Issue 3

May 2010


inside A Tribute to Dr. C.K. Prahalad Critical Issues of Skills Gap SHGs Succeed in Punjab Competition Law Empowering Women Workers Deprivation of a Tourist Place



Chandigarh Management Association
Office Bearers
President Col. Karamjeet Singh (Retd.) Director Continental Group of Institutes, Mohali Vice President Dr. Gulshan Sharma Director Foundation of ITFT, Chandigarh Secretary General J.N. Vohra Textile Consultant Joint Secretary Dr. T.L. Kaushal Dean International Business School, Chandigarh Treasurer CA Vivek Goyal Past President Anil Kohli

Foreword A Tribute to Dr. C.K. Prahalad: Management Guru Critical Issues of Skills Gap in Indian Youth Breaking Myths-SHGs Succeed in Punjab Also Effective Communication At Work Exploring Health & Herbal Tourism in North Indian Banking in the Global Context Self Appraisal A Psychological Tool of Management Competition Law : Part-1, Introduction And International Position DNA Computing: New Computing Paradigms Employee Retention Strategy in Service Industry Taking a Look at HR Outsourcing 1 2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18 19 20-21 22 23 24-25 26

Editor Mob. : 9814556072

Empowering Women Workers in Garment Industry Eagle's Nest! Jammu & Kashmir Deprivation of a Tourist Place

CHANDIGARH MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION C/o Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan Plot No. 5, Sector 27-B, Madhya Marg Chandigarh-160019, INDIA Tel .: 0172-2656031, Fax : 0172-2639548 Website : email :
Affiliated to

Punjabi Juttis The Ethenic Choice Events-2010





The overwhelming response to the first two editions of CMA eMag is conspicuously delightful & encouraging. This is evident from the feedback received from all quarters including members & nonmembers on one hand & many fold increase in the number of contributors to the contents of the magazine. It had been our endeavour to incorporate suggestions received from our esteemed readers to improve the quality of the readings & cover multifaceted fields of management & contemporary interests. I am sure that readers are anxiously waiting for the third issue that caters for every readers including budding professionals' interests. The main focus of the magazine has been to facilitate an enabling platform to the members to express their viewpoints, publish research articles and give vent to their writing skill. I would like to express my thanks to the members who contributed to the magazine & urge them to come forward with their valuable contributions & suggestions. Let us all make the magazine a resounding success. Wishing you a happy reading.

Col Karamjeet Singh President-CMA Director- Continental Group of Institutes




A Tribute to Dr. C.K. Prahalad: Management Guru
Dinesh Dua CEO & Whole Time Director, M/S Nectar Lifesciences Ltd.

Dr. C.K. Prahalad, my batch mate from Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (1979 batch) passed away on Saturday, 18th April, 2010 after brief illness in a hospital in San Diego. The whole corporate & management world held CK in the highest esteem & his book "Fortune at the bottom of the Pyramid" has been acclaimed to be the best ever lateral thinking book written in Management Circles. I was extremely fortunate to have spent two days in Wockhardt in 2007 with CK as he was popularly known. I can never forget those two wonderful days which he has had animated deliberations with the entire top management wherein he freaked out of absolute lateral thinking for life sciences, which for us was inconceivable in terms of expanding to huge rural markets of India, which for large Pharma organizations in India even till today has not been the case, although companies like Mankind Pharma, Ranbaxy, Cipla this year have clearly mandated this to be the next waive of growth enablers for the Pharma industry, which is growing at a robust paces of

15% + YOY as against 3-4% in US, Europe & Japan in volume terms. Those two amazing days with legendary & Iconic CK are still absolutely fresh in my memory & I personally benefited from being that much closer to him, being the only IIMA guy to get relatively closer to CK leading to almost 2 hrs of personal quality time with the legend. I regularly kept in touch with CK over the mail & he was not only helpful but was extremely affectionate & gave me a standing invitation to visit him to US, which I was contemplating but for his untimely demise. He was in excellent health until 18 months ago & I never had an iota of an indication that his sickness could take him away so quickly at a relatively young age when compared to today's life expectancy particularly in US. I was extremely shocked & pray to God Almighty that the great departed soul may rest in peace!!! As alumni of IIMA, all of us should be extremely proud of this great man who being a very humble soul from Coimbatore revolutionized management thought process

Dr. C.K. Prahalad through lateral thinking which catapulted him into one of the leading Management Gurus of the world who also had phenomenal impact on all leading business houses of India & a few leading ones in the west, which has a lot to do with his up bringing & knowledge of India & its phenomenal potential beautifully captured in the biggest block buster of management books " Bottom of Pyramid" a copy of which was gifted by him to all of us with his autographs -a lifetime Prize Possession for me indeed. CK may physically not be there but he'll continue to inspire a whole host of multitudes of Indians from all shades of life all over the world. Amen !!!




Critical Issues of Skills Gap in Indian Youth
Dr. Gulshan Sharma
Ph.D (Service Industry) ACTE (WTO) Spain, WT (USA) Executive Director-ITFT College Chandigarh

Skills gaps among youth are a major concern in India. What it takes to be a Corporate' muse, is simply missing in today's youth. What are the reasons? Who is to be blamed for such a state? And do we even realize that a situation has come wherein we strictly need to strategize plans to escalate and meet global standards in order to be counted among world class in competence grade? Knowledge, skills and resourcefulness are critical in sustaining a nation's reputation in the world market. A robust pipeline of talent is essential in order to take India as a nation to the next level. So, what is it that is leading to skills gaps among youth in India? Reasons for the same are not difficult to discern. New private colleges are producing students with uneven substance. A lot of institutes cannot keep up with the changing trends in particular subjects and syllabi. Students churned out by various institutes aren't well equipped with essential soft skills. Critical Issues These are some issues which are crucial and need to be attended. India is in urgent need to generate skilled professionals and efficient

workforce. It's high time that e f f e c t i v e s t ra t e g i e s a r e implemented in order to face this uphill task of imparting right education and right skills. If you thought, only your braced up technical knowledge would fetch you your dream job, it might just be your hallucination. Corporate are certainly looking out for something beyond your basic know how of the subject theses days. Employability skills, as we call them are a blend of several parameters. So how is it exactly that you develop these skills to be employers' muse? Corporate world is getting more fierce and competitive with every passing day. And it's definitely not child's play to evolve out as an influential c a n d i d a t e a m i d s e v e ra l probable employees. So, what is it exactly that you can pursue to go a step ahead and reach the next level to professional stardom? Read through to know more about the same. We are living in an era where finding jobs isn't really a cake walk. You got to possess exceptional employability skills to crack a coveted interview. Employers' expectations of candidates have been undergoing transformations and things 3

aren't really as easy as it was sometime back. The age is competitive and the world is getting fierce. Skills Gap Let's make things simpler for you, may be you are a victim of 'skill gap'. Stunned? But it's essential that you accept and start working upon them before things get out of control at your workplace. Skill Gap is primarily defined as difference between a potential employee's present skills vs. the skills required to meet expectations of the job. If you are deficient in rendering services up to a level that is expected out of you, it's high time that you hone the expected set of skills well and take our words, it's never too late! But if you keep piling your professional woes and caressing your grudges instead of bridging the gap between your present skills and the organization's requirement of set of skills, you probably are still off track. These skills are a blend of soft as well as technical skills. If you think you can't work out yourself, initiate to your higher authorities about conducting training wherein you would be imparted essential tactics as to how to deal with a particular craft.

