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What theoretical framework could be applied for the Chinese expansion, influence in this
LATAM country? Can any of the classic geopolitical schools (evolutionary theory, Heartland theory,
Rimland theory, etc.) be applied in the LATAM region? If so, how? (What would be the Heartland
or Rimland of the Americas (or Latin America), for example? Be creative!

I would like to choose Rimland Theory by Spykman, he proposes to divide the Latin world into two
regions, from the point of view of the North American strategy for the subcontinent; a first,
mediterranean, that would include Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, as well as Colombia
and Venezuela; and another, which would include all of South America, below Colombia and
Venezuela. From this geographical point, there are not US control, and that is why China is trying to
be in the south of America, as Chile.

Spykman realised the strategic significance of China’s geography and its geopolitical importance.
The Chinese presence in Latin America is, in fact, palpable and is increasingly visible: today it is
common to run into Chinese executives walking the streets of major Latin American cities also in
Chile (Santiago). In the big rounds of business, there is a notable presence of Chinese investors.
Chinese companies have established offices in the region.

Chile, the largest copper producer in the world, allocates one third of its production to the Chinese
market, and Spykman told us a prophetic articulation: “A modern, vitalized, and militarised China…is
going to be a threat not only to Japan but also to the position of the Western Powers in the Asiatic
Mediterranean. China will be a continental power of huge dimensions in control of a large section
of the littoral of that middle sea. Her geographic position will be similar to that of the United States
in regard to the American Mediterranean. When China becomes strong, her present economic
penetration in that region will undoubtedly take on political overtones. It is quite possible to
envisage the day when this body of water will be controlled not by British, American, or Japanese
sea power but by Chinese air power.”

A Reseach for Latin America at the British bank Barclays, argues that in the past China has been able
to take advantage of what it calls "a decrease in US interest in Latin America." That space has been
occupied in the last five years by China," "We see this as something very interesting since China is
looking to increase its investments in raw materials in Latin America, and in that it has been very

4. What geopolitical is geoeconomic tools are applied by China in relation to this LATAM

a. Trade policy

b. Investment policy

c. Economic assistance

d. Aid policy

e. Financial and Monetary policy

f. Energy and commodities (trade)

5. LATAM country profile

a. Oil reserves

b. Annual oil production (2007-2017)

c. Annual oil revenue (2007-2017)

d. Global Competitiveness Index, overall score (value), (2007-2017)

e. Global Competitiveness Index, Infrastructure score (value), (2007-2017)

f. Control of Corruption, Worldwide Governance Indicators, estimate value, (2007-2017)

g. Democracy Index, Economists Intelligence Unit, overall score, (2007-2017)

h. Central government debt, total (% of GDP) (Worldbank)

Please submit your paper (between 2 and 4 pages) and the attached Excel sheet (filled in) via e-
mail by 13 February 2018

Please name both of the files as follows: Familyname_TecID (docx and xlsx respectively