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Process

Equipment Design
(PED)

CHEN90012, 2017

Volume 1

Prof. George Franks


gvfranks@unimelb.edu.au
Room 319
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Building 1
Phone: 8344 9020
Process Equipment Design
(PED)
CHEN90012, 2017
Prof. George Franks
gvfranks@unimelb.edu.au
Room 319
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Building 1
Phone: 8344 9020

Post questions about assignment on LMS discussion board

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Assessment
Assessment will be based on

Final Examination: 40 marks

Major Assignment: 60 marks


Three parts due throughout the semester.

You must obtain at least 50% overall in order to Pass the


subject.
You must obtain at least 40% on the Examination in
order to Pass the subject.
You must obtain at least 50% on the Assignment in order
to Pass the subject.
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
Lectures and Tutes
Lectures
Monday, 11 to 12, Doug McDonell-103 (Herbert Wilson Theatre)
Wednesday, 12 to 1, Redmond Barry-200 (Rivett Theatre)
Thursday, 11 to 12, Physics South-L108 (Laby Theatre)

Tutes
Go to your assigned tutorial session, one of the following.
Monday, 1 or 2:15 PM
Tuesday, 4:15 or 5:15 PM
Wednesday, 9 or 10 AM
Thursday, 10 AM
Attendance at all lectures and one tute session each week is
mandatory
Office Hours: Thursday 12 -1 or by appointment.
Post questions about assignment on LMS discussion board
Chapter 1 Introduction 3

Learning Objectives and Expectations


To be able to conduct technical design of process equipment such as:
Pressure Vessels, Non-pressure vessels,
Compressors, Heat exchangers,
Plate distillation columns, Packed absorption columns,
Fluidised beds.
To be able to design and layout pipelines.
To be able to select valves and pumps.
To be familiar with general concepts of process equipment design so that
other process equipment, not covered in this subject, can be designed.
To develop a culture of safety in equipment design.
To be able to design equipment in compliance with regulations and
standards.
To be able to design equipment in a economically efficient manner.
To be able to produce equipment specification sheets and equipment
drawings.
To be able to develop and draw process flow sheets and plant layouts.
Chapter 1 Introduction 4
CHEN90012 PED 2017
Date Lecture Topic
27-Feb Introduction
1-Mar Pressure Vessels
2-Mar Pressure Vessels 2
6-Mar Pressure Vessel Example Hand out assignment
8-Mar Non-Pressure Vessels
9-Mar Piping
13-Mar Piping
15-Mar Piping Example 1
16-Mar Piping Example 2, Pipe Layout
20-Mar Valves
21-Mar Asst. Part 1 Due 4 PM
22-Mar Pumps 1
23-Mar Pumps 2
27-Mar Pump Examples 1 and 2
29-Mar Heat Exchangers 1
30-Mar Heat Exchangers 2
Chapter 1 Introduction 5
3-Apr Heat Exchanger Example

5-Apr Heat Exchanger Example


6-Apr Heat Exchanger Example Asst. Part 1 return
10-Apr Compressors
12-Apr Compressor Example
13-Apr spare lecture
14-Apr to 23-Apr, no lecture, Easter holidays
24-Apr Distillation Columns
26-Apr Distillation Columns 2 Asst. Part 2 Due 4 PM
27-Apr Distillation Example 1
1-May Distillation Example 2
3-May Distillation Example 3
4-May Flow Sheets and Layout
8-May Packed Column 1
10-May Packed Column Example
11-May Packed Column Example2
15-May Fluidised Bed 1 Asst. Part 2 Return
17-May Fluidised Bed 2
18-May Fluidised Bed Example 1
25-May Asst.
Chapter 1 Introduction Part 3 Due 4 PM 6
Tutorials Schedule
MARCH 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
27 FEB 28 FEB 1 2 3 4
No Tute No Tute No Tute No Tute
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Tute 1 Tute 1 Tute 1 Tute 1
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Tute 2 Tute 2 Tute 2 Tute 2
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Tute 3 Tute 3 Tute 3 Tute 3
26 27 28 29 30 31
Tute 4 Tute 4 Tute 4 Tute 4

