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**Direct Current Generators
**

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The linear machine was introduced because of its simple construction and the fact that it served to demonstrate clearly the principles of electromechanics. It also allowed us to establish a model to show symbolically the relationships which exist with devices of this kind. At this point we must take a quantum jump to see how these principles have been implemented in rotating machines, specifically generators and motors. Historically, d-c machines came into being before a-c machines because the scientists of that time (about the middle of the 19th century) were only familiar with battery sources and consequently strived to make motors which operated from batteries, as well as generators to charge the batteries and operate arc lamps. Although superior in many ways, a-c machines have not completely replaced d-c machines, and will not in the foreseeable future, since the d-c motor offers a controllability not yet approached by a-c motors. The d-c generator, on the other hand, is declining rapidly in use since its functions have been largely taken over by solid state rectification of alternator outputs (in automobiles for example). Nevertheless a thorough study of d-c generators is worthwhile because the construction of motors and generators is the same, and the bilateral nature of the energy conversion process means their “inner workings” share much in common.

5.2

**CONSTRUCTION AND TERMINOLOGY
**

No mention was made of the origin of the magnetic field in the linear machine; in the loudspeaker it was furnished by a permanent magnet. In d-c machines the magnetic field is supplied by field coils” of wire wound around “pole cores” which are part of the magnetic circuit. These terms and others relating to the construction of a typical d-c generator or motor are explained in the following table.

Figure 5.1. Cross Section of a Typical d-c Machine. Numbers refer to items in Table 5.1.

1

1. FIELD COILS.

2. POLE CORES.

Coils of insulated copper wire which provide the mmf for the magnetic field. Steel cores around which field coils are wound. Adjacent poles alternate in polarity (N-S-N-S etc.) Part of the pole structure (steel) which conforms to the curvature of the armature core in order to provide a uniform air gap length. Steel frame providing mechanical rigidity and also providing a path of low magnetic reluctance between poles. A stack of steel laminations mounted on the shaft of the machine. CORE Copper armature conductors are placed in the slots. A major part of the magnetic circuit. The collection of copper wires in which voltages are induced (BLu) and on which forces are produced by current (BLi). In the linear machine the ‘bar’ is the armature. Rectangular openings around the periphery of the armature core into which armature conductors are placed. Rectangular area between slots, around periphery of the armature core, i.e. material left after slots are cut out. A ring of copper segments surrounding the shaft, which are insulated from each other by strips of mica. The ends of armature conductors are connected to commutator segments. A steel rod on which the armature core is mounted. The means by which mechanical power is delivered from a prime mover. Stationary rectangular carbon and graphite blocks which make electrical contact with the rotating commutator for the purpose of completing the current path from the external terminals through the armature conductors and return.

3. POLE SHOE.

4. YOKE.

5. ARMATURE CORE

6. ARMATURE.

7. SLOTS.

8. TEETH.

9. COMMUTATOR.

10. SHAFT.

11. BRUSHES.

12. BRUSH RIGMechanical assembly which holds the brushes in place and which GING provides for adjusting tension of the springs which push the brushes against the commutator. 13. END BELLS. Steel structures on both ends of the machine which provide support for the bearings and brush rigging. A general term referring to the production of the magnetic field within the machine. “Separate excitation” refers to the supplying of field-coil current from an outside source such as a battery; whereas “self excitation” refers to the generator supplying field-coil current from its own armature.

14. EXCITATION.

Table 5.1 MACHINE TERMINOLOGY A typical armature assembly is shown below in Figure 5.2. Part (a) shows a lamination used in the core. Multiple laminations are stacked to build the core. Laminations are used for ease of construction and to prevent eddy currents. Part (b) shows the laminations stacked together on a shaft and part (c) includes the wires and commutator segments.

2

Elementary Generator Construction The elementary generator of Figure 5. Components of a Typical Armature Assembly 5. Relative motion between the wire and the magnetic field will induce a potential difference between the ends of the loop.3: The Elementary Generator 3 . Commutation is used to change an AC into a DC machine be it a generator or a motor.3 consists of a loop of wire free to rotate in a stationary magnetic field. Figure 5.3 THE ELEMENTARY GENERATOR AND MECHANICAL COMMUTATION: A very simple elementary AC generator is discussed first because of the similarity in concepts and construction between AC and DC generators. Sliding contacts are used to connect the rotating loop to an external circuit in order to use the induced voltage. Then the process of mechanical commutation is introduced.2.(a) (b) (c) Figure 5.

