’s Exponent has a physical meaning

/Kgrain and we can approximate

and can be evaluated from normal compaction trends

or forward modeled for best fit - achieved, of

1/V2 to Øe /Kfluid , ie 1/V2 = Øe /Kfluid approx =

forward model of Kframe vs Log (1- Øe) with actual

Øe /fluid V fluid 2

Log Kframe vs Log (1- Øe) plots.

3. The assumption that ‘c’ the exponent in Kframe =

ie V2 = fluid / . Vfluid Øe Kgrain (1- Øe)c, has a variation with Ø via a = Øa is

a valid assumption, since it is a necessary condition

fluid / = fluid / Øe (fluid – ma) + ma . Øe being in for Eaton’s Equation, (which is a valid popularly

Denominator, where Øe is sufficiently high (fl / has and Eqn) to be valid.

weak variation with Øe and so V2 = A constant X . Øe 4. It is demonstrated that in addition to modeling the ‘y’

where X = Vfluid / [0.4 (fl –ma) + ma) approx. Exponent Eaton Equation, Eaton Equation itself

can be generalized to Eqn of form of Eqn (xvii).

5. Generated Eaton Eqn (Eqn. Xvii) as suggested in

this paper and ways of estimation of y, as

suggestd in this paper have potential for usability

and usefulness to have a Compaction Equation,

which can be used to forward Model Log Responses

for normal compaction case.

6. Usefulness of Approach to Porosity Decline Eqn

Studies (ie Compaction studies is demonstrated,

which enables forward modeled compaction trends

to be generated which help in editing out less than

acceptable data quality points, not uncommon as

hole sizes are large and porosity is high.

Acknowledgement :

COED, WOB for having kindly encouraged to carry out

this study. The views expressed are solely of the

authors.

References:

prediction from Ell logs SPE 50th Annual Fall

Meeting Proceedings SPE 5544.

2. Trugott M. O 1997 Pore/Fracture Pressure

Determination in Deep Water: Deep Water

Technology 218(8), Supplement to World Oil

pp 68-70.

3. Brie A Pampuri F, Mrsala A F , Meazza O

Shear Sonic Interpretation in gas bearing

ssands SPE 30595 1995, 701-710.

4. Dhruba J Dutta K M Sundaram Compressional

and shear velocity data dentify and quantify

fluids in carbonates and clastics SPWLA

symposium 2004.

5. Rasmus JC Forward Modeling of log response

in geopressured formation reveals valuable

insights to the various pore pressure prediction

techniques AAPG Memoirs 76 pp 159-164.

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