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Effect of Hole Reinforcement on the Buckling Behaviour of Thin-walled Beams Subjected to Combined Loading

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Thin-Walled Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tws

subjected to combined loading

⁎

Arif E. Oruna, Mehmet A. Gulerb,

a

TUBITAK UZAY Space Technologies Research Institute, ODTU Yerleskesi, 06800 Ankara, Turkey

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara 06560, Turkey

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Keywords: In this study, the eﬀect of hole reinforcement on the buckling behaviour of thin-walled structures mostly used in

Buckling stress aircrafts is investigated under combined loads. A fuselage ﬂoor beam with real dimensions is used for the

Hole reinforcement buckling analysis, and a parametric study based on several loading scenarios is considered. Investigated

Finite element analysis structures include diﬀerent ratios of hole diameter to reinforcement width (d/w), ratios of reinforcement height

Thin-walled beam

to web plate thickness (h/t), and the aspect ratio of the web plate (a/b). The material of the thin walled structure

Combined loading

is Al 7075 series. The commercial ﬁnite element analysis program, ABAQUS, is used for buckling analysis. The

Opening web

Cutout-strengthening loading scenarios such as compression, shear, and bending, as well as combined loading are considered using a

validated ﬁnite element model. For the selected range of geometrical parameters, buckling loads and allowable

buckling stresses are computed. Furthermore, compression, shear and bending rates are calculated, and the

interaction curves are plotted with the help of data obtained from the ﬁnite element studies. The eﬀect of loading

scenario on the buckling strength is compared for beam without a hole, with a hole and with a hole plus

reinforcement cases. The main goal of this study is to provide engineers graphical data that can be used to check

whether or not a structure will fail under several deﬁned load cases including combined loading.

1. Introduction sion. They have created a parametric buckling formula for plates simply

supported on 3 or 4 sides and validated their formula using FEM and

Thin-walled structures are widely used in aerospace and defense classical engineering approximations. Panedpojaman et al. [22] have

industry applications. Since the reserve factor is kept low in this type of developed a practical approach for estimating the shear strength of non-

structure, it tends to show easy buckling. Moreover, due to various composite symmetric and asymmetric cellular beams, based on failure

design requirements such as power cables, hydraulic tubes, fresh and by local web-post buckling. They investigated the inﬂuence on buckling

waste water pipes, a web of open holes need to be created in the strength and buckling mechanisms of geometric web-post parameters,

structure [21,26]. A structure weakened by open holes can be such as section size, opening depth ratio, spacing ratio and tee depth

reinforced by local support around the hole [3,8,16]. Thus, it becomes with a validated ﬁnite element (FE) web-post model. Tsavdaridis and

stronger with respect to buckling and has a lighter design than a D'Mello [28] have presented an experimental and analytical study on

perforated plate. the behaviour of perforated steel beams with closely spaced web

Diﬀerent hole types such as rectangular [2,17], hexagonal [31] or openings to investigate the failure mode and load strength of a web-

circular [11] and diﬀerent number of holes [23–25] have been used in post between two adjacent web openings. They developed numerical

the literature [1]. One circular hole on web is considered for this study. test specimens and veriﬁed their analyses using FEM and compared

Many researchers have studied the buckling behaviour of beams their results with full-scale experiments. They considered the eﬀects of

[20,29] or plates [33]. Some of these studies have been undertaken for web opening depth and web thickness in order to understand the

thin plates with holes using speciﬁc technical methods such as stability of a web post subjected to vertical shear load.

theoretical hand calculations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) and Cheng and Zhao [5] studied the cut out-strengthening of perforated

testing procedures. Moen and Schafer [19] focused on closed-form steel plates subjected to uniaxial compressive loads. They considered

expressions for approximating the inﬂuence of single or multiple holes that each of the square plates that have a centrally placed circular hole

on the critical elastic buckling stress of plates in bending or compres- and four simply supported edges in the out-of-plane direction. They

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: arif.orun@tubitak.gov.tr (A.E. Orun), mguler@etu.edu.tr (M.A. Guler).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2017.04.034

Received 7 December 2016; Received in revised form 31 March 2017; Accepted 2 April 2017

Available online 09 May 2017

0263-8231/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

used FEM to analyze the elastic and elasto-plastic buckling behaviours diﬀerent geometrical parameters are considered. The ranges of the

of strengthened with diﬀerent types of stiﬀeners and unstrengthened geometrical parameters are selected as:

perforated plates. They found out that the inelastic buckling stress and

elasto-plastic ultimate strength are closely related to stiﬀener types as (i) Ratio of reinforcement width to hole diameter w/d,

well as plate geometric parameters. Eiblmeier and Loughlan [9] 0.033 ≤ w / d ≤ 0.150 .

investigated the inﬂuence of cut-out diameter and circular reinforce- (ii) Ratio of reinforcement height to web thickness h/t, 1.5 ≤ h /t ≤ 4.5.

ment ring width on the buckling stability of square panels under pure (iii) Ratio of web length to web height (aspect ratio) a/b,

shear or under pure compression loads. The results of their study 1.5 ≤ a /b ≤ 7.0 .

showed the inﬂuence of cut-out diameter and reinforcement ring width

on the buckling stability of simply supported panels. The increments for the parameter ranges are designated to be

Although, in the literature, there are many buckling loads types 0.0167, 0.5 and 0.5 for w/d, h/t, and a/b, respectively. Web thickness,

studies performed on beams such as plates under only compression t, ﬂange thickness, tf, ﬂange width, wf, hole diameter, d, and web