indicating that the current through the load is flowing in the direction shown. The current meter registers zero. brushes. slip rings. The current meter deflects increasingly to the right between positions A and B. Now. In the description of the generator action which follows. the induced voltage in the conductors builds up from zero to a maximum value. The induced voltage that is generated in the loop. and the resultant voltage across the brushes (the terminal voltage) is the sum of the two induced emfs. The current through the circuit will vary just as the induced emf varies. (The reader should verify the polarity of the induced voltage and the direction of resulting current by applying either the right hand rule or the cross product relationship. In position A. The induced voltage in each of the conductors is therefore in series. being zero at zero degrees and rising up to a maximum at 90 degrees. between zero and 90 degrees.The pole pieces are the north and south poles of the magnet which supply the magnetic field. Brushes ride up against the slip rings providing a sliding electrical contact to pick up the electricity generated in the armature and carry it to the external circuit. zero-center current meter and load resistor all connected in series. they generate an induced voltage which causes a current to flow through the loop. and therefore the current that flows." which rotate with the armature. it does not cut through any lines of magnetic flux and no voltage is generated in the conductor. Figure 5. The loop of wire which rotates through the field is called the "armature. visualize the loop rotating through the magnetic field. This applies to the conductors of the loop at the instant they go through position A. depends upon the position of the loop in relation to the magnetic field. the conductors are cutting through more and more lines of flux until at 90 degrees (position B) they are cutting through a maximum number.) 4 . In other words. or double that of one conductor since the induced voltages are equal to each other." The ends of the armature loop are connected to rings called "slip rings. As the sides of the loop cut through the magnetic field. ELEMENTARY GENERATOR OPERATION Assume that the armature loop is rotating in a clockwise direction and that its initial position is at A (zero degrees) of Figure 5. the loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field and the black and white conductors of the loop are moving parallel to the magnetic field. lets analyze the action of the loop as it rotates through the field. If a conductor is moving parallel to a magnetic field. No voltage is induced in them and therefore no current flows through the circuit. Observe that from zero to 90 degrees the black conductor cuts down through the field while at the same time the white conductor cuts up through the field.4: How the Elementary Generator Works As the loop rotates from position A to position B.4.

As the loop continues rotating from position B (90 degrees) to position C (180 degrees). will decrease as the loop rotates from 90 to 180 degrees in the same manner as it increased from zero to 90 degrees.The direction of current flow and polarity of the induced voltage depends upon the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of rotation of the armature loop. which are cutting through a maximum number of lines of flux at position B. The current flow will similarly follow the voltage variations. until at position C they are again moving parallel to the magnetic field and no longer cut through any lines of flux. The induced voltage.5: How the Elementary Generator Works (cont’d) 5 . the conductors.5. The generator action at positions B and C is illustrated in Figure 5. therefore. cut through fewer lines. The simple generator drawing on the right is shown rotated by 900 to illustrate the relationship between the loop position and the generated waveform. Figure 5. The waveform shows how the terminal voltage of the elementary generator varies from position A to position B.

6: How the Elementary Generator Works (cont’d) 6 . From positions C through D back to position A. the current flow will be in the opposite direction than that from positions A through C. The voltage output waveform for the complete revolution of the loop is as shown in Figure 5. therefore. the polarity of the induced voltage and the current flow will reverse. The generator terminal voltage will also have its polarity reversed. the polarity of the induced emf has remained the same.6. Now the black conductor cuts up through the field. As a result. As the loop starts rotating beyond 180 degrees back towards position A. the direction of motion of the conductors through the magnetic field reverses.From zero to 180 degrees the conductors of the loop have been moving in the same direction through the magnetic field and. Figure 5. and the white conductor cuts down through the field.

The reader should again use the cross product or the right hand rule to verify the direction of current. The generated DC voltage becomes more constant as more and more loops are included on the armature. (a) (b) Figure 5.7 Mechanical Commutation Produces Unidirectional Output Voltage Note that although the voltage across the brushes is unidirectional. Instead of slip rings and brushes.7(b). The scheme is similar to the elementary AC generator but the hardware associated with the connection of the rotating wire loop to the outside world is modified. How can the voltage generated be made smoother? The answer is by including more loops of wire in the armature and correspondingly more commutator segments. although it may not be constant? One method for producing unidirectional voltage and current flow is shown below in Figure 5.7(a). Consider it a homework assignment. A commutator is a rotating switch which reverses the connection between the armature (the rotating loop of wire) and the outside world every half turn just at the point in the cycle the polarity would reverse in an elementary AC generator. it is not very constant.8(a) contains two mutually perpendicular loops with the corresponding output shown in Figure 5. The voltage at the left hand brush relative to that at the right hand brush is shown in Figure 5.RECTIFICATION BY MECHANICAL COMMUTATION A simple AC generator was discussed in the section above. The armature in Figure 5.6. How can this machine be modified to produce DC voltage and current which has the property that the polarity of the voltage does not change and the direction of current flow is always the same. the DC machine has commutator segments and brushes.7 are reversed relative to Figure 5. the right hand brush is always connected to the side of the loop which is traveling downward next to the South Pole at the times of maximum induced voltage.8(b) and a 3 loop armature machine and output are shown in Figure 5. 7 . Note that the poles in Figure 5. The slip ring of the AC machine has been divided into two halves insulated from each other to form a commutator. This means that the voltage at the left hand brush will always be “+” relative to that of the right hand brush. The voltage pulsations are undesirable for many applications.9.7(a) . Referring to Figure 5.

