7. PARTICULARS Introduction Background of the project Review of literature Methodology Conclusion References PG. 3. 16. 14. 4.NO 1. 6.NO 1. . 4. 2. 5. 3.index S.

The word laser is an acronym that stands for “light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation”.INTRODUCTION The laser is the most important optical device to be developed in the past 50 years. The laser is essentially an optical amplifier. it has provided the stimulus to make optics one of the most rapidly growing fields in science and technology today. . Since its arrival in the 1960s.

intensity: the output from a laser is typically orders of magnitude higher in intensity (measured in watts per square meter) than a conventional light source.The qualities of the light generated by a laser are significantly different from that generated by a conventional source such as an incandescent light bulb or fluorescent light tube. the peaks and troughs of the light waves all correspond. In science. laser printers and laser pointers. the output from a laser is generally coherent. and illumination. which typically takes advantage of the laser's well-defined wavelength or the possibility of generating very short pulses of light. and for "marking"—producing visible patterns such as letters by changing the properties of a material or by inscribing its surface. bandwidth: the light emitted by the laser generally consists of a very narrow range of wavelengths. bending. that is. The second-largest application is fiber-optic communication. target designation. In manufacturing. The theoretical background of laser action as the basis for an optical amplifier was made possible by Albert Einstein. Lasers are used in medicine for surgery. By far the largest single application of lasers is in optical storage devices such as compact disc and DVD players. as . diagnostics. and welding metal and other materials. in which a semiconductor laser less than a millimeter wide scans the surface of the disc. lasers are used for cutting. and therapeutic applications. One of the more common is laser spectroscopy. Lasers are used by the military for range-finding. allowing the light to form clear interference patterns. Other common applications of lasers are bar code readers. lasers are used for many applications. or color. Lasers have also begun to be tested for directed-energy weapons. These major differences include: divergence: the laser generally emits a pencil thin beam of light whose divergent angle is closely related to the wavelength and limiting aperture size. coherence.

For the greater part of the 1960s. Townes and Co-workers developed a microwave amplifier based on stimulated emission radiation. when he first predicted the existence of a new irradiative process called “stimulated emission”. . It was called a maser. A.H.8 nm) spectral regions.Maiman built the first laser device (ruby laser). others devices followed in rapid succession. which emitted light in both the infrared (at 1. Javan and associates developed the first gas laser (He-Ne laser). remained largely unexploited until 1954. His theoretical work. each with a different laser medium and a different wavelength emission. when C.3 nm. the laser was viewed by the world of industry and technology as scientific curiosity.early as 1917. which emitted deep red light at a wavelength of 694. T. Within months of the arrival of Maiman’s ruby laser.15mm) and visible (at 632. Following the birth of the ruby and He-Ne lasers.H. however. BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT The laser has found its way into many uses in every day life. In 1960.

Starting from its foundation to its Application . laid the foundation for the invention of the laser and its predecessor. and books from where the information is or can be collected.i. CONCLUSION –Conclusion gives a brief description of laser and its uses.     REVIEW OF LITERATURE  In 1917. RECOMMENDATIONS –This recommends sites. to scientific and engineering investigations. in his paper Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Theory of Radiation).The background of this project is to emphasize the application of laser. It contains the functioning. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . the qualities of light generated by the laser. optical data storage. applications of laser and when it came into existence.This is a note on past studies. Albert Einstein. in a ground-breaking rederivation of Max Planck's law . materials processing. the maser. defense.e 3D scanner. and scientific research. and other advanced techniques. This project contains the following: INTRODUCTION – Introduction gives a brief description of what a laser is. METHODOLOGY – This contains the focus area of the project. The major application areas for the laser are in communications. surgery. people. technology and applications of a laser scanner.

Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. In 1939. In 1958. In 1947. As ideas were developed. In 1957. which was experimentally confirmed by Brossel. Lamb and R. Willis E. Gould intended "-aser" to be a suffix. Alfred Kastler (Nobel Prize for Physics 1966) proposed the method of optical pumping. and stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. at Bell Labs. Retherford found apparent stimulated emission in hydrogen spectra and made the first demonstration of stimulated emission. apparently unaware of both the published work of Prokhorov and the unpublished work of Gould.    of radiation based on the concepts of probability coefficients (later to be termed 'Einstein coefficients') for the absorption. began a serious study of the infrared laser. At the same time Gordon Gould. spontaneous emission. Fabrikant predicted the use of stimulated emission to amplify "short" waves. the first published appearance of this idea. Schawlow and Townes also settled on an open resonator design. including suggesting using an open resonator. a graduate student at Columbia University. Landenburg confirmed the existence of stimulated emission and negative absorption. The concept was originally known as an “optical maser”. In 1928. C. Prokhorov independently proposed using an open resonator. which became an important ingredient of future lasers. made notes about his ideas for a "laser" in November 1957. The term "laser" was first introduced to the public in Gould's 1959 conference paper "The LASER. Kastler and Winter two years later. to be used with an appropriate prefix for the . Valentin A. In 1950. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". Rudolph W. infrared frequencies were abandoned with focus on visible light instead.

As with the first gas lasers. etc. working with William R. Javan later received the Albert Einstein Award in 1993. Jr. Maiman used a solid-state flashlamp-pumped synthetic ruby crystal to produce red laser light at 694 nanometers wavelength. The first semiconductor laser with visible emission was demonstrated later the same year by Nick Holonyak.). using the heterojunction structure. Arthur Schawlow at Bell Labs. although "raser" was used for a short time to describe radio-frequency emitting devices. Hall's device was made of gallium arsenide and emitted at 850 nm in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. The concept of the semiconductor laser diode was proposed by Basov and Javan. Zhores Alferov in the Soviet Union and Izuo Hayashi and Morton Panish of Bell Telephone Laboratories independently developed laser diodes continuously operating at room temperature. however. Hall in 1962. In 1970. was only capable of pulsed operation due to its three-level pumping scheme. . The first working laser was made by Theodore H. and Gould at a company called TRG (Technical Research Group). made the first gas laser using helium and neon. None of the other terms became popular. Maiman's laser. Bennett and Donald Herriot. California. ultraviolet: uvaser. Maiman in 1960 at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu. beating several research teams including those of Townes at Columbia University. these early semiconductor lasers could be used only in pulsed operation. Later in 1960 the Iranian physicist Ali Javan.spectrum of light emitted by the device (x-rays: xaser. and indeed only when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K). The first laser diode was demonstrated by Robert N.

laser research has produced a variety of improved and specialized laser types. so that the likelihood for the ground electrons to absorb any energy has been cancelled. optimized for different performance goals. Methodology 3D scanner . was discovered in 1992 in sodium gas and again in 1995 in rubidium gas by various international teams. This was accomplished by using an external maser to induce "optical transparency" in the medium by introducing and destructively interfering the ground electron transitions between two paths. including: • • • • • • • • new wavelength bands maximum average output power maximum peak output power minimum output pulse duration maximum power efficiency maximum charging maximum firing minimum cost and this research continues to this day.RECENT INNOVATIONS: Since the early period of laser history. Lasing without maintaining the medium excited into a population inversion.

Functionality: The purpose of a 3D scanner is usually to create a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the subject. These points can then be used to extrapolate the shape of the subject (a process called reconstruction).A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (i. three dimensional models useful for a wide variety of applications. Laser scanners can send trillions of light photons toward an object and only receive a small percentage of those photons back via the optics that they use. Technology: The two types of 3D scanners are contact and non-contact. Noncontact 3D scanners can be further divided into two main . The reflectivity of an object is based upon the object's color or terrestrial albedo. color). A white surface will reflect lots of light and a black surface will reflect only a small amount of light. Transparent objects such as glass will only refract the light and give false three dimensional information.e. The collected data can then be used to construct digital.

