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STANAG 3- Reading Task 1 (General)

Read the article ‘AZTECS!’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C) which
best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

AZTECS!

The finely sculpted granite figure of a man with a bird's beak in place of a jaw greets
you at the entrance to Aztecs!, a massive new exhibition at the Royal Academy,
London. He is a gentle doorman to the mysterious, magical, beautiful and brutal
world of this Mesoamerican culture. This is a world where the craftsmanship of fine
gold body ornaments rivals the skills of anything in ancient Egypt, and where clay
can as easily be turned into graceful funerary urns or fantastical, fearsome animals
from the underworld.
Until their overthrow by the Spanish conquistadors, the Aztecs were the dominant
culture in central Mexico. The demise of their last emperor, Montezuma, and the
subsequent destruction of his great capital Tenochtitlan opened the way for the
Spanish conquest of much of the Americas. Montezuma (more properly
Motecuhzuma Xocoyotzin) ruled from 1502-1520 and many of the treasures on
display at the Royal Academy's new exhibition come from this period. Not all are
purely Aztec, since they absorbed and adapted the treasures and myths of other
peoples from the region.

Anyone who has visited the ancient sites of modern-day Mexico will be aware of the
grandeur and massive scale of the Aztec monuments. Stark square temples and
enormous open squares laid out with geometrical precision according to the
astrological portents make an indelible impression on the mind. But all too often the
details of the Aztecs' physical culture are missing, spirited away by the world's
museums. Now, after seven years in the planning, the Royal Academy has
assembled the world's largest ever display of artefacts and treasures under one roof,
drawing from the collections in Mexico City's Museum of Anthropology, New
York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, the British Museum and museums in Paris,
Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg.

The monumental pieces on show do not reveal the subtleties of the Aztec world-
view. The recumbent chacmool figures (made by the Maya), which inspired some of
Henry Moore's sculpture, are brutal, monolithic pieces of granite on whose bellies a
human heart would have been offered to the gods. The figurative skill of the Aztec
craftsmen is far more clear in their exquisite masks: highly polished faces of stone,
alabaster, wood and stucco inlaid with red shells, ivory, or glistening black obsidian
eyes. A patently intoxicated youth stares out at you, eyes turned crimson by the
powerful cactus liquor known as maguey. Small details like the depiction of age in a
male figure, brow furrowed, muscles wasted and teeth protruding, are evidence that
the craftsmen had reached the apogee of representational skill. There is a giant flea

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in stone showing its mouthparts, and a massive grasshopper, 15in long and a foot
high, carved from lobster-pink carnelian. A coiled serpent as big as an armchair
lends movement, power and menace to granite.

If anything, this exhibition is slightly coy about the violence inherent in Aztec
culture. These people were conquerors, with highly ritualised methods of fighting
and an elaborate view of the afterlife. Their gods are the stuff of nightmares: Tlaloc,
the god of rain, with his goggle eyes and a nose formed from two intertwined
serpents; Mictlantecuhtli, ruler of the underworld, with his rib-cage exposed to show
his liver and heart dangling like some grotesque bell. Hannibal Lecter has nothing to
teach these people. Tlazolteotl, the goddess of childbirth, is carved from green stone,
her head thrown back in pain, teeth bared; from between her legs emerges the child,
protruding like a missile. These objects are on show, but their power to shock and
terrify is somehow muted in the minimalist glow of the Victorian galleries.

When the gruesome reality of what human sacrifice entailed is revealed, these finely
crafted objects have the power to repulse. The charm of a pair of clay pipes carved in
the shape of macaws jars against a neighbouring cabinet where a fired clay bowl
shows its tight fitting lid, designed to contain the stench of its contents: flayed
human skin. Here and there are sacrificial knives, thick blades hewn from white flint
and green obsidian and handles delicately inlaid with turquoise and mother of pearl.

The Royal Academy hopes that this exhibition will rival the Tutankhamen show of
the 1970s or the Africa exhibition of 1995. Aztec culture has elements in common
with the most alluring facets of both these antecedents: the splendour of fine
metalwork, elemental sculptural design and the power to evoke the terror within a
cosmic view which gloried in death.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

A Egyptian art

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B Mayan culture

C an exhibition

The correct answer is C

1 The first thing you see at AZTECS! is a ...

a statue
b bird’s beak
c gentle doorman

2 The writer thinks that the Aztec ornaments are ...

a as good as any produced by the Egyptians


b superior in quality to Egyptian ones
c not as good as those the Egyptians made

3 According to the text, Tenochtitlan was destroyed...

a during Montezuma’s lifetime


b after Montezuma’s death
c prior to the conquistadors arrival

4 The treasures on show at the Royal Academy are ..

a entirely Aztec
b from various civilisations
c purely body ornaments

5 Many artefacts from the Aztec civilization ...

a are hidden in museum vaults


b are on view in Mexico’s squares
c feature stars and temple chalices

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6 The current Aztec exhibition is the biggest ever assembled ...

a outside Mexico City


b by the Royal Academy
c in the world

7 The writer appreciates the ______ Aztec craftsmen brought to their figurative
pieces.

a artistry
b inspiration
c brutality

8 The writer finds the Aztec gods ...

a elaborate
b coy
c scary

9 The fact that sacrificial daggers are so beautifully crafted makes the writer feel
...

a sick
b awed
c gruesome

10 The writer believes that the ...

a Aztec civilisation had much in common with that of the Egyptian


and African
b exhibition will be more popular with the public than the Tutankhamen
show
c no one will ever discover the reason such powerful civilisations
disappeared
STANAG 3 - Reading Task 2 (General)

Read the article ‘Bollywood’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C) which
best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

BOLLYWOOD

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Drive across Bombay (forget the Mumbai rebranding - strictly for the civil servants)
and you'll likely spot a shoot in progress, as the Gothic facade of St Xavier's college is
once more pressed into service as courtroom steps, or the futurist tower blocks of
Hiranandani Gardens host another dance sequence. If you're lucky (and well-off),
you might even spot a star in a downtown hotel or bar up at Juhu Beach, where the
décor and designer labels can fool you into thinking you're supping your overpriced
cocktail in Barcelona or Tokyo, rather than a mile or two from some of the planet's
largest and most squalid shantytowns.

Bombay is a city of extremes, where poverty and wealth nestle neck to neck, an
urban sprawl that runs on an intoxicating mixture of dirt and diamonds, hard toil
and romantic reverie, gangland extortion and religious devotion. The same
combustible confection, in short, that runs through its movies, with their masala of
drippy love affairs, rococo dance routines, violent action and wholesome family
values. Indian film - or to be precise, Hindi music cinema, Bollywood if you will - is
not so much a style of movie making as a parallel cinematic cosmos with its own
supernovae and its own laws of time and space. These insist, for example, that
movies be of torturous length. Stars must make as many movies as possible and
work on several simultaneously, with all dialogue post-synced in the edit suite
rather than recorded live.

Equally important is the law of dynasty, which means that most of India's leading
players are from a handful of families. The Kapoors, for instance, have spent three
generations in the filmi firmament, moving from actor and director Raj through his
son Rishi (who, typically, was launched through one of his father's films), to the
current sibling pin-ups Karisma and Kareena (now spelt Karreina on the advice of
her numerologist).

Other laws of Bollywood mean that violence is acceptable but kissing isn't. Sex is
taboo, but suggestive hip rolls and pelvic thrusts in dance routines are fine. Abrupt
changes of location during songs are de rigeur - Scotland, Switzerland and now New
Zealand are favourite backdrops. At the recent neo-Oscar Filmfare Awards, Ursula
Andress showed up to present a gong sponsored by the Swiss government for
services rendered to the country's alpine scenery.

Then there is the law that means producers and stars routinely face extortion from
the underworld. Forget waking up, Godfather -style, to find you're sharing your bed
with a horse's head. Two years ago producer Rakesh Roshan, the father of Hrithik,
narrowly avoided death when he was gunned down outside his Bombay office.

Law number one is the simplest and, says Ashutosh Gowariker, the young director
of Lagaan, is taught to all Indians in their infancy. 'Our mothers lean over us in the
cot,' he tells me with a chuckle, 'and whisper in our ears, "All movies shall have
songs and dances."'

Scripts, however, are not considered that important by the directors, who have a
tradition of, well, making it up as they go along. At a cocktail party I meet Dimple
Kapadia, a noted beauty who became an overnight teenage star with 1973's Bobby,

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and who has since racked up 40-odd films. Our hosts are her friends, Bombay's
reigning costumiers Abu Jani and Sandeep Khosla, who number Judi Dench among
their Western clients. Radiant amid a froth of gilded sari, Dimple informs me, she
has seen only a couple of pre-shoot scripts, one of them for her part as a seductive
older woman in last year's Dil Chahta Hai. 'If you ask for a script you're told it's
"being cooked". Usually, I've been handed my lines for a scene during make-up.
Then, if you forget your lines, they say you're a bad actress. Obviously, because you
don't know what's going to happen to your character, you can't properly develop the
part.'

It's common to shuttle between several sets in a day - shoots revolve around a star's
availability, rather than the other way round. The system is helped by movies being
made not on location but at one of the sprawling studio lots on the outskirts of town.
Here, armies of set-builders construct palaces in a matter of days in an echo of
Hollywood's golden age back in the silent era and the 30s.

Inevitably, Bombay's teeming output will also go down; that the world's most
populous nation currently ranks 50th in Hollywood's export markets tells its own
story. Will Hollywood eat Bollywood, in the same way that it consumed the
European film industry?