Combinations of these two methods can also be used. The details of these two methods are beyond the scope of this course. Second. because control of the magnetic field strength by adjusting current in the field coils is an important feature of the d-c generator. If you are interested in learning more about either type of winding. since the generator is a rotating machine.(a) (b) Figure 5. are included in the model. 8 .9 A DC Generator With Three Loops On Its Armature and Corresponding Output There are two primary methods of connecting the armature windings together. Table 5. This provides for greater current capability at a lower voltage. as a constant reminder that energy is being converted from one form to the other. First.8 A DC Generator With Two Loops On Its Armature and Corresponding Output (a) (b) Figure 5. symbols for the field coils and their resistance.2 illustrates how the basic relationships for the linear machine are modified to fit the rotating machine. 5. The turns are connected together in parallel in the lap winding method. the model will show the armature symbol connected to a rotating shaft which is driven by a prime mover. your instructor can help or direct you to an appropriate reference. RF . the model introduced for the latter may be used with only minor modifications. The turns are connected in series in the wave winding method providing for higher voltage at reduced current.4 THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Since the d-c generator is a practical form of the linear generator.

Power Equivalence Table 5.10 Separately Excited DC Generator Item Velocity/Speed Current. Field Magnetic Field Voltage.2. 9 . Induced Voltage. dimensions of the armature core. Terminal Force/Torque (Developed) Force/Torque (Applied) Resistance.Field Armature IA Vf RA + φ Ω Tf Td Ta E = K φΩ - + VT - IF Prime Mover Rf Figure 5. Armature Mechanical Power Dev. Linear Machine u m/s I amperes ------------B Webers/m2 e = BLu newtons v Volts f d = BLi newtons Rotating Machine $ rad/s or n rpm I A amperes I f amperes Webers (per pole) E = K$ = kn volts VT Volts Td = KIA N-m f a newtons r ohms Ta newton-meters R A ohms Td f d u watts ei watts ei = f d u $ watts EIA watts EIA = Td $ Machine Constants* ---------------K. Armature Current. Electrical Power Dev. number of armature coils and the method of interconnecting them.k *The constant for a given machine lumps together all the effects of the unchanging quantities such as the number of poles.

the voltmeter indicates the corresponding induced voltage. Thus in the equation E = KφΩ = kφn volts (5-1) The two constants K and k differ. The relationship between the two velocities is Ω = 2π n / 60 rad/s This is from (n rev/min)(2 rad/rev)(1 min/60sec) (5-2) The magnetic field is traditionally represented as flux () instead of flux density (B) because of the size of the average voltage E is arrived at by considering the total flux encountered by a single revolution of a conductor rather than the instantaneous flux densities.11. (5-4) 5. For each setting of field current. Td = K φI A Newton-meters Where the constant “K” is the same as in E = K:. Finally.5 THE MAGNETIZATION CURVE Magnetic conditions within the generator can be investigated by testing a separately excited generator using a voltmeter connected to the output of Figure 5. The data is then plotted on a graph called the “saturation curve” or “magnetization curve”. and the radius is called the “torque arm”. where VT is indicated. the rotational velocity of the machine is stated formally as $ which is related to tangential velocity of u = radius x $. a typical curve is illustrated in Figure 5. For example if the curve is wanted for 1000 rpm a point whose voltage is 250 x 1000/1200 would be located directly below the 250-volt ordinate on the 1200 rpm curve. but tachometers in present use are calibrated in the more practical unit of revolutions per minute. The justification for this procedure is that for any given fixed current the flux is the same for any speed and hence induced emf is proportional to speed only.10. symbol n. Td = ∑ f d x (radius) newton-meters (5-3) where ∑ f d is the sum of the tangential forces developed by the individual conductors. First. By calculating a series of points in this manner a new curve can be sketched below the 1200 rpm curve. and an ammeter in series with the field circuit to measure field current.A few comments are in order for clarifying information given in the table. which is the product of the tangential force and the radius of the cylinder. We shall next examine the magnetization curve in detail because its shape has a direct bearing on the operation of generators and motors. it will be remembered that tangential force applied to a rotating cylinder is interpreted as “torque”. they can be obtained without actually running more experimental tests. Consequently. 10 . by using direct proportionality. but we need not be concerned with their actual numerical values. Data is usually taken for voltages up to 25 to 50 percent above the rated value. If for any reason it should be desired to have curves for other speeds. The test procedure is to adjust the speed of the prime mover to the rated value as indicated on the generator name plate and then to adjust the variable resistor for increasing values of field current (including zero) as read on the ammeter.

i. most of the mmf drop occurring in the air gap between the armature core and the pole shoe.11 Magnetization Curve for a Typical DC Generator. but the point is that with this interpretation we can explain the behavior of the magnetic circuit within the machine by referring to the shape of the curve. Now this graph can be interpreted as a plot of air gap flux vs mmf as well as voltage vs current. Since this is a gradual process rather than an abrupt one. flux is directly proportional to the mmf.0 1. there is a transition region between the linear part and the saturated part.e. Of course the numerical scales would differ. As current is increased beyond the linear region.12. Although this flux is responsible for only a small induced voltage.5 Figure 5. In this region the steel parts of the magnetic circuit account for only a small portion of the total mmf. it is seen that the curve is straight for an appreciable portion. As current (mmf) is increased. and the current becomes mmf-perpole when multiplied by the number of turns of wire in each field coil. This should not be surprising since we know from previous study of magnetic phenomena (hysteresis) that residual magnetism is left in the steel structure from previous use of the generator.300 1200 rpm 250 Generated Voltage in Volts 200 150 100 50 0 0 0. which is referred to as the “knee” of the curve.5 Field Current in Amps 2.5 1.0 2. rotation of magnetic domains and finally magnetic saturation take place in the steel parts resulting in a marked departure from the straight-line relationship of the curve. $ 11 . Beginning in the lower left corner of the graph it can be seen that a flux exists for zero mmf. For this reason the curve has been redrawn with flux and mmf coordinates in Figure 5. since voltage is proportional to flux when the speed is held constant E = kφn . it fulfills an extremely important role in self-excited generators by providing the “seed” flux which starts the process of “build-up” to normal flux levels — to be explained in detail later.

