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# Mechanical Vibrations

Chapter 2.1
Free Vibration without damping
Dr. Sandeep Jose

## Birla Institute of Technology and Science,

K.K. Birla Goa campus
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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Idealization of building frame

x x

kx
Elastic m
columns

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Equation of Motion

1. Newton’s Law
2. D’ Alembert’s Principal
3. Virtual work method
4. Principal of conservation of energy
5. Reighley’s method

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

FREE VIBRATION OF SINGLE DOF SYSTEM
(HORIZONTAL)

Free length, l x
kx

System
Free Body Diagram
NEWTON’S SECOND
LAW OF MOTION m𝑥 + kx = 0

F(t) = m𝑥 = - kx
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Principal of Virtual Work
• Virtual displacement: Imaginary infinitesimal displacement is given
instantaneously. It must be a physically possible displacement that is compatible
with the constraints of the system.
• Principal: If a system that is in equilibrium under the action of a set of forces is
subjected to a virtual displacement, then the total virtual work done by the
forces will be zero.

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Principal of Virtual Work

## • Mass is given virtual displacement δ𝑥

• Virtual work done by the spring force = δ𝑊𝑠 = − 𝑘𝑥 𝛿x
• Virtual work done by the inertia force = δ𝑊𝑖 = −𝑚𝑥 𝛿𝑥
• By principal of virtual work,
− 𝑘𝑥 𝛿x −𝑚𝑥 𝛿𝑥 = 0

## • virtual displacement δ𝑥 ≠ 0 , but can have arbitrary

value, equation of motion is;

m𝑥 + kx = 0

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Principal of Conservation of Energy
• Potential Energy stored in spring
1
= 𝑚𝑔𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥2
2
• P.E. of the system due to the
change in elevation of the mass is
= −𝑚𝑔𝑥
• Net P.E. of the system is
1 1 x
U = 𝑚𝑔𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥2 − 𝑚𝑔𝑥 = 𝑘𝑥2
2 2
• Kinetic Energy of system ,
1
𝑇 = 𝑚𝑥 2
2
• By principal of conservation of
energy Equation of motion
𝑑
𝑇 + 𝑈 = 0; (𝑇 + 𝑈) = 0 m𝑥 + kx = 0
𝑑𝑡
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Rayleigh’s Energy Method

## • By principal of conservation of energy

𝑇1 + 𝑈1 = 𝑇2 + 𝑈2
( 1 & 2 are two different instants of time)
• Choose 1 when mass is passing through its static equilibrium position
𝑈1 = 0 (Reference Potential Energy)
• Choose 2 for instant corresponding to maximum displacement of the mass
𝑇2 =0
• We have
𝑇1 + 0= 0 + 𝑈2
• System is undergoing harmonic motion
𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥

Agenda

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Effect of Gravity
• At rest the mass will hang in
position called static
equilibrium position
∴ W = mg = k δst (1)
• Let mass be deflected by a Static
K 𝛿𝑠𝑡 equilibrium
distance +x from its static position
equilibrium position
𝛿𝑠𝑡
+x

Final position
𝑊 = 𝑚𝑔 𝑊 + 𝑘𝑥

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Effect of Gravity
k (x+δst )
• Spring force is – k (x+δst )
By Newton’s Law
m𝑥 = – k (x+δst )+ W (2)
By (1) and (2)
m𝑥 + kx = 0

## This indicates that when a mass moves in

a vertical direction, we can ignore its
weight, provided we measure x from its
static equilibrium position.

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Solution of Equation of Motion
The equation of motion of the system is Solution can be assumed
m𝑥 + kx = 0 (1) as
x(t) = 𝑪 𝑒 𝑠 t
First solution
or
x(t) = 𝑪 𝑒 𝑠 t , (2)
where C and s are constants to be determined. 𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)
Substituting (2) in (1)
C(ms2 +k) = 0 (3) • Equation (4) is characteristic
C can not be zero, so, ms2 + k = 0 (4) equation of eq (1)
−𝑘 • Two values of s in eq (5) are
∴ 𝒔 = ±√ = ± i ωn (5)
𝑚 Eigen values
𝑘
as ωn = √ (6)
𝑚
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Solution of Equation of Motion

Both values of s satisfy Eq (4), the general solution of Eq (1) can be expressed
as
𝒊 ω −𝒊 ω t
x(t) = C1 𝒆 n
t + C2 𝒆 n (6)
where C1 and C2 are constants

## By using the identities

±
e iωt = cos ωt ±𝑖 sin ωt

## Equation (6) can be written as

x(t) = A1 sin ωn t + A2cos ωn t (7)
where A1 and A2 are new constants to be determined by initial conditions of
the system

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Initial conditions:
x(t) = x0 (displacement at t = 0) (8)
𝒙(t) = 𝒙0 (velocity at t = 0)
The solution of Eq (1) subjected to initial conditions (8) is given by
𝒙0
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥0 cos ωn t + sin ωn t (9)
ωn
Second Solution
Equation (7) can be expressed in different form
Let A1 = A cos φ and A2 = A sin φ (10)
A= (𝐴12 + 𝐴22 )1/2 = (𝑥02 + (𝒙20 /ω2𝑛 ))1/2 (11) Amplitude
φ = tan-1(A2/A1 ) = tan-1(𝒙0/𝑥0 ωn ) (12) Phase angle
Using (10) into (7), the solution can be written as
𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)
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State Space Representation

• Response in x and 𝑥
𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)
𝒙(t) = -A ωn Sin (ωn t – φ) (13)
Or Sin (ωn t – φ) =- 𝒙(t) / A ωn
Assume 𝑦 = 𝒙(t) / ωn 𝑋
𝒙
∴ Sin (ωn t – φ) = -y/A (14) ωn

