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Data Gas Mulia

· isotop He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe


Digunakan sebagai pelacak pada
Studi sistem fluida :
– Gas mulia dari kerak bumi,
mantel, dan atmosfer
(terlarut dalam air tanah) semua
Yang memiliki ciri khas isotop yang
unik
– Resolve and quantify the
contribution of fluids from Ballentine and others, 2002

these different sources


·Noble gases partition between water,
gas, and oil phases as a function of
solubility and relative volume of the
different phase.

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Helium Data

UTICA
· Glodes Corners field:
– 3He/4He: 1.53 – 2.74 X 10‐7
– R/Ra: 0.019 – 0.196 TRENTON
· Modestly elevated – possible
mantle component
· 1.2 – 2.3% mantle‐derived 4He BLACK RIVER
– Most He crustal in origin, but
mantle He flux in the field is
significant compared to other
Ordovician carbonate reservoirs in
the region.
– Reflects the association of deep‐ BASEMENT
seated basement faulting and
fracturing at the northern margin
of the play

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


Helium Data
· Other NY and PA fields:
– 3He/4He: 1.48 – 3.08 X 10‐8
– R/Ra: 0.01 – 0.022
– He of crustal origin

R/Ra: 0.01 – 0.022

R/Ra: 0.019 – 0.196

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Crustal production ratio:
closed system conditions

CH4/3He in the Glodes Corners gases (4,445  106 to 11,599


 106) indicate a crustal methane source; minor mantle 4He
component is present

© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.


120

100

Marshlands is strange
80

Black River
60 Original
Marshlands
Mass fractionation Gas/Water
at relatively cool temperatures

40
possible early gas generation

20
Atm loss in reservoir with 40Ar production possible early oil fm and loss

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

120 © 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.


Difference Between Mud Gas and Headspace Gas

· Mud gases are the “free” gas that comes out of the formation that
has been circulated up in the mud
– Gas isotopes usually compare well with “true” formation gas
– Gas molecular composition usually drier (e.g., excess C1) than true
formation gas
– Gas recycling can be a problem
· Headspace gases are the gases liberated into the headspace
volume that have evolved out of the cuttings
– Gas isotopes usually heavier than true formation gas
– Gas molecular composition usually wetter (e.g., excess C2+) than
true formation gas
– Used mainly in source rock evaluation, show detection and surface
geochemistry

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


Case Study: Visund Field (N. North Sea) Infill Well Drilling Opportunity
Identification

Mud gases suggest a flow barrier at about


5250 m MD

Produced gas isotopes indicate the toe


section was not contributing to production

Toe section
Heel section

From Rein and Schultz (2003)


© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.
Assessment of Reservoir Continuity
Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition
9900
SL-2
10000 C1

10100
C2 IsoTubes A SL-2B
C3
10200 C1
C2 MDT
SL-3
10300

10400
C3
B

10500 SL-4

10600
C
MeasuredDepth(feet)

10700
SL-4B
10800

10900 SL-5
SL-6
11000
D
11100
SL-6B
11200

11300
SL-7
11400

11500
GOC
11600

11700 SL-8

11800

11900 - MDT Samples

12000 - Approximate Analytical Precision (±0.3‰; IsoTube)


SL-9
-50

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25
12100 - Approximate Analytical Precision (±0.1‰; MDT)

12200 SL-10

C13 (‰)

© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.


Assessment of Reservoir Continuity
9900
Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition
SL-2
10000

10100
Well #2 Well #1 SL-2B

10200

10300
SL-3
10400

10500

10600
MeasuredDepth(feet)

10700 SL-4
10800

10900 SL-5
11000 SL-6
11100
SL-6B
11200

11300
SL-7
11400

11500

11600

11700
SL-8

11800

11900

12000 C1
C2 SL-9
-50

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25
12100
C3

12200

C13 (‰)
© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.
Case Study: NW Germany Rotliegend Gas Field

Normalized isotopic composition of produced


gases showing pronounced differences
between N1, N4 and N5 gases and other A significant degree of
gases compartmentalization is suggested by
gas and condensate geochemistry
d13C1
1.2