The day you fill up your skill gap that is when you actually achieve 'PROFESSIONAL NIRVANA'. The right skills in the right place and at the right time is something you can attain only if you keep enduring, without giving up. SELF ASSESSMENT is the key, know what you are, it's always good to have oodles of confidence in your calibre but beware of becoming a 'NARCISSIST'. That would be the first step to your CAREERCREMATION! Honest judgement about your capabilities is a pre-requisite before you choose a career. And the golden rule that works best is keep IMPROVING. If you were just flaunting a cap, strategize your goals to add that feather as well, for that is when the world recognizes you. Combating Skills Gap The most effective way to combat skill gap is to enhance your awareness about your job domain, study more and gain as much knowledge as you can. Work on your soft skills, volunteer and AVOID displaying an impression of Iam-not-interested. Ask for help if you get stuck, that's how you learn, stay abreast with the latest job-profile updates and implement them even when you are not asked to, in your own way. But don't just 'PARROT' though, ALWAYS look out for INNOVATION. So, invest in yourself, crave to know more and just have the right attitude, and remember ATTITUDE and not ARROGANCE! Read following to know more: · Your attitude towards your work reflects a lot about your substance. If you think dedication is confined to a time slot of 9-5, the time is near when the house of cards would collapse. The real efficiency is judged when you show pro activeness toward an unexpected task that pops up. · If you have a habit of whining at things, you would definitely have to c h a n g e y o u r perspective. You have to exhibit an attitude that spells positivism. Your behavior towards others matter a lot as well. Employers certainly expect you to be a fast learner. Grasp quickly


and implement things incorporated at the earliest. · Corporate love to work with people who are flexible to try out things a n d b r i n g i n innovations. Always be enthusiastic to push the edges. Employers like to hire people who always take initiative to do tasks without being ordered. Appreciation comes to those who take that extra leap and go beyond normal expectations. Something that goes without saying is that you got to have good m a n n e r s , organizational skills and conduct.



Developing these skills is of paramount importance and needs to be developed and nurtured from time to time Employability skills are your best friend at workplace. The more you have it, the more you achieve and get closer to your dream designation. So, don't blink too much, get set and go!





Breaking MythsSHGs Succeed in Punjab Also
Dinesh K Kapila* Assistant General Manager in NABARD

Punjab, the name is taken to imply a prosperous state where the concept of Self Help Groups (SHGs) is alien and not required as in the comparatively under developed parts of India. This is a myth; the concept is required, there is a deep hunger for credit and easy access to credit amongst its women and once shown the pathway; the concept is adopted e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y. T h e o n l y difference if any, is in the quantum of funds sought for from banks or vide internal loaning as also subscribed to; both are higher than the conventional amounts in most parts of India. Normal subscriptions will often start at Rs 100/- per month per member (Rs 20/- or so in most parts of India); loans from banks or the demand for a loan would also start at a minimum of Rs 25,000/- or so as against Rs 10,000/- in most parts of India; but the overall concept of SHGs as mandated is certainly adhered to. The normal perception around 2000-02 was that Punjab could not have a vibrant SHG movement, however, field level experience based on efforts to grow the movement since then indicates that within the economic success of

Punjab, the women are still in need of empowerment and look forward to being members of SHGs, once the concept is understood and internalized. The three success stories summaries below and a short excerpt on the varied interactions with SHGs and officials that follows provides an insight into the SHG concept in Punjab. The profile of the SHGs featured would have changed as the groups evolve over the years and officials involved move out on transfer, but the lessons learnt remain relevant. It is to be noted that the number of SHGs was over 3000 in Rupnaagr, SAS Nagar and Nawanshahr districts by 2009, this article reflects mainly the needs and aspirations of these SHGs as they evolved so to say. Success Story One - Milking Profits: Rural Women & Dairying - an initiative of Ambuja Cement Foundation ( ACF ) at Ropar Out of the 32 SHGs promoted by ACF in District Ropar, the women of Arjun SHG in Village Alampur formed the SHG in 2003 and after saving around Thirty thousand Rupees, which they saved @ Rs.50/- per member per month, 13 women of the SHG joined by 9 other women of the village decided to form a Group to do Dairying collectively. Some members purchased Cattle through their savings and also from the loan of Rs 25,000/- and subsequently Rs.1.25 lakh that the Group availed from the Punjab Gramin Bank, Malikpur. The Punjab Milkfed

agreed to link the dairy group with their existing marketing network. The women by 2008 were collecting 150 litres of milk

everyday after starting from 50 litres or so only in 2007. The increase in self confidence of the women is tremendous, with the shyness exhibited at first now gone. Success Story Two - Mehndipur SHG at Nawanshahr District Punjab The Mehndipur SHG, functioning at v i l l a g e M e h n d i p u r, D i s t r i c t Nawanshahr emerged as a major example of success amongst entrepreneurial SHGs by earning Rs 1150/- on an average per member within three years or so of its formation. This SHG focused upon entrepreneurial activities since its inception, the SHG, formed in June 2002, with 10 members, all from the scheduled castes, decided to save Rs 50/- per month per member. The Group President Smt Meena Rani and Secretary Smt Sarbjit Kaur led the planning and steered the group very ably. The then CDPO ICDS, Nawanshahr District, Smt Charanjit Kaur and her staff invested considerable time and


main success and aspect of this SHG. There are no defaults to the bank and three members have turned entrepreneurs. The demonstrative effect of the group has been immense. The Interactions with SHGs and Observations in Brief. (a) First, what would be really representative of residents of smaller villages dotting the kandi areas in Punjab; - from three villages near Anandpur Sahib town, the following was noticed Not a single woman - from amongst all present from age groups of approximately 18 to 45, was reading a newspaper or magazine. Reading was strictly religious, if at all, There was no awareness about products of banks, either of asset or liability classification, Literacy was upto class VIII normally with a few matriculates, but literacy skills were lost due to lack of application, A felt need for subsidy or grants f r o m t h e g o ve r n m e n t w a s maximum amongst members, Small credit needs for consumption expenditure was found to be the main demand. (b) At a village in district Nawanshahr, near an industrial belt, where a major commercial bank had decided to be pro active; it was found that, Small credit needs, specially for operations say Rs 7000/-, a washing machine for Rs 15,000/-; Rs 5000/- for three women to start making detergent powders, Rs 25,000/- to stock items at a shop, Rs 50,000/to repair a house etc. were the main demands. Dairy animals to be added, by individual members, were another demand from members of SHGs. The need for a tangible security by the local branch head was the main obstacle in credit outreach inspite of no need to demand the same. (c) At villages near Chamkaur Sahib and near Daburji, which are partially urbanised and have a more aware profile, women were found to be extremely desirous of earning and adding to the family incomes.


efforts in guiding the group and motivating the members with the then Branch Manager of Punjab National Bank, Shri SK Puri. The group had a few members who knew the skill of stitching and tailoring as also embroidery. They motivated the other members to join in and to learn the activity. Secondly, the method of sharing income / losses transparently was also decided upon. This was to be on the level of skill and effort put in the activity - ranging from procuring orders to designing to actually cutting the dress. The group acquired 7 foot operated sewing machines from the three bank loans availed by them with no defaults. Income generation has boosted their economic status as also their self esteem considerably. Third story of SHG Kalam near Nawanshahr A multi- activity SHG with Infectious Enthusiasm - with 20 members and savings of Rs 50/each from a village called Kalam near Nawanshahr town, with a predominant presence of lower income families, the interaction with SHG Members is stimulating, they are all excitement and enthusiasm, One member when asked about the advantage of belonging to a group, stated succinctly that she fractured her leg, she was given Rs 2000/immediately as assistance by the group at her residence, what more could be the usefulness. The group members are literate (normally Class X) and state that they attend all functions together; they enjoy being together and discuss family problems also in meetings. The feeling of belongingness is palpable in the group, this is the

(d) Social mores however continue to be a strong negative influence as regards women, specially enforced by the established opinion makers at villages, at the level of sarpanch / ex sarpanch etc. Even the police is observed to be biased against women in noting complaints from them. Social power structures continue to be vested with men even if the women are elected to certain positions. The women support SHGs as this facilitates access to empowerment and a collective approach to problems. Rural women, once aware and trained in financial literacy - especially rates of interest and fixing instalments are found to generally demonstrate a higher degree of financial literacy and awareness as also discipline than the men. Women were also found to be serious in learning the concept and adopting it. Marketing facilitation is a major demand by SHG members as social mores prevent many from considering venturing out to even nearby towns for marketing their products. Quality of products remains a gray area though individual success stories are occurring. The deep felt need of these women to access credit and opportunities can only be felt and understood by interaction. In addition to the above, a deep hunger for economic progress and financial prosperity is noticed very clearly amongst women in rural areas coupled with a strong desire for infrastructural amenities. While addressing the needs of rural Punjab, the policy makers have to ensure that the women and their needs are addressed equally.

* Dinesh K Kapila is Assistant General Manager in NABARD and learnt extensively from his field experiences while implementing the concept of SHGs. This article is written in his personal capacity and does not reflect the views of his institution.