[4,6,33], only pure shear load [7,12,30], pure bending loads [34,19], height, b are ﬁxed at 2, 5, 48, 60 and 120 mm respectively. Web length,

both of each pure loads [32] or lateral torsional [13,21], combined a, is taken to be 330 mm as a reference value. The geometry

loading applications have not been considered. The most important investigated in the study and parameters w, h, a, b, t, tf and wf can be

feature that makes this article diﬀerent from the previously published seen in Fig. 2.

studies is that the study is conducted under combined loads (compres-

sion, shear and bending). 2.2. Material properties

This paper is organized as follows: parametric geometry criteria

[10] and material properties are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, we In general aerospace structures, aluminum 2000 series is chosen for

presented the validation of the ﬁnite element model using the result of skin elements and aluminum 7000 series is preferred for frames,

experimental [28], ﬁnite element analysis [22] in the literature and stringer, and beam components. Following these practices, 7075 T651

theoretical hand calculations [14]. Buckling analysis results and the aluminum alloy material is selected for the aircraft fuselage ﬂoor beam

critical buckling stress curves with respect to the geometric parameters used in this study. Details of the material properties are taken from

are given for pure compression, shear and bending loads in Section 4. Military Handbook [18], and required details are tabulated in Table 1.

More than 400 models were analyzed with the validated ﬁnite element The plastic strain value to be used in non-linear buckling for ﬁnite

model to determine the buckling interaction curves. Section 5 provides element study is determined from the stress-strain curve displayed in

a parametric buckling analysis study conducted under combined Fig. 3. Values of stress-strain between yield and ultimate stress are

loading using the variables mentioned above. A numerical example imported to the FEA program's non-linear material properties module.

for usage the interaction curve so that engineers can use our graphical

data to check whether their system buckles or not is given in Section 6. 3. Validation of the ﬁnite element model

Finally the conclusion drawn from this study is presented in Section 7.

In this section, the value of the critical buckling stresses obtained

from the ﬁnite element model are compared with those from theoretical

2. Floor beam

hand calculations for plate structures under several loading conditions

(such as pure compression, pure shear and pure bending loadings). The

2.1. Geometry

second validation step is conducted by comparing FEA results by

studies of Panedpojaman et al. [22] and Tsavdaridis and D'Mello [28].

The structural body of an aircraft consists of three parts: the skin,

the frame and the longitudinal beams (longeron and stringer). The

structures subjected to passenger weight are called ﬂoor beam and ﬂoor 3.1. Flange support test

panels, as shown in Fig. 1. There are many holes in web section of the

beam because of various design principles and the need to alleviate the The buckling stress formulas taken from J. Huet [14] can be applied

overall structure weight. Structures weakened by hole opening can be only for the plate structures. If the ﬂange supports the web in a beam,

strengthened by two diﬀerent methods. If a beam is produced by the the ﬂange can be removed and the structure can be modeled as a four-

sheet metal method, it is reinforced with a bending sheet on the sided, simply supported plate. This ﬂange support test can be checked

perimeter of the hole. If a beam is produced by CNC machining, the using the following inequality:

weakened regions can be reinforced using the cutout-strengthening It At

2.73 − ≥ 5,

method. The aerospace industry primarily uses the second method for ha ea3 ha ea (1)

hole reinforcement. The geometry used in this study is an I-type ﬂoor

beam with a circular hole produced by a CNC machining method. Three where It is the moment of inertia of the ﬂange, At is the cross-sectional

area of the ﬂange, ha is the web height and ea is the web thickness. In

our reference geometry, the left-hand side of inequality Eq. (1) becomes

approximately 60, which is much higher than the required value of 5.

Therefore, theoretical hand calculations can be applicable for this study

under diﬀerent loading conditions.

The reference plate geometry values given in Section 2.1 are used in

the theoretical hand calculations. The allowable stress formulas under

pure compression, pure bending and pure shear loading conditions can

be computed as follows [14]:

⎛ t ⎞2

Fccr = Kc Ec ⎜ ⎟ ≤ Fcy,

Fig. 1. The skeleton of the aircraft and ﬂoor beam structure.

⎝b⎠ (2)

13

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Fig. 2. Geometry of the beam with lighting hole and hole reinforcement.

Table 1

Aluminum 7075 T651 material properties.

E, Modulus of Elasticity [MPa] 71,700

Fty, Tensile Yield Strength [MPa] 502

Ftu, Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa] 572

ν, Poisson's Ratio 0.33

Es, Shear Modulus [MPa] 26,900

Fsu, Shear Strength [MPa] 331

boundary condition used in this study is shown in Fig. 4.

Kc, Kb and Ks can be calculated from Eqs. (5)–(7), respectively.

π 2kc

Kc = ,

12(1 − νe2 ) (5)

π 2kb

Kb = ,

12(1 − νe2 ) (6)

π 2ks

Ks = ,

12(1 − νe2 ) (7)

Buckling factors in compression, kc, in bending, kb and in shear ks

included in the buckling coeﬃcient formulas (Eqs. (5)–(7)) are com-

Fig. 3. Stress-strain curve for 7075-T651 aluminum alloy [18]. puted using the expression given in Table 2. The coeﬃcients of aspect

ratio in the expressions given in Table 2 the buckling factors are taken

⎛ t ⎞2 from “Buckling of Thin Plates and Shells” section of reference J. Huet

Fbcr = Kb Ec ⎜ ⎟ ≤ Fcy,

⎝b⎠ (3) [14].

For our reference geometry, Kc is calculated to be 3.62 using Eq. (5).

