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Industrial Catalysis

Set A
1. Name the different types of heterogeneous catalytic reactions.
2. Differentiate between monolayer and multilayer adsorption.
3. How is activation energy altered by catalyst? Explain briefly with suitable example.
4. How is evaporated film metal catalyst produced?
5. What are the functions of carriers?
6. How oxide catalyst are classified?
7. How conductity measurements useful to predict catalyst activity of a catalyst?
8. How is an electronic factor influences the activity of catalyst?
9. Name the materials which are suitable for catalyst carriers.
10. How is charcoal supported palladium catalyst prepared?
11. What are callled autocatalysts? Give example.
12. How is chain radical reaction carried out using catalyst? Give example.
13. How is ionic heterogeneous catalytic reactions carried out? Give example.
14. Name the factors that influences the catalytic activity of a solid porous catalyst.
15. Name the factors to be considered while designing a reactor for heterogenoeus
catalytic reactions.
16. Name the reactor and catalyst used for dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons.
17. How is reversible exothermic gas phase catalytic reactions are carried out?
18. How is double heat exchange tube catalytic reactor used in the manufacture of
ammonia?
19. What are called bifunctional catalysts?
20. How is multitude of variables affect the activity of a catalyst?

Part B (5 x 12 = 60 Marks)

21. (a) (i) Explain chemisorption by using potential energy curve.


(ii) How is supported metal catalyst prepared by coprecipitation method?

Or

(b) (i) How are metal wires and metal foils used as catalyst? Explain briefly with
example.
(ii) How is supported metal catalyst prepared by impregnation method?

22. (a) (i) Explain Tempkin isotherm.


(ii) Explain the role of adiabatic and isothermal calorimeters used in the
measurement of heat of adsorption.

Or

(b) (i) How is thin oxide film catalyst prepared?


(ii) Explain the role of silica supported catalyst for the production of industrially
valuable products.

23. (a) (i) How is catalytic reactions carried out using filtering bed reactors?
(ii) Explain the working principle of catalytic reactors with external heat exchangers.

Or
(b) (i) Describe the functions of tray type catalytic reactors.
(ii) Explain the working principle of tubular catalytic reactors.

24. (a) (i) Describe the method of determination of surface area of catalyst.
(ii) How are catalyst carriers classified?. Explain the functions of high area porous
carriers.

Or

(b) (i) How is bifunctional catalyst used in isomerisation reactions?


(ii) Write a note on catalytic poisons and inhibitors with suitable examples.

25. (a) (i) Discuss the working principle of fluidized bed catalytic reactors by taking
specific chemical reaction.
(ii) Explain the functions of catalytic reactor for reversible exothermic gas-phase
reactions over a fluidized bed of the catalyst.

Or

(b) (i) Describe the steps involved in the manufacture of vegetable fat through
hydrogenation reactions using Raney nickel catalyst.
(ii) Why heterogeneous catalysts are more preferred than homogeneous catalysts?
Substantiate with examples.

Set B
1. What are the functions of a catalyst?
2. Classify catalysts on the basis of electron mobility.
3. Name the metal catalysts, atleast two of them.
4. What are catalyst carriers?
5. Why inhibitors are used?
6. What are the limitations of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm?
7. What are the geometric properties that influence the activity of a catalyst?
8. Explain Freundlich isotherms.
9. Differentiate between physical adsorption and chemisorption.
10. Differentiate between micropores and macropores.
11. Name two methods of preparation of catalysts.
12. Name two hydrogenation catalysts.
13. Why fluidized bed catalytic reactors are more advantageous than fixed bed reactors?
14. Name two laboratory heterogenoeus catalytic reactors.
15. Define Peclet Number.
16. What methods are used for the determination of pore size and pore size distribution?
17. Define the effectiveness factor of a catalyst.
18. Differentiate between catalyst poisoning and fouling.
19. What are catalyst supports?
20. How the deactivated catalysts regenerated?

Part B (5 x 12 = 60 Marks)

21. (a) List the general properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts.

Or
(b) Write short notes on:
(i) Surface area of catalysts
(ii) Pore volume and porosity
(iii) BET method and
(iv) Catalyst carriers
22. (a) (i) List the steps involved in catalytic reaction.
(ii) Explain in detail each rate process.

Or

(b) What is meant by the following:


(i) Surface reaction controlling and
(ii) Adsorption or Desorption controlling.

23. (a) Explain the impregnation method of production of catalysts with the aid of a flow
sheet. Give suitable examples.

Or

(b) Explain the following processes in detail:


(i) granulation
(ii) extrusion
(iii) calcining, and
(iv) moulding.

24. (a) Explain the salient features of fluidized bed reactors. Also explain the operating
characteristics.

Or

(b) Explain the following:


(i) Effectiveness factor
(ii) Effective thermal conductivity
(iii) Effective diffusivity, and
(iv) Trickle bed reactors.

25. (a) Select a suitable catalyst, explain the process where it is applied, list the
reactions involved, indicate the type of poisoning encountered and name the poison.
Explain how the poison can be deactivated.

Or

(b) Explain the methods for poisoned porous catalysts.

Set C
1. What are called negative catalysts? Give examples.
2. Name any two methods used for the removal of catalytic poison.
3. What are called carriers? Give examples.
4. What is called micro heterogeneous catalyst. Give examples.
5. Define contact time. Mention its usefulness.
6. Name the device used to collect the catalyst dust in the moving bed catalytic reactor.
7. Differentiate between catalyst and an initiator.
8. What is meant by selectivity?
9. Explain briefly Freundlich isotherm.
10. Differentiate between activated and inactivated chemisorption.
11. What is meant by diffusivity?
12. What is called enzyme catalysis? Give example.
13. How do the impurities present in the catalyst mixture affect the activity of catalyst?
14. How does the catalyst alter the activation energy?
15. Mention any two drawbacks encountered in filtering bed catalytic reactor.
16. What is meant by codeposition? Name any two catalysts prepared by this method.
17. How does the surface area influences the catalytic activity of catalyst? Explain.
18. Write down the Langmuir isotherm equation and explain the terms in it.
19. Suggest a catalyst for the dyhydrogenation of n-butane.
20. Write a short note on bimetallic catalyst.

Part B (5 x 12 = 60 Marks)

21. (a) How are mixed oxide catalyst prepared?


Or
(b) Explain briefly the selection and preparation of catalyst for industrial
hydrogenation process.

22. (a) Show that Al2O3 and K2O are only promotors and they are not catalysts in the
synthesis of Fe-Al2O3-K2O system.
Or
(b) How do geometric and electronic factors influence the property of catalyst.

23. (a) Explain briefly the principle of differential and integral reactors, why is a
differential reactor preferred to integral reactor for test purposes.
Or
(b) Explain briefly any two unit operations involved in the production of catalyst for
reduction process.

24. (a) Describe briefly the production of cracking catalyst for petroleum products with
the help of a flow chart.
Or
(b) How is reactivation of cracking catalyst carried out?

25. (a) Explain briefly the working principle of fluidized bed catalytic reactor.
Or
(b) Discuss the working principle of slurry reactors and mention their industrial
applications.