India's film-makers, at least, think not. They talk of Indian cinema 'coming of age',
but also of India's millennia-old resilience to outside influence. There will always be
songs, dances, devotion and idle filmi mag chatter. As a taxi whisks me to the
airport, the gods of Bollywood are still beaming down from the hoardings.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

A new-style Indian cuisine

B the Indian film industry

C Indian culture in the UK

The correct answer is B

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1 According to the writer, Bombay’s name change was a ...

a political, but cosmetic one


b civil servant’s choice
c successful rebranding

2 For the well-off, in Bombay, it’s possible to live ...

a it up in flash hotels and bars

b life to the extremes of poverty

c a life of religious devotion

3 The writer finds Bollywood dance scenes

a glitzy and complicated

b wholesome

c a waste of time

4 The ‘laws ‘of Bollywood insist on actors ...

a making several films at the same time

b singing their own songs

c participating in editing decisions

5 From what the writer says, it would appear that Karreina ...

a stars in all her father’s films

b is extremely superstitious

c trained as a numerologist

6 The writer feels that many of Bollywood’s laws are ...

a too strict

b made to be broken

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c contradictory

7 Bollywood stars often find themselves ...

a preyed upon by criminals

b in actual street shootings

c working for the underworld

8 In Bollywood, scripts are ...

a adhered to rigidly

b anything but sacrosanct

c published when films are released

9 The ____________ dictate the order in which the film is shot.

a producers

b directors

c actors

10 Indian film-makers think it ___________ that Hollywood will conquer


Bollywood.

a likely

b unlikely

c inevitable

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STANAG 3 - Reading Task 3 (General)
Read the article ‘Designer Water’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C)
which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Designer Water

Some people think that a really good bottled water should taste of nothing. Others
think it should taste of something - but not much. Just as purity is the absence of sin,
a good water is often defined by its absence of taste - by the fact that there's nothing
wrong with it. But is there something wrong with us? In 2003, bottled water is, by
far, the fastest-growing drink on the market. It's 1,000 times as expensive as tap
water. Every day, we spend nearly £2 million on something that, many of us hope,
will taste of nothing.
My quest to understand why we are such heavy drinkers of bottled water begins in
Pétrus, an upscale restaurant in central London. At this point I am a moderate, or
even light, drinker of bottled water. I prefer coffee, or tea, or fruit juice - beverages
we are beginning to drink less of as our water intake grows. I've come to Pétrus to
taste some waters with Alan Holmes, the head sommelier. Holmes is trying to get
me to appreciate the glory of water.

We are tasting all kinds of water - among others glacial water from Canada,
carbonated water from France and Italy, rainwater from Fiji, and water which
emanates from a spring just outside Harrogate, in Yorkshire. The market has gone
global. All over the world, would-be water barons have twigged that they can sell
more bottled water than ever before in history. This is a market that has been
growing by 10 per cent a year for five years.

Alan Holmes particularly likes the dense flavours of red wines from Bordeaux, but
when he talks about water, he focuses on purity. We taste Ice Age, a water derived
from glaciers in British Columbia. 'Being frozen, it gives me the idea it's purified,
more free of bacteria,' says Holmes. 'It tastes very pure, almost like a dream tap
water.

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Holmes holds up his glass of Fiji water. 'Less is done to these waters,' he says,
'because they come from cleaner places.' He takes another sip. 'Hmm,' he says, 'it just
seems to catch at the back of the throat at the finish.' Meanwhile, I'm looking at the
waterfall on the bottle. This, I realise, is good marketing. I love the waterfall. I take
another sip. It still tastes of nothing.

In London, I go to see Daphne Barrett, who is in charge of the PR operation for the
Nestlé group of waters, which include Buxton, Perrier, and Vittel. The Perrier
company was started by an English aristocrat, St. John Harmsworth, who had a
terrible car accident near Nîmes. During his hospitalisation, he was given sparkling
water from the nearby spring at Vergèze, and exercised his arms using Indian clubs
as weights. His doctor's name was Perrier. Later, he put the company together - he
bottled the water in bottles the shape of Indian clubs, and named the brand after his
doctor.

Barrett tells me that mineral water didn't really take off in this country until the
yuppie boom of the 1980s. Hard-working yuppies often didn't want to drink. But
neither did they want to go into a bar and ask for tap water. They were more
comfortable with spending money.

The big change in the market came in 1990, when tiny traces of benzene were found
in Perrier water; the company recalled all of its bottles, handing a terrific opportunity
to its competitors. That's when the market began its phase of exponential growth.

But, just why is bottled water so popular? Perhaps it's a change in fashion.You very
rarely see an 18-year-old girl in town without a bottle of water.

So why do we drink bottled water? We drink it because of what's not in it. We drink
it because it contains no impurities - and we are getting increasingly anxious about
impurities. We drink it to atone for our sins. We drink it, in a sense, to ward off evil.
According to market research conducted by Mintel, this trend shows no sign of
abating. We'll be drinking twice as much in five years' time. At the end of my visit, I
knock on Daphne Barrett's door. She's in a meeting. She pops out of the boardroom,
all smiles. 'I've got the bank manager here,' says Barrett. 'And he's quite happy,
which is good.'

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Questions

(0) This text is about ...


A coffee growing

B bottled water

C exotic holiday destinations

The correct answer is B


1 According to the text, a good water should …

a have a distinct taste


b be tasteless
c have only a slight taste

2 The writer visits an expensive London restaurant to find out …

a which kind of bottled water is the most popular


b why we are drinking so much bottled water
c which bottled water is the most expensive

3 The writer uses the expression ‘water barons’ to be …

a ironic
b sarcastic
c literary

4 Water derived from Canadian glaciers …

a tastes like tap water


b is free from bacteria
c has a pure taste

5 When drinking water from Fiji, the writer realises …

a the importance of good marketing


b that it has a very different taste
c it has come from a waterfall

6 Perrier’s name and distinctive bottle came about as a result of …

a its success among the English in clubs in India


b a clever marketing campaign in French hospitals

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c an Englishman’s gratitude to his doctor

7 Mineral water consumption rose in the 1980s because yuppies …

a were heavy after-work drinkers who hated tap water


b didn’t trust the purity of the tap water in public bars
c would rather pay for their water than ask for tap water

8 The huge growth in mineral water consumption in the 1990s …

a came about at Perrier’s expense


b was due to a Perrier advertising campaign
c forced Perrier to change its name

9 The writer says that we drink mineral water because …

a it’s sinful
b of its purity
c everyone else does

10 The bank manager is happy because …

a Barrett has increased company profits


b we’re drinking twice as much water as before
c sales of mineral water are likely to rise

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STANAG 3 - Reading Task 4 (General)
Read the article ‘London’s Drug Wars’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or
C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

London’s Drug Wars


The head of drugs strategy at the Metropolitan police warned yesterday that the
capital was "on the cusp" of turf wars between gangs from rival communities who
are wrestling for control of the heroin and cocaine trade.

Deputy Assistant Commissioner Mike Fuller said there was "every reason to believe"
that the big crime families and syndicates were preparing to square up to each other.

The competition is mainly between groups of Albanians, Turks, Chinese Triads, and
Jamaicans, but London's home-grown crime families are also jostling for power.

At stake is the multi-million pound class A drugs market and control of illegal
human trafficking, gambling rackets and prostitution.

"There is not only the threat from the criminals currently being targeted by
Operation Trident (set up to tackle black gang shootings), we now face new threats
from Albanian, Turkish and South East Asian organised crime groups.

"We are up against highly organised and profitable multi-national businesses which
prey on the weak, destroying individuals and families."

Commander Bob Quick, responsible for policing high volume crime, said some of
the recent drug-related violence in London - such as the gunfight in Harringay 12
days ago that left one man dead and 25 injured - had been caused by "infighting
within ethnic groups".

But he added: "Once these power struggles are won or lost, there is the potential for
more inter-ethnic gang conflict. We are absolutely determined to stamp it out."

Launching a new drugs strategy yesterday, Mr Fuller said the Met hoped to refine its
targeting of Jamaican criminals by having officers from the island based here in the
new year.

The Jamaican security minister is due in London today to consider signing a


"memorandum of understanding" that would allow two officers to be stationed at
New Scotland Yard.

This should help the Met identify criminals who have fled Jamaica and have set up
base here, said Mr Fuller.

"At the moment, we don't know the faces as well as the Jamaican officers. Jamaica is
a very small island and a lot of the criminals are known to the police officers."

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The move is part of the Met's broad strategy to tackle class A drug dealers and drug
users over the next three years.

Mr Fuller said research showed that 67% of people arrested in the capital tested
positive for either heroin or cocaine. He said the Met wanted to make more use of
arrest referral schemes and would be aggressively targeting middle tier drug
dealers. But he underlined the huge problems facing London with figures for the
drugs seized between May and October this year.

Officers had recovered 37kg of cocaine, 63kg of heroin, 301kg of cannabis and 500 kg
of skunk with a total street value of £12m. Yet there had been "very little impact on
availability", he said.

Concern over feuding drugs groups has led the Met to set up a specialist crime task
force to tackle them head on. The rise of Albanian criminals in the capital's
underworld is a major worry. Two years ago Albanian mafia took control of several
Italian cities, including Milan, and their power has been spreading across Europe.

The Albanians are thought to be behind the huge rise in the number of kidnappings
in London last year and they are now established in boroughs such as Camden and
Tower Hamlets. Kidnap, extortion and people trafficking are their core businesses,
but the drugs trade is an obvious next step. They have been "learning the market and
making contacts", according to the NCIS.

Rivalry between gangs exploded in Haringey 12 days ago when 40 people armed
with guns, knives and baseball bats attacked each other in Green Lanes. One man
died.

Less prominent than some underworld gangs are the Triads whose tentacles spread
beyond Chinatown in London, where they have established extortion, prostitution,
drugs and gambling rackets.

Last month a BBC documentary on corruption in the horse-racing world alleged


there were signs that Triad gangs had infiltrated the sport in the north of England.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

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A drug wars in Britain

B drug addicts in Britain

C alleged police brutality

The correct answer is A

1 According to the text, London is ...

a on the brink of a drugs war

b clamping down in immigrant gangs

c developing a new drugs strategy

2 Immigrant criminal gangs ...

a have ousted British groups

b are competing with Albanians, Turks and Chinese gangs

c are fighting with British gangs

3 All the crime groups are ...

a being targeted by Operation Trident

b facing new threats from unknown rivals

c very well-organised

4 The recent violence was caused when ethnic groups ...

a fought amongst themselves

b lost a power struggle

c injured 25 drug addicts

5 The Met hopes that the Jamaican officers ...

a will be able to pick out Jamaican criminals

b will set up a base in the UK

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c will sign a memorandum of understanding

6 The majority of those arrested for crimes in London were ...

a on hard drugs

b occasional drug users

c underworld figures

7 What is worrying the Met is the ...

a recovery of so many different hard drugs

b spread of drugs across Western Europe

c increasing influence of the Albanian Mafia

8 A particular ‘strength’ of Albanian criminal gangs is ...

a drug dealing

b people smuggling

c their underworld network

9 The violence that erupted in London was caused by ...

a the Triads

b drugs and gambling rackets

c rival gangs

10 A BBC documentary disclosed that the Triads had ...

a taken to horse racing

b been secretly infiltrated

c moved out of London

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STANAG 3 - Reading Task 5 (General)

Read the article ‘Mobile Phone Mania’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or
C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Mobile Phone Mania

The curious thing about predicting trends in mobile phones is that, in an important
sense, the future is already here but we have not yet come to terms with it. This is
not surprising. No other consumer product in history has changed so rapidly or
gained popularity as fast as the mobile phone. Ten years ago when the phone was an
expensive, luggable brick, flaunted by flamboyant car owners, no one predicted the
explosive growth that took annual sales from £6m in 1991 to £403m in 2000.
Mobiles, unlike any other device, have been gobbling up other products so fast that
we haven't been able to adjust our lifestyles to them. You can now buy mobiles that
include a radio, an MP3 (digital music) player, a diary, a calendar, a camera, an
embryonic video camera, a calculator, a note pad, a word processor, a spreadsheet, a
modem, a voice recorder, a web browser, an emailer, a text messaging device, a
games arcade, a thermometer, a contacts book and a barcode reader, not to mention
satellite tracking devices that can calculate where you are to within a few metres.
That amounts to 20 different products you could have bought separately but which
are now packaged together in one device. I am told it can also be used to speak to
other human beings. It will never catch on.