Effective Communication At Work
Col (Retd.) B.M.Sabhlok Corporate Trainer

Communication is a very different function for managers for the simple reason that everybody assumes that only he can communicate well others have difficulties in c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Understanding and appreciating some of the important day to day state of affairs of being controlled and criticized by others will help us respond well to the situations. This will help lower the stress level and one can certainly begin to have a lot more fun. While I pen down my thoughts on that vital issue of communication, one of my goals is to convince you that it is okay, to be happy, kind, patient, more relaxed and forgiving. It is to your advantage personally and professionally. You will feel more inspired, creative and will help you to make an even greater contribution that you do right now. Controlling Effectively In businesses, there are many times you wanted to have a meeting of the minds or you needed others to do the things as you do. Sometimes, you force yourself and your ideas on those you work with. In certain instances, you exert

your opinion, influence even power, to get something done. At times you insist on getting your way, or think of clever and creative ways to get others to think differently. That is all part of business, little realizing that what hurts most to the person you control is what goes on within him his feeling and emotions. When you can make allowances in your mind for the fact that other people see life differently than you do, you will experience far less internal struggle. Be sure, most people don't like to be controlled. It creates resentment and adversarial relationships. As you abandon your urge to control others, people will be more incline to help you; they will want to see you succeed. When people feel approved as they are rather than evaluated on what they should be as per your thinking, they will admire and respect you like never 7

before. Effective Listening Listening in my opinion is one of the most important ingredients for success in virtually all aspects of life personal and professional. Unfortunately, it is also one of our greatest weaknesses. Slighter improvement in our listening skills can pay enormous dividends in the way of: a) Better relationships b) Enhanced performance c) Stress reduction Just ponder over the following and reflect on your own listening skills at work. a) Do you truly listen to your colleagues? b) Do you let then finish their thoughts before you take your time? c) Do you sometimes finish sentence for other people? d) In meetings, are you p a t i e n t a n d responsive or are you impatient and reactive? e) Do you allow words from others to sink in or do you assume you know what the

person is trying to say, so you jump in? For most people listening skills need improvement. People who listen well are highly respected and sought after and make one feel good and special. Since effective listeners are loved by the people they work with they avoid many of the most common stressful aspects of work namely: · Backbiting · Resentment · Sabotage Good listeners are most sought after persons, you want to reach out and help them. People tend to be loyal to good Respect others feelings Everyone deserves to be treated with respect even if you justifiably get angry or disappointed. Don't be rude or insensitive to other human being. Sometimes, people believe that if someone is doing his job well; pull him down since you are unable to perform equally. It always seemed to me; however that if someone is doing his job well and I am one of the beneficiaries of his performance, that's all, speak to him with gratitude and respect. But even beyond what is right and wrong, it is just smart business to speak to others with love and respect. People need and deserve to feel appreciated. My suggestion is to go out of your way to make those you work with feel that you genuinely appreciate them. Praise often. Dish out compliments. If it is at all possible and appropriate send a card, e-mail or handwritten note. Make a phone call or a letter, look the person in the eye and tell them how much you appropriate them. On occasion if you can do it and again when appropriate, send a small gift or token of your appreciation. M a ke y o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n known. Do all of these often. By remembering to communicate and appreciate the people you work with, your business relationships will be enhanced and you will be actively make everyone's day a little brighter including your own. It doesn't matter whether you get anything in return. Always bear in mind that every 8


listeners because you can emote with them. Effective listening allows you to avoid a great number of m i s t a k e s a n d misinterpretation. Being more attentive to what others are saying also help you avoid many interpersonal conflicts. This is one of those powerful strategies that can generate immediate an enduring results. You may have to work at it a little but if you do, it will be well worth it. Besides, being liked and admiral you will find yourself becoming calmer and more peaceful as well.

member of your staff is an individual, not a robot, and be aware of each one's quirks and characteristics and way of doing things. Don't try to crush the headstrong individuals who think they know it all, give them their space, from time to time, but don't let the things go too far; give them praise, but don't let them think they are invincible. If someone who is shy but shows potential, give encouragement, make individual know that he/she is a valuable member of the team. Criticism is only acceptable if it l e a d s t o p o s i t i v e communication that will eliminate errors and enhance performance. There is a very straight forward method of ticking off: · Be absolutely honest and say what needs to be said. · Ke e p t h e m e e t i n g c o m p l e t e l y p r i va t e unheard and unseen. · Criticize result and performance not the individual. · Show the person how to improve. · Look the person in the eyes when you speak. · Build the person up at the end. · Re-emphasize the person's good points, so that his/her self confidence is retained. Are we trying to understand other's view point and emotional makeup? If this is the attitude we imbibe, the communication will be successful.



Exploring Health & Herbal Tourism in North
Dr. N.K.Sharma ITFT College-Chandigarh

Fast pace of Life, Tensions, Mental Stress and Strains, etc have once again crated interest in a holistic approach to healtha conscious return to nature. Among many segments of tourism product, health tourism is now gaining popularity in India as well. The people are increasingly becoming health-conscious and are travelling to different climes to get treatments. This also affords them an opportunity to see attractions of the region and to have a peep into the cultural heritage and social life of the local community. The younger generation is also seeking escape from work related stress. The fast pace of life, tensions, mental stress and strains, modern societal pressures and today's way of life have once again created interest in a holistic approach to health a conscious return to nature. The Business of 'Well Being' Consumer's perspectives on health focused on fitness and seeking health resort experience as an alternative or complement other leisure activities besides an organic sense of well being from beauty and artificiality coupled with spiritual renewal, are some of the reasons which have given a fillip to the promotion of health tourism in the country. Similarly, health resorts 'spa' are mushrooming in developed nations and this growth and the

euphoria have just started penetrating into the Asian markets such as Taiwan, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal and India Indication that such a concept is on the rise globally, which offers a blend of modern f a c i l i t i e s a n d t ra d i t i o n a l rejuvenation therapies. Asian health resorts are on the increase with the tide changing from a mostly male activity to more and more women looking for the benefits offered. In the USA people spend more than one billion dollars annually on anti-ageing/medical aesthetic treatments. The business of well-being is estimated to reach one trillion dollars by 2010. Spa holidays, wellness stores shopping for vitamin pills, sipping herbal tea in tea temples and massage with scented lavender oils will be increasingly used by the people in future. 'Holism shops' and 'Wellness stores' will crate the next trillion fortunes for the new millennium,' Wellness is considered a way of life and a huge industry. It's about healing the mind, body and soul' The major characteristics of wellness are: active protection of health, regular exercise, a health diet, avoiding hazardous substances, regular relaxation and stress management, and an environmentally friendly approach to life. Ayurvedic healthcare Health Tourism is basically

based on Ayurveda treatment, which is thought of as a life science, and includes yoga, meditation, and the natural and spiritual sciences. It looks at a person as a unique individual, and seeks to understand to correct the imbalances and restore the innate intelligence

and harmony of the person. It is also known to promote positive health, natural beauty and long life. Naturopathy sees health and disease in holistic terms taking into account the inherent relationship between the individual and cosmic spirit, the individual and the cosmic consciousness energy and matter, naturopathy seeks to take human beings not only back to nature but also back to the fundamentals of nature. Yoga is believed to be one of the most extraordinary spiritual sciences that mankind has ever discovered, which covers the entire field of our existence from the physical, sensory, emotional, mental and spiritual to the highest self-relisation.


