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Chapter 2

Design of Laterally Restrained


Steel Beams
• Introduction
• Bending Moment Resistant
• Web Buckling
• Design Procedures
Introduction

Primary /main Beam

Secondary beam
Types of restraining condition of
beam
1. Restrained beam
A beam where the compression flange is
restrained against lateral deflection and
rotation. Only vertical deflection exists.
2. Unrestrained beam
The compression flange is not restrained from
deflect laterally and rotate about the plan of the
section, which called lateral torsional buckling
Restrained vs unrestrained beams
Restrained beam
• A beam where a compression flange is
restrained against lateral deflection and
rotation. Only vertical deflection allowed.
• A full lateral restraint may be provided by
concrete slab which sufficiently connected to
the beam, or by sufficient bracing members
added.
• Bend about its major axis .
Vertical deflection of I beam under
flexural effect
Restrained beam
Composite action
between concrete slab
and steel I beam
achieved by shear stud
connector
Beam Design
Factors to be consider when designing a beam:
1. Select a beam section based on the moment
resistance (capacity).
2. Verify (Check) the shear resistance of the section
3. Verify the combined bending and shear resistance
4. Verify the deflection based on SLS.
5. The basic concept of design check is to ensure
Design resistance {R}> Design Effects {E}
Step 1 –Strength and Section
classification
MED
Step 2: Bending Moment
Resistant (cl.6.2.5)
Eq. 6.12
Step 3: Shear Resistance
Cl. 6.2.6
Eq 6.17

Eq 6.18
Shear area, Av for various
cross sections
Step 4: Shear buckling resistance
• Cl. 6.2.6. (no.6)
ℎ𝑤 𝜀
• For unstiffened web, ≤ 72 if not refer
𝑡𝑤 𝜂
to EC3-1-5 to check shear buckling
resistance of the web.

• Normally not necessary for standard I and H


rolled sections.
Eq. 6.2.6 (6)
Step 5: bending and shear
resistance
• Cl. 6.2.8
• Check Ved < 0.5 Vpl,Rd ; if ok no checking required.

• If Ved > 0.5 Vpl,Rd ; reduced MRd should be


taken in design resistance in major axis ( MV.Rd)
using reduced yield strength.
If VED > 0.5Vc,Rd
Step 6: Flange Induces buckling
resistance
• Cl.8, EC3-1-5
• To prevent flange to buckle in the plane of
the web.
ℎ𝑤 𝐸 𝐴𝑤
• check ≤ 𝑘
𝑡𝑤 𝑓𝑦𝑓 𝐴𝑓𝑐
Step 7: Resistance of
web to transverse force
i.e. web buckling
• Cl 6 EC 3-1-5
• 3 loading types:- (a) and (c) – force resisted by shear in the
web
- (b) – force transfer through the web
directly to other flange
design resistance of
𝑓𝑦𝑤 𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑡𝑤
web to local buckling; 𝐹𝑅𝑑 = > 𝐹𝐸𝑑 ok
𝛾𝑀1
if not provide stiffener at required position.
Step 8: Deflection
• A beam may not fail due to excessive deflection,
however it is necessary to ensure that deflections
are not excessive under unfactored imposed loading
to prevent
• Damage to various architectural features such as
interior walls, partitions, ceilings and exterior
cladding
• Severe cracking in brittle finishes such as brick wall
with plaster finishes
• Damage to ceilings, partitions, glass façade and
other fragile nonstructural elements
Step 8: Deflection

Maximum deflection for typical cases of loading


for simply supported, fixed end and cantilever
beams
Deflection limit
Example of restrained beam
design
Example 1
Check the suitability of 356 x 171 x 51 kg/m UB section
in S275 steel loaded by uniformly distributed loading
Gk=8kN/m and Qk=5kN/m as shown below. Assume that
the beam is fully laterally restrained and that the beam
sits on 100mm bearings at each end. Ignore selfweight of
beam.
Gk = 8 kN/m
Qk = 5 kN/m

7m
Analysis
Design action, w = 𝛾𝐺 𝐺𝑘 + 𝛾𝑄 𝑄𝑘
= 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk
= 1.35(8) + 1.5(5)
= 18.3 kN/m
𝑤𝐿
𝑀𝐸𝑑 = = 112 kNm
8
𝑤𝐿
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = = 64.05 kN
2
Strength classification
tf = 10.7mm < 40mm for steel grade S275
From Table 3.1, fy = 275N/mm2
Section classification
Web, cw/tw = 47.2 < 72 = 66.24 …. Class 1
Flange cf/tf = 4.63 < 9  = 8.28 …….Class 1
Since flange and web are class 1, the section
is classified as Class 1
Bending moment Resistance
𝑊𝑝𝑙 𝑓𝑦 659 𝑥 103 𝑥 275
𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = =181.2kNm
𝛾𝑚𝑜 1.0
Since 𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 > MEd Ok!
Shear resistance
𝑓𝑦 275
𝐴𝑣 ൗ 2532 ൗ 3
3
𝑉𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = =402kN > Ved
𝛾𝑚𝑜 1.0