APRIL 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tute 5 Tute 5 Tute 5 Tute 5
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Tute 6 Tute 6 Tute 6 Tute 6
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Easter holiday no tutes
23 24 25 26 28 29 29
Tute 7 ANZAC DAY Tute 7 Tute 7
Tute 7 next week

MAY 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1 2 3 4 5 5 6
No Tute Tute 7 No Tute No Tute
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Tute 8 Tute 8 Tute 8 Tute 8
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Tute 9 Tute 9 Tute 9 Tute 9
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
7
No Tute No Tute No Tute No Tute
28 29 30 31

TEXTS: The required text for this subject are the Lecture Notes
compiled by Franks. They are available on LMS.
Lecture Notes produced by Dr. Teresa Pong prior to 2006, are available
on LMS. These notes contain additional information which may be
needed for your Design Project in Semester 2. Please down load them
and save them for reference.
Additional texts used in compiling these notes will need to be consulted
from time to time including:
Couper, J.R., Penney, W. R., Fair, J.R., Walas, S. M., Chemical
Process Equipment, Selection and Design, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, 2005,
On line edition available from library through Knovel.
Perry’s Chemical Engineers Handbook (7th Edition), McGraw-Hill,
2004, On line edition available from library through Knovel.
Sinnott, R. K., Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering,
Volume 6, 3rd edition, 1999. Also volumes 2 and 1.
Sinnott, R. and Towler, G. Chemical Engineering Design, 5th Edition,
Elsevier, 2009
Chapter 1 Introduction 8
Also:
Australian Standards,
AS 1210 – Pressure Vessel, UniM ERC f 681.760410218 STAN - hard copy
AS 4041 – Pressure Piping, UniM ERC f 681.76041 PRES - hard copy
AS 1200 – Pressure Equipment
AS 1692 – Steel tanks for flammable and combustible liquids
AS 4343 – Pressure Equipment, Hazard Levels
AS 1940 – Handling and storage of flammable and combustible liquids
for e-version, go to supersearch – find data base – SAI global –
AS1210, AS1200, AS1692, AS4041 etc – view document
Additional TEXTS
Also used in compiling these notes
Treybal, R.E., ‘Mass Transfer Operations’. McGraw Hill, New York, 1980.
Zappe, R.W., ‘Valve Selection Handbook’, Gulf Publishing, Houston, 1991.
Pell, M., ‘Gas Fluidization’, New York, Elsevier, 1990.
Howard, J.R., ‘Fluidized Bed Technology, Principles and Applications’,
Adam Hilger, New York, 1989.
Chapter 1 Introduction 9

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO
PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be aware of the assessments, lecture and tute times and locations,
textbooks available and topics to be covered in this subject.
To be aware of the major types of process equipment.
To understand the importance of a culture of safety.
To understand environmental and economic considerations in design.
To be familiar with the data required for design.
Understand that there are rules of thumb for design which are guidelines.
Understand that good design requires experience and familiarity with
existing designs.
Brief introduction to process flow diagrams, sketches and engineering
drawings.
Understand the importance of designing using standard components
where possible.
Chapter 1 Introduction 10
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO
PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Process Design: Temperatures, pressures, flow rates,


etc. Not covered in this subject. You should know it from
Heat and Mass, Advanced Heat and Mass etc.

2. Mechanical Design: How tall, how long, how thick, how


many, what diameter, what material, what instrumentation,
safety, cost. This is the topic of Process Equipment
Design.

Chapter 1 Introduction 11

Design of a new operation


or upgrade a process

1. Can you use existing equipment or purchase a turn key


operation?

2. Design it your self.


1. Design Procedures
2. Manufacturing Specifications
3. Australian Standards and Codes
4. Design Data

Chapter 1 Introduction 12
1. AIMS FOR THIS COURSE
Are to:

- Identify some of the commonly seen equipment in chemical


processes.

- Show what data are required for the design.

- Demonstrate how designs are regulated by Standards.

- Develop a culture of safety.

- Give some useful rules of thumb and empirical methods.

- Demonstrate the practical side of equipment design


(i.e. practical to manufacture, operate and maintain).

- Show how a record of the design should be kept.