The laser rangefinder finds the distance of a surface by timing the round-trip time of a pulse of light. At the heart of this type of scanner is a time-of-flight laser rangefinder. Contact Contact 3D scanners probe the subject through physical touch. Non-Contact Active Active scanners emit some kind of radiation or light and detect its reflection in order to probe an object or environment. the camera and the laser emitter form a triangle. There are a variety of technologies that fall under each of these categories.categories. A laser is used to emit a pulse of light and the amount of time before the reflected light is seen by a detector is timed. active scanners and passive scanners. . It is used mostly in manufacturing and can be very precise. Depending on how far away the laser strikes a surface. Possible types of emissions used include light. the laser dot appears at different places in the camera’s field of view. The disadvantage of CMMs though. A CMM (coordinate measuring machine) is an example of a contact 3D scanner. is that it requires contact with the object being scanned. This technique is called triangulation because the laser dot. Time-of-flight The time-of-flight 3D laser scanner is an active scanner that uses laser light to probe the subject. With respect to time-offlight 3D laser scanner the triangulation laser shines a laser on the subject and exploits a camera to look for the location of the laser dot. ultrasound or x-ray. Triangulation The triangulation 3D laser scanner is also an active scanner that uses laser light to probe the environment.

Structured light Structured light 3D scanners project a pattern of light on the subject and look at the deformation of the pattern on the subject. The result is a diffraction pattern.Conoscopic Holography In a Conoscopic system a laser beam is projected onto the surface and then the immediate reflection along the same ray-path are put through a conoscopic crystal and projected onto a CCD. Non-Contact Passive . thus giving an opportunity to measure for instance the depth of a finely drilled hole. Usually the light source simply cycles its amplitude in a sinusoidal pattern. that can be frequency analyzed to determine the distance to the measured surface. The main advantage with Conoscopic Holography is that only a single raypath is needed for measuring. The pattern may be one dimensional or two dimensional. It uses a technique similar to triangulation to calculate the distance of every point on the line. Modulated light Modulated light 3D scanners shine a continually changing light at the subject. Handheld Laser Handheld laser scanners create a 3D image through the triangulation mechanism described above: a laser dot or line is projected onto an object from a handheld device and a sensor (typically a charge-coupled device or position sensitive device) measures the distance to the surface. Modulated light also allows the scanner to ignore light from sources other than a laser. A camera detects the reflected light and the amount the pattern is shifted by determines the distance the light traveled. so there is no interference.

Passive scanners do not emit any kind of radiation themselves. it is possible to determine the distance at each point in the images. This method is based on human Photometric Photometric systems usually use a single camera. By analyzing the slight differences between the images seen by each camera. slightly apart. because in most cases they do not need particular hardware. such as infrared could also be used. These techniques attempt to invert the image formation model in order to recover the surface orientation at each pixel. D-Sculptor or RealViz- . looking at the same scene. These silhouettes are extruded and intersected to form the visual hull approximation of the object. Silhouette These types of 3D scanners use outlines created from a sequence of photographs around a three-dimensional object against a well contrasted background. but take multiple images under varying lighting conditions.e. User Assisted (i. but instead rely on detecting reflected ambient radiation. Most scanners of this type detect visible light because it is a readily available ambient radiation. Various commercial packages are available like iModeller. With these kinds of techniques some kind of concavities of an object (like the interior of a bowl) are not detected. Stereoscopic Stereoscopic systems usually employ two video cameras. Passive methods can be very cheap. Other types of radiation. Image Based Modeling) This kind of techniques is useful to build fast approximation of simple shaped objects like buildings.

or if the power is high enough to remove the material completely. Many algorithms are available for this purpose (e.ImageModeler. where material is partially removed by the laser. image model). The process of converting a point cloud into a polygonal 3D model is called reconstruction.g. but instead use polygonal 3D models. e. photomodeler. Confocal or 3D laser scanning are methods to get information about the scanned surface. then laser cutting can be performed. Several areas of application exist that mainly differ in the power of the lasers that are used. . Depending on the power of the laser. Lasers with low power are used when the scanned surface doesn't have to be influenced.g. and in the results of the scanning process. its influence on a working piece differs: lower power values are used for laser engraving. With higher powers the material becomes fluid and laser welding can be realized. Also for rapid prototyping a laser scanning procedure is used when for example a prototype is generated by laser sintering. when it has to be digitized. Reconstruction involves finding and connecting adjacent points in order to create a continuous surface. Most applications do not use point clouds.  Reconstruction The point clouds produced by 3D scanners are usually not used directly. Applications Material processing and production Laser scanning describes a method where a surface is sampled or scanned using laser technology. This sort of 3D scanning is based on the principles of photogrammetry.

