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Introduction to Power World Simulator

It is a power simulation package designed from ground upto

user-friendly and highly interactive.

Simulator has the power for engineering analysis and is

interactive and graphical that can be used to explain the power
system operation to tech. and non-technical audiences.
Simulator is actually a number of integrated products:
-As its core is a comprehensive, robust power flow solution
engine capable of efficiently solving systems upto 60000 buses.
-Stand alone package for power flow.
-Simulator allows the users to visualize the system through the
use of full color animated one line diagrams with full zooming
and panning facility.
-System models can be modified or built from scratch using
simulator full featured graphical case editor.

-Transmission lines may switched in and out of service, new

transmission or generation may be added, and new transactions may
be added.

Simulator extensive use o graphics and animation greatly

increase the user understanding of system characteristics,
problems and constraints as well as how to remedy them.

Simulator also provides a convenient medium for simulating the

evolution of power system over time.
Load, generation, and interchange schedule over time may be
prescribed and the resulting change in the system can be visualized.

The functionality may be useful for illustrating the many issues

associated with industry restructuring.

In addition to these, simulation boasts economic dispatch, power

transfer distribution factors (PTDF) computation, contingency
analysis, and ATC determination all accessible through consistent
and colorful visual interface.
Getting Started with a Power World Simulator

It has two distinct modes:

•Edit mode

•Run mode

Edit mode is used to construct new simulation cases or to

modify existing cases.

Run mode is used to perform the actual power system

We can switch between the two modes at any time using edit
mode and run mode buttons on the Program Palette
Each modes have its own set of menu command

Simulator makes extensive use of toolbars for easy access to

its many features. We can move and size these toolbars
according to our preferences.

Toolbars house several palettes of controls each of

which may be activated
Toolbars palettes are identified as:
Program Palette: It gives the ability to switch between
programs run and edit mode and to control the various aspects
of power flow solution.
•Edit mode/Run mode
•Single solution-using simulator as a stand alone power flow
•Log-It shows what is going on with the power flow solution
File Palette: Provides access to operating system activities such
as saving one line diagram or case model to disk, printing a one
line display to printer, loading a case and also access to one line
help and case validation tool

Edit Palette: It links to several case edit tools. You can cut and
paste single objects on the one line diagram and can paste them
on the same or another diagram

Insert Palette: Contains no. of buttons that allow us to add

drawing objects to the current one line diagram

Format palette: It allows us to control display objects attributes

as font, color, line styles, zoom dependent visibility, and display
layer level.
Zoom Palette: To display large detailed power systems
simulators’ one line possess zooming and panning facility
•Zoom palette enables us to prescribe a zoom value or by
selecting a rectangular region of the diagram on which to focus.
•This toolbar enables us to save a view location, or to recall
previously saved view location.
•Pan/zoom palette offers additional zooming and panning
control. Use four arrow clusters to display horizontally and

Option/Info Palette:It provides quick access to simulators many

information display and option settings like single power flow
solution, generate quick power flow list, bus view details, and
switch to another one line diagrams.
Run mode Palette: It provides access to run mode facilities. It
features VCR like controls for starting, resetting and pausing

Message Log: Displays detailed results of each power flow solution

chronicling the process iteration by iteration. It also reports
messages raised by simulator in performing various operations like
opening and validating a case.

Web Publishing: Simulator provides tools for creating presentation

of data and diagrams using the application for display on the world
wide web. This tool includes:
•The ability to save the case information display contents as HTML
•The ability to save oneline diagram as jpeg files
•A basic HTML editor that can import HTML code
•A mechanism for uploading HTML documents to web server
Creating Loading and Saving a Simulation Case
 The Simulator control menu controls the actual simulation.

 We can use this menu to do a time domain simulation or a single

power flow solution

• Opening cases and oneline diagram

• Case Formats
• Starting a new case
• Case validation
• Saving cases and onelines
• Using templates
• Exploring one line in different formats
• Saving and loading Auxiliary data
• Saving admittance and Jacobian matrix
File Menu: Used to open and save one line diagrams and create
new cases
Opening a simulation case, by default power world binary
type (*.pwb) is selected. PWB is the most preferred file type
providing the most comprehensive power system information
along with the smallest time and quickest load time.
Power world can import PTI draw files (*.drw)
Case Formats: Simulator supports number of case formats
•Power World Binary (*.pwb) preferred format and requires
smallest file sizes
•Information stored in this format includes power flow data,
economic parameters, case time variation, options/values, and
screen customization.
Power World Case (*.pwc)- primarily included for compatibility
with earlier versions of pws.
PTI raw data format (*.raw)-Interchange of data with other
packages, with PTI power flow data.
IEEE Common format: (*.cf)- only to specify power flow

