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Solar photovoltaic system or solar power system is one of renewable energy system which

uses PV modules to convert sunlight into electricity. The working principle of solar cells is based
on the photovoltaic effect, i.e. the generation of a potential difference at the junction of two
different materials in response to electromagnetic radiation [1,2]. The photovoltaic effect is
closely related to the photoelectric effect, where electrons are emitted from a material that has
absorbed light with a frequency above a material-dependent threshold frequency [3,4].
In order to receive the maximum solar energy, the PV modules should be faced at the right
direction, aligned at the proper angle with respect to the horizontal surface of the earth and the
right orientation. The sun's position with respect to the reference point on the earth is
determined by the two parameters which are 1) sun altitude and 2) the azimuth angle [5].
There are basically 3 types of the solar panels: 1) Mono crystalline: expensive than poly crystalline
and efficient (generally used for the large power plant set up). 2) Poly crystalline: reasonable and
efficient (suitable for residential solar installations) [6]. 3) Hybrid solar panels: too expensive and
very efficient.
Whenever we will talk about efficiency of the PV-Panel then there is an important distinction
between the total power (measured in W) and power density or flux (measured in W𝑚−2) [7].
When we talk about the performance of a particular solar energy conversion device i.e. (a solar
cell), power density characterizes the "quality" of the energy conversion - how much power is
generated by each square centimeter of the cell area. That may depend on various properties of
the cell material, design, and physical principles behind the conversion process. In contrast, the
total power reflects the overall output - the "quantity" of usable energy generated by the whole
device, i.e. (PV-Panel) per unit of time. In applications of solar energy (say, if we want to power
a building), we always look at the total wattage of the system and ways to maximize that total
"quantity" of energy supply. At a particular moment of operation, the output power of the device
can be expressed as:

Pout (total) = Pin (total)*(η/100) = SA (η/100)

η = efficiency (%)
S = sunlight power density (irradiance) at the cell surface (W𝑚−2)
A = total cell area (𝑚2 )
To increase the total output from that module, we need to either increase the efficiency or
increase the total input power.

According to our topic PV panel, First of all we planned our direction to enhance the PV panel
efficiency. For which we studied some fundamental concepts from different resources have
mentioned in report. We spent almost 1 hour together in university.
The weakness in this report is that we did not consider the temperature effect when we talked
about panel efficiency. Later on, we will discuss the effect of the temperature when we will
modeled and analyzed the different equivalent circuit of PV panel also the optical dimension will
be involved. Here we just talked about externally, means by increasing the number of module
efficiency could be increased.

Key Takeaways;
The key point of the whole discussion is to select the suitable PV panel for the residential and
commercial area also describe the terms and condition to improve the efficiency and get the
maximum out comes.

[1] McEvoy, A., Castaner, L. and Markvart, T. (2012) Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation.
2nd Edition, Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, 3-25
[2] Fahrenbruch, A.L. and Bube, R.H. (1983) Fundamentals of Solar Cells. Academic Press Inc., New
[3] Vilathgamuwa, M., Nayanasiri, D. and Gamini, S. (n.d.). Power electronics for photovoltaic power
systems. 1st ed. Morgan & Claypool.
[4] Sharma, S., Jain, K. and Sharma, A. (2018). Solar Cells:In Research and Applications-A Review.
[online] Available at:
[Accessed 11 Feb. 2018].
[5] (2018). Direct and indirect sensing two-axis solar tracking system - IEEE
Conference Publication. [online] Available at:
[Accessed 11 Feb. 2018].
[6] (2018). Performance comparison between commercial mono-crystalline and poly-
crystalline PV modules under LCPV conditions - IEEE Conference Publication.
[7] Sumathi, S., Ashok Kumar, L. and Surekha, P. (n.d.). Solar PV and wind energy conversion systems.