## Squaring and adding (13) and (14) 𝐴ωn

𝑥 2 / 𝐴2 + 𝑦 2 /𝐴2 = 1 (15)
𝑥 𝑥

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional
System
• Displacement is measured in angular
coordinates
• Restoring moment may be due to the Diameter, d
torsion of an elastic member or the
unbalanced moment of a force /couple. l
• By theory of torsion, torque required to
produce twist, θ
𝐺
• 𝑀𝑡 = 𝐼0 (1)
𝑙
π
• Polar MI, 𝐼0 = 𝑑4 (2) 𝐽0
32
• Shaft acts like torsional spring
𝑀𝑡 π𝐺𝑑 4
• 𝑘𝑡 = = (3)
θ 32𝑙
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional
System
Equation of Motion: Newton’s law

𝐽0 θ + 𝑘𝑡 θ = 0 (4)
Natural frequency
𝑘𝑡 𝑘𝑡 θ
ω𝑛 = (5) 𝐽0
𝐽0

## Polar MI of disk is given by 𝜃, 𝜃, 𝜃

ρℎπ 𝑊𝐷2
𝐽0 = 𝐷2 = (6)
32 8𝑔
• Solution of Equation (4) will on similar lines
as that of translational system Free Body Diagram of disk

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Stability Conditions

klsin𝜃 k k
klsin𝜃
l
mg
l/2
o

mg

## When springs are

upstretched, bar is
vertical

## Free Body Diagram

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Stability Conditions

## When bar is displaced by an angle, 𝜃

• Gravity force W = mg klsin𝜃 klsin𝜃
• Total spring force = 2 klsin𝜃
𝑚𝑙2
• Moment about O = 𝐽𝜃, 𝐽 =
3
Equation of motion is,
𝑚𝑙2 𝑊𝑙
mg
𝜃 + 2 klsin𝜃 𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃- sin𝜃 = 0
3 2
For small oscillations;
𝑚𝑙2 𝑊𝑙 o
𝜃 + 2 k𝑙2 𝜃- 𝜃=0
3 2
12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙
𝜃+ 𝜃=0 (1)
2𝑚𝑙2
Free Body Diagram
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Stability Conditions

Equation of motion is
12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙
𝜃+ 𝜃=0 (1)
2𝑚𝑙2
𝟏𝟐𝒌𝒍𝟐−𝟑𝑾𝒍
Solution of (1) depends on sign of :
𝟐𝒎𝒍𝟐

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙
Case 1: When > 0, oscillations are stable and represented as;
2𝑚𝑙2
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐴1 cos 𝜔𝑛 𝑡 + 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑛 𝑡 (2), where𝐴1 and 𝐴2 are constants
12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙 1/2
𝜔𝑛 = (3)
2𝑚𝑙2

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Stability Conditions
12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙
Case 2: When =0
2𝑚𝑙2
Equation (1) becomes ; 𝜃 = 0
Solution is
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐶1 𝑡 + 𝐶2 (4)
For initial condition at 𝑡 = 0; 𝜃 = 𝜃0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 = 𝜃0
Equation (4) becomes
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝜃0 𝑡 + 𝜃0 (5)
Angular displacement increases linearly at a constant velocity.
If 𝜃0 = 0, equation (4) shows static equilibrium position with
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝜃0

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Stability Conditions
12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙
Case 3: When < 0
2𝑚𝑙2
3𝑊𝑙−12𝑘𝑙2 1/2
Assume 𝛽=
2𝑚𝑙2
Solution of (1) is
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐵1 𝑒 𝛽𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑒 −𝛽𝑡 (6), 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 are constants.
For initial condition at 𝑡 = 0; 𝜃 = 𝜃0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 = 𝜃0
Equation (6) becomes
1
𝜃 𝑡 = 𝛽𝜃0 + 𝜃0 𝑒 𝛽𝑡 + 𝛽𝜃0 − 𝜃0 𝑒 −𝛽𝑡 (7)
2𝛽
Equation (7) indicates 𝜃 𝑡 increases exponentially with time.

Restoring moment due to spring force 2𝑘𝑙2𝜃 which tries to bring system to equilibrium
𝑊𝑙𝜃
position, is less than the non-restoring moment (− ), brings instability in the system.
2
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Effect of the mass of the spring

## Effect of the mass of the spring on the natural frequency of the

spring mass system

## BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Effect of the mass of the spring
• Add the KE of the system to that of the attached
mass and use energy method.
• Let x be displacement of the lower end of spring or
mass, m and Mass of spring be ms
𝑥
• Displacement at distance y from the support = y
𝑙
• Velocity of a spring element located at distance y
𝑥
from the support = y
𝑙
• KE of the spring element of length dy
1 𝑚𝑠 𝑥 2
𝑑𝑇𝑠 = 𝑑𝑦 𝑦
2 𝑙 𝑙
• Total KE = KE of mass + KE of spring
1 𝑙
• T = m 𝑥2 + 0
𝑑𝑇𝑠
2
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Effect of the mass of the spring
1 1
• T = m 𝑥 2 + 𝑚𝑠 𝑥 2
2 6
1
• PE, U = k 𝑥 2
2
• Assuming harmonic motion, x(t) = X cos ωn t
1 𝑚𝑠
• Maximum KE, Tmax = 𝑚+ X2 ωn2
2 3
1
• Maximum PE, Umax = k 𝑋2
2
• BY Rayleigh’s method, Tmax = Umax

𝑘
∴ ωn= 𝑚
𝑚+ 3𝑠