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Where is it all going? The mobile is the first interactive device that people carry with
them everywhere. Your phone knows who you are and where you are. Technology,
including miniaturisation, is still progressing at an awesome pace. But the shape of
the phone in future will depend not on technology but on what consumers want.

Mobiles are getting better at linking with the internet after the disaster of the first
generation Wap (wireless application protocol) phones. Soon you will be able to
access most web addresses or web cameras in the world (you can already look at
webcams on your phone to check out traffic jams). You will be able to check your
children's nursery through a secure web camera while you are at work to see if they
are all right, take in a live lecture at a remote university, answer the door or switch
off the lights at home from anywhere in the world - as long as the device has a
unique web address. You will, you will.

Remote diagnostics will become much easier - you could point the video camera on
the phone towards that nasty sore throat so your GP can comment without you
having to leave your holiday beach bar.

Phones with optical or barcode readers could enable newspapers and magazines to
be interactive as well (besides providing them with a new revenue stream). A
newspaper could become an extension of the web because a phone with an optical
reader could access a website merely by passing the phone over a web address
(URL) while reading an article (for example, to get a video clip of the goals
mentioned in the piece or to see the inside of a house advertised). As the screens on
phones get bigger people might start reading books on them (press a single button
and the next paragraph will arrive) while waiting at the bus stop. You already can
with PDAs (personal digital assistants).

You can already control your phone (through Bluetooth short-distance wireless
technology) without taking it out of your pocket. As wireless technology improves,
new things will be possible. If you were being mugged you could activate your
phone (by means of a simple command like "Oh, no") to take continuous photos of
your assailant which would be automatically emailed to a website or to the police.
Locational devices linking to satellites will enable you or your children to be
continuously monitored wherever you go, with all the advantages and
disadvantages of that.

Within 10 years your phone may become your main way of paying bills - allowing
you to ditch all those credit cards. The technology is already there - it just needs to be
made simple and secure to use. One day, business will realise the colour screen on
the mobile is the most coveted bit of advertising real estate in the world.

The phone itself will also change - from being in your hand to being in your body.
Thanks to short distance wireless transmission the initial call could come to a small
base station attached to a belt listened to from a tiny device in your ear. You will
never know whether the person walking down the street is talking to himself or to
someone in Los Angeles. The phone itself could migrate to a ring on your finger or

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to your watch. Eventually it will be so small that it will fit invisibly inside your ear,
picking up what you are saying from the vibrations through your bones.

It is probable that the biggest change will be something that isn't self-evident (as
mobiles were not 10 years ago) but, with the benefit of hindsight, was blindingly
obvious all along. One candidate is the controversial network of base stations dotted
around the country. They may shrink so much that they can be incorporated into the
phone itself unleashing a new wave of possibilities. The real revolution has not yet
begun.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

A phone boxes

B phone cards

C mobile phones

The correct answer is C

1 The success of the mobile phone ...

a has taken us by surprise

b is thanks to drivers

c is not surprising

2 The writer thinks that mobile phones have tended to ...

a adjust quickly to our lifestyles

b get much cheaper

c assimilate many other products

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3 When the writer claims that the mobile will ‘never catch on’ he is being ...

a perceptive

b matter-of-fact

c ironic

4 The mobile phone of the future will ...

a be up to consumers

b be ultra-small

c change its shape

5 The writer says ‘you will, you will’ because he thinks that readers may think
his predictions ...

a far-fetched

b realistic

c unique

6 The writer claims that the mobile phones of the future may ...

a help doctors diagnose illnesses

b replace visits to a GP

c become much simpler to use

7 The writer says that digitally reading a book on your mobile’s screen ...

a is already a reality

b will soon be possible

c is of little use to us

8 The writer says your phone could soon be used ...

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a as a computer monitor projector

b to take family snapshots

c for personal protection

9 The full potential of the mobile ...

a has yet to be realised

b needs more advertising

c lies in credit card use

10 According to the writer, we have yet to reach the limitations of ...

a mobile miniaturisation

b human communication

c invisible phones

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 6 (General)

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Read the article ‘Thor Heyerdahl’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C)
which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Thor Heyerdahl
As a boy he lay in bed and looked through the windows of the family's wooden
cabin at the blue sky and, far below, the still blue waters of the Norwegian fjord. He
dreamt of distant seas and distant peoples.

It is 66 years since Heyerdahl, then 22, and his 20-year-old first wife tried to escape
from civilisation by moving to the South Pacific island of Fatu-Hiva in the
Marquesas.

Fatu-Hiva, so remote that the its inhabitants were unaware of the First World War
until long after it had finished, was, the couple hoped, a tropical paradise where they
would be cut off from the modern world and its technology and could return to
nature.

To finance this utopian adventure, they gained the support of their wealthy parents,
a rich wine merchant and the University of Oslo, though their projects were
remarkably fuzzy.

Predictably, they found that the Marquesas were not a paradise, and their own
existence there was anything but utopian. The people were riddled with
tuberculosis, venereal disease and elephantiasis. Isolating themselves from the locals
as far as possible, the Heyerdahls built a bamboo cabin to live in, but soon became
depressed with their dreary vegetarian diet and began to sprout alarming boils and
sores. To reach the nearest doctor, they had to cross the notoriously stormy stretch
between two islands in a patched-up lifeboat and nearly died in high seas.

When they returned to Fatu-Hiva after a month's absence, they found that the jungle
had destroyed their bamboo cabin so they moved to a cave by the sea.

Heyerdahl admitted that the project of returning to nature was a fiasco. 'There is
nothing for modern man to return to,' he gloomily commented. His one solid
achievement was to interview the last Marquesan cannibal, who told him that of all
the portions of 'long pig' he had eaten the tastiest was the forearm of a white woman.

Challenged by a contemptuous academic to prove that mankind could have


populated the Polynesian Islands from the east, rather than from Malaysia,
Heyerdahl built a balsawood raft and, with six Norwegian crewmen, sailed 4,300
miles across the Pacific from Peru. The trip turned him into a star.

It coincided with the development of media technology that allowed the expedition
to film themselves. The book of the hazardous 101-day journey was a bestseller.
Translated into 67 languages, it sold 20 million copies and the film, in a bleak post-
war world starved of entertainment, was a massive hit.

22
Fame made Heyerdahl a fortune and many enemies. Established anthropologists
attacked his theories and methodology. But critics have never bothered Heyerdahl.
After the Kon-Tiki he turned his attention to the Galapagos and the mystery of the
stone statues on Easter Island, where he used legends and oral tradition in an
attempt to discover why a former civilisation on the remote Pacific island came to a
sudden end. The resulting book - Aku-Aku: The Secret of Easter Island - was another
bestseller, much to his detractors' chagrin.

In 1969 the Ra expeditions returned to the theme of sea-crossing, this time using reed
boats modelled on Ancient Egyptian patterns and launched from Morocco to sail to
the Caribbean. 'We tested the papyrus reeds in our bathtub,' Heyerdahl recalled at
the Foyle's lunch held in his honour two years ago.

Heyerdahl, who has had five children, spent his final years with Jacqueline in
Tenerife, developing theories about possible parallels between step pyramids in
Peru, Mexico and Tenerife itself. One idea was that a cataclysmic event - perhaps a
great flood that occurred about 5,000 years ago - acted as a catalyst for the
development of civilisations all over the globe.

Heyerdahl had been deeply affected by the rise of totalitarianism and violence in the
Europe of his youth. In 1974 Heyerdahl described his feelings on leaving Fatu-Hiva
in 1938: 'We hated going back to civilisation,' he wrote. 'But we had to do it. We were
sure then, and I still am, that the only place where it is possible to find nature is
within yourself. There it is, unchanged, now as always.

Questions

(0) This text is about Thor Heyerdahl’s ...

A children

B adventures

23
C marriage

The correct answer is B

1 For Thor Heyerdahl escaping from civilisation had always been ...

a a boyhood dream

b at the back of his mind

c a move to the South Pacific

2 The Fatu-Hiva adventure ...

a had been minutely planned

b was better than ever imagined

c was very well-funded

3 For the Heyerdahls, life in the Marquesas was ...

a as idyllic as they had thought

b not what they had expected

c more than they could have wanted

4 In the Marquesas the Heyerdahls ...

a integrated with the local inhabitants

b distanced themselves form the natives

c adopted a much healthier lifestyle

5 The Heyerdahls’ vegetarian diet ...

a caused them heath problems

b was a welcome change for them

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c was mostly bamboo and sprouts

6 Heyerdahl felt his Fatu-Hiva adventure had been ...

a a success

b a mess

c his gloomiest

7 Heyerdahl’s raft adventure was the result of ...

a a TV offer

b media technology

c a challenge

8 The success of Heyerdahl’s book ‘Aku-Aku’ ___________ his detractors.

a delighted

b annoyed

c relieved

9 Heyerdahl theorised that the step pyramids of Mexico, Peru and Spain all
resulted from ...

a a massive water-globe

b a sudden volcanic eruption

c a global disaster

10 For Heyerdahl, nature can be found only ...

a in Fatu-Hiva

b in humans

c in the fijords of Norway

25
STANAG 3 - Reading Task 7 (General)

Read the article ‘Mad about Madrid’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C)
which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Mad about Madrid

It was 9am on a cold, October morning at Charmartin train station in Madrid. After
travelling on the overnight train from Paris, I was looking forward to picking up the
hire car and heading south towards the sun and sea for the children's half-term
break.
Charmartin station is a charmless place and the Hertz car rental office is a tiny pre-
fabricated hut, tucked under a flyover on the edge of a busy main road. The office
was packed and I volunteered to stay outside with the luggage and children while
my partner organised the car.