⎛ t ⎞2 The critical compression buckling stress is found from Eq. (2) to be

Fscr = Ks Ec ⎜ ⎟ ≤ Fsy, 73.53 MPa. Similarly, from Eq. (6), Kb is calculated as 22.06, and the

⎝ min(a; b ) ⎠ (4)

critical bending buckling stress is calculated from Eq. (3) to be

where Fccr is the critical buckling stress under compression, Fbcr is the 433.90 MPa. Also, Ks is calculated as 5.40 from Eq. (7) and the critical

critical buckling stress under pure bending, Fscr is the critical buckling shear buckling stress is found from Eq. (4) to be 107.58 MPa.

stress under pure shear, Fcy is the compression yield strength, Fsy is the

shear yield strength, Ec is the compression elastic modulus of elasticity, 3.3. Finite element modelling

t is the web thickness, b is the web height, and a is the web length. Kc,

Kb and Ks are the buckling coeﬃcients for compression, bending, and 3.3.1. Finite element mesh

shear loading, respectively. They are dependent on the aspect ratio The elastic buckling behaviour of simply supported plates with

14

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Table 2

Buckling factor calculation for a /b = 2.75 [14].

C1 = 1.00 Lim=1.0

Compression ⎧ ⎛ ⎞2 ⎛ b ⎞2 C2 = 1.00 k∞ = 4.0 k c = 4.00

⎪ a a

⎪C1 ⎜ ⎟ + C2 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ + C3 if 0 ≤ ≤ Lim

kc = ⎨ ⎝ b ⎠ a b

⎪ a

⎪ k∞ if ≥ Lim

⎩ b

C3 = 2.00

C4 = 3.33 Lim=0.6

⎪ a a

⎪C4 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ + C5 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ + C6 if 0 ≤ ≤ Lim

kb = ⎨ b a b

⎪ a

⎪ k∞ if ≥ Lim

⎩ b

C6 = 18.10

ks = C7 ⎜⎜min ⎨ ; ⎬ ⎟⎟ + C8

⎝ ⎩b a⎭ ⎠

C8 = 5.35

Fig. 5. Finite Element modelling and FEA results (a) FE modelling, (b) Converge using mesh reﬁnement, (c) 2D beam model FEA results, (d) 2D plate model FEA results.

holes and reinforcements are simulated using shell formulation in the order to more accurately observe buckling around the hole, the mesh

eigen-buckling analyses module. All ﬁnite element models use eight- around the holes is made ﬁner and meshed with all quad elements

noded S8R5 element type with reduced integration. The S8R5 element around the hole as seen in Fig. 5a. This process is usually referred to

was shown to predict the critical elastic buckling stress of thin plates washer mesh type.

more accurately than the S4 and S4R four-noded elements [27]. In A mesh study is conducted to observe the convergence of buckling

15

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

based on the available literature [19]. The other two loading cases,

including shear loading, are veriﬁed by theoretical hand calculations.

The details of the four diﬀerent types of boundary conditions are

described below.

Pure compression loading is applied to the short edges (in the x

direction) in the form of the shell edge load module [27]. This

technique is described as a force per unit thickness, with units of

[N/mm]. Symmetry boundary conditions are applied to the x=0

and y=0 planes, where the longitudinal mid-line is constrained in

the x direction and the transverse mid-line is constrained in the y

direction [19], as shown in Fig. 7a.

(ii) Pure Shear

Pure shear loading is performed in the direction of the shear

Fig. 6. Comparison of load-deﬂection curves between Panedpojaman et al. [22], surfaces of the four sides in the form of a shell edge load. The

Tsavdaridis and D'Mello [28] studies and the results of current study for diﬀerent center point of the hole is constrained to nodes on the perimeter of

specimens.

the hole by using RB3 module, and the center point is ﬁxed as

shown in Fig. 8a.

stress as the mesh size increases. Eigenvalues with respect to element

(iii) Pure Bending

numbers depended on mesh size, as shown in Fig. 5b. The curve starts

Pure bending loading is applied as a linear function of x at the

to converge after an element number of 2000. At that element number,

short edges in the form of a shell edge load. Symmetry boundary

the mesh size is about 5 mm. In order to reduce computational time,

conditions are applied, as in pure compression loading. The

5 mm mesh size is adopted in the subsequent buckling FE analysis.

longitudinal mid-line is constrained in the x direction and the

short edge center point is ﬁxed in the y direction [19], as shown in

Fig. 9a.

3.3.2. Boundary conditions

(iv) Combined Loading

The plates in this study are modeled with simply supported

Combined loading is the summation of the previously mentioned

boundary conditions on four sides. Application scenarios for pure

Fig. 7. The buckling coeﬃcient, kc, curves under pure compression loading. (a) Boundary conditions, (b) kc versus a /b ratio, (c) kc versus h /t ratio, (d) kc versus w /d ratio.

16

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Fig. 8. The buckling coeﬃcient, ks, curves under pure shear loading (a) Boundary conditions, (b) ks versus a /b ratio, (c) ks versus h /t ratio, (d) ks versus w /d ratio.

loading conditions (pure compression, pure bending and pure the compression buckling stress to be 73.52 MPa. The diﬀerence

shear). All loadings are applied at the same time for the combined between the theoretical hand calculation and the plate ﬁnite element

loading condition. The hole is constrained in the same way as it is model is 0.02%. Since the error is much less than the beam model, plate

in pure shear loading, as shown in Fig. 10a. model will be used hereinafter.

