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Quality of Service Models IP Type of Service (TOS)

Best Effort · No QoS policies are implemented Integrated Services (IntServ) · Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used to reserve bandwidth per flow across all nodes in a path Differentiated Services (DiffServ) · Packets are individually classified and marked; policy decisions are made independently at each node in a path

Layer 2 QoS Markings Medium Ethernet Name Class of Service (CoS) Type 3-bit 802.1p field in 802.1Q header 1-bit drop eligibility flag 1-bit drop eligibility flag 3-bit field compatible with 802.1p Precedence Values Binary 7 111 6 110 5 101 4 100 3 011 2 010 1 001 0 000 Application Reserved Routing Voice Streaming Video Call Signaling Transactional Bulk Data Best Effort DSCP Values Binary 56 111000 48 110000 46 101110 32 100000 34 100010 Terminology
Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) · The individual QoS action performed at each DiffServ node according to its configured policy Trust Boundary · The perimeter beyond which QoS markings are not trusted Tail Drop · Occurs when a packet is dropped because its queue is full Policing · Creates an artificial ceiling on the amount of bandwidth that may be consumed; traffic exceeding the cap and be remarked or dropped Shaping · Similar to policing but buffers excess traffic for delayed transmission; makes more efficient use of bandwidth but introduces a delay TCP Synchronization · Flows adjust window sizes in synch, wasting bandwidth

Frame Relay Discard Eligibility (DE) ATM MPLS Cell Loss Priority (CLP) Experimental Field (EXP)

IP QoS Markings
Precedence · The first three bits of the IP TOS field are evaluated; compatible with Ethernet CoS and MPLS EXP values DSCP · The first six bits of the IP TOS are evaluated to provide more granular classification; backward-compatible with IP Precedence

QoS Flowchart

Prec. 7 6 5

DSCP Reserved Reserved EF CS4

36 100100 38 100110 24 011000 26 011010 28 011100 30 011110 16 010000 18 010010 20 010100 22 010110 8 001000 10 001010 12 001100 14 001110 0 000000


AF41 AF42 AF43 CS3


AF31 AF32 AF33 CS2


AF21 AF22 AF23 CS1

Per-Hop Behaviors
Class Selector (CS) · Backwardcompatible with IP Precedence values Assured Forwarding (AF) · Four classes with variable drop preferences Expedited Forwarding (EF) · Provides priority queuing for delay-sensitive traffic

Congestion Avoidance
Random Early Detection (RED) · Packets are randomly dropped before a queue is full to prevent tail drop; mitigates TCP synchronization Weighted RED (WRED) · RED with the added capability of recognizing prioritized traffic by its marking


AF11 AF12 AF13


BE v1.2

by Jeremy Stretch



Queuing Comparison Chart FIFO PQ No 4 Yes Automatic Yes No CQ No Configured Yes Configured No No WFQ <=2 Mbps Dynamic No Automatic No No CBWFQ No

LLQ No Configured Yes Configured Yes Yes

Default on interfaces >2 Mbps Number of queues 1 Configurable classes No Bandwidth allocation Automatic Provides for minimal delay No Modern implementation Yes First In First Out (FIFO)

Configured Yes Configured No Yes

Priority Queuing (PQ)

LLQ Configuration Example
! *** Class definitions *** class-map match-all Voice ! Matches packets by DSCP value match dscp ef ! class-map match-all Call-Signaling match dscp cs3 ! class-map match-any Critical-Apps match dscp af21 af22 ! Matches packets by access list match access-group name Mgmt_LAN ! class-map match-all Scavenger match dscp cs1 ! ! *** Policy creation *** policy-map Foo class Voice ! Priority queue policed to 33% priority percent 33 class Call-Signaling ! Allocate 5% of bandwidth bandwidth percent 5 class Critical-Apps bandwidth percent 20 ! Extend queue size to 96 packets queue-limit 96 class Scavenger ! Police to 64 kbps police cir 64000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class class-default ! Enable WFQ fair-queue ! Enable WRED random-detect ! ! *** Policy Application *** interface Serial0 service-policy Foo

» Packets are transmitted in the order they are processed » No prioritization is provided » Default queuing method on highspeed (>2 Mbps) interfaces » Configurable with the tx-ring-limit interface configuration command

» Provides four static queues which cannot be reconfigured » Higher-priority queues are always emptied before lower-priority queues » Lower-priority queues are at risk of bandwidth starvation

Custom Queuing (CQ)

Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

» Rotates through queues Weighted Round Robin (WRR)


» Queues are dynamically created per flow to ensure fair processing » Statistically drops packets agressive flows more often from

» A configurable number of bytes is processed from each queue per turn » Prevents queue starvation but does not support delay-sensitive traffic

» No support for delay-sensitive traffic

Class-Based WFQ (CBWFQ)

Low Latency Queuing (LLQ)

» Provides the benefits of WFQ with administratively configured queues » Each queue is allocated an amount or percentage of bandwidth » No support for delay-sensitive traffic » CBWFQ with the addition of a policed strict priority queue » Highly configurable while supporting delay-sensitive traffic still

show policy-map show interface show queue <interface> show mls qos v1.2

by Jeremy Stretch