Not being at my best in the morning, I was half asleep when a well-dressed young
man tapped me on the shoulder and pointed at my eldest child. I saw a whitish
liquid splashed over the back of her jacket. From his gestures, I gathered I also had
something on the back of my coat and, bless him, he handed me a paper tissue to
mop up the mess. I took off my coat - placing my handbag on the floor beside me -
and five seconds later realised the man had disappeared. So had my bag. I was
horrified.

26
The first day of the holiday and I had no money, credit cards, driver's licence or
mobile phone. When my partner realised what had happened he set off in hot
pursuit, but returned empty-handed. I suspect my handbag and its contents had
already travelled a long way from the scene of the crime.

The police later told us these sorts of crimes are carried out by organised gangs and
it's best to leave them well alone. Hertz staff informed me that, yes, indeed, this was
a popular spot for these crimes and I could report the theft at the police station, next
to platform one. The police could not have been more helpful and 10 minutes later I
had completed the paperwork and cancelled my cards. But, as we once again crossed
in front of the car-rental office, another well-dressed man had already taken up
position just waiting for the next unsuspecting person to pass.

A complaint to Hertz, pointing out that staff in the office at Charmartin station are
well-aware of the dangers for customers at this particular office, elicited a lukewarm
response. A spokeswoman said the company was reviewing security around the
office. This might include a notice warning clients to be vigilant in the case of thieves
operating in the area.

Questions

(0) This story takes place in ...

A Madrid

B Paris

C Budapest

The correct answer is A

1 The writer arrived in Spain ...

a in the evening

b at night

c in the morning

2 The writer’s children were ...

a on holiday from school

b already living in Spain

27
c waiting in the hire car

3 The writer was _________ Charmartin Station.

a charmed by

b glad to leave

c taken with

4 a The writer’s partner asked her to wait with the children

b The writer chose to wait outside with the children

c The writer’s partner was afraid their luggage might be stolen

5 When the writer met the young man she was ...

a beside herself

b under the weather

c not quite together

6 The young man was a ...

a station employee

b thief

c little drunk

7 The writer’s partner ...

a ran after the man

b called the police

c was visibly upset

8 The police advised the writer to ...

a put what had happened behind her

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b fill in a long incident report form

c leave the station immediately

9 As she was about to leave the station, the writer realised that ...

a she had not cancelled all her credit cards

b another innocent victim was about to be targeted

c the man had returned to the station

10 The author was __________ the response she received from ‘Herz’.

a delighted by

b stoical about

c relieved by

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 8 (General)

29
Read the article ‘The New McDonald’s’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or
C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

The New McDonald’s

Drive towards Ramlüng along the perimeter fence of Zurich airport and the first
thing you notice is the bright yellow neon M burning through the grey mist.
Chicago, Paris, Delhi, Streatham High Road - the logo is instantly recognisable
throughout the world. But as you get nearer, it becomes apparent that the
iconography is not all it seems. Along with several more giant Ms and a general
smearing of yellow and red, there are a number of truncated Ms that turn out to be
rather more tastefully sized Hs. Also in yellow.
The Golden Arch is the world's first McDonald's hotel. Profits have been flat in the
fast-food burger business, so brand diversification is hardly unexpected. What is
surprising is the way it came about. Zurich was not chosen as the result of a massive
global focus group or boardroom horse-trading, but on one man's whim. Urs
Hammer, McDonald's 52-year-old multi-millionaire chairman and CEO in
Switzerland, is a hotelier and architect manqué, and the Golden Arch is his
brainchild. When he first suggested the idea three years ago to Jim Skinner,
McDonald's European supremo, he was told to "stick to hamburgers".

But he didn't. In two weeks' time, Hammer opens his second hotel in Lully, and has
plans for a third in Geneva. Meanwhile, the rest of the corporation holds its breath to
see whether the McHotel will bankroll the business for the next few decades or turn
out be an expensive midlife crisis.

The McDonald's yellows and reds dominate the lobby and bar area, and much of the
furniture has been designed to reflect the company logo. But where the burger bars
are all plastic, the hotel is maple and leather, with feng shui waterfalls and scattered
rose petals. And that's not the only difference. When I go to check in, the woman
behind the counter asks, "Can I help?" in a voice that sounds uncannily as if she
means it.

Not that you need to check in, mind. Along with its determinedly modernist design,
the hotel is equipped with all the latest hi-tech gadgets, which allow you to check in
and out with the swipe of a credit card, and surf the net and pick up email from the
TV. At least you can if you are able to operate the controls. The same goes for the
light switches, which work with a smart card. Or idiot card, perhaps as it takes
several minutes of scrabbling around in the dark to locate the holder. Even the beds,
which cost £3,500 apiece, are interactive. They are fashionably low-slung, and can be
moved around so that you can lie down with your feet or head in the air. Or both.

30
The sleeping area has a hardwood floor, while the washing area contains the nearest
you get to traditional McDonald's values with a not-unattractive green Styrofoam
floor covering. Or rather, I assumed it was Styrofoam, but was later politely
informed that it was state-of-the-art anti-bacterial non-slip tiling. By the way, the
words sleeping and washing areas are used advisedly as there are no separate
rooms; the circular power shower - the hot water is generated by heat given off from
the restaurant chip pans - is discreetly boxed into one corner of the bedroom. Or
possibly it's the other way round.

To complete the image overhaul, there is no sign over the hot tap warning you that
hot water might come out of it and nor are the walls coated in migraine-inducing
primary colours. It's all surprisingly tasteful and unpretentious.

Inevitably, there is a downside, and at the Golden Arch it comes when you want to
eat. Room service is off the menu, so your options are the Aroma coffee shop and -
you've guessed it - a McDonald's.

As McDonald's go, the one at the Golden Arch is better than most. Although there's
the airport on one side, there are open fields on another where the cows keep an
understandably nervous eye on proceedings, but, whichever way you cut it, it's still
a McDonald's. So why does a man who has just spent more than £12m building this
slick hotel go out of his way to remind his punters at every turn of its downmarket
associations?

"We argued at length about how closely the two operations should be combined,"
Hammer admits. "Some felt we should have a more upmarket restaurant but I felt
very strongly that we should make use of the branding that wins us 45m customers a
day worldwide."

Hammer goes on to say that bookings for the 211-room hotel are on target, and that
15% of guests will be flying in specially from Asia to stay there. The hotel's main
target market, though, is business - hence the nine conference rooms in the
basement; but whether business men and women reckon that staying in a hotel
whose primary symbol is an annoying oversized clown will send the right messages
to their clients, must be open to question.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

31
A a new McDonald’s hotel

B Macdonald’s new outlets

C Feng shui and McDonald’s

The correct answer is A

1 For the writer, the logo was ...

a completely unfamiliar

b a welcome sign of home

c not all it seemed

2 The location of the hotel was the result of ...

a an in-depth marketing campaign

b many years of careful planning

c a purely personal decision

3 The McDonald’s corporation ...

a supports the hotel initiative

b has no idea hoe the hotel will do

c expects the hotels to generate huge profits

4 The writer’s initial experience of the hotel is ...

a just as he expected

b pleasantly surprising

c rather overwhelming

5 For the writer, the hotel’s hi-tech gadgetry ...

a is very welcome

b is hard to operate

c is impressive

32
6 Hot water in the guest rooms is generated by

a a McDonald’s Restaurant french fry oil

b a circular power shower

c anti-bacterial non-slip tiling

7 For the writer, the hotel’s main weakness is its ...

a lack of dedicated guest bathrooms

b quality of food

c coffee shop

8 The hotel is as it is because of decisions made by...

a the company’s chairman

b downmarket associations

c the local airport authority

9 The CEO expects the hotel to ...

a break even (eventually)

b make a loss in the first year

c meet targeted occupancy rates

10 The writer feels that potential business customers might be discouraged from
staying in a hotel whose ...

a main symbol is a big clown

b conference rooms are in the basement

c conference facilities are limited

33
STANAG 3 - Reading Task 9 (General)

Read the article ‘Why we need Opera’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or
C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Why we need Opera


It's hardly surprising, then, that opera makes people cross. It is regarded as a lavish
entertainment for nobs, whisking public money away from the many to pander to
the tastes of the few. Some opera houses live up to the image, too, with their dickie-
bowed waiters and expensive champagne at the bar. When Covent Garden
threatened to collapse in the late 1990s, it seemed to confirm the suspicion that opera
was run by a collection of dangerously disorganised decadents. We feel opera is
unnaturally expensive to mount, and unnaturally expensive to go to.

Are ticket prices really astronomical? Well, not always. As long as you can bear the
possibility of restricted views, or at worst standing, you can usually see opera for
less than it would cost you to go to the movies. You can go to the Royal Opera
House for as little as £3, though top-price seats will set you back £155.

But the simple fact remains: opera is inevitably an expensive art form. For a start,
there are the sheer numbers involved. There will always be, in addition to the

34
singers, an orchestra - numbering perhaps 80 players - and a conductor. And the
most popular repertoire - Verdi and Puccini, say - tends to be scored for big
choruses.

And then there are artists' fees. Some of the glitziest and most expensive stars to
grace the British stage are booked by Elaine Padmore, head of opera at Covent
Garden. "There are certain artists we want a piece of," says Padmore. "If you know
that you can get Roberto Alagna or Angela Gheorghiu or Bryn Terfel or Colin Davis,
you find out when you can have their time and that goes into the diary, up to five
years in advance.

One observer's educated guess is that the biggest stars, such as Pavarotti, Bartoli and
Alagna, command between £12,000 and £15,000 per performance. But however
expensive singers may be, they will not form the main cost of mounting an opera.
Production costs - set, props and costumes - will always be the chief expense. "We
have capped the expenditure on a new production at £300,000," says Padmore. "But
you don't get a great deal in a house of this size for much less than £180,000 or
£200,000." At ENO the average cost of a new production is £150,000.