The critical buckling stress for a simply supported plate under pure

3.3.3. Finite element analysis (FEA) results shear is found to be 107.78 MPa from ﬁnite element analysis. Thus, the

Two diﬀerent design types are discussed for validating FEA results diﬀerence between the theoretical hand calculation and the FEA result

with the theoretical hand calculations. is calculated to be 0.2% under pure shear loading. The critical buckling

stress for a simply supported plate under pure buckling is found to be

Beam model 433.94 MPa. The theoretical hand calculation result and FEA result are

The ﬁrst analysis is done for the beam model compressed uniformly approximately the same under pure bending loading (the diﬀerence is

from the short beam edges. Since the shell edge load is applied for the 0.008%).

FE analysis, the eigenvalue (compression buckling stress for unit As a result of these three comparisons, it can be said that the ﬁnite

thickness) is found to be 236.57 [MPa·mm], shown in Fig. 5c, which element model has been shown to give very close results to the

must be divided by the eﬀective beam cross-section thickness (3.33 mm theoretical hand calculation for buckling analysis.

for the web-ﬂange joint) in order to obtain the compression buckling

stress. The full beam compression buckling stress is calculated to be

71.07 MPa. Note that the theoretical hand calculation value was found 3.4. Method validation with literature

to be 73.53 MPa in Section 3.2. The diﬀerence between the beam FEA

result and the theoretical hand calculation is 3%. Since the variation The FE model is validated using the experimental results of

between the FEA and the theoretical hand calculation is less than 5% Tsavdaridis and D'Mello [28] and the FEA results of Panedpojaman

and the current approach predicts a conservative value for buckling et al. [22]. Note that Panedpojaman et al. [22] used ANSYS ﬁnite

stress, beam model is applicable to predict buckling stress. element program for buckling analysis. There are four sets of ﬁgures

corresponding to diﬀerent geometries, and the loading conditions

Plate model shown in Fig. 6a. The results obtained in this study show good

The second analysis is performed for a simply supported plate. The agreement with those obtained by literature studies [22,28].

FEA result is found to be 147.03 [MPa·mm], as shown in Fig. 5d. By

dividing the eigenvalue with the plate thickness (2 mm), FEA predicts

17

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Fig. 9. The buckling coeﬃcient, kb, curves under pure bending loading (a) Boundary conditions, (b) kb versus a /b ratio, (c) kb versus h /t ratio, (d) kb versus w /d ratio.

Table 3 Table 5

Geometric parameters and critical buckling stresses under pure compression, bending and Compression, shear and bending loads and compression, shear and bending rates for

shear loadings. RS /RC =0.8.

a [mm] b [mm] d [mm] h [mm] w [mm] Fccr [MPa] Fbcr [MPa] Fscr [MPa] Specimen code C S B σall [MPa] RC RS RB

330.0 120.0 60.0 4.0 5.0 79.67 451.42 90.94 KRS416 1.10 1.0 0.5 65.947 0.911 0.725 0.073

KRS417 1.10 1.0 1.0 64.502 0.891 0.709 0.143

KRS418 1.10 1.0 2.0 60.321 0.833 0.663 0.267

KRS419 1.10 1.0 3.0 55.584 0.767 0.611 0.369

Table 4

KRS420 1.10 1.0 4.0 50.977 0.704 0.561 0.452

Compression, shear and bending loads and compression, shear and bending rates for

KRS421 1.10 1.0 5.0 46.767 0.646 0.514 0.518

RS /RC = 1.0 .

KRS422 1.10 1.0 6.0 43.023 0.594 0.473 0.572

KRS423 1.10 1.0 8.0 36.834 0.509 0.405 0.653

Specimen code C S B σall [MPa] RC RS RB

KRS424 1.10 1.0 10.0 32.041 0.442 0.352 0.710

KRS400 0.88 1.0 0.4 78.962 0.872 0.868 0.070 KRS425 1.10 1.0 13.0 26.688 0.368 0.293 0.769

KRS401 0.88 1.0 1.0 76.286 0.843 0.839 0.169 KRS426 1.10 1.0 17.0 21.740 0.300 0.239 0.819

KRS402 0.88 1.0 2.0 69.930 0.772 0.769 0.310 KRS427 1.10 1.0 22.0 17.601 0.243 0.194 0.858

KRS403 0.88 1.0 3.0 63.208 0.698 0.695 0.420 KRS428 1.10 1.0 28.0 14.303 0.197 0.157 0.887

KRS404 0.88 1.0 4.0 57.023 0.630 0.627 0.505 KRS429 1.10 1.0 35.0 11.726 0.162 0.129 0.909

KRS405 0.88 1.0 5.0 51.610 0.570 0.568 0.572 KRS430 1.10 1.0 45.0 9.319 0.129 0.102 0.929

KRS406 0.88 1.0 6.0 46.954 0.519 0.516 0.624

KRS407 0.88 1.0 7.0 42.962 0.475 0.472 0.666

KRS408 0.88 1.0 8.0 39.530 0.437 0.435 0.701 4. Buckling analysis results

KRS409 0.88 1.0 9.0 36.563 0.404 0.402 0.729

KRS410 0.88 1.0 10.0 33.981 0.375 0.374 0.753

In Section 3.1, it is shown that beam can be modeled as a four-sided

KRS411 0.88 1.0 12.0 29.728 0.328 0.327 0.790

KRS412 0.88 1.0 15.0 24.969 0.276 0.275 0.830 simply supported plate by removing ﬂanges and retaining the web only.

KRS413 0.88 1.0 19.0 20.534 0.227 0.226 0.864 Note that this assumption can be used if the ﬂange support test is

KRS414 0.88 1.0 25.0 16.182 0.179 0.178 0.896 successful. In Figs. 7–9, we present three diﬀerent loading scenarios

KRS415 0.88 1.0 32.0 12.960 0.143 0.143 0.919 (pure compression, pure shear and pure bending) of buckling coeﬃ-

cients for three diﬀerent geometric parameters. These geometric

parameters are a / b , h / t and w / d (see Fig. 2 for the deﬁnitions of

geometrical parameters). The range of the geometrical parameters are

given in Section 2.1.