Chapter 1 Introduction 13

2. THE MAJOR EQUIPMENT


The commonly seen equipment used in a chemical process includes:

- Distillation columns - Reactors

- Heat exchangers - Fired heater

- Solid handling equipment - Dryers

- Pressure and non pressure vessels - Crystallizers

- Demister and flash units - Control equipment

- Pumps and compressors - Filters

- Piping - Agitators

- Pack columns - Ion Exchangers

- Fluidized beds - Evaporators, etc. etc.

However, in a course like PED, it is impossible to deal with all these equipment in detail,
therefore a selection of the more important ones will be studied.
Chapter 1 Introduction 14
Pressure Vessels

Chapter 1 Introduction 15

Chapter 1 Introduction
Pressure Vessels 16
Non-Pressure Vessels
Storage Tanks

Chapter 1 Introduction 17

Non-Pressure Vessels
Storage Tanks

Chapter 1 Introduction 18
Pipework

Chapter 1 Introduction 19

Valves

Chapter 1 Introduction 20
Pumps

Chapter 1 Introduction 21

Pumps

Chapter 1 Introduction 22
Compressors

Chapter 1 Introduction 23

Heat Exchangers

Chapter 1 Introduction 24
Heat Exchangers

Chapter 1 Introduction 25

Distillation Column

Chapter 1 Introduction 26
Distillation Column

Chapter 1 Introduction 27

Inherently Safe Design

Safety must be considered in initial


design
Pressure Relief

Burst disk can be


It is far better to have an inherent safe Safety Instrumented
dangerous
design than to Functions

Operator
•Have to implement complex control Response
systems
•Rely on operator response Control System

•Rely on instrument shut downs (by


control room) Inherent
Process
•Hardware solutions Design

Safety Onion

Chapter 1 Introduction 28
3. AIM OF THE PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN

Process equipment has to be designed so that:


- It can be made and installed
- Perform the task SAFELY
- At an acceptable capital cost
- For an adequate life time

4. MONEY CONSIDERATION
After making sure that the equipment can be operated safely, it is
the duty of the engineer to:
- Make a profit for the firm
- Keep the project within budget
- Keep the costs to a minimum without sacrificing safety

Chapter 1 Introduction 29

5.DATA REQUIRED FOR THE DESIGN


Basic data:
- Target production rate Raw material

- Product specification (purity) Physical properties of material

- Chemical reaction and process Method of production


- Flow sheet, PID

Other useful data are:


- Location and site conditions
- Statutory requirement and standards
- Labor conditions
- Availability of utilities
- Discharge and environmental requirements
Chapter 1 Introduction 30
6. DESIGN TEAM AND DUTIES

The total number of engineers and technical personnel may be a few


to several hundreds.

Chemical engineer – the Chief of the engineers

- Process designer

- Ensures the equipment will perform the task as a process unit.

- Advisor to other disciplines

- Work in teams with other engineering disciplines.

Chapter 1 Introduction 31

7. A GOOD DESIGNER
- Must have a feel for that is right in the design
- Only experience can teach you what looks right
- Important that the design is appropriate for the task
- Typically greater accuracy of control than is necessary
- Capacity of pump or vessel is bigger than necessary

Rules of thumb for judging the rightness of a design:


- Does it look right?
- Is it over designed?
- Is it too big or too small?
- Are the walls too thick or too thin?
- How does it compare with other similar designs?

Chapter 1 Introduction 32
8. ENGINEERING DRAWINGS
- Not completely standardized

- Most bigger firms have their own convention

- Block diagrams

- Process flow sheet

- PID

- Electrical circuit diagrams, etc

- mm is the preferred unit in most cases

-kPa is also widely used in Australia

-Equipment sketches and Equipment Drawings

Chapter 1 Introduction 33

Block Diagram

Chapter 1 Introduction 34
Process Flow Sheet

Labelling of streams, all instruments, stream properties and components

Chapter 1 Introduction 35

PID

Chapter 1 Introduction 36
Equipment Sketches and Engineering Equipment Drawings
Equipment Sketches are less detailed drawings used to illustrate a
point when using words will be lengthy and ambiguous. Equipment
sketches may be used in the calculations section to help with
explanation of your design. Equipment sketches may be hand
drawn and not exactly to scale.

