CLEANING and SANITIZING OPERATIONS OBJECTIVES Recognize the difference between cleaning and sanitizing.

Identify the different processes that can be used to clean and sanitize equipment and utensils in a food establishment. Identify the primary steps involved in manually and mechanically cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils. Describe the factors affecting cleaning efficiency. Identify the procedures used to clean environmental areas in a food establishment Principles of Cleaning and Sanitizing Cleaning Physical removal of soil and food residues from surfaces of equipment and utensils Sanitization Treatment of a surface that has been previously cleaned to reduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safe levels. Cleaning Removal of Particles (soil or food residue). Pre-flushing with warm water Hot water and steam may not be effective because___________ cleaning Application of Cleaning Agent Soaking before scrubbing Spray Method fix or portable spray units using hot water or steam Clean-in-Place System the strength and velocity of the cleaning solution removes soil and dirt cleaning Abrasive Cleaning for removal of firm soil on the surface Not recommended for stainless steel surfaces; food contact surfaces Rinsing Use hot, potable water to remove (dirt or cleaning solutions?) Detergent use may affect sanitization. Factors Affecting Cleaning Efficiency Type of residue to be removed Food deposits Mineral deposits Microbes Fats and oils Dirt and debris * Knowing the type of soil determines the physical and chemical methods suited. factors Water quality Should use potable water If from wells, water should be tested once a year However, hardness, taste and some odors may still be present factors Detergents and cleaners to be used Cleaning or purifying agent detergeo - to wipe away Water may be, but soaps, etc may used to improve effectiveness Soaps composed of alkali and fatty acids Only effective with soft water factors Detergents Alkaline detergents combines with proteins to form soluble compounds easily removed by water. Sodium hydroxide strongest type but corrosive Sodium carbonates safer and less corrosive

factors Detergents Acid detergent dissolve mineral deposits, used to remove food and hardwater deposits Inorganics: HCl, H 2SO 4, HNO 2,H 3PO4 Used only in special cases because it is corrosive to metals Organic acids are not as corrosive and less irritating factors Detergents Abrasives are used for jobs that require scrubbing, scouring, or polishing Pumice, quartz and sand are ground into small particle size and supply scouring and polishing action to cleansers, hand soaps and soap pads. Can cause scratches on metal surface Scraped particles may also contaminate food factors Detergent Detergent sanitizers both detergent and sanitizer Applied two times: first, as detergent; second as sanitizer factors Water Temperature Should be between 130F (54C)and 160F (71C) Should be warm and not hot Some detergents are designed for cold water factors Water velocity Cleaning is by elbow grease in manual operations. May help remove soil and film May not be necessary if using an effective detergent factors Time detergent remains in contact with the surface Longer time, more efficient Soaked items in detergent need less scrubbing Concentration of detergent Follow manufacturers concentration factors Cleaning frequency Equipment and utensils for PHF must be cleaned every four hours (FDA) Additional guidelines: Before each use with a different raw animal food Change from raw food to RTEs Between PHF and fruits and vegetables Between use and storing of measuring device When contamination is suspected Cleaning frequency Exceptions: When equipment are maintained at proper hot and cold holding temp. When utensils are in refrigerated room or area. When do we clean utensils and equipment not used with PHF?

Guidelines Before each use with different food type. Each time there is a change from working with raw foods to working with ready-to-eat foods. Between uses with raw fruits and vegetables and with PHF. Before using or storing a food temperature measuring device. At any time during the operation when contamination may have occurred Sanitizing Sanitizers destroy disease-causing microorganisms present in equipment and utensils after cleaning Types:

Heat sanitizing Chemical sanitizing Heat Sanitizing (>77°C for 30 min) Advantages: Can penetrate small cracks and crevices Non-corrosive to metal surface Non-selective to microbial groups Leaves no residues Easily measured Heat sanitizing In manual ware washing, involves immersing cleaned equipment and utensils for at least 30s in hot water that is maintained at 171F (>77C) In mechanical, at least 165F (74C) but not more than 194F (90C) More important is the temperature in the utensil Chemical Sanitizing To chemically sanitize, one can immerse objects in sanitizing solutions or by swabbing, brushing or pressure spraying asanitizing solution directly on the surface. Factors affecting action of chemical sanitizers Contact of sanitizer Intimate contact between microbes and sanitizer Selectivity of sanitizer Chlorine non- selective Concentration Increasing concentration reaches maximum More is not always better; and high concentrations can be toxic. Temperature of solution Common sanitizers increase activity as temp. increases Between 75F (24C) and 120F (49C). Chlorine should not be use with temp. above 49C due to _________. pH of solution chlorine and iodophors generally decrease in effectiveness with an increase in pH. Soaps should be rinsed before using sanitizer. Time of exposure Allow sufficient time Commonly Used Sanitizers Chlorine Component of hypochlorites. Advantages: Control wide range of microbes Deodorize and sanitize Non-toxic at recommended conc. Colorless and non-staining Easy to use and economical Hypochlorites release hypochlorus acid which kills Effectiveness is decreased even with small amount of food soils Soaps must be rinsed off before sanitizing 10 >10 pH 7s 38C 50 ppm 10s 49C 25 ppm 10s 13C 100 ppm Exposure

Temperature Chlorine Conc. Iodine Iodophors are iodine-containing sanitizers Effective for disease-causing bacteria found on human hands. Function best in acidic pH, and bet. 24C and 49C. At least 25 parts per million for 30s Less influenced by organic matter but are expensive, may discolor, stain and be slippery when in use. 30s <7 24-49C 12.5 ppm (soaking) 30s <7 24-49C 25 ppm (swab & spray) pH Exposure Temperature Iodophors Conc. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Ammonia salts Non-corrosive and non-irritating to skin and have no taste or odor at proper conc. Do not destroy wide variety of microbes 200 parts per million More heat stable; work well above 24C

30s >7 >24C 200 ppm (immersion) pH Exposure Temperature Quats Conc. Very expensive Stable at high temp; stable for longer time; good for in-place sanitizers Quats Moderate cost; can stain equipment Less corrosive to equipment; less irritating to skiin; good for killing germs on hands Iodophors Corrosive to equipment; can irritate human skin and hands Economic cost; Kills many microbes; good for sanitizing applications Chlorine Compounds Disadvantages Advantages Sanitizer Mechanical Dishwashing Use for cleaning and sanitization of multiple-use equipment and utensils For equipment with no electrical parts Major problems are operational and require on going supervision and surveillance. Manual Dishwashing Performed in sink with three components: washing, rinsing and sanitizing

Hot and cold potable water must be supplied to each compartment of the sink Submerge utensils in hot water or chemical sanitizer solution. Hot water must be 77 and for 30s. Utensils are rinsed in clean, warm water with at least 49C Wash with warm water and effective cleaning agent. Water temp. should not be less than 43C. Nylon etc should be used to loosen and remove soil Sanitize Rinse Wash Fixed equipment Cannot be cleaned and sanitized Should be disassembled to expose food-contact surfaces Steps: Foam or spray method for large equipment Bucket method for those damaged by spray Clean-in-place Designed for equipment to be cleaned and/or sanitize by circulating chemical solutions through the equipment Example: Soft ice cream machine Yogurt machine Cleaning Environmental Areas Ceilings Wet or dry cleaning methods Walls Around sink and food production areas are considered foodcontact surfaces Bucket or spray method Floors Usually cleaned using spray system for washing, rinsing andsanitizing.

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