Meditation results in increased relaxation, unlocking the storehouse of energy within the body. Its benefits include a greater sense of relaxation in mind and body, greater flexibility of thinking, an ability to meet situations with freshness and insight. Today, a large number of corporate houses are teaching their executives the benefits of meditation. Ke r a l a h a s s u c c e s s f u l l y exploited its exotic places and resorts for providing Ayurvedic healthcare to the people with 95 percent of foreigners who specially come to the state for treatment and the rest wellheeled Indians. The State tourism department has a master plan for a hill station to be spread over 12,500 acres of land in central Kerala, which will be a '' holistic health destination''. When Ayurveda emerged as a potential draw, it was judged both compatible and unique enough for the tourism department to include it in its marketing effort. This has resulted in the creation of a large number of employment opportunities of the local people besides helping farmers in the cultivation of medicinal herbs and plants. For the classy tourist coming to Kerala, Ayurveda is more attractive than the scenic charms of the State. Inspired by the growing interest in health tourism, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and many other states have started promoting it as integral part of their overall tourism spectrum. In India, many 5 star hotels have started offering an array of treatments based on Indian systems of medicine importing “ East meets West” philosophy. Another big name in the spa boom is the beauty czarina Shahnaz Hussain, who has bought a 30 acre spread in Dhauj in Haryana to expand her business. It is relevant to reproduce here from the National Tourism Policy-2002 about promoting health tourism in the country. “India is today being ' rediscovered' by the world at large for the depth of its understanding of its physical, mental, emotional and spiritual manifestations of the worlds and the humankind. In particular, India has traditions that focus on the holistic healing of individuals and on elevation the individual to a higher plane of consciousness and awareness. That can be India's most unique tourism product- holistic healing and rejuvenation of the individual form every dimensionphysical, mental, emotional and spiritual and in doing so, it will capture the essence of the best of India philosophy and culture for international and India visitors alike. Northern States offer immense potential Northern Indian States of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Uttaranchal and Chandigarh, on account of their topography and terrain, offer immense potential for promoting health & herbal tourism. However, these states, while promoting their distinct tourism product, have so far not given any consideration to develop this fast emerging segment of the tourism industry. If the state government are


unable to launch projects themselves, they may invite the private sector including the non-resident Indians for setting up health and herbal resorts and spas in this region. Suitable incentives and concessions need also to be offered to the entrepreneurs and developers for taking up such projects. These states may also conordinate to have an integrated health and herbal tourism policy and plan for not only sharing their experiences and resources but for organizing inter-state herbal tours as well. These tours should also include visits to other places such as forts, palaces, temples, monasteries, historical & archaeological sites, handicrafts centers and places which offer ethnic cuisine. Development of this form of tourism, besides enlarging the existing scope of tourism, would also bring considerable economic benefits to the people and even to those who are living relatively in less developed areas and the farmers who cultivate the herbs and medicinal plants. The states should also earmark sites for setting up health and herbal resorts and develop necessary infrastructure such as roads, power and water supply etc. Till the time new resorts are developed, state tourism authorities could consider introducing panchakarma, yoga, meditation and naturopathy programmes in some of their selected establishments. Awareness campaigns to make the local people aware about the value to preserve the medicinal plants and herbs and to cultivate the same on scientific basis need also be carried out by the state Ayurveda and forest departments in tandem with the local panchayats and the tourism departments.




Indian Banking in the Global Context
Monika Aggarwal

In September 2008 , America's one of the biggest investment bank, Lehman Brothers, collapsed and initiated chain reaction of economic, financial and psychological crisis which very soon overpowered the entire globe. The evolution of crises started in the early 1980's in the USA, due to deregulation; financial assets grew more rapidly than the real sector. This process further gathered speed by the following events: • The stock market boom in the second half of the 1990s, • The mortgage-housing boom that began in the late 1990s, • And the rapid pace of financial innovation in the past decade Global Financial Crisis Banking all over the world witnessed disaster due to Global financial crisis. The decline in the global outlook that started in the middle of 2008 continued through out 2009, although signs of stabilization have begun to emerge. Globally, there was decline in bank's profits, but the way banks have been affected by the crisis has differed somewhat according to the circumstances in their respective home markets. In US there was a surge in bank failures in 2008. A total of 25 deposit-taking institutions failed, with combined assets of US$ 372 billion, about 10 times higher than during the previous peak in bank failures in 1993. The failure of Washington Mutual accounted for US$ 307 billion of the total and was the largest US bank failure in history. In Europe, the general picture of bank performance in 2008 was broadly similar to that in

North America. Profits plummeted across the board, and as a group the largest banks in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom registered a net loss. Japanese banks profitability also remained poor due to low net interest margins. In view of the global developments, and the diverse channels of transmission, there is a need to analyze the developments in Indian banking. In a cross-country perspective, Indian banking sector has displayed healthy trends, as compared to China, USA, UK and Japan. The significant aspect is that India has so far never witnessed a banking crisis. Some of the reasons for India's insulation are: (1) credit derivative market not properly developed; (2) regulatory guidelines on securitization do not permit immediate profit recognition; (3) close coordination between supervision of banks and their regulation. Balanced approach for financial liberalization Lord Adair Turner said that the sensible conclusion on the overall benefits of financial intensity and financial liberalisation, would seem to be that it is valuable up to a point in some markets, but not in all markets and not limitlessly. There is a strong case that the development of a modern financial system, combining banks and corporate bond and equity markets, retail and wholesale insurance services is strongly favorable for economic growth. Walter Bagehot argued in Lombard Street that the sophistication of the nineteenth century British banking system

enabled the UK more effectively than some continental European countries to mobilize savings which might otherwise have lain dormant, and there are a number of studies which illustrate either cross sectional or time series correlations between the development of basic banking and financial systems and economic growth. It is highly likely that in India financial deepening; in the sense of the extension of basic banking services and sound credit extension to sectors of the population currently largely outside the banking system would be positive for welfare and growth. But we cannot extrapolate from the beneficial impact of financial deepening and sophistication up to a point, and assume that still more financial deepening, innovation and complexity is limitlessly beneficial. Summing up it can be said that there is need for balanced approach for financial liberalization and financial deepening, as it depends upon the supervisory and regulatory structure if the country. References : Reserve Bank of
india(2009), Reprt on Trend and progress in banking , October 2009, *Lord Turner ,Chairman, Financial Services Authority, United Kingdom, at the Fourteenth C. D. Deshmukh Memorial Lecture on February 15, 2010 at Mumbai) See , e.g. I.R.G.King and R.Levine “ Finance and growth: Schumpeter might be right”“ Quarterly Journal of Economics” 1993 , or Rouseeau and Sylla, Emerging Financial Markets and Early US Growth, NBER WP 7448




Self Appraisal A Psychological Tool of Management
Balwant Gurunay Author, Poet, Mentor, Attitudinal and Soft skills Coach, Corporate Motivator and Business Strategy Consultant

Self Appraisal is considered an effective tool of management. It is perceived that an employee's self appraisal helps the organization in better managing the employee and his performance, skills and traits. Self appraisal is all about an honest and earnest self observation. This relies on reasoning and examining one's own thoughts and feelings, and actions in light of one's core values. The paradox is that it is very difficult to indulge in genuine and effective Introspection. This is so because all our journeys to the inner world are carried out in the light of our external world. It is worth mentioning here that Behaviorists consider introspection an unreliable tool of self analysis as we generally fail to see our own failings. The secret of all good self appraisals is hidden in the honest intention of studying one self. If the subject only wants to project a desired image of him, then

“self appraisal” is merely a tool of expression, a tool that may not be projecting the true image of self, and thus a tool of deceit. If the subject

development tool. When applied well it can have a long lasting effect on quality and production elements of any business.

desires to use it as an instrument of genuine self improvement, it requires a great deal of moral courage and integrity. Thus organisations need to work on building positive beliefs and values in their workforce. This can be done by holding regular attitudinal correction workshops or training sessions on building positive values. With the desirable positive values and beliefs in place, self appraisal becomes a personality

Here is a beautiful story of a boy called Lali. One day Lali went into a general store in great haste and reached for the phone. He asked the owner if he could make a call. Lali could be heard talking to some lady on the other side of the phone. This is what the store owner heard. Lali, “Madam, Can you give me the job of mowing your lawn? The lady replied, "I already have someone to mow my lawn. “But I will mow your lawn for




half the price of the person who now mow's your lawn." replied Lali. “I am satisfied with the boy who works for me”. The little boy found more perseverance and offered, " I'll also help you walk your dog and clean the porch”. Again the woman answered in the negative. With a smile on his face, Lali replaced the receiver. The store-owner, walked over to the boy and said," Son, I like your attitude and would like to offer you a job." "No thanks, "Said Lali. “I was just checking my performance with the job I already have. I am the one who is working for that lady!" If your values are in place you always want to improve and will find ways and means to do it. Otherwise even self appraisals are nothing more than a tool to cheat one and other, a tool for building false facades to hide behind, rather than improving one self. Thus I strongly advocate that, for all appraisals to work, the integrity and honesty of purpose must be in place, both for the employees and the employers. To elaborate this I remember another story where the pot is a metaphor for an employee and the

