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Material Comparison F316L vs F321

Chemical Properties

Grade Composition Requirements


Symbol C Mn P, max. S, max Si Ni Cr Mo Ti
F316L (a) 0.035 max. 2.00 max. 0.040 0.030 1.00 max. 10.00-15.00 16.00-18.00 2.00-3.00 -

F321 0.08 max. 2.00 max. 0.040 0.030 1.00 max. 9.00-12.00 17 min. - (b)

Remarks:
(a) Grade F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen content of 0.1%.
(b) Grade F321 shall have a titanium content of not less than five times the carbon content and not more than 0.70%.

Mechanical Properties

Grade Tensile Strength, min. ksi Yield Strength, min. ksi Elongation in 2 in. (50 mm)
Reduction of Area, min. %
Symbol [Mpa] [Mpa] (a) or 4D. Min. %
F316L 70 [485] (a) 25 [170] 30 50

F321 75 [515] (b) 30 [205] 30 50

Remarks:
(a) For section over 5 in. (130 mm) in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 65 ksi (450 Mpa).
(b) For section over 5 in. (130 mm) in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 70 ksi (485 Mpa).

Information:-
1/ Higher carbon content increases hardness and strength and improves hardenability. But carbon also increases brittleness and reduces
weldability because of its tendency to form martensite.
2/ Nickel is responsible for a great toughness and high strength at both high and low temperatures. Nickel also improves resistance to oxidation
and corrosion.
3/ Molybdenum improves resistance to pitting corrosion especially by chlorides and sulphur chemicals. When added to low alloy steels,
molybdenum improves high temperature strengths and hardness. When added to chromium steels it greatly diminishes the tendency of steels
to decay in service or in heat treatment.
4/ The main use of titanium as an alloying element in steel is for carbide stabilisation. It combines with carbon to form titanium carbides, which
are quite stable and hard to dissolve in steel, this tends to minimise the occurrence of inter-granular corrosion, when adding approximately
0.25%/0.60% titanium, the carbon combines with the titanium in preference to chromium, preventing a tie-up of corrosion resisting chromium
as inter-granular carbides and the accompanying loss of corrosion resistance at the grain boundaries.
5/ Nitrogen has the effect of increasing the austenitic stability of stainless steels and is, as in the case of nickel, an austenite forming element.
Yield strength is greatly improved when nitrogen is added to austenitic stainless steels.

Summary:-

Description F316L F321


Hardness, Strength and Hardenability Lower Higher
Less brittleness & good weldability Higher Lower
Toughness and Strength at high & low temperature Higher Lower
Resistance to oxydation and corrosion Higher Lower
Resistance to pitting corrosion by chlorides and shulphur Higher Lower
Resistance to inter-granular corrosion Lower Higher