But aren't there ways of reducing the costs of opera? Why do opera productions
always have such short runs - allowing little opportunity for return on that big
original investment? ENO, for instance, averages 10 performances of each show,
though the touring companies will generally do more.

For a start, there is a service element: the houses are repertory theatres, aiming to
serve up a coherent, varied diet of work. Second, the number of performances is
based on predicted demand. You simply run an opera for as long as you think you'll
fill the house, says Payne. It's worth bearing in mind that the big London companies
have their homes in enormous theatres. The London Coliseum, home of ENO, seats
2,358. It doesn't take a genius to work out how many punters it can pack in over 10
performances. Meanwhile, the Olivier - the largest auditorium at the National
Theatre - seats less than half that number.

Even if you wanted to do 40 performances of an opera on the trot, you couldn't.


Opera singers can't sing every night: their voices need to be paced and conserved.
It's an un-negotiable of the art form.

There are two main ways for opera houses to offset the huge investments in new
productions. One is to share costs with other establishments. ENO's current War and
Peace, for instance, is a co-production with two transatlantic opera houses. This vast
undertaking has cost £1,045,800 to stage, including rehearsal and performance fees
for singers, musicians and actors (£581,300), plus the costs of the directors, sets,
props and costumes. The other houses contributed £315,000 to production costs. The
projected gross box office takings for ENO are £690,900.

The second way is to mount revivals. Opera productions have a long life - some have
been popping up for 20 years or more. Since the sets, props and costumes are stored
away in warehouses, revivals are a comparative bargain. Last season's Queen of
Spades at the Royal Opera House, for example, had production costs of £300,000 and

35
took £656,300 net at the box office. (That it took less than its potential of £708,000 is
put down to complimentary tickets for artists and press.) When the production
comes back this season, it will cost just £5,000, with maximum box office takings of
£838,000.

Not every production, of course, will end up being revived. Payne admits: "There
are some shows where you say before the last performance, 'Don't worry about
taking the set to the warehouse - take it straight to the incinerator.' "

Despite its small audience, despite our suspicion over its expense, opera is generally
regarded as something worth having as part of the culture of this country. And
surely that's right. Opera is not an atrophied, moribund art form; its audiences are
growing, according to a recent report for the Opera and Music Theatre Forum.

Why's that? Because at its best opera is inspiring, provoking, moving, even life-
changing. All this is because of its voluptuous complexity; because of its rich layers
of music, drama and spectacle.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

A Opera

B Painting

C Christmas

The correct answer is A

1 When Covent Garden Opera House was about to collapse, it seemed that its
management ...

a received exorbitant salaries


b were in complete disarray
c had been under investigation

2 You can get cheap seats at the Royal opera House, but these ...

a are restricted in size


b are far from the best
c are only if you stand

3 What makes opera so expensive is that the most popular operas require huge
...

a casts and sets


b resources
c orchestras

36
4 Padmore says she will hire a top opera singer ...

a irrespective of the cost


b whenever she can
c if she has the right opera for them

5 The main expense in mounting an opera comes from ...

a huge fees paid to opera stars


b production costs
c large casts and the orchestra

6 Opera productions normally have short runs because ...

a singers need to conserve their voices


b the public wants a wide choice of repertoire
c there is no demand for long runs

7 For an opera house to offset huge production costs, it can ...

a apply for increased government funding


b share productions with other opera houses
c charge premium prices for seats

8 The production of the ‘Queen of Spades’ didn’t make as much as expected


because ...

a of the number of free tickets given out


b of the costs of hiring a star singer
c it used existing costumes and sets

9 The comment ‘Take (the set) to the incinerator’ implies ...

a the opera will be revived


b the opera was a flop
c the sets have to be stored

10 The popularity of opera as an art form is ...

a dwindling
b a complex one
c increasing

37
STANAG 3 - Reading Task 10 (General)

Read the article ‘A Bit about the Beckhams’ which was written before David
Beckham moved to Madrid. Choose one of the answers (A, B or C) which best
answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

A Bit about the Beckhams

As footballing misdemeanours go, David Beckham's was nothing if not original.


Endearing even. Not for him missing training because of a poisonous hangover, a
spell in the cells at Her Majesty's pleasure or an overnight at the Priory. No,
Beckham apparently missed a session at Manchester United's swanky new
Carrington training complex because he was attending to his baby's nappy.
Who didn't sympathise when, reappearing on Saturday, he was castigated for his
absence in front of other team members and ultimately kept out of the line-up for
Sunday's crunch match against Leeds? This wasn't a petulant star throwing a
tantrum. This was a father, being responsible, loving his sick son.

What isn't in dispute is the broader irritation that Manchester United Manager, Sir
Alex Ferguson has for Beckham's lifestyle. Unfortunately for the footballer, his
admirable attempts at behaving like a new dad brought him foursquare into conflict
with his manager, a man who can be described by many adjectives, new not among
them. Committed would be a more appropriate description for the knight of the
realm.

Over the past few months, Ferguson, a man who finds the increasing
Hollywoodisation of football as perplexing as it is distasteful, has become more and
more worried about Beckham's commitment. He believes that the boy's lifestyle is
incompatible with the needs of a Manchester United footballer.

38
To be fair to Beckham, there is no sign whatsoever that he is going off the rails in the
traditional footballing manner involving drink, women and industrial quantities of
white powder. On the pitch he looks fit and alert, his abilities apparently at their
peak. To the outside eye he appears dedicated. But Ferguson demands that his
players, particularly at this crowded point of the season, concentrate all their focus
on football. When not training and playing, they should be resting.

"Energy is so vital," is one of his favourite phrases. "It needs to be nurtured and
preserved." It should certainly not, he believes, be wasted on a daily 350-mile round
trip between the Beckham household in Hertfordshire and the Manchester training
ground; or, indeed, attending such fripperies as film premieres, fashion shows and
photo opportunities. Ferguson is worried that he is losing his protégé to an orbit he
cannot and does not want to understand: the world of stellar celebrity.

Recall if you can that heady week last December when Beckham was in Minshull
Street crown court, Manchester, defending himself on speeding charges. A week
after receiving an eight-month driving ban for pushing his silver Ferrari 26mph
above the limit, Judge Barry Woodward upheld Beckham's appeal and handed back
his licence, citing "special circumstances". This meant Beckham's fame - and the
footballer used his time in the witness box to reveal how he and Victoria had fended
off a potential kidnapper who had tried to grab Brooklyn several days earlier.
Headlines such as "Anger as Beckham escapes speeding by blaming snappers"
melted into "How Posh stopped baby-snatcher." Beckham and Victoria were
transformed from spoilt celebrities into heroic parents.

In football, a strong wife has traditionally been regarded as the first indication of
serial deviance. Football wives should quietly provide a stable home life and nothing
more. Well, apart from Cup Final day when they should look decorative in the pre-
match television feature filmed at the hairdressers.

Victoria Beckham, however, is a new variant on the footballer's wife: a woman


whose level of celebrity is even more elevated than that of her husband. Moreover,
she appears to have an almost pathological need for publicity, she breathes the
oxygen of headlines to reinforce her self-esteem, to reassure herself that she still
matters. And there is no better way for her to accrue those headlines than with her
husband by her side. Besides, they want to be together, they clearly dote on one
another.

Thus Beckham finds himself pulled between two forces which represent the old and
the new faces of football. On the one hand is the autocratic, old style football
manager who gave him the opportunity he most wanted in his life - to play for
Manchester United, the club he loved from boyhood - but who continues to demand
that all peripheries should be sacrificed to the cause. On the other is the wife he
adores, who doesn't quite understand why everyone gets so worked up about a silly
game and believes since he is good enough to play for whoever he wishes, now
might be the time to pursue his profession somewhere drier, somewhere closer to
the centre of the world, frankly somewhere more convenient than Manchester - like
Milan, say.

39
Oddly, in the end, the two forces might not be mutually exclusive: both might get
their way. If, as is widely rumoured, Beckham moves on this summer, Posh will
have her husband where she wants him and Ferguson will have re-established his
authority. Plus he will have several tens of millions in his transfer account to pick up
a player less distracted by incidentals. And Beckham? Well, at least he will get more
time to spend with the family.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

A Italian football

B football hooligans

C David Beckham

The correct answer is C

1 David Beckham missed football training because ...

a he had a hangover

b he had been arrested for speeding


c his son was sick

2 When he returned to training, Beckham was ...

a included in the team against Leeds


b castigated openly
c accused of throwing a tantrum

3 Sir Alex Ferguson is ..


a a traditionalist at heart
b happy with Beckham’s lifestyle

c similar to Beckham in many ways

40
4 Sir Alex Ferguson ...

a enjoys the Hollywood lifestyle of today’s football stars


b cannot understand the Hollywoodisation of football
c claims that Beckham worked hard to be where he is

5 What is worrying for Sir Alex Ferguson is that Beckham ...

a is not playing his best football

b has been rumoured to be taking cocaine


c isn’t behaving as he thinks he should

6 Ferguson is afraid he may lose Beckham to ...

a another club
b the celebrity circuit
c the film world

7 When Beckham was charged with speeding ...

a he hired the country’s best lawyers

b he chose to represent his wife


c the ban was instantly upheld

8 According to the text, what’s ‘wrong’ with Victoria Beckham as a football wife
is ...

a she’s very famous


b she has too strong a character
c her disagreements with sir Alex Ferguson

41
9 The main problem seems to be that Beckham ...

a is caught between to worlds

b is under his wife’s thumb

c wants to leave Manchester United

10 In the battle of wills, the loser is most likely to be ...

a Victoria Beckham

b Sir Alex Ferguson

c neither of the above

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 11 (General)

Read the article ‘A Bitter Pill to Swallow’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B
or C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

A Bitter Pill to Swallow

But how, mon dieu 1, will they survive? From next year the French, Europe's
champion pill-poppers and a nation of unrepentant hypochondriacs, will have to
start doing without nearly a quarter of the medicines they so adore.
Faced with a record budget over-run of € 6.1bn, the Health Minister, Jean-Francois
Mattei, last week announced that some 900 of the 4,300 drugs French doctors

42
routinely prescribe will no longer be reimbursed by the health service for the simple
reason that they have 'little or no recognised medical effect'.