1.1
dDC2 d13C2
N1
1.0
N2
0.9
N3
0.8 N3
dDC1 0.7 d13C3 N4

N5
S2
S3
S4
d13iC5 d13iC4

d13nC4

After Mueller and Scholz (2004)


© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.
Predicting Saturation Pressures

-80 -80
Microbial Gas Microbial Gas
Carbon Dioxide Reduction Carbon Dioxide Reduction

Microbial Gas
-70 -70 Acetate Fermentation

Undersaturated Oils
-60 -60
Mixed Gas Saturated Oils
13CMethane(‰)

Microbial
Mixed Gas Saturated Gases

Gas
-50 Acetate -50 Undersaturated Gases
Fermentation Mature Gas
Mature Gas
Formed With Oil Formed With Oil

-40 -40
Post-Mature Post-Mature

Wet Gas Wet Gas


10000

SaturationPressure(psi)
-30 Post -30 Post-Mature
Mature Dry Gas
Dry Gas
9000
Modified after Schoell, 1983
-20 -20

-350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 8000


DMethane (‰) Gas Wetness (% C2+)

7000

6000

5000
4000
From Weissenburger and Borbas (2003) -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 -58 -56 -54 -52 -50
© 2009 Weatherford Laboratories. All rights reserved.

13CMethane (‰)
Introduction to Petroleum Isotope Geochemistry
Stable Isotope Applications in
Liquids:
· Correlation of whole oils,
bitumens, and kerogen
· Quantitative estimates of oil co‐
sources
· Marine versus terrigenous
organic input
· Compound Specific Isotope
Analysis (CSIA)
· Reconstruction of
paleoenvironment
· CSIA for correlation
· Distributed source rock sampling
· CSIA of carboxylic acids

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


δ13C of hydrocarbon extracts from the Niobrara
Formation
11

10

‐30.5 ‐30.0 ‐29.5 ‐29.0 ‐28.5 ‐28.0 ‐27.5 ‐27.0


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Series2 ‐28.4 ‐28.5 ‐28.5 ‐28.2 ‐28.1 ‐28.6 ‐28.7 ‐28.3 ‐28.5 ‐28.4 ‐28.4
Series1 ‐29.9 ‐29.8 ‐29.8 ‐29.6 ‐29.6 ‐29.8 ‐29.9 ‐29.7 ‐29.8 ‐29.6 ‐29.5

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


Marine versus Terrestrial Input

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


δ13C of hydrocarbon extracts from the Niobrara
Formation
‐27.0

‐27.5

‐28.0

‐28.5
d13C

‐29.0

‐29.5

‐30.0

‐30.5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

d13C Saturate ‐29.9 ‐29.8 ‐29.8 ‐29.6 ‐29.6 ‐29.8 ‐29.9 ‐29.7 ‐29.8 ‐29.6 ‐29.5
d13C Aromatic ‐28.4 ‐28.5 ‐28.5 ‐28.2 ‐28.1 ‐28.6 ‐28.7 ‐28.3 ‐28.5 ‐28.4 ‐28.4

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


Marine versus Terrigenous Organic Input – Niobrara
Fm Extracts
‐28.0
‐30.0 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐29.5
d13CAromatics

‐28.8
d13C Saturates

© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.


Petroleum Geology and Geochemistry

Utica

From Keith, 1988

Point Pleasant GICE

Wantz well

Trenton
© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.
Related Applications of Geochemistry
Geochemistry solves problems throughout the lifespan of a field

EXPLORATION DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION FIELD ABANDONMENT


Characterizing charge
Risk (source, maturity, Assessing reservoir
timing, gas vs oil compartmentalization
potential)
Oil/gas property
prediction (API, viscosity)

Identifying missed pay

Identifying Production
fluid contacts Allocation

Identifying induced Identifying completion


problems (tubing string
fracture geometry
leaks, poor cement jobs,
ineffective stimulations)
Flood monitoring –
Assessing sweep Flow Assurance: Prevent
Sludge/Asphaltene/ Wax
Deposition Environmental site
assessment and
remediation
© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.
© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.
© 2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.