The obvious advantage of self excitation is the cost savings realized by not requiring additional capital investment for a separate source. but first a few words about ratings. but in Figure 5. Operating the generator within the linear portion of the curve is recommended for applications where terminal voltage is to be varied over a wide range. In generators using self excitation (to be treated later) the field is connected to the armature. as in situations where the generator has direct control of a single load. In the former case the armature is more responsive to control since a given change in field current causes a larger change in voltage than in the saturated region.13 a load resistor has been added and the field control potentiometer has been modified to allow reversal of field current.S RA ATU TIO N FLUX 0 0 MMF. The advantage of separate excitation which offsets the extra cost is the much greater range of control available. LIN EA R 12 .12 Magnetization curve with modified scales.6 SEPARATELY-EXCITED GENERATORS The simplest generator and one which is used for a wide variety of applications is “separately excited”. Magnetomotive Force which is proportional to Field Current Figure 5. referring to the manner in which electrical energy is supplied to the field coils. 5. whereas with separate excitation the field is connected to a separate source. including the ability to change polarity at will. The principle application for this type of generator is in motor control. The modifier “separately” is used to distinguish it from another class of generators which are “selfexcited”. operation in the saturated region is preferred. On the other hand. The method of wiring was indicated in the test for acquiring data for the magnetization curve. if an application requires the voltage not change much once it is set. We shall next investigate how the generator reacts under load conditions.

for the sake of perspective. not as recommended practice.R. = Voltage Regulation = V NL − VFL / V FL (5-5) $ (5-6) Suppose it is desired to investigate the effect on the external characteristics of changing the field current by readjusting the variable resistor in the field circuit. 24 hours a day and 7 days a week unless otherwise stated. rated (i. Operation of a machine above its current rating for an appreciable length of time could result in overheating and to deterioration of insulation or complete burnout. First. The slope of this line is the resistance of the load RL. The intersection of this load line with the external characteristic of the 13 .15.14. The load characteristic for a separately-excited generator is displayed in Figure 5. a “load line” is drawn from the origin through the point where the coordinates are rated current and voltage. without changing the load resistance. These ratings assume continuous operation.IA Vf RA + φ Ω Tf Td Ta Prime Mover E = K φΩ - + + VM - AM - IF Rf RL IL Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5. voltage.13 Separately excited generator. Operation beyond the rated limits is shown for completeness.e. This graph is the I-v relationship or terminal characteristic of the generator. current and speed. The load line is the i-v characteristic of RL. Second. otherwise not. The drop in terminal voltage as the current increases is caused by the I A R A voltage drop within the armature in accordance with VT = E − I A R A volts Just as it was in the linear generator. The current rating is the most likely rating to be exceeded since it depends directly on the loading of the machine. The chief parameters for rating rotating machines are power output. “full-load) values will be indicated for reference. we can draw a family of curves for several settings of the field current. In the graphs of external characteristics which follow. The voltage regulation of the generator is defined as: V. The spacing of the curves will be equidistant for equal field current increments provided that operation is limited to the linear part of magnetization curve.

15.Terminal Voltage Rated Current Load Current I L = IA V FL Rated Voltage IF5 IF4 Rated Current IL = IA IF3 IF2 IF1 Load Current Figure 5.15 External Characteristics of a Separately-Excited Generator with Various Settings of Field Current 14 . rated current and voltage will result.T e r m i n a l V o l t a g e V NL V FL L o a d L i n e S l o p e = V L /I L = R L Rated Voltage This Load Intersects Machine Characteristic at Greater Than Rated Load Current Causing Overheating Figure 5. but reducing it below IF4 affords full control of current without overload.14 External Characteristic of a Separately-Excited Generator. Now it can be seen that increasing the field current above the IF4 value results in current and voltage overloads. V T . V T .generator is the point at which the generator will operate. For field current IF4 and the load line shown in Figure 5.