a CAD solid model. These data points are then processed to create a usable digital model. Frequently. a set of flat or curved NURBS surfaces. it is much faster to scan the real-world object than to manually create a model using 3D modeling software. Reverse engineering Reverse engineering of a mechanical component requires a precise digital model of the objects to be reproduced.• Construction Industry and Civil Engineering  As-built drawings of Bridges. or ideally for mechanical components. Industrial Plants. and Monuments  Documentation of historical sites  Site modeling and lay outing  Quality control  Quantity Surveys. Cultural Heritage . usually using specialized reverse engineering software. A 3D scanner can be used to digitize free-form or gradually changing shaped components as well as prismatic geometries whereas a coordinate measuring machine is usually used only to determine simple dimensions of a highly prismatic model. etc. artists sculpt physical models of what they want and scan them into digital form rather than directly creating digital models on a computer. Entertainment 3D scanners are used by the entertainment industry to create digital 3D models for both movies and video games. Rather than a set of points a precise digital model can be represented by a polygon mesh. In cases where a real-world equivalent of a model exists.

or 3D printer). in order to produce a restoration digitally using CAD software and ultimately produce the final restoration using a CAM technology (such as a CNC milling machine. The chairside systems are designed to facilitate the 3D scanning of a preparation in vivo and produce the restoration (such as a Crown. It gradually supplants tedious plaster cast. Dental CAD/CAM Many Chairside dental CAD/CAM systems and Dental Laboratory CAD/CAM systems use 3D Scanner technologies to capture the 3D surface of a dental preparation (either in vivo or in vitro). Orthotics CAD/CAM Many orthotists also use 3D scanners in order to capture the 3D shape of a patient. shown in the screen of the laptop. Quality Assurance The digitalization of real-world objects is of vital importance in various application domains.The combined use of 3D scanning and 3D printing technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of traditional plaster casting techniques. . that in many cases can be too invasive for being performed on precious or delicate cultural heritage artifacts. Inlay or Veneer). In the side figure the gargoyle model on the left was digitally acquired by using a 3D scanner and the produced 3D data was processed using MeshLab. Onlay. was used by a rapid prototyping machine to create a real resin replica of original object. CAD/CAM software is then used to design and manufacture the orthosis or prosthesis. The resulting digital 3D model. This method is especially applied in industrial quality assurance to measure the geometric dimension accuracy.

entertainment. Since the application of lasers spans across various disciplines of science and engineering and the science behind laser itself is a conglomeration of ideas from diverse branches of science and engineering. medicine. terahertz networks etc. law enforcement. science. kidney stone treatment. The field of application is expected to grow in future as the scientific community moves ahead towards the realization of quantum computers. Since then. surgical treatment. laser healing. welding. communication equipments. in alignment and leveling instruments etc. information technology. dentistry Industry: Cutting. including consumer electronics. They are used in CD/DVD drives. Thus some of its other applications include: • • Medicine: Bloodless surgery. in holography. material heat treatment. quantum communication. laser printers. in various flow measurement equipments. they have become ubiquitous. eye treatment. and the military. industry. this field of lasers and its applications is best addressed in the form of an interdisciplinary area of study and research. marking parts . in remote sensing and defense equipments. finding utility in thousands of highly varied applications in every section of modern society. precision welding and cutting equipments.conclusion Lasers have therefore become an integral part of our lives. When lasers were invented in 1960. 3-D data storage devices. they were called "a solution looking for a problem". surgical and clinical equipments.

google. • "Schawlow and Townes invent the laser". Reference."lase" • Charles H. Lucent Technologies (1998). Laser annealing. laser pointers. cellulite reduction. • Townes. University of • Gould. "The first laser". Gordon (1959). references www. thermometers. R. holograms. Laser capture micro dissection Product development/commercial: laser printers. guiding munitions. and hair removal.answers. laser ablation. "The LASER. CDs. missile • en. Laser lighting displays: Laser light shows Laser skin procedures such as acne treatment. • • www. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". laser interferometry. • . "The first laser". alternative to radar Research: . In Laura Garwin and Tim Lincoln. bubblegrams. • "Laser". laser scattering. electro-optical countermeasures (EOCM). LIDAR. barcode scanners.• • • • • Defense: Marking targets. Charles Townes (2003).

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