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Arabic materials of the late Middle Ages on Eastern 3. Republican Turkey published a series of
and Central Europe"], in A.S. Tveritinova (ed.), Turkiye Djumhuriyeti Dewlet Sdl-ndmesi (first 3 vols.
Vostocnle istocniki po istorii narodov Yugo-vostocnoy i 1925-6 to 1927-8 in Arabic script; 1928-9 under the
Tsentral'noy Europe ["Oriental sources on the history title Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Yilligi). There were
of the peoples of South-Eastern and Central several attempts to revitalise the provincial almanacs
Europe"], Moscow 1964; B. Spuler, Die Goldene under the name of H yilliklan (1967 and 1973).
Horde, 2nd rev. ed., Wiesbaden 1965; F. Westberg Bibliography: Hasan Duman, Ottoman year-books
(Vestberg), K analizu vostocnlkh istocnikov o Vostocnoy [Salname and Nevsal}. A bibliography and a union cata-
Evrope ["Towards an analysis of the oriental sources logue with reference to Istanbul libraries, Istanbul 1982;
on Eastern Europe"], in Zurnal ministerstva narodnogo A. Ubicini and Pavet de Courteille, Etat present de
prosveshceniya, xiii, xiv (1908). I'Empire ottoman. Statistique, gouvernement, administra-
(V.F. BucHNER-[P.B. GOLDEN]) tion, finances, armee, communautes non musulmanes etc.
SAL-NAME (T.), a term of Ottoman Turkish etc. d'apres le Salnameh (annuaire imperial) pour I'annee
administration: 1293 de rhegire (1875-76) et les documents officiels leplus
1. Official yearbooks issued by the Ottoman recents, Paris 1876; M. Hartmann, Das erste Jahrbuch
central government, by provincial authorities and a der geistlichen Behorden des Osmanischen Reiches, in WI,
number of civil (ministries) and military (army, fleet) iv (1916-17), 26-32; K. Kreiser, Quellen zur
institutions, appearing between 1263/1847 and the Landeskunde und Geschichte des Jemen in tiirkischer
end of the Empire (1918). Sprache, in Resultate aktueller Jemen-Forschung, eine
They unite characteristics of European handbooks Zwischenbilanz (Bamberger Geographische Schrif-
(Almanack de Gotha, French Annuaires Officiels), a synop- ten, 1), Bamberg 1978, 93-122; J. McCarthy and
tic calendar and traditional Ottoman historical and J.D. Hyde, Ottoman imperial and provincial Salnames,
bureaucratic materials (condensed history of the in IJMES (1978); C.V. Findley, Ottoman civil of-
dynasty, itineraries, defter I'registers such as budgets). ficialdom. A social history, Princeton 1989. Many of-
The sal-names are reliable instruments with almost all ficial and private sdl-ndmes are available in
details on state officials (at the supervisory level), ad- microfiche (Ottoman Microform Project. The Uni-
ministrative organisation, toponomy, communica- versity of Chicago/Middle East Documentation
tions, laws and regulations, although one should refer Cente_r). (K. KREISER)
to the Takwim-i WekaW for up-to-date information. SALA, dialectically Sla, current French and
The Imperial sal-names give summary population English form SALE, a town of Morocco on the
data; the provincial editions often provided informa- Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Buragrag (older
tion on male and female population down to the kadd Asmir), situated on a flat, sandy stretch of land. Pre-
level, data on migration, numbers of household, 18th century sources often mix up Shalla, Sale and
births and deaths in urban areas, population by millet, Rabat. *Seld would mean "crag, cliff" in Punic
and city and even village size, though the depth and (though not in fact attested in extant Punic texts) but
quality of information varied according to geographic a Phoenician past for the town is based only on
area(J. McCarthy, Muslims and minorities. The popula- hypothesis.
tion of Ottoman Anatolia and the end of the Empire, New Ibn Hawkal, tr. Kramers-Wiet, 78, mentions a
York 1983). town and some ribdts on the river of Sala, whilst al-
The first imperial sal-names were modest, litho- Bakri states that clsa, the son of Idris II, was the ruler
graphicJally-produced booklets, but their size and of the town. But this could also refer to Shalla rather
quality improved gradually (for the content of the first than Sale proper. The town was probably founded by
state year book, compare Sdlndme. Le premier annuaire de the Banu cAshara during the 5th/llth century. At
I'Empire ottoman ou tableau de I'etat politique civil, militaire, first the Banu cAshara were at Shalla, but left it for the
judiciaire et administratif de la Turquie depuis I'introduction right bank of the river where they built palaces and
des reformes operees dans ce pays par les sutians Mahmoud II held a court which rivalled those of the Spanish Taifas
et Abdul-Medjid, actuellement regnant; traduit du Turc et ac- (M. Bencherifa, Usrat Bant CAshara, in al-Bahth al-^Ilmi
compagne des notes explicatives par TfhomasJ X[avier] Bian- [Rabat 1967], 177-219). Under the Almoravids, the
chi, Paris 1848 =JA, Ser. 4, x [1847], xi [1848]). After Banu cAshara retained their prestige in the town,
1888, the Personal Records Administration (Sidjill-i whose agricultural and commercial prosperity is des-
Ahwdl-i Me^munn Iddresi) was responsible for the cribed by al-Idrisi. Sale's resistance to the Almohads
governmental almanacs. In the provinces, the first provoked the destruction of its ramparts and the
almanacs appeared in Sarajevo (Sdl-ndme-yi Wildyet-i elimination of the Banu cAshara, whose palace cAbd
Bosna, 1283/1866), Aleppo (Haleb), Konya, Suriye, al-Mu5min requisitioned. The town became a royal
and the Danube province (Tuna). Like the official encampment, although if the army stopped in the
provincial newspapers, they were the responsibility of region on its way to al-Andalus, it was, rather, from
the mektubdju-yi wildyet. Some provincial year-books the Mediterranean ports that it embarked.
appeared with Arabic, Greek and "Bosnian" transla- The re-foundation of Rabat [see RIBAT AL-FATH]
tions. Many included illustrations and tables. They does not seem to have harmed Sale, whose role con-
were an instrument to demonstrate progress made by tinued to be important; the caliphs often stayed there
the government and to encourage competition be- and undertook important building works: the provi-
tween administrators, sion of water (sur al-akwds or wall of the arches), and
2. Semi-official and non-governmental an- construction or restoration of the Great Mosque,
nuals. Some of these were annual reports of welfare Masdjid al-Talica, which has always occupied the
organisations (e.g. ^Othmdnli Hildl-i Ahmer Djem^iyyeti, same place. The Marlnid conquest was marked by the
1329/1331; Djem^iyyet-i tednsiyye-i islamiyye, 1332/ seizure and sack of the town by the Castilians in
1913). Ebu '1-Diya5 (Ebuzziya) Tewfik [q.v.] was the 658/1260; goods were pillaged and burnt and a
publisher of the most successful almanacs for a vast substantial part of the population massacred.
reading public. The first appeared under the name Amongst the inhabitants carried off as slaves was the
Sdl-ndme-yi Hadika (1873). Later, it was published ka^i, who was a descendant of the Banu cA§hara. The
under different names such as Sdl-ndme-yi Ebu 'l-Diyd^ Marlnid Abu Yusuf (656-85/1258-86) came to the
(the first edition was destroyed in the printing press by help of the town and took part iiv rebuilding those
order of the sultan) and Newsdl-i Ma^nfet. walls which had not been rebuilt by the Almohads

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