water bearer is the manager. The story goes like this. A water bearer used to bring two pots filled with water to a king's palace every day. One of the pots he carried had a small hole in it. This pot could never reach the palace full of water where as the other pot delivered a brim full of water every day. This went on for days. The perfect pot was proud of its accomplishments where as the pot with the hole got sad. After a year of what it perceived to be a bitter failure, he spoke to the water bearer, "I am ashamed for having delivered only half of my capacity. The water bearer said filled with compassion, "As we get back to the palace today I want you to notice the beautiful flowers growing along our path , and notice that the flowers grow only on your side of the path. I always knew about the hole in you. It's only my fault that I could not repair it and nor could I get it repaired. [In managerial parlance I could neither train you to improve, nor could I outsource some training to fill up the gaps.] ... So I decided to turn your curse in to a blessing (a metaphor for good management and lateral

thinking.) I planted flowers on your side of the walk. This way I have been decorating the palace vases with beautiful flowers and made the king very happy. But for your little flaw I could never have thought of the flowers. So do not worry. I still admire you and believe in you. The story teaches us that management is not just about hiring and firing people, because real life people are not zombies after all. Management is getting the best out of people by encouraging them to do their best and letting them know that in spite of their little flaws they are precious. This way they shall deliver their best. Don't forget that even a pot with a hole can be advantageously utilized. My personal experience is that the in spite of all the appraisals the best thing to move a person in the desirable direction can just be done by using these four words"I BELIEVE IN YOU". These four immensely motivating words, if used at the right time and for the right purpose, will not only motivate people to do their best but also motivate them to be the best that they can be.




Competition Law Part-1, Introduction And International Position
Dr P K Vasudeva Former senior professor ICFAI Business School, Chandigarh

Abstract : Competition policy is concerned both with private anticompetitive practices and with government measures or instruments that affect the state of competition in markets. Greater competition in product markets can lead to lower prices, greater choice, and increased production efficiency, ultimately contributing to a country's growth and development. Broadly classifying, there are two models of anticompetitive practices viz. (a) microeconomic model, and (b) macroeconomic model. The total volume of merger and acquisition deals with focus on India has almost halved so far in 2009 to $ 2.7 billion against $ 5.3 billion last in 2008, according to global deal tracking firm Dealogic. The Act regulates only those mergers and acquisitions, which qualify under the definition of “combination” under Section 5. In practice, there may come up a situation where a merger may not come under the definition of “combination” under Section 5, largely because of the benchmarks prescribed therein, yet it may give rise to grave anticompetitive

practices. This situation has to be avoided. Introduction Once one allows for the possibility that private firms can create barriers to entry or foreclose entry to a market by new firms, then improving dynamic economic performance may well require enforcement of policies to promote or ensure competition. Competition policy is concerned both with private anticompetitive practices and with government measures or instruments that affect the state of competition in markets. For example, trade barriers, barriers to FDI, and licensing requirements (among others) can influence the extent of competitive pressures in markets and so are often seen as appropriate concerns of competition policy. Barriers to trade and FDI, as well as stringent licensing and registration requirements can influence the extent of competitive pressures in markets and so are seen as legitimate concerns of competition policy. Thus, as Peter Lloyd has put it: "Policies relating to the liberalization of international trade, reduction 14

in restrictions on foreign direct investment, privatization, deregulation and the protection of intellectual property rights are all relevant to the promotion of competition in markets" (Lloyd 2001). Competition Law Greater competition in product markets can lead to lower prices, greater choice, and increased production e f f i c i e n c y, u l t i m a t e l y contributing to a country's growth and development. Restrictions to competition must generally therefore be removed to enable markets to deliver the benefits of competition to consumers and to support sustainable economic growth. Indian market has witnessed a paradigm shift, from regulated e c o n o m y t o w a r d s liberalisation since the last decade and a half. For attainment of technological dynamism and international competitiveness, it is necessary to have a strong national anticompetitive regime, which can complement liberalisation policy. At the beginning of 21st century, 85 countries had enacted competition

legislation in their respective countries. Another 20 or more countries are in the process of drafting and enacting competition laws. It has been researched that countries with competition laws account for nearly 80 per cent of the total world output and 86 per cent of world trade. This acknowledges an increasing realization that an appropriate legal framework is essential to encourage competition. In the wake of these developments, India enacted “the Competition Act, 2002” (Amendment) 2007 to replace the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act, 1969. The latter is no longer relevant in the changing economic scenario. It drew inspiration from Articles 38 and 39(b) of the Constitution, which seek to prevent concentration of economic power and ensure that the material resources of the country are so distributed as to subserve the common good. However, it created entry barriers to new firms. Clearances had to be obtained for expansion and capacity licenses under a control system. Even agreements for the import of foreign technology required approval. International Position on Competition Liberalisation, privatization and globalization indicate that the effects of restrictive business practices are felt beyond national borders. H o w e v e r, i t s h o u l d b e understood that such practices could reduce the benefits of open trade and investment liberalisation in at least three ways: (1) First, international cartels among multinational firms would fix prices or allocate world markets; (2) Second, import cartels and adoption of exclusionary practices by firms with a dominant position in domestic market; and (3) Third, export cartel and firms with dominant position in a home market. Although the entire WTO system is based on free trade, yet there is recognition of interventions by national legislation relating to competition. Like the goal of establishing a liberal trade policy, the goal of competition policy is generally to ensure that markets are open and competitive which promotes the efficient allocation of resources. Competition law complements trade policy by ensuring that the reduction or elimination of government barriers to trade is not negated by anticompetitive behaviour of private firms through the abuse of market power or through collusive behaviour. The view that private anticompetitive behaviour could undermine global trade liberalisation was appreciated as early as in 1947 when it was proposed to add the provisions of Chapter V of the Havana Charter dealing with cartels to GATT 1947. Proposals to resuscitate the same failed in 1955-56 In 1997, Working Group on the Interaction between Trade & Competition (WGTCP) was set up pursuant to the Singapore Ministerial Declaration in 1996. The practices affecting 15


market access such as import cartels, international cartels, abuse of a dominant position through exclusionary practices, vertical restraints, which foreclose markets to competitors constituted the first category of restrictive practices. GATT and its successor WTO have progressively removed or lifted government barriers on trade. References Ahn, S. 2002. "Competition, Innovation and Productivity Growth: A Review of Theory and Evidence." Economics Department Working Paper No. 317. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. Brooks, D.H. and S. Evenett. 2005 (forthcoming). Competition Policy and Development in Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Government of India. 2000. Report of the High Level Committee on Competition Policy and Law. Available: mainfile.htm. Government of Viet Nam. 2002. Price Ordinance 2002. Hanoi. Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTP Commission). 1997. Alkali Manufacturers Association of India vs. American Natural Soda Ash Corporation (ANSAC) and Others, 1997 (5) CTJ, 288. New Delhi. Vasudeva P. K. (2005) Reprinted 2010, WTO: Implications on Indian Economy, Pearson Education, New Delhi.



DNA Computing: New Computing Paradigms
Navdeep Kaur Chauhan, Principal CIIS-IST, Mohali, Member of Executive Council , CMA

What quantum of data can be stored in just one Cubic inch of DNA? Can you imagine? The answer may pleasantly surprise you! The entire data that millions of computers available in the world since the inception of this Scientific Marvel. DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. DNA c o m p u t i n g , o r, m o r e g e n e r a l l y, m o l e c u l a r computing, is a fast developing interdisciplinary area. DNA computers use DNA to store information and p e r f o r m c o m p l e x calculations. DNA has a vast amount of storage capacity computers might tap the vast

organisms. The storage capacity of a single gram of DNA can hold as much information as one trillion compact discs. The DNA is a double stranded molecule. Each strand is based on 4 bases: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G). The linkage between bases has a direction. There are complementarities between bases (WatsonCrick), (A) ßà (T), (C) ßà (G) C h a ra c t e r i s t i c s o f D N A Computing 1) Dense Information Storage This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data. • The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 14 1x10 MB of data. • The number of CDs required to hold this amount of information, lined up edge to edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and would take 163,000 centuries to listen to. 2) Power Consumption: DNA

computing also offers much lower power consumption than traditional silicon computers. DNA uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as fuel to allow ligation or as a means to heat the strand to cause disassociation. 3) Parallel Processing: The main benefit of using DNA computers to solve complex problems is that different possible solutions are created all at once. This is known as parallel processing. Humans and most electronic computers must attempt to solve the problem one process at a time (linear processing). DNA itself provides the added benefits of being a cheap, energyefficient resource. 4) Small Size: DNA's key advantage is that it will make computers smaller than any computer that has come