Examples of equipment sketches are:

Chapter 1 Introduction 37

Equipment Sketches and Engineering Equipment Drawings


Engineering Equipment Drawings are detailed drawings of the
equipment drawn to scale showing all the important dimensions. In
many cases, more than one view is required in order to understand
the entire equipment. In order that the drawing not become too
cluttered some dimensions may be included in a Table (See Table 12
on next page which complements Figure 7) See examples of partial
equipment drawings on the following pages.

Chapter 1 Introduction 38
Equipment Sketches and Engineering Equipment Drawings

Chapter 1 Introduction 39

Equipment Sketches and Engineering Equipment Drawings

Chapter 1 Introduction 40
Equipment Sketches and Engineering Equipment Drawings

Ultimately, detailed Manufacturing Drawings of each individual component


and the entire equipment must be drawn including tolerances and other
information necessary to actually fabricate the equipment
Chapter 1 Introduction 41

9. WHAT IS EQUIPMENT DESIGN?


A design of equipment with its details sufficiently specified,
i.e. to a point that:

- The equipment can be purchased and installed

- Or parts and material for the equipment can be purchased so that the
equipment can be manufactured by the workshop

- The equipment conforms to an AS (Australian Standard), if one exists

e.g. Pumps - Type – centrifugal


Capacity – flowrate
Head – pressure head
Power – motor, in kW or HP
Inlet pipe diameter
Power supply type – 3 phase or 1 phase
Control type – speed control
Material of construction
Chapter 1 Introduction 42
e.g. Pressure Vessel - Diameter of tank
Height of cylindrical section
End cap Type
- torispherical
- ellipsoidal
Horizontal or vertical tanks
Wall thickness
Nozzle size and location
Connecting pipe diameter – inlet and outlet
Pressure relief outlet – size and pressure
Access port – diameter
Manual Isolation valves
Structural support
Material of construction

Chapter 1 Introduction 43

10. CLASSROOM DESIGN vs REAL LIFE DESIGN


You may say, I can specify some of the parameters without problem,
e.g.: centrifugal pump
Inlet pipe diameter = 18.423mm
Outlet pipe diameter = 26.784mm
Power = 0.567 kW

Unfortunately you cannot buy pipes with a diameter of 18.423mm, a


perfectly sound number which came out of your calculator, but a bit
useless when you walk into a plumbing supply store and ask for a
delivery.

A lot of equipment and parts are made to Standards


- Australian standards
- Commercial conventional standards

Chapter 1 Introduction 44
Chapter 1 Introduction 45

Chapter 1 Introduction 46
For pipes, they are supplied in standard sizes with some choices of wall
thickness, usually termed Schedule Number. You cannot buy anything
in between. See previous pages and more sheets on LMS.

For pumps, they are usually supplied with certain horsepower for the motor:

¼ HP ½ HP ¾ HP or in equivalent unit, kW

Again you cannot buy anything in between.

For flanges, there are Standard flanges, see next page and on LMS.

For pressure vessels, there are standard equations for determining:

- The cylindrical wall thickness


- The end cap wall thickness
- The method of making a welded joint

For the metal sheet or plate, you can only buy the sheet in the standard
dimensions and thickness, but not in between, see details on page 49.
Chapter 1 Introduction 47

Chapter 1 Introduction 48
Standard Steel Plate Sizes

Widths
Increments of 100 mm from 1200 mm to 3300 mm.

Thicknesses (mm)
5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, and so on.

Lengths
Increments of 200 mm from 4000 mm to 18000 mm.

Common sizes
Widths – 1800 mm, 2400 mm, and 3000 mm
Lengths – 6000 mm, and 9000 mm

Steel quality
- Pressure vessels from boiler and pressure vessel grades
- Non-pressure vessels from structural grades
Chapter 1 Introduction 49

11. PURPOSE OF THE STANDARDS

- To ensure that the equipment produced will meet a pre-set requirement

- To ensure that the equipment is appropriate for the task

- To ensure that various parts of equipment purchased from different


suppliers are compatible

e.g.AS 1210 Pressure Vessel


AS 4041 Pressure Piping

Chapter 1 Introduction 50
12. THE JOB OF THE DESIGN ENGINEER
As the designer, you must design equipment that:

- Can perform the required task

- Is safe for the operation

- And meet the requirement of the relevant standards

Chapter 1 Introduction 51
CHEN90012, Process Equipment Design, Tutorials, 2017.