18

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Compression, shear and bending loads and compression, shear and bending rates for loading is given in Fig. 7c. kc value for a non-perforated structure has

RS /RC = 0.6 .

been calculated as 4.0. As shown in Fig. 7c, the compression buckling

Specimen code C S B σall [MPa] RC RS RB coeﬃcient for geometric parameters mentioned in Section 2.1 is greater

than 4.0 at h / t > 1.2 . That means that a plate with a lighting hole where

KRS431 1.46 1.0 0.7 51.436 0.943 0.566 0.080 h / t > 1.2 performs as well as a non-perforated structure with respect to

KRS432 1.46 1.0 1.0 50.969 0.934 0.560 0.113

buckling. The calculation for weight gain is shown below:

KRS433 1.46 1.0 2.0 48.739 0.893 0.536 0.216

KRS434 1.46 1.0 3.0 45.967 0.842 0.505 0.305

VP = abt = 79200mm3

KRS435 1.46 1.0 4.0 43.058 0.789 0.474 0.382 VH = πd 2t ÷ 4 = 5654.866mm3

KRS436 1.46 1.0 5.0 40.230 0.737 0.442 0.446 VS = (h − t ) π ((d + 2w )2 − d 2 ) ÷ 4 = 408.407mm3

KRS437 1.46 1.0 6.0 37.586 0.689 0.413 0.500 VG = VH − VS = 5246.459mm3

KRS438 1.46 1.0 8.0 32.965 0.604 0.363 0.584

Weight Gain ratio=VG / VP = 6.6%

KRS439 1.46 1.0 11.0 27.566 0.505 0.303 0.672

KRS440 1.46 1.0 15.0 22.449 0.411 0.247 0.746 where VP, VH and VS are the volume of plate, hole, strengthening

KRS441 1.46 1.0 20.0 18.126 0.332 0.199 0.803 respectively and VG is the volume gain. As h / t increases, the compres-

KRS442 1.46 1.0 26.0 14.676 0.269 0.161 0.845 sion buckling coeﬃcient, kc converges to 4.52 for h / t > 3.5.

KRS443 1.46 1.0 35.0 11.390 0.209 0.125 0.883

The compression buckling coeﬃcient, kc with respect to ratio of

KRS444 1.46 1.0 45.0 9.110 0.167 0.100 0.908

KRS445 1.46 1.0 60.0 7.000 0.128 0.077 0.930 reinforcement width to hole diameter (w / d ) under pure compression

loading is shown in Fig. 7d. The w / d curve starts to converge at

w / d > 0.15. After this value, the increasing of width of reinforcement is

Table 7 not logical since after this width ratio, kc does not increase a lot and the

Compression, shear and bending loads and compression, shear and bending rates for beam would become heavier than weight of the corresponding perfo-

RS /RC =0.4.

rate d plate.

Specimen code C S B σall [MPa] RC RS RB

The shear buckling coeﬃcient, ks with respect to the ratio of length

to web width (a / b ) under pure shear loading is given in Fig. 8b. Unlike

KRS446 2.19 1.0 1.0 35.283 0.970 0.388 0.078 compression loading case (see 7b), ks curve does not oscillate. ks is to be

KRS447 2.19 1.0 2.0 34.510 0.949 0.380 0.153 about 2.85 after rate of a / b is 2. The descent and elevation occur on

KRS448 2.19 1.0 3.0 33.422 0.919 0.368 0.222

KRS449 2.19 1.0 4.0 32.153 0.884 0.354 0.285

plate at each a / b unit in buckling analysis for pure compression loading.

KRS450 2.19 1.0 5.0 30.800 0.847 0.339 0.341 This shape is named as concave-convex behaviour. Since the buckling

KRS451 2.19 1.0 7.0 28.089 0.772 0.309 0.436 stress is localized around the hole under shear load, the concave-convex

KRS452 2.19 1.0 10.0 24.432 0.672 0.269 0.541 behaviour on plate does not appear.

KRS453 2.19 1.0 14.0 20.548 0.565 0.226 0.637

The shear buckling coeﬃcient, ks with respect to the ratio of

KRS454 2.19 1.0 19.0 16.989 0.467 0.187 0.715

KRS455 2.19 1.0 25.0 13.986 0.384 0.154 0.775 strengthening height to the plate thickness (h / t ) under pure shear

KRS456 2.19 1.0 35.0 10.745 0.295 0.118 0.833 loading is shown in Fig. 8c. ks value is calculated to be 5.85 for a non-

KRS457 2.19 1.0 48.0 8.231 0.226 0.091 0.875 perforated structure under pure shear loading. As shown the curve,

KRS458 2.19 1.0 65.0 6.294 0.173 0.069 0.906 after the h / t ratio reaches the value of 2.4, a stronger design with

KRS459 2.19 1.0 80.0 5.208 0.143 0.057 0.923

KRS460 2.19 1.0 100.0 4.234 0.116 0.047 0.938

respect to buckling can be obtained, although the structure has a d / b

hole ratio of 0.5. The h / t curve converges later to a ratio of 3.0 at ks is

7.35. Increasing the reinforcement height after reaching this value is

Table 8 not sensible.

Compression, shear and bending loads and compression, shear and bending rates for The shear buckling coeﬃcient, ks with respect to the ratio of

RS /RC = 0.2 . reinforcement width to hole diameter (w / d ) under pure shear loading

Specimen code C S B σall [MPa] RC RS RB

is shown in Fig. 8d. The w / d curve stars to converge at a ratio of 0.13.