The products include whole classes of such popular - and uniquely French -
medicines as veino-tonics, which supposedly improve the circulation,
'phytotherapeutics', bronchial lubricants, 'choleretics', 'hepatitic protectors' (for the
liver), and the intriguingly-named 'replacement intestinal flora'.

It is no surprise that the French, who consume three times as many prescription
medicines as the Germans and British, have been swallowing quantities of expensive
pills and potions that do no measurable good.

France has invented entire illnesses that do not exist elsewhere. The symptoms of
that very Gallic contribution to the world of imaginary afflictions, la crise de foie 2,
are diagnosed outside France as migraine, constipation or over-indulgence at the
dinner table. Yet every French pharmacy stocks a variety of exotically named
remedies promising to calm the overworked French liver.

Similarly, every French infant suffers in winter from la bronchiolite , a kind of baby-
bronchitis with allegedly dire consequences that in Britain would be called a chest
infection. An entire profession, the kinesitherapist, has developed to treat this
phenomenon.

The French also believe wholeheartedly in the medical benefits of thalassotherapy, to


the extent that until recently anyone who went to an Atlantic health spa on a doctor's
recommendation could reclaim 30 per cent of the cost of a week's treatment from the
state. Nothing proves it works, but French doctors prescribe thalassotherapy for
arthritis, asthma, acne and even infertility.

Bowing to the all-consuming national urge to be diagnosed (and treated) as sick


when you are not, French doctors, according to Edouard Zarifian, a professor of
medical psychology, 'have turned into merchants of false happiness' and now
prescribe mood-altering drugs, for example, to 13 per cent of the adult population.

This is mainly due, he argues, to inadequate training of GPs; to the outrageously


unchecked influence of the major drugs companies in France; and to the fact that,
unlike any other European country, the French agency that approves prescription
medicines is run on a semi- voluntary basis by part-time experts, many of whom also
act as consultants to big commercial laboratories.

That may explain the extraordinary failure of generic medicines - containing the
same molecules, but without the pharmaceutical company brand name and often at
half the price - in France. Last year, generics accounted for six per cent of all
medicine sales in France, compared to 40 per cent in Britain and 60 per cent in
Denmark.

'It's as if they fear that without the name the medicine won't work,' said Chantal
Benichou, a Paris GP.

43
Doctors are, however, going to have to say 'non' soon, because part of Mattei's
proposed reforms, which come into effect next year, will be to allow the health
service to reimburse only the price of generic medicines if an alternative exists.

The Minister hopes his package of measures will cut the health service's budget
over-run by nearly € 2bn over five years. The savings, he hopes, will be ploughed
into medical research. But few in France are holding their breath.

1 My God
2 Bilious attack

Questions

(0) This text is about medicine in ...

a Germany
b Hungary
c France

The correct answer is C

1 According to the writer, the French ...

a are unashamedly addicted to medicines


b do not enjoy being prescribed medicine
c are embarrassed at their addiction to medicines

2 Currently some 900 prescription drugs are ...

a harmful

44
b as good as placebos
c overpriced

3 Many of the prescription drugs are for illnesses that ...

a are specific to the French


b are easily cured
c require specialist treatment

4 The writer claims that French pharmacies ...

a pander to a nation of hypochondriacs


b are indignant that the drugs will soon be reclassified
c are only too ready to misdiagnose patients

5 According to the writer, the existence of the kinesitherapist ...

a is an example of French hypochondria gone too far


b has only made things worse for mothers
c has led to the development of specialist treatments for bronchitis

6 The French government ...

a is to restrict the number of illnesses treated at spas


b only allowed health spa visits for the seriously ill
c has already stopped reimbursing health spa visits

7 Edouard Zarifian claims that French doctors have ...

a been over-prescribing a number of mood-altering drugs


b preferred to please patients by prescribing needless treatments
c been found treating patients who are not really sick

8 Zarifian believes that the reason French GPs over-prescribe drugs is that ...

a some have a commercial interest in prescribing as much as they can


b the French agency that approved drugs has been closed down
c junior doctors do receive out-of-date training on prescribing drugs

9 According to the writer, the French ...

a happily pay more for ‘designer’ drugs from famous laboratories


b would prefer to have more generic drugs available
c are, on average, more healthy than the British or the Danes

10 The national preference for ‘designer’ drugs ...

45
a is not likely to change overnight
b has caused the health service to go seriously over budget
c is not only peculiar to the French

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 12 (General)

Read the article ‘Gated Communities’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or C)
which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Gated Communities

Felicia lives in a 120-home complex with a private golf course, swimming pool and
clubhouse in San Antonio, Texas. This vast suburban luxury is protected by a six-
foot-high wall and protected by an electronic gate, video camera and a guard with
an intercom. Inside, she tells Setha Low in her book, The Edge and the Center, she feels
safe. Outside there is nothing but fear. "When I leave the area entirely and go
downtown I feel quite threatened, just being out in normal urban areas, unrestricted
urban areas."
"All-pervasive fear of life outside the gates is a frequent result of this type of
attachment," concludes Anna Minto, in Building Balanced Communities, a report
published by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors last week. "Those behind
the gates become detached not only physically but politically."

This perceptive document, which compares the development of gated communities


in Britain and the US, links the psychological motivations of middle-class flight to
the political consequences of what happens when they take their resources with

46
them. Their desire to find a small area in which they feel secure only expands the
vast areas where they feel insecure. "People feel safer behind gates although at the
same time their fear of the outside world increases," writes Minto. "This voluntary
exclusion is mirrored by the involuntary isolation from society of those trapped in
the ghettos of the socially excluded."

An entire infrastructure is erected to keep the undesirables out. In America private


security firms outspend government law enforcement by 73%, and have three times
as many employees. The result? "Ironically," concludes Minto, "according to
American research, crime in gated communities has been shown not to decline.
What changes is perception."

Its publication was timely not only because it highlights a national trend, but also
because it serves as a metaphor for the global order that is simultaneously being
constructed and collapsing around us. Through inequities in trade abroad and
iniquities of social policy at home we are creating a local and international
underclass with little stake in our immediate society. Through our immigration
legislation and enhanced security networks we seek to contain them. Through our
criminal justice system and foreign policies we seek to police them. From gated
communities we move inexorably to gated countries and continents. Our prisons are
full, our borders fortified, our embassies armed and global summits take place
behind cordons of riot police - the private affluence and public squalor of the
Thatcher years gone global.

"The socially excluded are exiles from the industrial age," says Geoff Mulgan, head
of the government's performance and innovation unit. "People who can't swim with
the tide of globalisation."

A more accurate description would be not that they cannot swim with it but that
they are being drowned by it. And as the tides rise they will grab on to anything
available to keep themselves afloat.

Take the Caribbean. US administrations, Democrat and Republican alike, all funded
by American banana-growing interests, have lobbied to remove the preferential
treatment given to banana growers. Meanwhile US aid there has slumped by around
a quarter. In small islands dependent on single crops, this has had a huge impact.
Dominica earned £16m from bananas in 1993 and only £6m in 2000. With that kind
of decline replicated in the region, people look for alternative sources of income.
They have found it in the lucrative and pernicious trade of drug trafficking. The UN
drug control programme estimates the net regional earnings of the drug industry in
the area at £2.2bn.

So our cheap bananas come at a price. First, most of these drugs come to the west to
feed more crime, create more fear and build even bigger gates. The second is that
with drug trade of that intensity comes a culture of violent crime. Before you know it
people coming to the Caribbean to "get away from it" are having gated holidays -
cooped up behind huge walls in all-inclusive hotels, for fear that global inequalities
interrupt their rest and relaxation.

47
So long as we continue to threaten others with war, poverty and exclusion, we can
only expect that we will continue to feel threatened also. It is not gates we need to
build, but bridges.

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

a Isolated monasteries
b Gated Communities
c Open Prisons

The correct answer is B

1 Felicia feels scared whenever she ...

a is at home in Texas

b is in the residential complex

c goes to the city centre

2 The danger of living in a gated community is that ...

a the community becomes your world

b you become more politically active

c it’s almost impossible to get out

3 Living in secure areas makes residents feel ...

a more afraid of the world beyond the gates

48
b as though they are middle class

c that their lives are always being monitored

4 Although some people choose to live in isolated communities, others ...

a feel they can’t escape the communities they live in

b find that involuntary isolation is now a thing of the past

c are afraid of living in middle-class gated communities

5 The level of crime in gated communities is ...

a lower than that of the outside world

b not surprisingly showing a decline

c believed to be lower than elsewhere

6 It’s publication was timely not only because it highlights...

To what does the word ‘its’ at the start of the above paragraph refer?

a national crime statistics

b Minto’s recent report

c Felicia’s book ‘The Edge and the Center’

7 The national trend for the wealthy to isolate themselves ...

a is applauded by immigration and security authorities

b means that they are easily targeted by criminal gangs

c is now applying to countries and continents

49
8 The writer feels that globalisation is creating more ...

a opportunities for every nation

b social inequality

c industrial age innovators

9 ‘Our cheap bananas come at a price’ means that although we pay less for
bananas...

a we are, in fact, still paying more than they are worth

b banana growers in small communities end up paying more

c we may be forcing former banana farmers into the drug trade

10 The comment that ‘people coming to the Caribbean to “get away from it”

are having gated holidays’ is intended to be ...

a lethargic

b amusing

c ironic

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 13 (Military)

Read the article ‘Diamonds that Spell Death’ and then choose one of the answers (A,
B or C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

50
An example (0) has been done for you.

Diamonds that Spell Death

Early next week a French-led contingent of multinational troops will pull out of the
Congo town of Bunia after barely three months of peacekeeping. Thankfully, some
high-level diplomacy at the United Nations by the secretary general, Kofi Annan,
has secured a replacement force to serve a further year in an attempt to end the
regional conflict which since 1998 has claimed more than 3.3 million lives.

But while efforts are rightly focused on seeking a truce between the Hema and
Lendu militia groups, and urging an end to Ugandan and Rwandan interference,
western diplomats might also think about getting their own houses in order. In an
uncanny repetition of western intervention in the region that dates back to the 19th
century, complicit multinational corporations and unknowing - or unthinking -
western consumers have contributed to the regional conflagration.