storage capacity that enables DNA to hold the complex blueprints of living

before them, while at the same time holding more data. One pound of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built;and the computing power of a teardrop-sized DNA computer, using the DNA logic gates, will be more powerful than the world's m o s t p o w e r f u l supercomputer. 5) Unlike the toxic materials used to make traditional microprocessors, DNA biochips can be made cleanly. 6) Less Expensive: As long as there are cellular organisms, there will always be a supply of DNA. The large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource. Applications of DNA Computing The potential applications of re-coding natural DNA into a computable form are many and include: DNA sequencing DNA fingerprinting DNA mutation detection Development and miniaturization of biosensors, which could potentially allow communication between molecular sensory computers and conventional electronic computers. The fabrication of nano-scale objects that can be placed in intracellular locations for monitoring and modifying cell function The replacement of silicon devices with nano-scale m o l e c u l a r - b a s e d computational systems, and the application of biopolymers in the formation of novel nanostructured materials with unique optical and selective transport properties DNA based models of computation might be useful for simulating or modelling o t h e r e m e r g i n g computational paradigms, such as quantum computing, which may not be feasible until much later. Evolutionary programming for applications in design or expert systems. In theory, this technology could one day lead to the d e v el o p m e n t o f hy b r i d computer systems, in which a silicon-based PC generates the code for automated laboratory- based operations, carried out in a miniature 'lab in a box' linked to the PC. Comparison of DNA Computer with Conventional Computer: Basics D N A C o m p u t e r s Conventional Computers Storage Media Nucleic acids Semiconductors Memory Capacity UltraHigh High Operators Biochemical Operations L o g i c a l Operations (and, or, not) Operations Simultaneous (Parallel) B i t w i s e (Sequential) Speed of each Operation Slow Fast Process Stochastic Deterministic Latest Developments: Israeli scientists have devised


a computer that is so tiny that a trillion of them could fit in a test tube and perform can perform 330 trillion operations per second, more than 1,00,000 times the speed of the fastest PC with 99.8 percent accuracy. It is the first programmable autonomous computing machine in which the input, output, software and hardware are all made of biomolecules. Recently, the team has gone one step further. In the new device, the single DNA molecule that provides the computer with the input data also provides all the necessary fuel. Classical DNA computing techniques have already been theoretically applied to a real life problem: breaking the Data Encryption Standard, DES. Although this problem has already been solved using conventional techniques in a much shorter time than proposed by the DNA methods, the DNA models are much more flexible, potent, and cost effective. Israeli scientists have devised a computer composed of DNA and enzymes. The enzyme FokI breaks bonds in the DNA double helix, causing the release of enough energy for the system to be selfsufficient. The design is considered a giant step in DNA computing which could transform the future of computers, especially in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.



Employee Retention Strategy in Service Industry
Col ( Retd) Taj Hoda, AVP- Admin and Research Scholar in HR in Panjab University, Chandigarh.

India's fast paced economic growth during the last decade has thrown a peculiar problem to the employers of “How to retain good and talented Employees”. Though, there is n o d e a r t h o f “ Tal e n t e d workforce” in the market, retaining talented employees has turned out to be a tricky situation for most of the employers/HR professionals, especially so, in the service industry in the market. Poaching, giving counter offers to “performers and high achievers” has become the norm and especially so in service industry where attrition rates are much higher. Not to be outdone in the ratrace, talented candidates are lapping it up and are ever happy “hopping jobs at the drop of a hat” for getting a g o o d ra i s e . H e n c e , i t ' s important to find and list the main causes of attrition, how we overcome them and what measures may be adopted to retain employees. Main Causes of Attrition being poor working conditions, lack of appreciation of work, support, opportunity for advancement and inadequate compensation. Suggested ways to Overcome Attrition a. Environmental Strategy: - This involves creating and

maintaining a conducive workplace, which is able to attract, retain and nourish employees. b. Relationship Strategy: It dwells on how the employers treat their employees which itself lends to how employees treat each other and have good bonding. c. Support Strategy: - It involves giving support to the employees by providing the right tools, techniques, equipment, and resources to complete the job. d. Growth Strategy: Growth is the second nature of humans and hence the employers must provide ample growth opportunities for all its employees. e. Compensation Strategy: - Compensation strategies include all monetary benefits and perquisites with employee's stock options. It must be commensurate to both qualifications and experience of the employee. Some Useful Tips on Retaining Employees: Employers need to follow transparent and consistent HR policies in order to retain employees and implementing the following may go a long way in retaining employees for long term. Selection of right candidate for the right job is the first step towards employee retention. Induction 18

program should be long enough to help good orientation with the Company. The organization must have well laid out ethos and values and be percolated at all levels. Transparent system of rewards and recognition should be in place. Set up proper annual and long term personal and professional growth plan for all employees. Be aware of poaching activities undertaken by various recruiters and sanitize the Company from such hazards. Facilitate getting the job done by providing adequate tools and resources. Ensure to have proper corporate succession plan in place at all times. And there must be a meaningful exit interview of all the employees who resign as it serves as a good data base to analyze the causes of employees turn over. Therefore, the key to employee retention in service industry remains right hiring, meaningful induction, good value system, instituting transparent rewards and recognition policy, planning for personal and professional growth, creating healthy working environment, proper succession planning and facilitating them to achieve the desired results. Source:



Taking a Look at HR Outsourcing
R.Rajan, Strategist & Facilitator

Outsourcing is the buzzword today with more and more organizations opting to outsource various processes and procedures to specialized agencies. Outsourcing is no longer restricted to international companies but extends to small and mid-sized domestic organizations as well. By outsourcing, these businesses and organizations free up time and resources that can easily be utilized for more important strategic planning and execution. Today, let us take a look at HR outsourcing and the reasons why it is fast becoming an organizational need. To begin with outsourcing HR processes such as recruitment, hiring, selection, payroll and others allows HR professionals to be more involved in the organizational goals, planning and execution rather than be swamped with routine paperwork and file pushing. Moreover, outsourcing is cost effective besides being more r e s e a r c h - i n t e n s i v e . Fo r instance, outsourcing the payroll function means that the outsourcing company will devote considerable time to surveying the market and

using well-developed industry knowledge to arrive at the right compensation packages. Such attention to detail and emphasis on thoroughness ensures a high level of quality. Outsourcing HR functions such as candidate recruitment and selection will make it easier for companies to hire the right candidates and be better equipped to retain them. Full-fledged HR outsourcing organizations go the whole mile and provide businesses with services that extend beyond recruitment and payroll. They provide training, personnel administration, HR advice, ad-hoc support, contracts and procedural advice and consultation, setting up rewards and recognition systems as well as being on call for any kind of HR-related assistance. In other words, full-service HR outsourcing organizations take over all the human resourcesrelated activities and make it easier for a business to focus on target setting and goal achievement. Outsourcing and particularly, HR outsourcing has been a part of the Indian business scenario for many years now. It does 19

have many advantages and benefits including enhanced employee and business effectiveness, higher quality, greater flexibility, bringing about organizational change and increasing customer satisfaction and product or service value. However, in order to experience all these benefits, it is important to choose an outsourcing agency that sets up the HR systems and processes with extreme thoroughness and attention to detail. HR outsourcing agencies must possess teams o f i n d u s t r y- t ra i n e d a n d experienced professionals, an insight into the functioning of major and minor industries and an ability to execute HR processes externally yet seamlessly. So, should you decide to choose to outsource your HR processes and functions, do go ahead. It is a win-win decision. H o w e v e r, c h o o s e y o u r outsourcing agency with care. Moreover, if you are a business who has outsourced, please feel free to share your experiences.