By proportionality. .040 b. $ $ e. This extends operation of the generator to negative terminal voltage and negative line current with respect to Figures 5. E = 1011 volts. R A = E − V / I A = 130 − 125 / 40 = 0. .1 volts I L = I A = E / R A + RL = 1011 / 0125 + 3125 = 311 amperes .5 N-m. a. . $ 15 . Calculate the voltage regulation. While the loads are still connected. $ $ I A = I L = V / R L = 125 / 3125 = 40 a m p e r e s . d. c.13) reverses the polarity of the voltage applied to the field coils. note that moving the “slider” of the field control resistance to the left of the centerpoint (Figure 5. . Td = EI A / Ω = 130 x 40 / 2π 1800 / 60 = 27. . . f. Calculate the armature resistance.2 volts. E = 1 3 0 ( 1 4 0 0 / 1 8 0 0 ) = 1 0 1. To what value will the voltage now rise when the loads are disconnected? Solution a. . Calculate the internal torque when supplying the original loads. Td = EI A / Ω = 1011 x 311 / 2 π 1400 / 60 = 21. V. EXAMPLE 5-1 A separately-excited generator with the following nameplate ratings is delivering energy at rated voltage to 8 parallel loads with resistances of 25 ohms each: 5 Kilowatts 125 Volts 1800 rpm 40 Amperes When the loads are disconnected the voltage rises to 130 volts.14 and 5.R. . therefore. $ $ d. E2 = E1 (n2 / n1 ) for a given setting of field current. e. which reverses the direction of field current and eventually the magnetic field.15 or into the third quadrants of these plots. b. R L = 25 / 8 = 3. . the speed governor malfunctions. f. V = E − I A R A = 1011 − 311x 0125 = 97.To further demonstrate the versatility of the separately-excited generator. = V NL − VFL / VFL = 130 − 125 / 125 =.125 O h m s . reducing the speed to 1400 rpm. Calculate the new values of IL and V.6 N-m.125 Ohms $ c. Calculate the new value of torque. .

a great amount of control over the terminal voltage is still available. Comparison of generator connections. the field circuit is just another load to be supplied with current. VF IF IA IF RA + RC RF VT FIELD φ IA RA + E = K φΩ - IL + RF + φ E = K φΩ - VT - FIELD (a) Separately-excited Generator (b) Self-excited Generator Figure 5. This can be expressed in mathematical terms as E = f IF $ 16 (5-9) .7 SELF EXCITED SHUNT GENERATORS A large savings in the initial cost and complexity of a DC generator can be realized if the field circuit is connected across the armature terminals instead of to a separate source. Since the field circuit is wired in parallel with the load. with the aid of a “field rheostat” (RC) connected in series with the field coils. $ (5-8) There is an interdependence between the field circuit and the armature circuit since the field current supplies the magnetic field which produces the armature induced voltage but at the same time the armature supplies current to the field current. as far as the armature is concerned. Moreover.16.5. The term “shunt” is synonymous with “parallel”. From KCL: I A = IL + IF and then using Ohm’s Law: (5-7) I F = V T R F + RC . a feedback situation.

This field current increases the strength of the magnetic field which then causes an increase in induced voltage. VT $ IAR A Field Resistance Line E VT 0 0 IF Figure 5.17 Field resistance line drawn on magnetization curve showing voltage division in armature. the vertical difference between the curves must correspond to the I A R A drop in the armature. Since Equation (5-8) is a linear equation (Ohm’s law) it can be plotted as a straight line on a graph. as illustrated in Figure 5. then drawing a line through that point and the origin to complete the job. Since the magnetization curve indicates values of E and the field resistance line indicates values of VT. which causes an increase in field current. Voltage Build-Up The build-up of voltage in a self-excited generator can be visualized with the aid of this graph.17. First assume there is no load resistance connected to the terminals of the generator except the shunt field. one need only pick a single current at random and calculate the corresponding voltage to find one point on the line. is thus seen to 17 . non-analytic function it is necessary to resort to a graphical solution of these two simultaneous equations. E . so VT must equal E in the steady state. and so on. and Equation (5-8) which describes the field circuit. with concurrent growth in the magnitude of induced voltage. Second. Since it is a straight line through the origin and has a slope of RF + Rc . we choose to plot it on the same graph as the magnetization curve. Since Equation (5-9) describes a non-linear. and since the field current is small compared with the rated load current (to keep losses low) it can also be assumed that the I A R A = I F R A voltage drop is negligible. Specifically. assume the prime mover has been brought up to rated speed.which describes the magnetization curve. The small residual magnetic field induces a small voltage in the armature which in turn causes a small field current. The growth of the magnetic field.

the establishment of an equilibrium condition must result in E = VT. Now. Remembering our assumption of negligible I A R A drop under no-load conditions.18. the positive feedback cycle. VT R C3 R C2 R C1 E1 E2 E3 0 0 IF Figure 5. An increase in flux for a given increase in field current becomes smaller beyond the knee of the curve. an increase to RC3 drops the induced voltage drastically. as illustrated in Figure 5.18. positive feedback situation. what prevents the build-up. To be specific. This point can also be interpreted as the graphical solution of simultaneous Equations (5-8) and (5-9). and the only place on the graph where this is true is at the intersection of the resistance line and the magnetization curve. Beginning with the original setting Rc1. Then the field current is precisely enough to keep the induced voltage at the level required by Ohm’s law to maintain that amount of current in the field circuit. 18 . until finally an equilibrium condition exists. We can make use of this knowledge by coupling it with the fact that the slope of the field resistance line is equal to the combined field circuit resistances RF + RC . This brings up a point: if a selfexcited generator fails to build up.be an automatic. where build-up is practically nonexistent. from proceeding ad infinitum? The non-linearity of the magnetization curve gives us a clue: saturation. we can control the voltage at which the intersection occurs by adjusting the field rheostat Rc. Finally. what are the usual causes? E . which produces a voltage E1 an increase to RC2 (steeper slope = larger resistance) drops the voltage to E2. Effect of varying field rheostat on no-load voltage build-up.