The Democratic Republic of Congo is an area cursed by an abundance of natural


wealth from gold through diamonds and timber to oil and even the mobile-phone
mineral coltan. Foreign companies, happy to cut deals with military commanders,
have sustained the conflict by exploiting natural resources with near-total disregard
for human rights or long-term development. In turn, when we use our phone, give a
PlayStation to a teenager, or buy a diamond for a loved one, we too risk being an
unwitting accomplice.

Since King Leopold II of Belgium first decided on Congo as a suitable site for his
imperial ambitions in the 1870s, the west's role in the region's history has constituted
an almost apocalyptic rape of resources and people.

It was under the guise of the International African Association and with the
assistance of that criminally overrated explorer, Henry Morton Stanley, that Leopold
II carved out his territory. Local chiefs were forced to hand over vast tracts of land in
exchange for cloth, beads and a couple of bottles of gin. But unlike France or Britain,
Leopold was never interested in the geopolitics of Africa - he wanted the riches.

By the time world opinion finally woke up to Leopold's atrocities, the Congo Free
State had been stripped of its wealth, some 10 million people slaughtered in one of
the worst genocides in history, and an entire cultural tradition extinguished. The
west, of course, hadn't finished with Congo, deciding later in the 20th century to
support the brutal kleptocracy of General Mobutu for some 30 ruinous years.

Today a familiar pattern continues. A UN panel of experts recently concluded that


foreign interests sustain the current war by illegally subsidising militias, in return for
gold, diamonds, cobalt, coltan and other loot. Vast quantities of the country's natural
wealth are shipped out illegally, leaving behind an impoverished population that is

51
often pressganged into labour or, literally, pillaged and raped. The conflict has
witnessed some of the worst sexual violence in history, and is dubbed Africa's first
world war: millions of casualties, and 18 million people with no access to services of
any kind - no clean water, health, education, transport, or housing.

A wave of bloodletting earlier this year sparked fears of a Rwandan-style genocide.


Renewed attempts to broker peace have now, thankfully, led to a transitional
government headed by the young Joseph Kabila - son of Laurent - and the promise
of an enhanced UN peacekeeping force. But history runs rings round Congo. Back in
1960 it had the dubious distinction of being the first country in the world to host a
UN peacekeeping force. So what's new?

Well, for a start, the UN might finally have some power. Next month, the UN
mission, Monuc, will increase from just over 2,000 to approximately 8,000 by the end
of September. Of course, it needs more. If it had the same troops-to-land ratio as in
Kosovo, Congo would have 10 million peacekeepers. But Monuc's new power - a
mandate authorising active intervention to protect civilians, rather than its former
observer status - does mark significant progress. It is a departure from the UN's dark
days in 1994, when it walked away from the Rwandan genocide only to return some
months later to hang curtains around 800,000 corpses and accidentally provide
sanctuary for the murderers regrouping in Congo, thus preparing the ground for
today's conflict.

Since the arrival of the French-led international force, including a British contingent,
Bunia, the town where daylight robbery and murdering militias went hand in hand,
has been demilitarised. But a large number of the population are displaced in the
surrounding countryside, too terrified to return. The British government has so far
increased humanitarian assistance this year to £16m. But Congo also needs
protection from exploitative western interests. It needs an extension of controls on
diamonds and other minerals; the enforcement of OECD guidelines for
multinational businesses; an effective small-arms embargo; and stricter
conditionality on assistance to other regional governments linked to Congolese
resource exploitation.

As Congo knows from its past, UN peacekeepers are not enough. Only good
governance and economic transparency will drain the illegal swamp of economic
and military networks that have, throughout its history, conspired in crimes against
humanity.

Questions

(0) This text is chiefly about ...

a King Leopold II

52
b Slavery
c Congo

The correct answer is C

1 The new peacekeeping contingent is to remain in Congo for _______.

a 3 months
b 1 year
c under 3 months

2 In the phrase ’getting their own houses in order,’ the author is critical of___

a the Hema and Lemdu militia groups


b Uganda and Rwanda
c Western governments

3 The author feels that Westerners may be ’unwitting accomplices’ to ______

a those who are prifiting from the regional conflict


b human rights organisations based in Congo
c long-term development agencies in the region

3 The author feels that Westerners may be ’unwitting accomplices’ to ______

a those who are prifiting from the regional conflict


b human rights organisations based in Congo
c long-term development agencies in the region

4 The author feels that the International African Association ____________

a has saved the region from certain chaos


b was an excuse to drain Congo of its resources
c should have played a greater role in the geopolitics of Africa

5 The author believes that Congo ________________

a thrived under King Leopold’s rule


b owes its current wealth to King Leopold
c was exploited by King Leopold

53
6 The author feels that Congo’s rich, natural resources are _______

a benefitting its people


b being illegally sold off
c being protected by militias

7 The author is _________ about Congo’s transitional government

a ambivalent
b positive
c doubtful

8 The author is ___________ the UN’s role in Congo in 1994

a critical of
b thankful for
c uncertain about

9 According to the author, financial humanitarian assistance to Congo ____

a is not enough
b is being wasted
c should be monitored

10 The author feels that peacekeeping assistance _________

a should be complemented by reform in other areas


b will help to reduce the number of militias in Congo
c is exactly what Congo needs to stabilise the country

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 14 (Military)

Read the article ‘Training Peacekeepers’ and then choose one of the answers (A, B or
C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

54
An example (0) has been done for you.

Training Peacekeepers

As the US military grapples with the most ambitious peacekeeping and nation-
building operation in 50 years, you might think that planners in the Pentagon are
looking at ways to increase resources that support peacekeeping and peace
enforcement. Well, you would be mistaken. The Department of Defense has just
decided to eliminate its only institute devoted to such operations: the Peacekeeping
Institute at the US Army War College in Pennsylvania. The Institute will close in
October.
With only 49 peacekeeping centres in the world, some military and some civilian,
Canada will have the sole remaining centre in North America.

The Peacekeeping Institute was created in July 1993 to guide the Army's strategic
thinking on how to conduct peacekeeping and to document lessons-learned. It has
operated with a staff of ten and a yearly budget of about $200,000 (out of an $81
billion annual Army budget).

Just three months after the institute opened, a peacekeeping effort in Somalia turned
bloody on the streets of Mogadishu. Two Army Black Hawk helicopters were shot
down and 18 US soldiers were killed. Since then the US military has taken on other,
more successful missions to keep the peace in Bosnia and Kosovo. In Afghanistan,
however, the decision was taken to limit the force to 5,000 British-led peacekeepers,
largely as a result of the Bush administration's general reluctance to engage in
nation-building programmes. In contrast, NATO deployed 60,000 peacekeeping
troops in Bosnia, including 20,000 Americans. This was in a nation less than 10% the
size of Afghanistan.

Now we have come full circle, with US forces having to make the transition from
war fighters to peacekeepers in Iraq in a matter of days. The looting and lawlessness
in Iraq's major cities suggests that the US military is ill-prepared to perform as
peacekeepers. So, at a time when US soldiers are doing civilian reconstruction in
Afghanistan and are the stewards of post-conflict Iraq, how could it happen that the
Peacekeeping Institute will shut its doors?

The Pentagon's rationale is simple: the Peacekeeping Institute is a casualty of "force


realignment". All bodies are needed at the front to fight the Global War on Terror.
The institute's former director, Colonel George Oliver, has himself been deployed
overseas to work with the Pentagon-led reconstruction effort in Iraq.

The absence of political champions for the only federal organisation dedicated to
thinking strategically about the US military in peace operations points to an
increasingly obvious disconnect in Washington: the Institute has no strong political
constituency. It is a post-Cold War policy orphan, regarded with suspicion from the

55
Left for being a child of the military and scorned by the Right for having the word
"peace" in its name.

During the 1990s Congress and the American public were not particularly interested
in foreign policy. After the end of the Soviet Union, the US had no simple framework
for international engagement. Conservatives trumpeted a 'spend them into
submission' recipe for victory in all matters international, convinced that the
militarised pattern of the Cold War would keep the country secure. Liberals clung to
arms control advocacy, often to the exclusion of other issues. As a consequence,
during much of the decade there was no compelling international vision on the left
or the right - just an echo chamber of the leftovers and the righteous.

The fact that the US military has become the most active US foreign policy agency is
a cause for dismay by many foreign policy observers. But with a vast reservoir of
efficient manpower, the US military is often called upon not because it is willing, but
because it is able. For American taxpayers fund the military at 16 times the rate of all
other US international initiatives, a ratio that is set to increase over the next decade.

Any sort of progressive and problem-solving dialogue about the future of US


international engagement must include military voices. Many Americans don't yet
realize that advocating cooperation is what the US Army's Peacekeeping Institute,
the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) have been doing for the past decade. Yet Britain's
recent history shows that a workable platform for civil-military dialogue can be
developed, and that capable civilian partners can be created to supplement the
activities of military forces in post-conflict stabilisation. Clearly, American policy
instruments are sorely in need of such balance.

Peacekeeping is critical for giving war-torn societies a chance to exit cycles of


violence. It could also be an issue that helps to mend recent US and transatlantic
divisions

European officials and military personnel should now raise the issue in bilateral
meetings with their US counterparts. When pressed by US officials on questions of
increasing defence spending and interoperability with US forces, they should ask for
clarification on US interoperability and doctrinal fluency with EU peace and nation-
building operations
Questions

(0) This text is about...

a training peacekeepers
b global warming
c military hardware

The correct answer is A

56
1 The sentence ’Well you would be mistaken,’ refers to the fact that the US
is ______________________ its support to peacekeeping.

a increasing
b reducing
c freezing

2 The writer feels that the Peacekeeping institute’s annual budget was ____

a excessive
b inadequate
c tiny

3 According to the writer, the US’ least successful peacekeeping mission


has been in ___________

a Somalia
b Kosovo
c Afghanistan

4 The writer feels that the US _____________ the Peacekeeping Institute

a needs
b appreciates
c supports

5 The writer thinks that the Peacekeeping Institute __________ political


support

a did not get sufficient


b got the wrong kind of
c could still be saved by

6 The writer feels that during the 1990s the US suffered from _______

a the aftermath of the Cold War


b too much international engagement

57
c political infighting at home

7 Over the coming 10 years, US defence spending will ________

a increase
b decrease
c plateau

8 The writer feels that US civil-military relations ____________

a are a model of their kind


b have greatly improved
c need to be examined

9 In matters of foreign policy, the US military is often called upon, mainly


because of its ________________

a resources
b activities
c willingness

10 The author suggests that the issue of peacekeeping could ________

a cause defence spending to increase


b improve US/European relations
c be problematic for successful US/EU interoperability

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 15 (Military)

Read the article ‘A New Perspective on Peacekeeping’ and then choose one of the
answers (A, B or C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

A New Perspective on Peacekeeping

In the spring of 1948 a collection of French, American, Belgian and Swedish colonels
and majors assembled in Cairo. This first UN force had a typically rocky start, as the

58
truce between Arabs and Jews they were supposed to oversee collapsed almost
immediately. But by July a new one was in place, and the colonels were soon out
there, with clipboards and binoculars, keeping the peace from sandy outposts in
Palestine and neighbouring countries.
The hopes engendered by these early missions were largely unfulfilled. The Middle
Eastern forces were removed or ignored when the parties wanted to go back to war,
the Kashmir missions achieved little, the Congo was a terrible debacle and the
Cyprus force ended the shooting but effectively sustained partition.

