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Chapter 2.1

Free Vibration without damping

Dr. Sandeep Jose

K.K. Birla Goa campus

1

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Idealization of building frame

x x

kx

Elastic m

columns

Equation of Motion

1. Newton’s Law

2. D’ Alembert’s Principal

3. Virtual work method

4. Principal of conservation of energy

5. Reighley’s method

FREE VIBRATION OF SINGLE DOF SYSTEM

(HORIZONTAL)

Free length, l x

kx

System

Free Body Diagram

NEWTON’S SECOND

LAW OF MOTION m𝑥 + kx = 0

F(t) = m𝑥 = - kx

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Principal of Virtual Work

• Virtual displacement: Imaginary infinitesimal displacement is given

instantaneously. It must be a physically possible displacement that is compatible

with the constraints of the system.

• Principal: If a system that is in equilibrium under the action of a set of forces is

subjected to a virtual displacement, then the total virtual work done by the

forces will be zero.

Principal of Virtual Work

• Virtual work done by the spring force = δ𝑊𝑠 = − 𝑘𝑥 𝛿x

• Virtual work done by the inertia force = δ𝑊𝑖 = −𝑚𝑥 𝛿𝑥

• By principal of virtual work,

− 𝑘𝑥 𝛿x −𝑚𝑥 𝛿𝑥 = 0

value, equation of motion is;

m𝑥 + kx = 0

Principal of Conservation of Energy

• Potential Energy stored in spring

1

= 𝑚𝑔𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥2

2

• P.E. of the system due to the

change in elevation of the mass is

= −𝑚𝑔𝑥

• Net P.E. of the system is

1 1 x

U = 𝑚𝑔𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥2 − 𝑚𝑔𝑥 = 𝑘𝑥2

2 2

• Kinetic Energy of system ,

1

𝑇 = 𝑚𝑥 2

2

• By principal of conservation of

energy Equation of motion

𝑑

𝑇 + 𝑈 = 0; (𝑇 + 𝑈) = 0 m𝑥 + kx = 0

𝑑𝑡

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Rayleigh’s Energy Method

𝑇1 + 𝑈1 = 𝑇2 + 𝑈2

( 1 & 2 are two different instants of time)

• Choose 1 when mass is passing through its static equilibrium position

𝑈1 = 0 (Reference Potential Energy)

• Choose 2 for instant corresponding to maximum displacement of the mass

𝑇2 =0

• We have

𝑇1 + 0= 0 + 𝑈2

• System is undergoing harmonic motion

𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥

Agenda

Effect of Gravity

• At rest the mass will hang in

position called static

equilibrium position

∴ W = mg = k δst (1)

• Let mass be deflected by a Static

K 𝛿𝑠𝑡 equilibrium

distance +x from its static position

equilibrium position

𝛿𝑠𝑡

+x

Final position

𝑊 = 𝑚𝑔 𝑊 + 𝑘𝑥

Effect of Gravity

k (x+δst )

• Spring force is – k (x+δst )

By Newton’s Law

m𝑥 = – k (x+δst )+ W (2)

By (1) and (2)

m𝑥 + kx = 0

a vertical direction, we can ignore its

weight, provided we measure x from its

static equilibrium position.

Solution of Equation of Motion

The equation of motion of the system is Solution can be assumed

m𝑥 + kx = 0 (1) as

x(t) = 𝑪 𝑒 𝑠 t

First solution

or

x(t) = 𝑪 𝑒 𝑠 t , (2)

where C and s are constants to be determined. 𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)

Substituting (2) in (1)

C(ms2 +k) = 0 (3) • Equation (4) is characteristic

C can not be zero, so, ms2 + k = 0 (4) equation of eq (1)

−𝑘 • Two values of s in eq (5) are

∴ 𝒔 = ±√ = ± i ωn (5)

𝑚 Eigen values

𝑘

as ωn = √ (6)

𝑚

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Solution of Equation of Motion

Both values of s satisfy Eq (4), the general solution of Eq (1) can be expressed

as

𝒊 ω −𝒊 ω t

x(t) = C1 𝒆 n

t + C2 𝒆 n (6)

where C1 and C2 are constants

±

e iωt = cos ωt ±𝑖 sin ωt

x(t) = A1 sin ωn t + A2cos ωn t (7)

where A1 and A2 are new constants to be determined by initial conditions of

the system

Initial conditions:

x(t) = x0 (displacement at t = 0) (8)

𝒙(t) = 𝒙0 (velocity at t = 0)

The solution of Eq (1) subjected to initial conditions (8) is given by

𝒙0

𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥0 cos ωn t + sin ωn t (9)

ωn

Second Solution

Equation (7) can be expressed in different form

Let A1 = A cos φ and A2 = A sin φ (10)

A= (𝐴12 + 𝐴22 )1/2 = (𝑥02 + (𝒙20 /ω2𝑛 ))1/2 (11) Amplitude

φ = tan-1(A2/A1 ) = tan-1(𝒙0/𝑥0 ωn ) (12) Phase angle

Using (10) into (7), the solution can be written as

𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

State Space Representation

• Response in x and 𝑥

𝑥 𝑡 = A cos (ωn t – φ)

𝒙(t) = -A ωn Sin (ωn t – φ) (13)