2. as illustrated in Figure 5. Shut down and check circuits for continuity “Flash” field as described above 4.Terminal Voltage Separately-excited V NL Self-excited Rated Current IL Figure 5.19.3. Voltage low. With The Same No-load Voltage 19 . Voltage low.Table 5. it is found that the voltage drops more. No voltage Reason Field rheostat set for too much resistance Field mmf is opposing residual magnetism No residual magnetism Remedy Readjust field rheostat for lower resistance Switch shunt field connections Disconnect shunt field and reconnect it to a d-c source (“flasher”) for a few seconds. Disengage field from source and reconnect to armature. Failure of a Generator to Build Up* Symptom 1. drops when field is disconnected. V T . Wrong Polarity Open circuit Residual magnetism in wrong direction *Assuming direction of rotation is correct. rises slightly when field is disconnected 3. for a given load current than it does when connected for separate excitation. No voltage 5. Load Characteristic If a self-excited shunt generator is connected to a load and a test is run for obtaining the load characteristics.19 Comparison of External Characteristics For The Same Generator Connected Two Ways.

EXAMPLE 5-2 The generator of example 5-1 is rigged for self-excitation and adjusted for rated voltage and load current. b. When the load is disconnected the terminal voltage rises to 138 volts. The answer is found in Equation (5-8) where the field current is seen to be directly proportional to the terminal voltage VT.20 Effect of loading on location of operating point. which in turn results in a decreased induced voltage E. Correspondingly. d. in self-excited generator. E2. The field current is noted to be 1. with the accompanying change in VT from VT1 to VT2. Calculate field current under no-load conditions. V T $ does not sufficiently increase the I R drop to A A E 1 = V T1 IA R A E2 V T2 0 0 IF2 IF1 IF Figure 5. Condition 1 is no-load condition 2 is with load. This can be seen graphically in Figure 5. E. In other words.The additional armature current required by the field I A = I L + I F account for the entire additional drop — we must look elsewhere for a reasonable explanation.19 is accounted for by the difference between E1 and E2 in Figure 5. where E has dropped from the no-load value at the intersection (E1) to the loaded value. The field current does not remain constant as it would in a separately excited generator. A drop in VT causes a drop in IF. the drop in VT has reduced field current from IF1 to IF2.20.85 amperes. with the same load as before. the difference between the two curves in Figure 5. 20 . c. Calculate total field resistance. a. Calculate generated emf under full-load conditions. Calculate voltage regulation.20.

Increased wire size is offset.8 COMPOUND GENERATORS The “droop” in the external characteristic of the shunt generator is a disadvantage when it is serving a multiplicity of loads. The physical location of the shunt and series field windings are the same.0 amperes $ $ $ # $ 5. the series field must be wound with much larger wire. R F + RC = V / I F = 125 / 185 = 67. since the voltage at one load location will fluctuate up and down as other loads are turned on and off. consisting of a means of incorporating automatic positive feedback proportional to load current — the “series’ field The key to offsetting voltage drop is in increasing the induced voltage by adding extra mmf.125 + 130. but because the full-load current is typically many times greater than the shunt field current. a 500-turn per-pole shunt field with a current of 2 amperes produces an mmf of 1000 ampere-turns.R.125)/125 = . however. = (138 .Solution a. which causes additional voltage drop. For example. Compound generator 21 . An ingenious but simple method of overcoming this difficulty was thought of in the early days of electrical engineering. The series field is wired in series with the load and thus carries load current.6 = 2. c. E = VT + I L + I F R A = 125 + 4185 0. I F no − load = VT / RF + RC = 138 / 67.Terminal Voltage Compound Separately Excited Shunt V NL + E IF SHUNT RC IL RL SERIES + VT - Rated Current IL (a) Wiring Diagram (b) Comparative External Characteristics Figure 5.2 volts . Although this could be done by someone continually adjusting the shunt field rheostat. V T . by the small number of turns needed by the series field to achieve a significant amount of mmf. a better way is to add another field winding called a “series field”.6 ohms .104 b. V. d. This effect is rendered all the worse by the resistance of wiring between the generator and the loads. but a series field of only 5 turns per pole with a current of 40 amperes produces an mmf of 200 ampere-turns.19(a). as shown in Figure 5.21.

An interesting possibility arises when one considers that the series field might also be connected so its mmf opposes the mmf of the shunt field. respectively.The external characteristic illustrated in Figure 5. thus. Generators are normally furnished by the manufacturer as overcompound so the user can adjust the compounding to suit his or her application. lowering the curve.9 TACHOMETER GENERATORS Aside from its in energy conversion. there is one application which uses the series field in this way — the d-c arc welding generator. This is accomplished quite simply by using a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field of constant strength and coupling its shaft directly to the rotating shaft whose speed is to be measured. If the voltage rise is greater than needed for a given situation.21(b) shows a rising terminal voltage as load current increases.22 Physical Location of Shunt And Series Field Windings Shown On One Pole. The armature terminals are then connected to a voltmeter calibrated directly in rpm. Under this circumstance the terminal voltage would drop quite drastically when a load is connected. The sharply drooping voltage characteristic fits the need in welding for a large voltage to start an arc but once the arc begins the voltage needed to sustain it is considerably less. 22 . Figure 5. the generator is said to be “flat-compound” because the full-load and no-load voltages are the same (voltage regulation is zero). for example in a system to maintain motor speed at a steady value in spite of fluctuating load. If the curve is horizontal. Another use for tachometer generators is as a link in the feedback path of a servo system. Although this defeats the purpose of adding the series field in the beginning. “Overcompound” and “undercompound” generators have characteristic curves above or below the flat curve. 5. This is often more desirable than a horizontal curve because the additional voltage above the noload value can be used to cancel the effect of IR drop in the wires leading to the loads. the d-c generator finds application as a transducer which provides an output voltage proportional to shaft speed. by adding a diverter. a variable resistor called a “diverter” can be added in parallel with the series field to bypass a portion of the load current around the field.