After this value, increasing reinforcement width is not reasonable

KRS461 4.38 1.0 2.0 17.954 0.987 0.197 0.080 because both progress to convergence, and the system would be heavier

KRS462 4.38 1.0 4.0 17.586 0.967 0.193 0.156 than in the ﬁrst no-hole case.

KRS463 4.38 1.0 6.0 17.045 0.937 0.187 0.227

The bending buckling coeﬃcient, kb with respect to the ratio of

KRS464 4.38 1.0 8.0 16.400 0.902 0.180 0.291

KRS465 4.38 1.0 15.0 13.962 0.768 0.154 0.464 length to web width (a / b ) under pure bending loading is given Fig. 9b.

KRS466 4.38 1.0 20.0 12.407 0.682 0.136 0.550 Like with shear loading, the curve for bending load buckling coeﬃcient

KRS467 4.38 1.0 27.0 10.626 0.584 0.117 0.636 does not oscillate, and kb is closer to the value of 17.9 after a / b ratio is

KRS468 4.38 1.0 35.0 9.064 0.498 0.100 0.703

3. Buckling is concentrated only around the hole under bending load.

KRS469 4.38 1.0 45.0 7.615 0.419 0.084 0.759

KRS470 4.38 1.0 60.0 6.112 0.336 0.067 0.812

The bending buckling coeﬃcient, kb with respect to the ratio of

KRS471 4.38 1.0 80.0 4.823 0.265 0.053 0.855 strengthening height to plate thickness (h / t ) under pure bending

KRS472 4.38 1.0 105.0 3.812 0.210 0.042 0.887 loading is shown in Fig. 9c. kb value is calculated as 23.9 for a non-

KRS473 4.38 1.0 135.0 3.044 0.167 0.033 0.910 perforated structure under pure bending loading. As shown in the

KRS474 4.38 1.0 170.0 2.464 0.135 0.027 0.928

curve, after the h / t ratio reaches 1.7, a stronger design can be obtained,

KRS475 4.38 1.0 210.0 2.023 0.111 0.022 0.941

although the structure has holes with a d / b ratio of 0.5. The h / t curve

converges later to a ratio of 2.0 at kb is 24.8. Increasing the reinforce-

The compression buckling coeﬃcient, kc with respect to the ratio of ment height after this value is not practical.

length to width for the web (a / b ) under pure compression loading is The bending buckling coeﬃcient, kb with respect to ratio of width of

given Fig. 7b. In a non-perforated structure, for each integer value of reinforcement to hole diameter (w / d ) under pure bending loading is

the a / b ratio (1, 2, 3.), the curve is tangential to a certain minimum shown in Fig. 9d. Under bending loading, the system starts to converge

value [15]. Likewise, for the opening web, the curve starts to converge more sharply than it does under compression and shear loads after

at the odd number (3, 5, 7) for the range considered plate with hole due reaching a w / d ratio of 0.08. After this start value converges, increasing

to the hole eﬀect. the reinforcement width is not reasonable.

The compression buckling coeﬃcient, kc with respect to the ratio of With the help of these nine parametric buckling coeﬃcient curves

obtained from the ﬁnite element analysis, it is possible to obtain the

19

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Fig. 10. Interaction curve under combined loading reinforcement (a) Boundary conditions and combined load application, (b) curve for plate with no hole, (c) curve for plate with hole,

(d) curve for plate with hole reinforcement (d /b = 0.5, h /t = 2 and w /d = 0.083).

5. Combined loading

in Table 3. For these parameters, compression, shear, and bending

critical buckling stresses (Fccr, Fbcr and Fscr) have been calculated for

each pure loading case from buckling coeﬃcient curves with respect to

geometric parameters in Figs. 7–9 and are tabulated in Table 3.

A total of 75 analyses are performed in order to investigate buckling

behaviour under combined loading. There are 5 subcases for each shear

to compression ratio, RS / RC = 1.0 , 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 which are tabulated

in Tables 4–8, respectively. For each subcase, 15 analyses are conducted

for various values of bending loads, keeping the shear and compression

loads constant. The applied compression load rate, applied shear load

rate, and applied bending load rate are denoted as C, S, and B,

respectively, in Tables 4–8. Shear load rate, S is taken as 1.0 during

all computations and compression load rate, C is calculated from shear

load rate. The allowable buckling stress, σall , has been calculated for

each combined loading scenario.

Finally, the parametric analyses are displayed as allowable interac-

tion rate curves as shown in Fig. 10. The compression rate, RC, shear

rate, RS, and bending rate, RB, can be calculated from Eqs. (8)–(10) by

using critical buckling stress, allowable buckling stress, and load rate:

σall

RC = C

Fccr (8)

Fig. 11. Flow chart for interaction curve methodology. σ

RS = S all

Fscr (9)

critical buckling stress value for the desired design. σall

RB = B

Fbcr (10)

20

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

Table 10

Applied forces, moment and calculated stresses and loads for numerical example.

An example has been given so that users can more easily make sense

of the interaction curve.

1. The user deﬁnes the beam geometry (a, b,h, w and d) and cross-

sectional parameters (t, tf and wf) of the speciﬁc region of interest as

Fig. 12. Example for cross-section study for ﬂoor beam of passenger aircraft. shown in Fig. 12. For this speciﬁc example, the beam geometry and

the cross-sectional properties are given in Table 9. The material of

In order to use the interaction curves, the applied rates are needed the beam is selected to be Al 7075 T651 (E is 71,700 [MPa] and ν is

and found as follows: 0.33). The normal force, F, shear force, V and moment, M acting at

the cross-section (see the sketch in Fig. 12) are obtained by using

σC

RCA = FEM and tabulated in Table 10.