Auxiliary files: Used to store additional power flow information

that is not contained in power flow data files and do not have
pwb format

Exploring oneline diagrams in different graphics formats

• Simulator can export one line diagrams and other graphical
displays as bitmaps, metafiles or jpegs

•Saving Admittance matrix and Jacobian matrix; Ybus and

Jacobian matrix can be stored in txt format and can also be
opened in MATLAB as .m files
Building one Line Diagrams
Inserting a new object
Moving a existing object
Viewing or modifying object parameters
Selecting several objects to modify their appearance
Changing an object’s screen appearance using a format menu
either to change the object or entire screen appearance
One line display allows to customize the appearance of the
presently selected diagram
Insert menu
Anchored Objects-In edit mode, simulator allows certain
objects to be attached to an another object called an anchor
•Area/Zone objects
•Lines/Transformers- CBs, pie charts, line dialogs
Area/Zone/Super Area Display Objects
Area fields on onelines
Zone fields
Super area field
Bus display objects
Generator display objects
•Gen. information dialog
•Input-output curve
•Fuel cost curve
•Incremental cost curve
•Heat rate curve
•Reactive power capability curve
Load display objects
Switched shunt display objects
Transmission line display objects
Line flow pie chart
CBs on oneline diagram
Line fields (R, L, C, Loading)

Transformer display objects/fields

•No automatic control
•AVR if transformer changes its tap ratio
•Reactive power control if transformer changes its tap ratio
•Phase shift control if transformer change its phase angle control

Line flow pie charts

Interface: area-area/zone-zone, flow limit of interface
Text on one lines
Background pictures on onelines
Links to other onelines
Creating a new case:

To begin with, double click on the power world simulator icon.

 The simulator is used to create new cases, modify the existing

cases and simulate power systems.

To create new case, select a file, New Case from the main
menu or

click open SIMULATION CASE button on the file palette.

Inserting a bus

Inserting a generator

inserting a transmission line

Inserting text, bus and line fields

Adding a new area

Inserting a bus
Inserting buses on the on-line diagram:

Select INSERT BUS from the main menu or select the bus
button on the INSERT palette. This prepares the simulator to
insert a bus.

Click on the on-line background at the location where we

want to place the new bus. This invokes the bus option dialog.

Use the bus option dialog box to specify the name, size,
orientation, area, zone, and nominal voltage of the bus as well as
load and shunt components connected to it.

Click OK on the bus option dialog box to finish creating the

bus and to close the dialog box.
Inserting a Transmission Line
To connect the buses together, we will now insert a transmission
line between them. This is done as follows:

Select INSERT TRANS. LINE from the main menu, click on the
transmission line button on the INSERT palette.

Left click at the point where we want the line to originate.

Without holding down mouse, drag mouse, line sequence will


Transmission line and transformers can be drawn as a series of

line sequence.
Inserting Text, Bus and Line Fields
To add fields to display of a particular bus, follow the following

Right click on the bus to bring up local menu.

Select add new fields around bus from the local menu. This open

INSERT BUS fields dialog.

Use the insert bus field dialog to designate the fields to add 8
fields per bus.

Click OK, the specified bus fields will be added to the on-line
Adding New Area

Saving a case

Starting the simulation

Power flow list

To show this display, select CASE INFORMATION, POWER

FLOW LIST from the main menu.

 To view flow at just a few selected buses we may use quick

power flow list from a local menu and select quick power flow
Adding New Area
Large interconnected systems usually have a number of control
areas, with each control area responsible for operation of a
particular part of a system; often-single control area corresponds to
a single owner.

Control areas are connected to neighboring areas through tie


A tie line is a line that has one end in one control area and
another end in the other control area.
The total amount of power flowing out of a control area is the
algebraic sum of power flowing out on all areas of tie lines.

Each control area is responsible for procuring power to meet its

own load plus losses.

The control area can get power either by generating it or buying

it from another area.

 This ability to buy or sell power is one of the principle

advantages of interconnected system.
Saving a case

Starting the simulation

Power flow list

To show this display, select CASE INFORMATION, POWER

FLOW LIST from the main menu.