Empowering Women Workers in Garment Industry
J.N.Vohra, B.Tech (Text.), M.Tech, F.I.E., C.Eng (I), LMIMA

The report on the Task Force on MSMEs set up by Union Government noted that India has the advantage of a large pool of human resources, h o w e v e r, t h e i n d u s t r y continues to face deficit in manpower possessing the right skills for manufacturing, service, marketing, etc. Although SME sector employs substantial manpower, the retention of workmen continues to be the issue. The textiles and clothing (T & C) industry is labour intensive. The T & C sector contributes 4% towards National GDP and 12% of export earnings. This sector employs 35 million workmen. Over the years, developed countries have been shifting their garment production bases and outsourcing centres to developing countries, many of them have put up their camps in India also. S i g n i f i c a n t l y, U n i o n Development Budget 201011 declared to launch an extensive skill development

programme in the textile and garment sector by leveraging the strength of existing institutions under Textile Ministry to train 30 Lakh persons over 5 years under the programme. The proposed Skills Development Programme for textiles and garments sector would provide long-term benefit to the textile industry, which has been facing shortage of skilled labour since the last few years. Productivity and Quality The quality standards of developed world are stringent and in view of globalisation of the markets they require the products at competitive prices and at fixed delivery schedules. In order to meet these requirements, not only the management of the factories but also the shop floor level work force required to be skilled to meet international business p ra c t i c e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Buyers will come to those who will be able to give advantage of lower wages, higher

Labour productivity and quicker response to demand. A study on the productivity of the garment sector shows that there is considerable scope for improvement, particularly, in aspect of labour productivity. It has been found that, workmen working on conventional equipments require upgrading their skills to cope up with the technological changes taking place in the garment industry. Due to lack of proper skills training and development, many garment manufacturers have restricted many factories on low value added products. Bias towards workers women

The advanced machines require more skilled and knowledge operators; besides other things this may



be the reason why there may be a prejudice toward employing men rather than women in the garment industry in India. In other garment producing countries in Asia, large numbers of women are employed. For example in Bangladesh women count for 90%, similarly in Cambodia 85%, Sri Lanka 80% and in China 70%. The average of women working in Indian garment industry is less than 40%. Ludhiana garment industry is male dominated and more than 40% of the labour force is migratory. Lately due to National Rural employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), industry suffered shortage of workforce during peak season. Majority of workers in the garment factories, especially in Bangalore comprising of 93 per cent, come from the rural areas. Despite the fact that a large number of female employees work in the garment sector, men still have the upper hand. As a result, it becomes very difficult for women to express their needs. It is unfortunate that in many factories female labour are still underpaid compared to male labours for similar jobs. Employers generally assume women to be less productive than men and hence offer

lower wages to women under time rates. Whereas, it has been seen that under piece rate work, where wages earned match productivity, women workers receive wages equivalent to their counterpart male workers for the same work performed. It has been found that women are at an advantage in some kinds of work, work that could be termed “female advantageous”, such as assembly line stitching, h e m m i n g , e m b r o i d e r y, labelling, packing, where if men were to be substituted, there would probably be loss in productivity. Empowering Women Punjabi women, known for their robust health, have the lowest share in workforce in all industry segments with participation rate of about 8 percent as per an estimate. Andhra Pradesh has approximately 35 per cent, Arunachal Pradesh 38 per cent, Himachal Pradesh 34 and Haryana had 12 per cent share. Now some companies in Ludhiana are encouraging hiring of female workers,

especially young girls from rural backgrounds. The young women come to work in the factories to save money for their future, including their dowries, and to support their families. Women feel empowered by their earnings and attain confidence and self esteem as income earners. Because they may be young women living away from home, the employers and the community should look favourably the public image of women workers. U n f o r t u n a t e l y, w o m e n workers generally suffer from gender subordination to largely male employers and managers in a system that considers women workers as dispensable labour. Similarly, for upward mobility in the labour hierarchy of factories, female workers generally stand few opportunities. It is essential that special consideration in various aspects need to be taken where most of the garment sector workforce is female. Some of these aspects are regulation of work hours, overtimes extending to late hours in the night, health and s a f e t y, p r o v i s i o n f o r maternity leaves, female doctors at work places and handling issues of sexual harassment.




Eagle's Nest!
Jagadeesh Balakrishnan Software Process and Project Management Consulting

“But let there be spaces in your togetherness and let the winds of the heavens dance between you. Love one another but make not a bond of love: let it rather be a moving sea between the shores of your souls Kahlil Gibran” It all started during a post dinner peep in the front verandah of our house in Chandigarh a week ago! The Sun had said Goodbye to City Beautiful and the Moon had took over the fine art of enticing the human mind. I was loitering in the first floor and casually noted that directly in front of the house on a reasonably high raised tree there was a systematically arranged nest made in layers of sticks and stones. During this sleepy peep I accidentally found a couple of birds too perfectly hidden in the dark colors of the sky sitting equidistant apart on both sides of the nest protecting the nest, still, brownish black, alert and very vigilant too! From the size of the two birds and a careful look at their features I found that they were eagles and easily judged that the nest should be an Eagle's Nest! Out of a passerby curiosity the next day morning too I casually glanced at the nest on my way down to office and found the eagles were not in the nest (maybe hunting for food). Incidentally, the same day evening the earlier pattern repeated two eagles guarding their nest with zest the same way (like the day before) as if they were going through a

military rigor… The stillness of the birds and the surrounding calm triggered a sense of deep affection in my heart without notice and later on with each passing day the sight of the birds and their majesty made me a regular post dinner peeper to the nest. The emotions I felt while reading the wonderful portrayal of the untamed “River” in the classical novel “Deliverance” written by James Dickey exactly matched with the emotions triggered by these eagles in the stillness of night. These eagles seemed to be creation of nature's quest for representing itself in varieties; the sameness of the common man's quest (shelter + food habits) compared to the dare devilry of these eagles in fighting with nature day in and day out touched one's soul d e e p l y. I i m a g i n e d t h e harshness of weather they are facing and the threats from humans too cutting off nature reserves and killing the calm for sure they would have a tough time surviving…the original native Indian in America with an eagle feather in his cap a symbol of braveness came to mind suddenly… I now see these eagles here every night guarding their nest with great alertness and when I think that these birds would separate their young ones in a matter of months I feel stunned as to why they are so dedicated when in the 40 years of their lifetime they are never going to see their young ones again their eaglets will not be there to take

care of them when their extremely keen eyesight (which enable them to spot potential prey from a very long distance) would fade away and age would do the catch up game…. Why this dedication to the nest is the question mind asks and I get convinced that the true demands of nature like loving the young ones are instinctive and not result expecting…I wondered when the stone age man learnt to expect his son or grandson to take care of him…I think that during the micro moment this expectation started a fissure and move away from nature has begun for insecurity sets in when we expect the succeeding generation to take care of us and we become over protective or over curbing their need to explore life…the love of separation is one of the truest dimensions of love which man has failed to master yet…these night time eagles preached me silently to expect nothing from my succeeding generation just love and if time comes let them go to live their lives and choose their paths…do not impinge your thoughts and habits on the “golden investment” nature has made on a new life…with a 2 week old baby sleeping inside the room these thoughts of tomorrow touched me deep inside… Nature has many a tales to tell let me watch the hatch soon in the nest and maybe I will let you know when they start flying too bye for now!




Jammu & Kashmir : Deprivation of a Tourist Place
Nitin Gupta MBA student of Set Business School University of Jammu.

Since Jammu & Kashmir is c o n s i d e r e d t o b e h e a ve n /paradise on earth. Every human being has desire to visit Kashmir at least once in a life. But everyone is not lucky to be there. Jammu Kashmir is such place where we can see mixture of religions, culture, and ethos. It is one of the largest state as it is diversified and it is into 3 regions covering Jammu, Kashmir, ladakh. In pre independence era when it was ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh, it had a large territory covering Gilgit, POK. But now, territory got shrunk by Pakistani intrusion on 1948. A lost Opportunity of Tourism Basically the demography of J&K is such that it is surrounded by our neighbours like China, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. As

everyone is aware of, what Pakistan has done during 4 forced wars, from 1948 till 1999 Kargil war, now nurturing terrorism as an asset to derail India's growth. Because Tourist visiting Kashmir in large numbers can add good growth to nation, Kashmir could be hot destination for tourists. But since 2 decades, militancy has hit the Kashmir particularly affecting

employment of local population solely dependent on tourists. We have good heritage in Jammu Kashmir like Nishat Garden, Shankracharya, Ladakh's landscape, and many temples. But the terrorist activities destroy each and every dream to be there. Even we Jammuites are unable to visit Kashmir that shows our desperation of not visiting there. We cannot directly say that terrorism is the issue responsible for less tourism there, but employment opportunities are not there, especially when private players are reluctant to provide jobs to locals and prefer hiring from outside state. Dearth of Employment Avenues There requires a special resolution, as prevalent in other states, that local youths especially fresher should get opportunity to get job. They are forced to go outside J&K to explore job avenues and they never return to state, so educated youth is becoming lesser and lesser in the state. With the increasing of Business schools providing management education like MBA, BBA etc there is growth of availability of skilled manpower within the state, but the need of the hour is to tap that opportunity within the state so that they can be absorbed here. Otherwise why tourists want to be there when they will find that locals are not happy there. So there is urgent need to address the problem of unemployment in state.

