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International Conference on Current Research in Engineering Science and Technology (ICCREST-2016)




(Thermal engineering) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR(SE.G)
Department of Mechanical engineering, Department of Mechanical engineering,
jj college of engineering and technology, jj college of engineering and technology,
trichy-9,tamilnadu,india. trichy-9,tamilnadu,india.

Abstract— The present work is focused on The use of bio fuels largely depends on the potential
determining the performance and emission characteristics of available feedstock sources. The overall bio fuel potential
biodiesel in DI diesel engine. Experimental investigation of which largely depends on climate, land availability and the
diesel engine was made with 25% (B25), 50% (B50) and 75% productivity.
(B75) and 100%(B100) blending of Ziziphus jujuba oil with Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made
diesel and the results were compared with diesel. from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible)
and animal fat. The world is confronted with the twin
Keywords— Ziziphus jujuba, Indian jujube, Edible, crises of fossil fuel depletion and Environmental
Blending, direct injection (DI) diesel engine.
I. INTRODUCTION The main advantages of using Biodiesel are its
renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, its
From the very beginning, India’s energy scenarios
biodegradability and the organic carbon present in it is
have been characterized by a mix of non- commercial and
photosynthetic in origin. It does not contribute to a rise in the
commercial sources of energy, namely cow dung,
level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently to
agriculture waste, coal, hydro, oil, gas and now nuclear. The
the greenhouse effect.
share of oil in the total energy consumption is about 34%.
These vegetable oils from oil seed crops like soya bean, II. MATERIAL AND METHOD
sunflower, groundnut, mustard etc. and oil seed from tree
origin have got 90 to 95% energy value of diesel on A. Biofuel peparation
volume basis, comparable cetane number and can be The biofuel was heated to the temperature of around 60ºC.
substituted between 20-100 per cent. There is the color change from brown to yellowish brown. An
Today, applications in the transport sector are based agent of 15gm KOH and 200ml of methanol for each liter of
on liquid fuels. The advantage of liquid fuels is that they are Ziziphus jujube oil. At 65ºC the methanol complete the
easy to store. Furthermore, today’s infrastructure for transport process of heavy fatty oil compositions into low fatty oil.
is mainly based on liquid fuels. Gaseous fuels are less utilized Using the funnel the oil and fatty acids are separated. The oil
in the transport sector. Even less applications exist for solid was washed for three times by using water and heated up to
fuels. They were only used in the past e.g. for trains. 100ºC for water removal. Finally we get the methyl ester of
However, today transport fuels are classified into two ziziphus jujuba oil and the density of the biodiesel near to the
basically different categories: fossil fuels which are mainly diesel.
based on crude oil and natural gas, and bio fuels made from
renewable resources. B. Biofuel properties
Bio fuels have some common characteristics For successful use in a diesel engine, the properties of
although processes for bio fuels can be very different. These biodiesel analysed and compared with diesel. The values
common aspects are jointly described in three chapters of Part shown in Table 1.
A of this handbook: potential of biomass, bio fuel policies and
bio fuel life cycles.

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International Conference on Current Research in Engineering Science and Technology (ICCREST-2016)

Properties Diesel Ziziphus

jujuba oil
( Biodiesel )
Specific gravity 0.8316 0.8881
Kinematic viscosity 3.60 6.72
@400C in CSt
Flash point 740C 1430C

Fire point 830C 1560C Fig 1: Experimental setup of DI diesel engine

Grosscalorific 42,700 42,752.112
KJ/kg Engine was started with no load condition and run for few
Cetane Number 44 52.1 minutes to reach unwavering working condition. After
reached steady running condition, fuel supply source for
Density in gm/cc 0.8220 0.8868 engine changed from fuel tank to measuring burette by
closing the knob availed in the setup. Data such as Specific
fuel consumption, torque applied and exhaust temperature
C. Experiments were recorded by using “IC engine” software through the data
Performance of DI diesel engine is carried out by logger connected with the engine setup. Then the fuel supply
blending of ZJ oil with diesel. Experiment started with 25% retrieved to origin condition. Load changes from 0 to 100% of
blending of ZJ oil with diesel. All the Engine parameters full load with the interval of 25% of full load. For each load
such as Specific fuel consumption (SFC), Exhaust gas condition, the parameters were stored using software. BTE for
temperature (EGT) recorded using computerized data logger. each load condition calculated from the values obtained from
Raise the load to 25% of full load using electrical software. The procedure repeated for each compression ratio
dynamometer and again the parameters were recorded. and variations of parameters such as SFC, BTE and EGT are
Similarly, Engine loaded with 50%, 75% & 100% of full presented with respect to load for compression ratio of
load and readings are recorded. Brake thermal efficiency 15,16,17,18 respectively. The graphs in each figure
computed from the initial measurement. correspond to three different blending (B25, B50 &B75) and
(B100)diesel values.
D. Experimental setup
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the VCR A. Specific fuel consumption
engine experimental setup. The specification of the VCR
engine listed in Table 2. Engine performance analysis software Experimental results show that on fig 2 ,SFC was reduced
package “Engine Soft” has been employed for online with increasing the load for all the compression ratios . Results
performance analysis. The setup consists of single-cylinder obtained were similar to results reported by many researchers.
four-stroke Variable Compression Ratio diesel engine The main reason for that brake power developed was higher
connected to eddy current dynamometer for loading. A than fuel consumption in higher load. Also, increasing the At
specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement was used higher load condition B25 registered lesser fuel consumption
for varying the compression ratio. Setup was provided with when compared to other blending (B50 and B75) for all the
necessary instruments for combustion pressure and crank compression ratios selected except the compression ratio of
angle measurements. Provision was also made for interfacing 17:1. B75 register higher fuel consumption for the entire
airflow, fuel flow, temperatures, and load measurement.The compression ratio. This is due to combined effect of higher
setup has stand- alone panel box consisting of air box, two density and lower calorific value with respect to increasing the
fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel measuring unit, blend and also varying chemical structure. High density of the
transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements, and process ZJ oil causes higher mass injection of fuel for the same
indicator and engine indicator. Rotameters were provided for volume at same injection pressure. Lower calorific value
cooling water and calorimeter water flow measurement. causes higher fuel consumption for the same power
development. Also, Different chemical structure of oil have
poor combustion quality increases the fuel consumption
[2].SFC decreases with increasing the compression ratio in
consequence of higher temperature produced at the end of

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International Conference on Current Research in Engineering Science and Technology (ICCREST-2016)

C. Mechanical Efficiency
Fig 4, Shows that Experimental result shows that
Mechanical efficiency increases with increase in the load for
compression ratio selected from 15:1 to 18:1 . Results
obtained were similar to results reported by many researchers
[2, 3, 7, 9 &11]. Because increasing the load on engine
increase the brake power output. When the percentage of
blending increased then brake Mechanical efficiency reduced
for all the compression ratios selected. This is due to
increasing density and viscosity with increase of blending
from 25% to 75%. High density of blending.

