.eq pc......0
investigations. Therefore, this concept will be analyzed as Crot
follows. Also, the design of the current and voltage
controllers and of an LCLfilter are presented.
F d7N JEt . I
\~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CF I
co
re
=LI LGL+L*CF =14.7103j[rad/s]
G
(7
1 G F (17)
fres = I1T * Cres = 2.33[kHz]
The damping is a compromise between power losses and
stability requirements:
RD =* = 3.794[Q] ................ (18)
3 (toeres CF
Bode Diagram of the transfer function (9) of the
Fig. 5. Control desk panel for testing the wind turbine control strategy.
undamped and damped LCLfilter and of the Lfilter is
presented in Fig. 6.
Base values are calculated based on linetoline voltage
(EN), nominal power (PN) and grid frequency (WG): B. Current Controller Design
Zb N)_ = 14.550Q;Cb= = 218.8pF (10) In order to design the PI current controllers, the transfer
PN )G Zb function of the LCLfilter (19) is considered as the system
Total voltage drop on the filter should be less than 10 00,
With additional LC part the aim is to reduce the ripple at 2 0/ Using equivalent in zplane:
ZL= Zb .27/O = 0.393[Q] .(13) G(z) (1 _ z1). z
= ...................)Z{..) (20)
The inverter side inductance (LI) is then: s
we get the transfer function:
LI ZL = 1.25[mH] .(14)
COG 0.0718.Z +0.081*z+0.0209
Reactive power stored in the capacitor is 5 of the z3 +0.0932.9Z 0.7928z 0.3004
system power rating, so the maximum capacitor value is: The transfer function of the PIregulator in zplane is:
Q
l[puF];Q Ts
C." =
&) N
2 =I 0.05  PN = 550[VA] (15) z(1 )
The maximum capacitance within the limits is 11 [tF], HPI (z) =kp ................. (22)
and the selected value should be nearly half of that value [1], z 1
so that the capacitance of the filter is CF=6 [ptF].
The aim is to obtain 20 ripple attenuation that can be In Fig. 7 is presented the Simulink model of the current
expressed by following equation [1]: control loop in zdomain and Fig. 8 a) shows zeropole
placements of openloop without PIregulator and Fig. 8 b) of
G(h) =
0.2 ................... (16)
closedloop systems. Figure 8 c) shows the frequency
i1(h,w,) 1+r(1 a x)l response of the optimize currentloop of the system.
where a = LJCboWs 2 X = CFICb= 0.0274, r = LG/LI > 1.1.
Considering the reduction of the effectiveness caused by
damping resistor chosen value is 1.2 and then grid side
inductance is: LG= rLI= 1.5 [mH].
As can be seen in Fig. 8 a) there are two complex
conjugated poles and one realpole. Because of complex
u+aFe conjugated poles compensation technique can't be used.
Instead a polezero
placement technique is used. An
pda dLC integrator timeconstant Ts=8 ms is selected as a compromise
between good dynamics and still a good noise rejection.
The gain kp is selected as dominant pole using root locus
Fig. 6. Bode plot of the damped and undamped LCLfilter and of Lfilter
can be approximated by a firstorder delay element. An
~~~~~~~~
F7I
M
zi
C. DCLink Voltage Controller Design
3
UDC 'IDC 2(Udlcjd+ Uq ')............ (24)
'DC DC
2 u DC
a) b uDc=700 V, we obtain:
BoJd Diagran
KDC
2
DC
Fig. 8. The polezero placements of openloop (a) and closedloop (b) of the
obtained in last paragraph. In this paper a variablespeed wind turbine concept using
The transfer function of PIregulator in splane is: cage rotor induction generator connected to the grid through
an LCLfilter has been modeled and simulated in MATLAB
HPI(s) =kP,. KI+sT . .................. (29) & Simulink. The paper has also analyzed the design of an
LCLfilter, current and voltage controllers based on the
When CDC>>(co+Tet), optimal symmetry criterion to mathematical model of the system.
design parameters of the PIcontroller can be used [8]: The main aim was to provide a design procedure for the
filter and the controllers to study the stability and the
= 4.(T + )
= 0. 02;k= CDC (30) dynamic response of the overall system. The design
2.kDc (zr0 +7t1) procedure has been tested in simulation and the desired
The gain of voltage controller is verified using root locus current ripple attenuation has been achieved for the test
of openloop transfer function (tf) in splane, where delay is system parameters.
replaced by a tf with the time delay lo. In this way the open The cage rotor induction generator was connected to the
loop transfer function becomes: grid through a vector controlled backtoback PWMVSI
inverter and an LCLfilter. Using this configuration is
Ho_  =.*_ _*(
_s _T ( (31) possible to increase the energy production especially in the
low wind range, up to 1 MW per unit, eliminate the capacitor
Block diagram of the DClink voltage control loop bank for reactive power compensation and allow both grid
implemented in MATLAB & Simulink is depicted in Fig. 9 connection and standalone operation modes.
and root locus and Bode Diagram are presented in Fig. 10. A flexible development platform with DS1103 dSPACE
As can be seen in Fig. 10 optimal gain selected by using was used to implement and test a control strategy for 11 kW
root locus method is kp=0.35 and the bandwidth of the closed variablespeed wind turbines. The most relevant feature of
loop is 13 Hz. The parameters obtained for DClink voltage the system is the ability to develop the control strategy
controller are: kp=0.35 and T,=20 ms. entirely in MATLAB & Simulink and test it using dSPACE
platform in a short time.
A further research topic in the field of design of a LCL
filter is the development of a more embedded design
procedure taking into account EMI disturbances.
REFERENCES
[1] R. Teodorescu and F. Blaabjerg, "Flexible control of small wind
turbines with grid failure detection operating in standalone and grid
Fig. 9. Block diagram of the DClink voltage control loop. connected mode", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19,
No. 5, pp. 1323  1332, September 2004.
Rootbcvs M Dagram [2] R. Pena, R. Cardenas, R. Blasco, G. Asher and J. Clare, "A cage
induction generator using backtoback PWM converters for variable
Ol 1 OXn
0 0 E''U ,
speed grid connected wind energy system", Proceedings of IECON
2001, vol. 2, pp. 1376 1381, 2001.
M0~~~~~~~~~~~~G 95 4system Lfz [3] L. MihetPopa, V. Groza, G. Prostean, I. Filip and I. Szeidert,
S_ S_ '15^, i'>~~~~~ Sl9H6
_y!~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~2
p+l Ndnc rq(rads'k)178 "Variable speed wind turbines using cage rotor induction generators
2 0 g0nfude (dB)i 101 connected to the grid", Proceedings of EPC 2007, vol. III, pp. 271 
 i)~ ~ ~OefshotDO8 14.8 P
Xue '  r SrS;plfg4l~~~Frequenty
Syte
¢ra&WSe IC 2 3      rXT~ rr~~ ~rY 279, MontrealCanada 2007.
mI e Tli TQ T T T ,
[4] L. MihetPopa, F. Blaabjerg and I. Boldea, "Wind Turbine Generator
<ii Dt~ ~ ~o(%hqig 0473WW Modeling and Simulation where Rotational Speed is the Controlled
E
Oveshot
. IJetthwtlFfX 113.ki
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