Please attempt to solve the tutorial question during your assigned tutorial time. The Tutor will
work through the solutions during the second half of the Tutorial session. No marks are given
for the Tutorials.

No tutes, Week 1, 27 Feb - 2 March

Tute 1: Week 2: 6 to 9 March


Conduct a preliminary overall mass balance for the process described in the major assignment
and sketch a block flow sheet for the process.

Tute 2: Week 3: 13 to 16 March


Pressure Vessel.

Tute 3: Week 4: 20 to 23 March


Pipeline.

Tute 4: Week 5: 27 to 30 March


Pump.

Tute 5: Week 6: 3 to 6 April


Process Flow Sheets.

Tute 6: Weeks 7: 10 to 13 April


Heat Exchanger

Note: No tutes, Week 8, Easter, 14 -23 April

Tute 7: Week 8: 24 to 28 April (Monday Wed and Thurs tutes)


Compressor.

Tute 7: Week 9: 3 May (Tuesday tutes only)


Compressor.

Tute 8: Week 10: 8 to 11 May


Plate Distillation Column.

Tute 9: Week 11: 15 to 18 May


Packed Absorption Column.
MARCH 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
27 FEB 28 FEB 1 2 3 4
No Tute No Tute No Tute No Tute
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Tute 1 Tute 1 Tute 1 Tute 1
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Tute 2 Tute 2 Tute 2 Tute 2
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Tute 3 Tute 3 Tute 3 Tute 3
26 27 28 29 30 31
Tute 4 Tute 4 Tute 4 Tute 4

APRIL 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tute 5 Tute 5 Tute 5 Tute 5
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Tute 6 Tute 6 Tute 6 Tute 6
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Easter holiday no tutes
23 24 25 26 28 29 29
Tute 7 ANZAC DAY Tute 7 Tute 7
Tute 7 next week

MAY 2017
Sunday M onday Tuesday W ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1 2 3 4 5 5 6
No Tute Tute 7 No Tute No Tute
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Tute 8 Tute 8 Tute 8 Tute 8
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Tute 9 Tute 9 Tute 9 Tute 9
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
No Tute No Tute No Tute No Tute
28 29 30 31
CHAPTER 2. PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar with pressure vessel components and features.
To understand the difference between pressure and non-pressure, fired
and un-fired vessels.
To understand the importance of regulations and standards in safe
design.
To be able to use AS1210 and related standards in pressure vessel
design.
To become familiar with rules of thumb regarding vessel design.
Understand why there is a minimum safe thickness.
To be able to determine the minimum design thickness.
To be able to design and specify the details of safe pressure vessels.
To be able to design pressure vessels in a economically efficient manner.
To be able to produce pressure vessel specification sheets and
equipment drawings.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 1

CHAPTER 2. PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN

1. VESSEL
A vessel is a container which holds a solid, a liquid or a gas, or a
combination of these.

The vessel may be:

- A fired vessel or a non-fired vessel,

- A pressure vessel or a non-pressure vessel

- A thin walled vessel or a thick walled vessel, depending on the


vessel structure and normal conditions of operation, i.e. the
temperature and pressure.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 2


Pressure Vessels

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 3

Pressure
Vessels

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 4


2. FIRED vs UNFIRED VESSEL
Sometimes the vessel is operated at (near) the ambient temperature,
the vessel is obviously an unfired vessel.

At other times, energy and heat have to be added to the content of the
vessel. When heat transfer is involved, the vessel (pressure or
non-pressure) may be classified as:

- A fired vessel (e.g. direct combustion or electrically powered)


- An unfired vessel (e.g. heat exchangers)

A fired vessel is one where heat is added to the content of the vessel
by the application of fire, electrical power or similar high temperature means.

An unfired vessel is one where heat is added to the content of the vessel
by a stream of fluid at moderate temperatures.

In this chapter, the discussion will be restricted to unfired vessels only.