Fig 2: BP vs SFC

B. Brake thermal efficiency

Fig 3, Shows that Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) shows
the capacity of mechanical energy conversion by engine
from heat released by the explosion of fuel inside the
cylinder volume. BTE is directly proportional to Brake
power developed and inversely proportional to mass of
fuel injection and calorific value. Experimental result
shows that BTE increases with increase in the load for
compression ratio selected from 15:1 to 18:1. Results
obtained were similar to results reported by many
researchers [2, 3, 7, 9 &11]. Because increasing the load Fig 4: BP vs ηMech
on engine increase the brake power output. When the
percentage of blending increased then brake thermal
efficiency reduced for all the compression ratios selected. D. Carbon dioxide
This is due to increasing density and viscosity with Fig 5,shows that the variation of smoke density with brake
increase of blending from 25% to 75%. High density of power for both biodiesel and biodiesel. It is observed that the
blending increased the mass of fuel injected for same load increases, the carbon dioxide gradually increases in all
power output. At higher load condition 25% blending of
Ziziphus jujuba oil (B25) with diesel having higher BTE cases. For ZJ25, the carbon dioxide varies from at no load to
among the three different blending for all the compression maximum load, which is higher than the diesel fuel. However
ratios selected except CR 17. At the same time, the the biodiesel ZJ25 reduces smoke density with respect to
percentage blending of ZJ oil increased with diesel results biodiesel for all the loads.
that elevated flash point and fire point of the fuel.
Increasing the compression ratio of the engine produced
higher peak pressure and higher temperature at the end of
compression. Such increased peak temperature helped to
achieve improved combustion quality of blended diesel
even it has higher viscosity. At compression ratio of 18,
BTE of engine fueled with 25% blending of ZJ oil given
same result as diesel

Fig 5: BP vs CO2
E. Oxides of nitrogen
Fig 6,shows that the NOx emission with, and without the
addition of nanoparticles on ZJ25. It can be seen that NOx
gradually increased with addition of biodiesel in all the cases.
Fig 3: BP vs ηBT NOx emission is mainly depended on temperature, the local

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International Conference on Current Research in Engineering Science and Technology (ICCREST-2016)

concen-tration of oxygen and the duration of combustion increase of ZJ25 doing level with biodiesel. HC emission was
during dif-ferent combustion phases on the different 0.216 g/kW h, 0.162 g/kW h and 0.138 g/kW h for ZJME25
combustion zones. By the addition of biodiesel , which blends respectively.
increases the diffusion controlled combustion duration that
increases the NOx emission.

Fig 6: BP vs NOX
F. Carbon monoxide Fig 8: BP vs HC
Fig 7,shows that the biodiesel on carbon monoxide emissions.
Biodiesel(B25) lead to higher carbon combustion activation
and hence promote com-plete combustion [6]. The blended IV. CONCLUSION
fuels showed accelerated combustion due to the shortened The performance and emission parameters of DI diesel
ignition delay. Due to shortened of ignition delay, the degree engine fueled with Diesel blended Ziziphus jujuba oil have
of fuel–air mix-ing and uniform burning could have enhanced been investigated. The experimental results showed that the
[13]. Hence, there was an appreciable reduction in carbon SFC, ME & BTE were varied with respect to blending and
monoxide emis-sions for blended biodiesel. At the full load, compression ratios. From the experimental result, conclusion
the CO emissions for ZJ25 were 8.079 g/kW h, 3.951 g/kW h were made as follows
and 6.284 g/kW h respectively.  SFC decreases with increasing load for the
compression ratio from 15:1 to 18:1 and
increases with increasing percentage blending of
biofuel. B25 having lower specific fuel
consumption when comparing with B50 & B75.
 BTE and ME increases with increasing the load
for all the compression ratio (18:1 to 15:1) and
all the blending (B25, B50 & B75).B25 register
higher BTE when compared to B50 & B75
except the compression ratio of 17:1.
 The CO emission decreases with the use of ZJ25
 The HC emissions decreases with ZJ25 blend.
 The NOx emission is lower for the neat diesel
than the ZJME25. The NOx emission was found
to be slightly increased with the addition of
Fig 7: BP vs CO biodiesel blends.
 The amount of carbon dioxide is lower for
G. Hydrocarbon ZJME25 than the neat diesel. The addition of
Fig 8,Shows that the Hydrocarbon emission is found to be biodiesel for further decreased.
considerably reduced with the addition of biodiesel. From this
figure, it is seen that the HC emis-sion reduced with the

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[10] J. Sadikbasha, R.B. Anand, Role of nano-additive blended biodiesel
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affectionate blessings and loving co-operation at all stages of
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