Or Sin (ωn t – φ) =- 𝒙(t) / A ωn

Assume 𝑦 = 𝒙(t) / ωn 𝑋

𝒙

∴ Sin (ωn t – φ) = -y/A (14) ωn

𝑥 2 / 𝐴2 + 𝑦 2 /𝐴2 = 1 (15)

𝑥 𝑥

Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional

System

• Displacement is measured in angular

coordinates

• Restoring moment may be due to the Diameter, d

torsion of an elastic member or the

unbalanced moment of a force /couple. l

• By theory of torsion, torque required to

produce twist, θ

𝐺

• 𝑀𝑡 = 𝐼0 (1)

𝑙

π

• Polar MI, 𝐼0 = 𝑑4 (2) 𝐽0

32

• Shaft acts like torsional spring

𝑀𝑡 π𝐺𝑑 4

• 𝑘𝑡 = = (3)

θ 32𝑙

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional

System

Equation of Motion: Newton’s law

𝐽0 θ + 𝑘𝑡 θ = 0 (4)

Natural frequency

𝑘𝑡 𝑘𝑡 θ

ω𝑛 = (5) 𝐽0

𝐽0

ρℎπ 𝑊𝐷2

𝐽0 = 𝐷2 = (6)

32 8𝑔

• Solution of Equation (4) will on similar lines

as that of translational system Free Body Diagram of disk

Stability Conditions

klsin𝜃 k k

klsin𝜃

l

mg

l/2

o

mg

upstretched, bar is

vertical

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Stability Conditions

• Gravity force W = mg klsin𝜃 klsin𝜃

• Total spring force = 2 klsin𝜃

𝑚𝑙2

• Moment about O = 𝐽𝜃, 𝐽 =

3

Equation of motion is,

𝑚𝑙2 𝑊𝑙

mg

𝜃 + 2 klsin𝜃 𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃- sin𝜃 = 0

3 2

For small oscillations;

𝑚𝑙2 𝑊𝑙 o

𝜃 + 2 k𝑙2 𝜃- 𝜃=0

3 2

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙

𝜃+ 𝜃=0 (1)

2𝑚𝑙2

Free Body Diagram

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Stability Conditions

Equation of motion is

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙

𝜃+ 𝜃=0 (1)

2𝑚𝑙2

𝟏𝟐𝒌𝒍𝟐−𝟑𝑾𝒍

Solution of (1) depends on sign of :

𝟐𝒎𝒍𝟐

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙

Case 1: When > 0, oscillations are stable and represented as;

2𝑚𝑙2

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐴1 cos 𝜔𝑛 𝑡 + 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑛 𝑡 (2), where𝐴1 and 𝐴2 are constants

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙 1/2

𝜔𝑛 = (3)

2𝑚𝑙2

Stability Conditions

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙

Case 2: When =0

2𝑚𝑙2

Equation (1) becomes ; 𝜃 = 0

Solution is

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐶1 𝑡 + 𝐶2 (4)

For initial condition at 𝑡 = 0; 𝜃 = 𝜃0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 = 𝜃0

Equation (4) becomes

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝜃0 𝑡 + 𝜃0 (5)

Angular displacement increases linearly at a constant velocity.

If 𝜃0 = 0, equation (4) shows static equilibrium position with

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝜃0

Stability Conditions

12𝑘𝑙2−3𝑊𝑙

Case 3: When < 0

2𝑚𝑙2

3𝑊𝑙−12𝑘𝑙2 1/2

Assume 𝛽=

2𝑚𝑙2

Solution of (1) is

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝐵1 𝑒 𝛽𝑡 + 𝐵2 𝑒 −𝛽𝑡 (6), 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 are constants.

For initial condition at 𝑡 = 0; 𝜃 = 𝜃0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 = 𝜃0

Equation (6) becomes

1

𝜃 𝑡 = 𝛽𝜃0 + 𝜃0 𝑒 𝛽𝑡 + 𝛽𝜃0 − 𝜃0 𝑒 −𝛽𝑡 (7)

2𝛽

Equation (7) indicates 𝜃 𝑡 increases exponentially with time.

Restoring moment due to spring force 2𝑘𝑙2𝜃 which tries to bring system to equilibrium

𝑊𝑙𝜃

position, is less than the non-restoring moment (− ), brings instability in the system.

2

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Effect of the mass of the spring

spring mass system

Effect of the mass of the spring

• Add the KE of the system to that of the attached

mass and use energy method.

• Let x be displacement of the lower end of spring or

mass, m and Mass of spring be ms

𝑥

• Displacement at distance y from the support = y

𝑙

• Velocity of a spring element located at distance y

𝑥

from the support = y

𝑙

• KE of the spring element of length dy

1 𝑚𝑠 𝑥 2

𝑑𝑇𝑠 = 𝑑𝑦 𝑦

2 𝑙 𝑙

• Total KE = KE of mass + KE of spring

1 𝑙

• T = m 𝑥2 + 0

𝑑𝑇𝑠

2

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Effect of the mass of the spring

1 1

• T = m 𝑥 2 + 𝑚𝑠 𝑥 2

2 6

1

• PE, U = k 𝑥 2

2

• Assuming harmonic motion, x(t) = X cos ωn t

1 𝑚𝑠

• Maximum KE, Tmax = 𝑚+ X2 ωn2

2 3

1

• Maximum PE, Umax = k 𝑋2

2

• BY Rayleigh’s method, Tmax = Umax

𝑘

∴ ωn= 𝑚

𝑚+ 3𝑠

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