To view flow at just a few selected buses we may use quick power
flow list from a local menu and select quick power flow list.
IEEE 14 bus Example
IEEE 14 bus load flow Results

Area 1 - 1
Number of Buses 14
Total Load 342.0 MW 85.9 MVAR
Total Generation 356.7 MW 109.6 MVAR
Losses 14.7 MW 27.5 MVAR
Unserved Load 0.0 MW
Interchange Error 0.00
Bus Information for Area 1 - 1
Number Name Area kV Level LoadMW LoadMVR GenMW GenMVR Volt Angle Shunt
1 1 1 138 0 0 98 18 1.06 0.0 0
2 2 1 138 22 13 159 22 1.04 -1.8 0
3 3 1 138 11 8 100 10 1.00 -8.5 0
4 4 1 138 94 19 0 37 1.01 -11.1 0
5 5 1 138 0 0 0 24 1.05 -12.8 0
6 6 1 138 0 0 0 0 1.00 -12.8 0
7 7 1 138 29 17 0 0 0.97 -14.6 4
8 8 1 138 8 2 0 0 1.01 -4.0 0
9 9 1 138 48 -4 0 0 1.00 -9.6 0
10 10 1 138 9 6 0 0 0.96 -14.8 0
11 11 1 138 50 10 0 0 0.94 -14.4 0
12 12 1 138 6 2 0 0 0.97 -10.8 0
13 13 1 138 50 10 0 0 0.95 -12.1 0
14 14 1 138 15 5 0 0 0.94 -14.8 0
Load Information for Area 1 - 1
Bus ID Area Zone MW MVR
2 1 1 1 22 13
3 1 1 1 11 8
4 1 1 1 94 19
7 1 1 1 29 17
8 1 1 1 8 2
9 1 1 1 48 -4
10 1 1 1 9 6
11 1 1 1 50 10
12 1 1 1 6 2
13 1 1 1 50 10
14 1 1 1 15 5
Generator Information for Area 1 - 1
Bus ID Area Zone MW MVR
1 1 1 1 98 18
2 1 1 1 159 22
3 1 1 1 100 10
4 1 1 1 0 37
5 1 1 1 0 24
11 1 1 1 0 0
13 1 1 1 0 0

Switched Shunt Information for Area 1 - 1

Bus Reg. Area Zone MVR
7 7 1 1 4
Transmission Line Information for Area 1 - 1
From To ID MVA % Loaded Loss-MW Loss-MVR Amps Tap
2 1 1 60.5 20.2 0.64 -3.89 242.1
1 8 1 39.4 19.7 0.78 -2.04 155.5
2 4 1 87.1 43.6 3.28 9.17 348.9
2 8 1 29.4 14.7 0.47 -2.15 117.6
2 9 1 82.6 91.8 3.65 7.17 330.8
8 3 1 39.6 4.0 0.00 3.58 163.8 0.96200
3 11 1 52.9 105.7 2.66 5.56 221.2
3 12 1 16.8 33.7 0.35 0.72 70.4
3 13 1 53.6 107.2 1.90 3.75 224.3
4 9 1 14.9 7.5 0.17 -3.04 61.9
6 5 1 23.1 46.1 0.00 0.93 96.1
6 7 1 40.0 80.1 0.00 1.75 166.7
9 6 1 28.8 28.8 0.00 1.67 121.0 0.97800
9 7 1 19.1 9.6 0.00 1.92 80.3 0.96900
7 10 1 17.3 28.9 0.10 0.27 74.5
7 14 1 9.7 19.3 0.13 0.27 41.5
9 8 1 23.3 23.3 0.07 1.01 98.1
10 11 1 8.5 17.0 0.06 0.15 37.1
12 13 1 10.3 20.5 0.24 0.22 44.0
13 14 1 10.8 21.6 0.22 0.45 47.5
IEEE 30 bus System
To calculate the PTDFs

The power transfer distribution factor display is used to calculate

the incremental distribution factor associated with the power
transfer between two different areas and zones.

These values provide a linearized approximation of how the flow

of lines and interfaces changes in response to transaction between
a seller and a buyer.
Perform an initial power flow
In run mode select OPTIONS/TOOLS, POWER
DISTRIBUTION FACTORS from the main menu to open the
power distribution factor dialog.

Supply the requested information on the PTDF’S dialog and

click the CALCULATE PTDF’S button.

The distribution factors are calculated and displayed for the

element set of our choice in the table at the bottom dialog.

System can estimate MW*Distance quantities for the system’s

areas/zones that result from a specified transaction.

Given transactions from specified source to a specified link, a

simulator uses PTDFS to estimate the change in flow for each line
in the system that results from the transaction.