Fccr (11)

2. From the geometric parameters (see in Table 9), the compression,

τmax shear and bending buckling coeﬃcients, kc, ks and kb are found to be

RSA = 4.33, 4.95 and 24.56 by using Fig. 7c, Fig. 8c and Fig. 9c,

Fscr (12)

respectively. Using Eqs. (5)–(7), Kc, Ks and Kb are calculated to be

σB 4.00, 4.57 and 22.67, respectively. Critical buckling stress under

RBA = pure compression, Fccr, pure shear, Fscr and pure bending, Fbcr are

Fbcr (13)

determined to be 79.67 MPa 90.94 MPa and 451.42 MPa using Eqs.

where RCA is applied compression rate, RSA is applied shear rate and (2)–(4), respectively.

RBA is applied bending rate. 3. In order to ﬁnd the applied compression, shear and bending stresses

Following this process, interaction curves are drawn using the (σC, τmax and σB) using the following formulas:

calculated RB and RC with respect to various RS / RC ratios. Three F

diﬀerent interaction curves, which are for a plate with no hole, an σC =

A (14)

opening web, and a web with hole reinforcement, are shown in

Fig. 10b, c and d, respectively. Load scenarios and the corresponding

buckling results are shown in Tables 4–8.

VQ

Flowchart for interaction curve methodology is given in Fig. 11. τmax =

Ix t (15)

First, one generates an interaction curve using geometric parameters

such as the interaction curve for combined loading shown in Fig. 10.

The user locates the compression and bending rates on the interaction

graph, according to the applied load. If the value is below this curve, it Mc

σB =

can be determined that the system is reliable in terms of buckling. Ix (16)

Table 9

Geometric parameters and moment of inertia for numerical example.

a [mm] b [mm] d [mm] h [mm] w [mm] t [mm] t f [mm] wf [mm] A [mm2] Q [mm3] Ix [mm4] Iy [mm4]

21

A.E. Orun, M.A. Guler Thin-Walled Structures 118 (2017) 12–22

where A is the cross-sectinal area, Q is the ﬁrst moment of area, Ix irregular web openings, Eng. Struct. 50 (2013) 197–206.

[2] J. Cai, C.D. Moen, Elastic buckling analysis of thin-walled structural members with

moment of inertia about x axis and c is the half of the height of the rectangular holes using generalized beam theory, Thin-Walled Struct. 107 (2016)

beam (c = b /2 + t f = 65 mm ). Using the parameters in Table 9 and 274–286.

the applied loads given in Table 10, the compression, shear and [3] B. Cheng, P. Shi, J. Wang, C. Li, Opening reinforcement for box-section walls

containing continuous elliptical holes in steel pylons, J. Constr. Steel Res. 103

bending stresses are found to be σC=44 [MPa], τmax=40 [MPa] and (2014) 89–100.

σB=240 [MPa] using Eqs. (14)–(16), respectively. [4] B. Cheng, J. Wang, C. Li, Compression tests and numerical analysis of perforated

4. In order to implement our approach, the value of the shear load rate, plates containing slotted holes in steel pylons, Thin-Walled Struct. 67 (2013)

129–143.

S is taken to be 1. For this reason, all the stresses obtained in step (3) [5] B. Cheng, J. Zhao, Strengthening of perforated plates under uniaxial compression:

are divided by the shear stress (40 [MPa]). And C, S and B are buckling analysis, Thin-Walled Struct. 48 (12) (2010) 905–914.

obtained as 1.1, 1.0 and 6.0, respectively and these values are given [6] S. Cheng, et al., Shear eﬀect on buckling of cellular columns subjected to axially

compressed load, Thin-Walled Struct. 98 (2016) 416–420.

in Table 10. The RS / RC ratio is found to be 0.8 by using Eqs. (8)–(9)

[7] N. Degtyareva, V. Degtyarev, Experimental investigation of cold-formed steel

in order to use Tables 4–8. channels with slotted webs in shear, Thin-Walled Struct. 102 (2016) 30–42.

5. The applied compression rate, RCA, shear rate, RSA and bending rate, [8] C.A. Dimopoulos, C.J. Gantes, Numerical methods for the design of cylindrical steel

RBA are found to be 0.55, 0.44 and 0.53 from Eqs.'s (11)–(13), shells with unreinforced or reinforced cutouts, Thin-Walled Struct. 96 (2015)

11–28.

respectively. [9] J. Eiblmeier, J. Loughlan, The inﬂuence of reinforcement ring width on the buckling

6. RCA and RBA located on the interaction curve as shown in Fig. 13. response of carbon ﬁbre composite panels with circular cut-outs, Compos. Struct. 38

From Fig. 13, RS / RC equals 0.8 corresponded to the green line and it (1) (1997) 609–622.

[10] F. Erdal, E. Doğan, M.P. Saka, Optimum design of cellular beams using harmony

appears that the applied compression and bending ratio are below search and particle swarm optimizers, J. Constr. Steel Res. 67 (2) (2011) 237–247.

the curve. For another check user can use Table 5 for the speciﬁc [11] R. Feng, X. Mou, A. Chen, Y. Ma, Tests of aluminium alloy chs columns with circular

combination of load rates (C=1.1, S=1.0 and B=6.0) correspond- openings, Thin-Walled Struct. 109 (2016) 113–131.

[12] B.L. Gendy, Critical shear buckling load of tapered plate with circular opening,

ing to the specimen code KRS422. For this specimen code, RC is HBRC J. (2015).

0.594 and RB is 0.572 which are higher than calculated values of [13] M. Horáček, J. Melcher, O. Pešek, J. Brodniansky, Focusing on problem of lateral

RCA (0.55) and RBA (0.53) found in step 5. torsional buckling of beams with web holes, Procedia Eng. 161 (2016) 549–555.

[14] J. Huet, J.I., 1999. Static stress manual, metallic materials. MTS.

[15] A. Javidinejad, Essentials of Mechanical Stress Analysis, CRC Press, 2014.

As a result of this numerical example, it can be concluded that the [16] J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeon, J.-S. Park, H.-D. Seo, H.-J. Ahn, J.-M. Lee, Eﬀect of

ﬂoor beam is safe with respect to buckling under these speciﬁc applied reinforcement on buckling and ultimate strength of perforated plates, Int. J. Mech.

Sci. 92 (2015) 194–205.

forces and moment.

[17] M.A. Komur, M. Sonmez, Elastic buckling behavior of rectangular plates with holes

subjected to partial edge loading, J. Constr. Steel Res. 112 (2015) 54–60.

7. Conclusion [18] S. Military Handbook, Metallic materials and elements for aerospace vehicle

structures. Department of Defense, Washington DC (Nov. 1990), 1972, 9–16.

[19] C.D. Moen, B. Schafer, Elastic buckling of thin plates with holes in compression or

In this study, a design strategy under combined loading conditions bending, Thin-Walled Struct. 47 (12) (2009) 1597–1607.

against buckling has been proposed. A buckling analysis carried out on [20] H. Naderian, H. Ronagh, M. Azhari, Elastic distortional buckling of doubly

reinforced structures having holes, a situation frequently referenced in symmetric steel i-section beams with slender webs, Thin-Walled Struct. 84 (2014)

289–301.

the aviation industry, has been discussed. FEA results are veriﬁed by [21] P. Panedpojaman, W. Sae-Long, T. Chub-uppakarn, Cellular beam design for

experimental results and theoretical hand calculations are compared resistance to inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, Thin-Walled Struct. 99 (2016)

with the ﬁnite element studies in the open literature. Depending on the 182–194.

[22] P. Panedpojaman, T. Thepchatri, S. Limkatanyu, Novel design equations for shear

geometric design, the critical buckling curves that allow for the strength of local web-post buckling in cellular beams, Thin-walled Struct. 76 (2014)

observation of the eﬀects and contributions of hole strengthening are 92–104.

drawn. The optimum beam design can also be observed with the [23] A. Pasinli, Shape and position eﬀects of double holes on lateral buckling of

cantilever composite beams, Compos. Part B: Eng. 55 (2013) 433–439.

convergence of the buckling curves. A design methodology based on [24] C.H. Pham, Shear buckling of plates and thin-walled channel sections with holes, J.

interaction curves with respect to load rate is presented. With this Constr. Steel Res. 128 (2017) 800–811.

methodology, safe levels for the system can be calculated. Basically, if [25] I.C. Scheperboer, E. Efthymiou, J. Maljaars, Local buckling of aluminium and steel

plates with multiple holes, Thin-Walled Struct. 99 (2016) 132–141.

the load rate location remains under the interaction buckling curve, the

[26] J.K. Seo, M. Mahendran, J.K. Paik, Numerical method for predicting the elastic

system is held in reserve. By looking at Fig. 10, it can be concluded that lateral distortional buckling moment of a mono-symmetric beam with web open-

the area under the interaction curve for a web with hole and ings, Thin-Walled Struct. 49 (6) (2011) 713–723.

reinforcement is much more than that of without a reinforcement. This [27] D. SYSTEMES, Simulia, abaqus/cae user's manual, ABAQUS Doc. V6 (2014) 7.

[28] K.D. Tsavdaridis, C. D'Mello, Web buckling study of the behaviour and strength of

means that energy and the force required to buckle a structure with perforated steel beams with diﬀerent novel web opening shapes, J. Constr. Steel

hole reinforcement is much higher then the one without reinforcement. Res. 67 (10) (2011) 1605–1620.

Using the method developed in this study, engineers can eﬀectively [29] M. Uenoya, R. Redwood, Buckling of webs with openings, Comput. Struct. 9 (2)

(1978) 191–199.

observe the eﬀect of hole reinforcement on the buckling analysis under [30] P. Wang, K. Guo, M. Liu, L. Zhang, Shear buckling strengths of web-posts in a

combined loading with the help of interaction curve graph. castellated steel beam with hexagonal web openings, J. Constr. Steel Res. 121

(2016) 173–184.

[31] P. Wang, X. Wang, N. Ma, Vertical shear buckling capacity of web-posts in

Acknowledgements castellated steel beams with ﬁllet corner hexagonal web openings, Eng. Struct. 75

(2014) 315–326.

Authors would like to thank Chief Researcher Murat Celik of [32] P.M. Weaver, M.P. Nemeth, Improved design formulas for buckling of orthotropic

plates under combined loading, AIAA J. 46 (9) (2008) 2391–2396.

TUBITAK UZAY for his contributions to this study. [33] Z. Yao, K.J. Rasmussen, Inelastic local buckling behaviour of perforated plates and

sections under compression, Thin-Walled Struct. 61 (2012) 49–70.

References [34] Z. Yingjiang, Y. Renjun, W. Hongxu, Experimental and numerical investigations on

plate girders with perforated web under axial compression and bending moment,

Thin-Walled Struct. 97 (2015) 199–206.

[1] A.Z. Abidin, B. Izzuddin, Meshless local buckling analysis of steel beams with

22

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