Initial flux to allow the system to build up voltage is supplied by the small residual magnetism in the magnetic circuit. This allows complete control of the generator’s armature voltage from zero up to rated.11 QUESTIONS Q5.10 SUMMARY Knowledge of the terminology and construction of d-c machines is essential to understanding their operation The induced emf and current emf direction in each armature coil undergoes a reversal in traveling the distance of one pole pitch. field current is then supplied by the armature. The self-excited generator saves the cost of providing a source for the field by wiring the field in parallel with the armature. Indefinite build-up of voltage is prevented by saturation of the magnetic circuit.4 What allows the approximation to be made that the no load terminal voltage is about equal to be armture induced voltage for a self-excited DC shunt generator? Q5.6 What is the major advantage of a compound DC generator? 23 . determined experimentally by separately exciting the generator under no-load conditions. A generator having both fields.3. Reasons for the failure of a self-excited generator to build up voltage are enumerated in Table 5. Curves for speeds other than the test speed can be constructed by direct proportionality. It is useful in explaining and predicting machine performance. Shunt field current. *or the total 5.1 Describe the function of the commutator in a DC generator. The separately-excited generator requires a voltage source to supply power to the field circuit. Addition of a series field to a self-excited shunt generator.2 What is the advantage of multiple pairs of commutator segments in a DC generator? Q5. Q5. wired in series with the armature*. thus offsetting the voltage “droop” which normally occurs with the shunt field only. shunt and series. The brush-commutator system serves as a means of rectifying the voltage and current so they appear at the brushes as unidirectional. is called a compound generator. The magnetization curve is a plot of induced voltage vs.3 Describe the source of the magnetic field in which the rotor spins for (a) separately excited DC generator and (b) a self-excited DC generator.5.5 What would be the effect of zero residual magnetic field in a self-excited. Q5. for either polarity. provides additional mmf as the generator load current increases. DC shunt generator upon startup? How would you correct this problem? Q5.

5.0A and the speed is 1000 rpm. find the open circuit voltage of that generator if (a) the field current is 0. Calculate (at rated conditions): a. the armature current. d. and 1 Amp at 1200 rpm. When the load is disconnected. Calculate the field current under no-load conditions. And the mechanical power converted to electrical power. Repeat Example 5-1 of the text if 10 parallel loads are supplied.5 If the speed of the generator of P5.8 of the text applies to a particular DC generator. The armature current.5A and the speed is 1800 rpm and (b) the field current is 2.1 Assuming that Figure 5. and a graphical solution using the curve is required). b. The armature resistance. And the internal torque when supplying rated load. the terminal voltage rises to 140 V. c. P5. d.4 is increased to 2000 rpm. c. The generator of P5.2 kW.6 A self-excited DC shunt generator is rated at 125V. with the same load as before.12 PROBLEMS P5.8 Amps. and 1 Amp at 1200 rpm. The field current.3 P5. The no-load terminal voltage (the behavior is non-linear. b. Calculate: a. the terminal voltage rises to 130 Volts. The field current is noted to be 1. P5. 1800 rpm. e. the voltage regulation. P5.2 is reconnected for self-excitation and adjusted for rated voltage and load current. The voltage regulation. calculate: (Assume linear operation. b. The load current. 24 . And the internal torque when supplying rated load. P52.) a. When the load is disconnected. 60 Amps and 7. Calculate the generated emf under full-load conditions. d. c. c. Calculate the total field resistance. each having a resistance of 20 Ohms and the generator is rated at 120 Volts. a. b. The terminal voltage.4 A separately excited DC generator is rated at 125 V. Calculate the voltage regulation. The field resistance is 125 Ohms and the armature resistance is 5 Ohms.

220 V and 100 A at 1200 rpm has the magnetization curve shown in Figure 5. If the generator is supplying rated voltage and current to the load. b. Rf. the efficiency. IA. P5.P5. the total power. the power supplied to the load. E. the total power out. estimate the field current if the generator has a no-load voltage of 250 Volts. calculate: c.8 of the text.10 If the speed governor for the generator of P5. the developed torque. the percent voltage regulation. c. f.1 Hp. and the % voltage regulation. g. 220 V and 100 A at 1200 rpm has the magnetization curve shown in Figure 5. RA. RA. Given the field resistance of 150 Ohms. the field resistance. and IP. Determine the armature resistance. V. the armature resistance. and the developed torque. d. . the efficiency. At rated conditions calculate: a. $. If mechanical losses are 0.1 Hp. d. c. g. e. VF.8 were to fail and the speed decreased to 1000 rpm. POUT. RF. f. P5. the induced voltage. a. Rl.11 A separately-excited DC generator is rated at 130 V.7 A separately excited DC generator rated at 22 kW. the terminal voltage rises to 136 V. and the % voltage regulation. and 45 A at 1200 rpm. the rated load resistance. If the no-load voltage is 250 V. RA. b. calculate: e. what would the new no-load voltage be? P5. IL. Sketch and completely label a circuit model for this generator showing the following Ta. calculate: a. the mechanical power losses are 250 W.7 were to fail and the speed increased to 1500 rpm. Prime mover.8 A self-excited DC generator rated at 22 kW. At rated conditions.9 If the speed governor for the generator of P5. RC. When the load is disconnected. E. Td. b.8 of the text. the total input power if rotational losses are 0. Tf. what would be the new no-load voltage? P5. 25 .