It is one of the pushing factors for many local Kashmir youth to take to terrorism as their option for making money. In order to eliminate the cause of this evil there is need for effective management model where there is scope for youth to get absorbed after receiving higher education. There is enough tourist potential available here but if that could be maintained effectively by public private partnership, then the problem of unemployment would be reduced to a great extent. Government should create management for keeping vigil over private players that they are not ignoring talented local youth for job avenues. So a resolution is required. We need to do these things as soon as possible so that Jammu Kashmir becomes once again a healthy tourist spot for tourists in India. In this way I close my views. This is a desperate call from talented youth of Jammu Kashmir to have basic job avenues availability there otherwise reluctantly educated youth has to find their ways outside Jammu Kashmir and we may not be able to address the very important issue of unemployment and hence




Punjabi Juttis : The Ethenic Choice
Alakshita Pasricha,
Post Graduate Diploma In Management (2008-10) [Sixth Semester], Regional Institute Of Co-operative Management, Sector 32-C Chandigarh.

The state of Punjab is blessed with rich culture and heritage. Here the people are very fond of different varieties of food (spicy, roasted) and are quite keen towards various kinds of attires, accessories etc. Like many other parts of the country, here also Rajas and Maharajas were very fond of dressing and delicacies.Till today this inheritance continues. People, even now after centuries, are still continuing this tradition .Among many things, Phulkari embroidery of Punjab is very famous. One of the less famous but more popular among all other things is Punjabi Juttis. It is typical to Punjab. This royal footwear was worn by Nawabs of Lucknow and maharajas of Patiala, besides the rich families of Punjab and nearby states. These

juttis were also known by the name SHAHI JUTTIS. In those days embroidery work on juttis used to be with gold thread. However, now that has been replaced by silk and cotton thread. There are many varieties of Punjabi juttis. The ceremonial ones which are generally designer juttis having sequined work, beaded work and work done with gold and silver thread. MIirror work in combination with different coloured threads is known as Phulkari juttis. The major area of manufacturing of these juttis was Patiala (Punjab) and nearby places. Patiala used to be main hub. But now, the manufacturing of Punjabi Juttis has spread to other cities of Punjab, however, Patiala is still leading. There are special karigars (craftsmen) who have been in this job for many generations. It is a specialized job and art is being passed on from one generation to other. The Designer Footwear The Punjabi Juttis have been in fashion constantly. Its demand is on the increase, as the younger generation has also taken to it. One unique feature which has now being

associated with Punjabi juttis is that it has become a ceremonial footwear along with long Achkan and churidaar payjama.. The younger generation wears the designer juttis that is specifically made to order as per their choice of leather, t h r e a d s , c o l o u r combinations. Besides designer juttis, the traditional sober colour with sober work are also still popular. Different kinds of leather are being used to make these juttis, mainly being cow, goat, sheep, and camel. The leather of cow is the softest one being used in these juttis and camel being the hardest. The price of these juttis also differs according to leather used. The basic material i.e leather is obtained from Jalandhar, Malerkotla for manufacturing these Punjabi Juttis in and around Patiala. The thread, beads, sequins , mirrors and other accessories are obtained from outskirts of Patiala which is actually a hub of these items. Incidentally the same thread is being used in PHULKARI the most popular embroidery of Punjab. Other items like cloth for embroidery, PVC Sole,

special pasting material, mould etc are locally available. The price ranges from Rs150 per pair to Rs3000 per pair and in certain cases beyond Rs3000 if some special work is done on order. Normal range is Rs250-Rs400 being used in daily wear by most of the people belonging to middle class families. Manual Creations One specialty of Punjabi juttis is that the entire work is done by hand and no machine is being used. While talking to one jutti maker (Raju jutti Store) in Patiala it was told that to make one single jutti, it requires about 5-6 hours approximately and above all the whole work done on it is hand work. However another jutti maker of Patiala was of opinion, that one experienced craftsman can make even upto ten juttis in one day. It was not a surprise to be told that these juttis are being displayed almost all over the country in various exhibitions, melas etc. And also, these are being exported to countries like U.S.A, Canada, Germany, England. Talking to some of the jutti makers of Patiala during visit to their kaar-khanas ( f a c t o r i e s ) a n d showrooms/outlets, jutti makers, it was revealed that they were facing certain problems. Some of the major problems pointed out by the Punjabi jutti walas were that they were not receiving any support from the government in any form; tax has been imposed; no incentive for the participation in e x h i b i t i o n s ; n o “promotional council” type body; no patronage from departments of handlooms and handicrafts; high level of competition; lack of skilled and trained workers; people are shifting to more lucrative occupations. It was heartening to know that the demand for Punjabi Juttis is on increase. However, more people are not coming into this business mainly because there are no promotional activities to popularize it on large scale. Therefore its production is on limited scale with limited families who are doing it traditionally for generations. For the present the demand is on increase and the traditional makers are still in their place. But as and when more lucrative alternatives are available there is a danger that this art of Punjabi juttis may shrink if not get extinct.


Jatinder Vijh in PRCI Hall of Fame

Mr. Jatinder Vijh, Dy. General Manager (PR) of HMT's Tractor Business Group has been inducted into the Hall of Fame of Public Relations Council of India (PRCI) for his contribution in promoting professionalism in Public Relations over the years. The award was conferred on him at the 4th Global PR Summit held in New Delhi last Saturday by Mr. Mani Shankar Aiyer, MP. The summit was attended by around 200 delegates from the country and abroad on the theme “Emerging avenues in Specialized Communication”. Mr Vijh is also Executive committee member of Chandigarh Management Association. Golden Triangle National Award for Mr. Charanjit Singh

Global Forum for Public Relations announces that Mr Charanjit Singh, past president of CMA has been conferred Golden Triangle National Award this year at 'National Public Relations Day Celebration' on 21st April 2010 at FAPCCI, Red Hills, Hyderabad.. Global Forum for Public Relations and the Hyderabad Chapters of PRSI are organised a talk as part of 'National Public Relations Day Celebration'. His Excellency, Mr Cornelis M. Keur, US Consul General in Hyderabad was the chief guest of the program and presented the following awards: (1) GFPR's Golden Triangle National Award for 2009-10 and (2) PRSI's Dr CVNR Best PR Manager of the year Award for 2009-10.





HR Conclave A HR conclave was organised jointly by CMA & ITFT Education Group On Saturday, 1st May, 2010 at 4.00 p.m. at ITFT Campus, PGI-Mullanpur-Majri Road The conclave brought many Corporate HR Managers from Baddi, Barotiwala, Nalagarh, Parwanoo and various other industrial townships on a common platform and deliberated on placement of youth, especially BPL youth in various industries and economic activities, particularly in Himachal Pradesh, as also discussed the emerging trends in Human Resource Management

CMA Supported Blood Donation Camp Chandigarh Mayor Ms. Anu Chatrath inaugurated
CMA supported blood donation camp, organised and managed by Continental Group of Institutes, concluded here today at Sector-17, next to Neelam Theatre. Chandigarh Mayor, Ms. Anu Chatrath inaugurated the camp. She said that after the renovation of sector-17 plaza, this is the first permission to hold camp at the premises. She congratulated Continental Group of Institutes for organising this camp. She also thanked Lions Club and Chandigarh Management Association for supporting this cause. Over 600 young persons, girls and boys of various institutes donated blood on the occasion. PGI team was in attendance to collect the blood. The occasion was marked with enthusiasm, since many shoppers at sector-17 became instant blood donors and many of them were first timers and lined up to donate the blood. Remember, your blood donation can save many lives. 96% of us rely on the other 4% to give blood. Please don't leave it to someone else. 26

Edited by : JN Vohra, Secretary General, CMA Plot No. 5, C/o Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Sector 27, Chandigarh Mobile : 9814556072 E-mail :

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful