You are on page 1of 20

c

Ê 

c 


 c 
cc
c 
  



 c 
 c
 
 
 c 


 

c  

c
 c  c
c 
 c 


   c  c

  c

c
c
c

The i   is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells


called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between
different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts,
central and peripheral. The central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord.
The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called
ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system.
These regions are all interconnected by means of complex neural pathways. The
enteric nervous system, a subsystem of the peripheral nervous system, has the
capacity, even when severed from the rest of the nervous system through its primary
connection by the vagus nerve, to function independently in controlling the
gastrointestinal system.


  

c

 c

 



 
ccc
 

c

c
c
c

˜
i
„ Your brain controls everything that happens in your body.
„ The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa.
„ The human brain is encased in bony skull. It is surrounded by meanings
consisting of three protective specialized membranes.
„ The brain is made up of grey matter and white matter.
„ Grey matter = masses of the cell bodies and dendrites.
„ White matter = bundles of axon each coated with a sheath of myelin.
„ The brain receives sensory input from the spinal cord as well as from its own
nerves.


c 
c
 c  c


c
c
c

m   


i

c c
 !"c# c
cc

c
  $ c 


*c c  c  
ccc
+"c

c,c c  cc

c  c c
! c-c 
%

c

 c &
c 



" c  
c%cc
 c#
c c  c  
c  cc
c  c! 
'  "c(   "c
)   
c

   

„ Controls your movement and identifies the information gathered by your


sense organs.
„ Cerebrum is the largest and most complex part of the forebrain.
„ The enlarge region of the cerebrum consist two cerebral hemisphere
separated by a deep fissure.
„ The corpus callosum consists of fibres connecting the right and left cerebral
hemisphere at the base.
„ The cerebral cortex is the surface layer of the cerebrum. It composed of a thin
(2 ± 4 mm in thickness) but highly convoluted of grey matter. The many
grooves increase the surface area, providing spaces for location of more cell
bodies.

c
c
c

„ Diencephalons consist:

„ Thalamus.
Ñ All sensory input (except for olfaction) passes through it on the way
up to the somatic-sensory regions of the cerebral cortex and then
returns to it from there.
Ñ Signals from the cerebellum pass through it on the way to the motor
areas of the cerebral cortex.
„ Hypothalamus.

Ñ The seat of the autonomic nervous system. Damage to the


hypothalamus is quickly fatal as the normal homeostasis of body
temperature, blood chemistry, etc. goes out of control.

    

„ The cerebellum is below and to the back of the cerebrum.


„ Controls you balance and posture.
„ The cerebellum consists of two deeply-convoluted hemispheres. Although it
represents only 10% of the weight of the brain, it contains as many neurons
as all the rest of the brain combined.
„ The cerebellum receives nerve impulses from the inner ear and muscle
spindles.
„ It co-ordinates muscle activities to control body balance and posture.

Õ 
i


„ The medulla looks like a swollen tip to the spinal cord. Nerve impulses arising in
here.
„ rhythmically stimulate the intercostals muscles and diaphragm ² making
breathing possible
„ regulate heartbeat
„ regulate the diameter of arterioles thus adjusting blood flow

.c
c
c

˜
i

‡ The Brain Stem connects the brain to the spinal cord.

‡ The nerves in the brain stem control your heartbeat, breathing, and blood
pressure. 

 i

0


(
c  c
 

 cc


/c
c
c

˜
    i i


m ii i
Carries impulses from receptors for example pain receptors in skin to the CNS (brain or
spinal cord)

i i i

Carries impulses from sensory nerves to motor nerves.

1c
c
c

Õi i
Carries impulses from CNS to effector e.g. muscle to bring about movement or gland to
bring about secretion of hormone for example ADH.

Π i   i i

  
m ii i i i i Õi i
 i Long dendrites and Short dendrites and Short dendrites and
    short axon short or long axon long axon
 Cell body and Entirely within the Dendrites and cell

 i dendrites are spinal cord or CNS body are located in
outside the spinal the spinal cord, the
cord axon are outside the
spinal cord
 Conduct impulse to Interconnect the Conduct impulse to an
i  i the spinal cord sensory neuron with effector (muscle or
appropriate motor glands)
neuron


2c
c
c

    

„ Neurones send massages electrochemically, this means that chemicals (ions)


cause an electrical impulse.
„ Neurones and muscle cells are electrically excitable cells, which mean that they
can transmit electrical nerve impulses.
„ These impulses are due to events in cell membrane.


m i


„ Spinal cord is like an extension cord that runs down the center of your back.

„ It is protected by the backbone.

3c
c
c

„ The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system (CNS).
„ The spinal cord extends from the brainstem to the lower back. It is almost
completely enclosed and protected by the vertebrate which form the vertebral
column.
„ The spinal cord carries out two main function:
p It connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain.
Information (nerve impulses) reaching the spinal cord through sensory
neurons is transmitted up into the brain. Signals arising in the motor areas
of the brain travel back down the cord and leave in the motor neurons.
p Acts as a minor coordinating center responsible for some simple reflexes
like the withdrawal reflex.
„ The central region of the spinal cord consists of grey matter containing mainly the
cell bodies of interneurones and motor neurons. The central canal contains
cerebrospinal fluid in the centre of the grey matter.
„ The outer region of white matter consists of myelinated axons.

   i 
i  i


„ When a neuron is not sending a signal, it is at µrest¶.c


„ The membrane is responsible for the different events that occur in a neuron.c

 m  
   

 

Three sodium ions from inside the cell first bind to the transport protein. Then a
phosphate group is transferred from ATP to the transport protein causing it to change
shape and release the sodium ions outside the cell. Two potassium ions from outside
the cell then bind to the transport protein and as the phosphate is removed, the protein
assumes its original shape and releases the potassium ions inside the cell.

4c
c
c

„ If the pump was to continue unchecked there would be no sodium or potassium ions
left to pump, but there are also sodium and potassium ion channels in the membrane.
„ These channels are normally closed, but even when closed, they ³leak´, allowing sodium
ions to leak in and potassium ions to leak out, down their respective concentration
gradients.

mi
 

„ A synapse is a small gap separating neurons. The synapse consists of


p A presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria and
other cell organelles.
p A postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters
and.
p A synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic
endings. It is about 20nm wide.

c
c
c

„ The terminal end of the axon is enlarged to form a bulbous structure called the
synaptic knob or synaptic bulb. The synaptic knob contains many membrane-
bounded synaptic vesicles, mitochondria and microfilaments.
„ An action potential cannot cross the synaptic cleft between neurones. Instead
the nerve impulse is carried by chemicals called neurotransmitters. These
chemicals are made by the cell that is sending the impulse (the pre-synaptic
neurone) and stored in synaptic vesicles at the end of the axon.
„ The cell that is receiving the nerve impulse (the post-synaptic neurone) has
chemical-gated ion channels in its membrane, called neuroreceptors. These
have specific binding sites for the neurotransmitters.
i  i i
 

'506c6'c7 *

c 
c
c ( c c c

c
c

c 
c
#8c c c 
c
 
c c

 cc   cc  c !c

#c c c

c
c !c cc
- c 


  



c
c
c

c
c
c

 
i  

„ A neurotransmitter is a chemical produced by Golgi apparatus, found in the form


of synaptic vesicle. It helps to transmit an impulse across a synapse or
neuromuscular junction.

Ê   
 

  Ê 

†c c †c c
 !  ! 

0c c 0c c
 

c  

c
c 
 c 


c
c
c

Õ 
i     
i  i

i
 


c

cc
c 
c
 


!8!
c9 c

%cc9

 
c cc#
c  c%
 




ccc 
c 
c
cc c
c
 
c
 




c c
c
cc
 
c  

c9cc
c"cc9c#c 
c
 
c  

c
c cc
c
c

c c 






c c +c#c c  c: c c


c 
c
-c

„ At the end of the pre-synaptic neurone there are voltage-gated calcium channels.
When an action potential reaches the synapse these channels open, causing
calcium ions to flow into the cell.
„ These calcium ions cause the synaptic vesicles to fuse with the cell membrane,
releasing their contents (the neurotransmitter chemicals) by exocytosis.
„ The neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft.
„ The neurotransmitter binds to the neuroreceptors in the post-synaptic membrane,
causing the channels to open. In the example shown these are sodium channels,
so sodium ions flow in.
„ This causes a depolarisation of the post-synaptic cell membrane, which may
initiate an action potential, if the threshold is reached.

.c
c
c

„ The neurotransmitter is broken down by a specific enzyme in the synaptic cleft;


for example the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase breaks down the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine. The breakdown products are absorbed by the pre-synaptic
neurone by endocytosis and used to re-synthesis more neurotransmitter, using
energy from the mitochondria. This stops the synapse being permanently on.

/c
c
c

Investigation about the disease of nervous system in human from the website.

a) Method :

a. Surfing the internet.

b. Find the information about disease of nervous system in human.

c. Analyze what is the cause of the disease system in human.

b) Observation :

„ The disease of the nervous system


„ Nervous system disease refers to a general class of medical conditions affecting
the nervous system
„ They can be divided into:
p Central nervous system disease in the CNS
p Peripheral neuropathy in the PNS
„ The term neuropathy is sometimes defined to include any disorder of the nervous
system. With this usage, the terms "nervous system disease" and "neuropathy"
would be synonymous.
p Tumor
p Anemia
p Coagulopathy
p Immunodeficiency
p Immunoproliferative disorder
p Hypersensitivity
p Cardiovascular disease
p Stomatognathic disease
p Musculoskeletal disorders

1c
c
c

Graphics:

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the brain, which can be
cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). It is defined as any intracranial tumor
created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself
(neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, myelin-producing
Schwann cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves, in the brain
envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or spread from cancers primarily
located in other organs (metastatic tumors).

Primary (true) brain tumors are commonly located in the posterior cranial fossa in
children and in the anterior two-thirds of the cerebral hemispheres in adults, although
they can affect any part of the brain.

2c
c
c

Anemia is a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than
the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased
oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in
numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency.

Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of
anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a
variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms,
and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few. The three main classes of anemia
include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-
volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell
production (ineffective hematopoiesis).c

c c

3c
c
c

†   i
During completing this coursework, I learned many things. This has gained my
knowledge and improved me a lot.

Unlike the gaseous exchange topic, this topic has many sources of information
and reference. The book about it can easily found in the library. In the internet also gave
a lot of information of the topic.

I have spent a lot of hours doing this coursework. I even did not sleep at night
just ensure this coursework successfully complete. I have put all my effort in this
coursework.

Luckily, my mother is a pathologist. She has been a big help especially when I
am doing the coursework at home. She teaches and gives away much valuable
information. I have finished halfway the coursework since I was in my home.

I do not have much problem since i was following my schedule of work. But I do
not make enough collaboration with the lecturer because i was drowning with dozens of
other coursework.

I learned that we must always be grateful and thankful with the god that has
created us in this beautiful way. We also must always use our body to do kindness and
obligation towards Him.

Lastly I hope i will get good marks for the coursework.

Thank you.

4c
c