Half a century later we do not know what is to become of peacekeeping, peace


enforcement and peacemaking after their late blooming in the second half of the
1980s and the early 1990s. This is partly because of disillusion with the results of
some UN operations, strongest in the US but by no means confined to America. It is
also because September 11 has brought in a whole new set of criteria, overlapping
and conflicting with the largely humanitarian considerations which shaped most
recent interventions.

The impulse for such intervention was to help citizens of countries affected by wars
and internal breakdown. It has been justified most recently, and elegantly, by the
report of the International Commission on the Responsibility to Protect, which states
that governments have a duty of care toward their citizens and that if they seriously
fail in this the international community has the right to take over. But a new
interventionism governed by the drive against terrorism is not primarily about
rescuing "them" but about rescuing "us".

The problem is one of concentration of aim, with the Americans wishing to devote
most resources to targeting the enemy, the Europeans attached to the idea of
rescuing others and attending to the conflicts which breed resentment of the west,
and most other countries uneasy about both philosophies, which they fear conceal
ulterior motives. Underlying that is another level of difference, with the Americans,
unusually, taking the view that there are some things that can't be fixed, some
conflicts that are not ready for resolution and some state breakdowns that cannot be
reversed.

The argument here is that the international community could all too easily find itself
sustaining, with aid and troops, an increasing number of dysfunctional societies
which they have stabilised without curing, an old problem in UN peacekeeping. To
which the response comes back, as with Afghanistan, that this is precisely why more
resources should be devoted to such cases. These are not easy issues.

But large UN operations need American technical, logistical and intelligence


assistance as well as American support in the broad political sense. If the US should
reach the point where it does not see the UN as a natural field for the pursuit of
policy and as offering instruments of unique value in that pursuit then both are in
trouble. But the sheer usefulness of the UN to a super-power makes that unlikely.

As the Cold War wound down there was a flowering of UN activity in many
territories, frequently going beyond peacekeeping toward peace enforcement and

59
what later came to be called nation building. By 1994 there were 75,000 UN soldiers
and police operating in more than a dozen countries at a cost of $3bn a year.

Then came disasters in Angola, Bosnia, Rwanda and Somalia, and disappointment,
above all in Washington, even though in all of these cases the US bore much
responsibility for what went wrong. America had been a prime mover in early UN
operations, and it was ready and willing to seek its ends through UN institutions in
the late 1980s and early 1990s. But Somalia and later Bosnia changed that.

It became politically difficult for the US to take a large direct role in UN


peacekeeping. Even the British, in Sierra Leone, preferred to stay out of the UN
structure. European military men, meanwhile, agreed with their American
counterparts that serious enforcement operations can only succeed if they are led by
serious military powers, another lesson of the 1990s. The Europeans put their own
drag on the prospects for future intervention by moving very slowly with the
creation of the Rapid Reaction Force.

But a certain clarity about humanitarian intervention, its justifications, techniques


and limitations, and the various ways the UN could be involved, was in the process
of being laboriously achieved both inside and outside the UN, as various level-
headed studies and reports attest. The consensus was that intervention was here to
stay but could and should be better done.
That has now been thrown into disarray by the emergence of rival objectives in the
campaign against terror. How to reconcile the two, if it can be done, is the critical
question

Questions

(0) This text is about ...

a NATO expansion
b peacekeeping issues
c chemical warfare

The correct answer is B

1 The writer’s tone in the first paragraph is ...

a sarcastic
b tongue-in-cheek
c matter-of-fact

60
2 The results of the first peacekeeping missions were ...

a oustanding
b unsatisfactory
c long-lasting

3 We don’t know what is to become of peacekeeping, peace enforcement


and peacemaking because of the disillusion with the results of some UN
operations, as well as...

a ongoing international humanitarian issues


b increasing conflict between governments
c consideration of different new criteria

4 The phrase ’new interventionism’ in paragraph 4 means that ...

a the international community may intervene where nations


suffer internal breakdown or surprise attacks
b governments have a duty to protect their citizens from terrorism
c the reasons for intervention have changed

5 The phrase ’ulterior motives’ in paragraph 5 means that ...

a the Europeans are not supporting the US as much as they should


b some countries are suspicious of the US’ and Europe ’s reasons for
assistance
c non-US and European countries distrust Western philosophy

6 The ’old problem’ mentioned in paragraph 6 refers to peacekeeping’s ...

a ability to stabilise, but not to cure, dysfunctional societies


b inability to allocate the right resources to the right mission
c inability to maintain troops in the more dysfunctional nations

7 The writer feels that the US ...

a doesn’t really need the UN


b and the UN need each other
c and the UN are in trouble

61
8 The word ’that’ at the end of paragraph 9 refers to the...

a role the US played in peacekeeping in Somalia and Bosnia


b gradual change of political climate within the UN
c major role the US had played in UN peacekeeping

9 The writer appears ________ the speed with which the international
community approached the issue of humanitarian intervention with the UN

a critical of
b supportive of
c impressed by

10 What is ’the critical question’ to which the author refers in the last line of the
text?

a How can intervention be improved if differing views on why are


taken into consideration?
b How could intervention be improved and when?
c Why is the UN experiencing ongoing problems in the war against
terror?

STANAG 3 - Reading Task 16 (Military)

Read the article ‘Peacekeeping Problems for the UN’ and then choose one of the
answers (A, B or C) which best answers each of the questions that follow.

An example (0) has been done for you.

Peackeeping Problems for the UN

The United Nations security council last night agreed to overhaul its much-maligned
peacekeeping operations, with special focus on conflicts in Africa.
The council rushed through a six-step programme after suffering the embarrassment
of seeing 500 of its peacekeeping force taken hostage by ramshackle rebel forces in
Sierra Leone this year.

The speed of the UN response is a sign of the extent to which the organisation's
image has been battered by a decade of disastrous operations.

62
At a 90-minute meeting, the 15-member security council backed the plan. Attending
were representatives of the five permanent members: the US president, Bill Clinton,
the British prime minister, Tony Blair, the Chinese president, Jiang Zemin, the
Russian president, Vladimir Putin, and the French president, Jacques Chirac.

In a lengthy declaration published at the end of the meeting, the council pledged "to
enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in addressing conflict at all stages,
from prevention to settlement to post-conflict peace-building".

In an early test of its new resolve, it also issued a separate statement condemning the
African countries involved in the fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The UN has begun organising a peacekeeping force for Congo but last night the
security council reiterated that the troops will not be committed until the countries
involved in the conflict abide by the ceasefire agreed in Lusaka last year.

The reform of the peacekeeping operations was recommended in a report by a UN


panel of experts a fortnight ago after investigations into why the UN had performed
so badly in Rwanda and the Balkans. The security council has since acted with
unprecedented haste.

The declaration will be the one concrete success to emerge from the biggest-ever
gathering of world leaders in New York. For the first time, Africa was singled out.
The declaration said the security council will give equal priority to maintaining
peace throughout the world but "in view of the particular needs of Africa, to give
special attention to the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in
Africa, and to the specific characteristics of African conflicts".

As a first step in reform, the security council will adopt "clearly defined, credible,
achievable and appropriate mandates". In the past, mandates have been so vague
they have often added to problems. The weakness of the UN mandate in the Balkans
was repeatedly exploited by the Yugoslav president, Slobodan Milosevic.

With one eye on the hostage-taking in Sierra Leone, the security council said the new
mandates will include "effective measures for the security and safety to United
Nations personnel and, wherever possible, for the protection of the civilian
population".

Other steps include helping the UN to obtain trained and properly equipped
personnel for peacekeeping operations. Many of the UN troops sent to Sierra Leone
from developing countries were short of basic equipment, in particular proper
communications. The security council promised greater consultation with
contributing countries.

One of the biggest and most expensive changes will be the creation of a permanent
UN high command responsible for the planning, deployment and conduct of
peacekeeping operations in an effort to reduce the chaos that often surrounds its
interventions.

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The final step agreed was for "a more up-to-date and sounder foundation for
financing peacekeeping operations".

Questions

(0) This text is about peacekeeping problems for...

a NATO
b the UN
c Europe

The correct answer is B

1 The Sierra Leone rebels who held 500 UN peacekeepers hostage were ...

a disciplined
b disorganised
c distressed

2 The fact that the UN peacekeeping programme had been rushed through was
...

a surprising
b disappointing
c suffering

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3 The UN’s commitment to peacekeeping support to Congo was ...

a conditioned
b conditional
c unconditional

4 The UN Security Council’s actions regarding peacekeeping reform were ...

a normal
b unusual
c condemned

5 The UN declaration on peacekeeping was unique since it ...

a gave equal priority to operations in all nations


b highilghted the specific needs of Africa
c was the first Security Council declaration in this area

6 In the past, weak UN mandates were open to ...

a reform
b revision
c exploitation

7 New UN peacekeeping mandates included provisions for the safety and


security of ...

a the Sierra Leone rebels


b UN personnel
c hostages in armed conflicts

8 The reason behind the UN Security Council’s promise for greater


consultation with countries contributing peacekeeping personnel was
because of...

a lessons learned from Sierra Leone


b pressure from the US
c the need for further training

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9 To reduce further chaos in its peacekeeping interventions, the UN has
...

a called on the US military for advice


b agreed on greater consultation with participating countries
c created a permanent high command

10 The text suggests that UN financial reform was necessary for its
peacekeeping operations because ...

a of a need to up-date
b costs had risen significantly
c complaints had increased

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