f. k. including numeric values for each power. Predict the terminal voltage if the load is disconnected.12 Ohms and the magnetization curve shown in Figure P5.12 applies.11 and then determine the value of the equivalent load resistance. c.12 A separately-excited DC generator is running at rated conditions of 215 v and 155 A at 1800 rpm. the angular velocity.d. the developed torque Td. i. h. the power converted from mechanical to electrical power. j. Rl. 300 1800 rpm 250 Generated Voltage in Volts 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Field Current in Amps 4 5 Figure P5. Determine the amount of field current required at full-load to produce the correct terminal voltage. the mechanical power in PIN. P5. 26 . Sketch the power flow diagram for this generator. POUT. $.12 a. g. It has an armature resistance of 0. the load resistance. and the torque due to friction Tf. the armature resistance. RA. e. Sketch a circuit diagram showing all the parameters listed in P5. b.

5 N-m. in the field winding is 100 Ohms. Predict the terminal voltage for the load found in (a) if the field current is reduced by 20%. If the field current is restored to its original value and the speed of rotation is slowed to 1000 rpm.13 A separately-excited DC generator has the magnetization curve shown in Figure P5. d. This current is supplied from a 200 V DC source. determine the terminal voltage.6A. P5. e.5 kW and 210 V at 1200 rpm. The value of the adjustable resistance. Determine: b.13 a. which must be connected to the generator output terminals to receive this amount of power. RC. 350 1200 rpm 300 250 Generated Voltage in Volts 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Field Current in Amps 4 5 Figure P5. which must be connected to the generator output terminals to receive this amount of power. And the equivalent load resistor. RF. RLD. To produce rated output it is found necessary to set the field current IF. The rated output is 5. And the equivalent load resistor. The input torque to sustain these rated conditions is 49. c.d. Study the system carefully and determine: 27 . the load is disconnected but no other changes are made. Determine the rated load ILD. With the machine delivering rated output. RLD.13. The resistance. equal to 1.

the armature current. the terminal voltage and shunt field current for this fully loaded machine. PIN.13 Ohms. The following resistances were measured: RA = 1. the power converted from mechanical to electrical. the armature resistance. the developed torque. the no-load terminal voltage. P5. g.e. The total field resistance is 120 Ohms and the armature resistance is 0. b.15 The rated output for a self-excited. The terminal voltage is 195 V at 1200 rpm. f. the efficiency of the machine. the induced voltage. c. Under unloaded conditions both the induced and terminal voltages will increase. the friction and windage loss of the machine. h. i. sketch a complete model of the generator including all appropriate labels. the required mechanical input power. e. Then determine: a.116 Ohms. VT. construct a power flow diagram for this generator under rated condition. what will be the no load terminal voltage? (Note: the IARA voltage drop under unloaded conditions is very small compared with E and VNL. f. and the torque due to mechanical losses. the field current. Mechanical losses at rated speed are 480 W.13 Ohms. Carefully sketch and label a circuit diagram for this generator and then determine: a.14 A self-excited. 28 .) P5. h. g. The friction and windage losses are 250 W. the assumption that under no load conditions the voltage drop due to the armature resistance can be ignored is a good approximation. The load is now disconnected. including the numeric value for each power. the value of RA. PCONV. k. Under rated conditions. j. shunt DC generator is rated at 130 V and 95 A at 1200 rpm.2 kW. If E increases to 145 V. and the total field resistance . the value of the generated voltage. the percent voltage regulation of this machine. d. b. the applied torque. c. DC generator is 5. Therefore. and the efficiency of operation at rated output. the angular velocity.

the induced voltage the power converted.12 and its no load voltage is measured at 250 V. 150 V. The total field resistance is 30 Ohms and the armature resistance is 0. Calculate: a.08 Ohms. At rated output. DC generator is rated at 22 kW. Mechanical losses are 142 W. P5. the angular velocity. the field current. and 1500 rpm.17 A DC shunt generator is operating at rated condition. b. c.P5. the developed torque. h. f.). the developed torque. the torque applied to the shaft by the prime mover. d. the armature current. Draw an equivalent circuit and a power flow diagram and then calculate: a. i.16 A self-excited. It has the same magnetization curve as shown in Figure P5. e. 29 . the total field resistance (Hint: plot the field resistance line and make appropriate approximations. 220 V and 100 A at 1800 rpm. b. the mechanical losses are 1 Hp. and the input horsepower required to turn the shaft. the total torque due to mechanical losses. g. which are: 18 kW. the total input power and the efficiency at rated output.

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