1.Which factors determine road safety?

There are many factors which determine road safety, but they can be divided into two big categories: non-road-user factors and road-user factors. However, it is very important to understand that these factors interact with each other. When we mention non-road-user factors, we think about weather conditions, environmental influences, different types of roadways, the quality of pavement, speed limits, and, finally, we think about different vehicles. It is widely known that bad weather conditions may cause a lot of accidents. If it is snowing or raining, driving conditions are poor. In such occasions, visibility is not good and the road can be slippery. When considering environmental influences we must have in mind the influence of congestion. If it is bigger, accidents and injuries are more likely to happen. This is, in a way, connected with types of roadways because congestion is bigger on small roads than on highways. Thus, the accidents arc commoner on small roads. But, of course, they can happen even on highways mainly because of high speed. These were the factors which can cause an accident, and an accident can cause an injury. It is claimed that these injuries are dependant on the size of the vehicle. General principles of physics and many studies support the following: when a crash occurs, other factors being equal, the lighter the vehicle the less risk posed to other road users, and, the heavier the vehicle, the less risk posed to its occupants. These rules can apply over all the vehicles including motorcycles, small and large cars, small and large buses, trains, etc. It is now very important to emphasize the following fact: According to the 1970s two major studies, one in the US and one UK, non-road-user factors of vehicle and environment are rarely the sole factors associated with a crash. In fact, only 5% of crashes (UK) or 6% (US) are connected with non-road-user factors. This means that other 95% of crashes are caused by road-user i.e. human factors, and this will be explained below. Human factors are those such as drivers' physical or mental conditions, their attention, their ability to act properly in dangerous situations, their skill and their experience. But, all these factors are connected with those non-human ones. That is why, fatality risk is less on wet and snow-covered roads than on dry roads, because a driver is more careful. This risk is higher at night which can be associated with alcohol consumption. In conclusion, it can be said that if people pay a little more attention to their journey, fewer accidents occur. So, be wise and take care!

2. What should engineers consider when constructing a road ? Talking about a road, first we have to say that there are many road systems. All these systems are also known as highway systems, the individual road may be called a highway, a street, a motorway, an expressway, a freeway, a toll road or a turnpike. Drivers naturally want safe roads. They want good, well – constructed roads, with smooth surfaces and no built-in hazards, roads with good traffic engineering that have good geometric design, and also signs, signals, and road markings which will aid them to drive safely. Realization of such roads is a complex and costly business and requires the work of many highly skilled people. Road transport engineering deals with the planning, construction and operation of roads, streets and parking facilities. It includes that branch of civil engineers must decide what type of use the new road will have. Will the road serve largely industrial or residential areas, or both ? they must learn what type and volume of traffic uses the road at present, and what is expected in the future. Will the proposed road compete with present roads or will it supplement them ? The design of highways has become a very complex matter. Whether a new road is planned or an old road has to be improved and enlarged, land must be secured and the road must be designed. New roads have wide lines, wide shoulders, pavement surfaces with high skidding resistance, easy curves, easy grades, climbing lanes on steep hills where steep hills cannot be avoided, good sight distance, advisory and directional signs with proper advance warnings, and adequate pavement markings. When constructing a new road, there are three considerations of particular interest : 1. The line and grade of a road must be laid out according to standards with the proper width for the right - of way ; 2. The foundation, which is the earth structure that supports the pavement, should be form. ; 3. A road must have proper drainage so that water from adjacent lands does non flow onto the pavement. Another important consideration is the construction of pavement, which should be smooth, have a high resistance to skidding, wet or dry, be durable and easily maintained. It must be strong enough to transmit the impact of heavy wheel loads down through its structure to the subgrade and foundation below.

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