Av = 49.8x102 – 2(126)(10.7)+(6.6+2x10.2)10.7 hwtw


= 2532 mm2  2191 mm2
Shear buckling resistance of web
ℎ𝑤 𝜀
> 72 further check required
𝑡𝑤 
ℎ𝑤 332 0.92
= = 50.3 < 72 = 66.24
𝑡𝑤 6.6 1.0
the local web buckling is unlikely to occur
Bending and shear
According to EC3, the theoretical plastic resistance moment of
the section, Mpl,Rd is reduced if (check at higher shear location)
VEd > 0.5Vpl,Rd
0.5Vpl,Rd = 0.5 (402) = 201 kN > VEd

No reduction to moment capacity should be made


Deflection
The maximum deflection due to unfactored imposed load is:
5𝑤𝐿4 5 𝑥 5 70004
𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = = = 7.3 mm
384𝐸𝐼 384(210000)(10200𝑥104 )

Assuming the beam is carrying wall with plaster finish or other


brittle finish material, the maximum permissible deflection is;
𝐿 7000
𝛿𝑙𝑖𝑚 = = = 19.44mm > actual
360 360
Example 2
Select and check a suitable beam section using
S235 steel to support the loads shown below.
Assume beam is fully laterally restrained.

Qk = 40 kN Gk = 6 kN/m
Qk = 7 kN/m

3.5 m 3.5 m
Analysis
Design action, UDL, w = 18.6 kN/m
Design action, point load, P = 60 kN

𝑤𝐿2 𝑃𝐿
MEd = + = 219 kNm
8 4
𝑤𝐿 𝑃
VEd = + = 95.1 kN
2 2
Section selection
Assume suitable section belongs to Class 1. Hence the
minimum required plastic moment of resistance about
major axis (y-y), Wpl,y
𝑀𝐸𝑑 𝛾𝑀𝑜 219 𝑥 106 𝑥1.0
𝑊𝑝𝑙,𝑦 = = = 932 x 103 mm3
𝑓𝑦 235

From table of dimension, try 356 x 171 x 57kg/m UB


(Wpl,y = 1010 cm3)
Strength classification
tf = 13mm < 40mm for steel grade S235
From Table 3.1, fy = 235N/mm2
Section classification
Web, cw/tw = 38.5 < 72 = 72 …. Class 1
Flange cf/tf = 5.53 < 9  = 9 …….Class 1
Since flange and web are class 1, the section is
classified as Class 1
Bending moment Resistance
𝑊𝑝𝑙 𝑓𝑦 1010 𝑥 103 𝑥 235
𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = =237.35kNm
𝛾𝑚𝑜 1.0
Since 𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 > MEd Ok!
Shear resistance
𝑓𝑦 275
𝐴𝑣 ൗ 3153.3 ൗ 3
3
𝑉𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = =428kN > Ved
𝛾𝑚𝑜 1.0

Av = 72.6x102 – 2(172)(13)+(8.1+2x10.2)13 hwtw


= 3153.3 mm2  2735 mm2
Shear buckling resistance of web
ℎ𝑤 𝜀
> 72 further check required
𝑡𝑤 
ℎ𝑤 337 1
= = 41.7 < 72 = 72
𝑡𝑤 8.1 1.0
the local web buckling is unlikely to occur so
no further checking required
Bending and shear
According to EC3, the theoretical plastic resistance moment of
the section, Mpl,Rd is reduced in the existing of higher shear
(check at higher shear location)
VEd > 0.5Vpl,Rd
0.5Vpl,Rd = 0.5 (428) = 214 kN > VEd

No reduction to moment capacity should be made


Deflection
The maximum deflection due to unfactored imposed load is:
𝛿𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 𝛿𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 + 𝛿𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝑃𝐿3 5𝑤𝐿4
= +
48𝐸𝐼𝑦 384𝐸𝐼𝑦
40𝑥103 70003 5(7)70004
= +
48𝑥210𝑥103 𝑥16000𝑥104 384𝑥210𝑥103 𝑥16000𝑥104
𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 15 mm

Assuming the beam is carrying wall with plaster finish or other


brittle finish material, the maximum permissible deflection is;
𝐿 7000
𝛿𝑙𝑖𝑚 = = = 19.44mm > actual OK
360 360