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 5

3. PRESSURE VESSEL vs NON-PRESSURE VESSEL

A non-pressure vessel is one where the design pressure is substantially


atmospheric pressure.

This may be a tank containing liquid with a certain vapor pressure. The
absolute pressure of the vapor above the liquid is ~ atmospheric.

A vessel is considered a non-pressure vessel if it is subject only to


pressures caused by the static head of its contents such as liquid storage
tanks.

A pressure vessel is one where the design pressure is substantially


greater or less than atmospheric pressure.

The present chapter will deal with pressure vessel only. The design of
non-pressure vessel will be discussed later.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 6


4. WHAT IS A PRESSURE VESSEL?
A vessel subject to internal or external pressure as defined by the Australian
Standard AS 1200. The design criteria are given in AS 1210.
Figures 1.3.1 and Fig. 1.3.2 (next two pages) in AS 1210 delineate the
boundary between pressure and non-pressure vessels in pressure diameter
space.
A vessel with a given diameter and operated at pressures above the curve
shown is a pressure vessel.
Least pressures shown are:
- 2.57 kPa for an internal design pressure (gauge).
- 1.85 kPa for an external design pressure (gauge), or
1.85 kPa below atm. Pressure.
Note AS1210 was updated in 2010 and there may be some slight
differences between the new version and these notes based on the 2006
version.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 7

AS 1210 1997

Design Pressure = Inside Pressure – Outside Pressure

A
pressure
vessel

Not a
pressure
vessel

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 8


AS 1210 1997

Design Pressure = Outside Pressure – Inside Pressure

A
pressure
vessel

Not a
pressure
vessel

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 9

5. THIN WALLED vs THICK WALLED PRESSURE VESSEL

A simplified definition:

- thin walled t < 0.15D

- thick walled t > 0.15D

Most of the vessels built are thin walled. Thick walled vessels are used for
special applications only. We will consider thin walled vessels only here.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 10


6. THE TERM ‘PRESSURE’
a. Absolute pressure
101.3 kPa absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure
0 kPa absolute pressure = full vacuum
b. Gauge pressure
0 kPa gauge pressure = 101.3 kPa absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure
- Be very careful and do not confuse one with the other.
- There is no assumed convention being adopted.
For vessels with internal pressure,
Design Pressure = Inside Pressure – Outside Pressure

7. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES
All pressure vessels, for use in Australia, must meet the requirement of the
Statutory Authorities of the respective States of Australia before they can be
used.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 11

8. PHILOSOPHY OF STATUTORY AUTHORITIES

There has been a change in philosophy


Previously

- Detailed technical rules are set down


- Drawing and calculation checked for correctness
- Then a designed is certified

After July 1, 1995

- New regulations came into force


- Owner is to accept full responsibility for design and construction
- Designs are to be verified by competent person
- Authority now only registers design for the record
- Owner must identify the potential hazards
- Allowance must be made in the design to minimize the chance of any
incident
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 12
9. OWNERS RESPONSIBILITY NOW
Under the new regulations
- Free to establish design and manufacture procedure
- Obliged to keep good records
- Responsible for safety of the staff
- In event of accident, must be able to show that the vessel has been properly
designed and build to acceptable standards.
AS 1200 Pressure Equipment Australian Standards can be found in the
AS 1210 Pressure Vessel Uni library in hard copy or Electronically
AS 4041 Pressure Piping Search library for SAI Global – Standards Australia

SEEK THE ADVICE OF AN EXPERT!!


10. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES
In Victoria, Victoria Work Cover Authority, Worksafe Victoria, Licensing Division
See:http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/wsinternet/WorkSafe/Ho
me/Safety+and+Prevention/Health+And+Safety+Topics/Plant/
Other States have equivalent departments
Before starting design, check the status of requirements of statutory authorities,
as these requirements may change with time.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 13

11. MAIN FEATURES OF A PRESSURE VESSEL

a. Shell – cylindrical or spherical usually

b. Head and closures – sometimes called end caps


- flat plates, hemi-spherical, ellipsoidal, torispherical

c. Nozzles
- fluid inlet and outlet connections

d. Access holes
- manholes
- inspection holes

e. External support

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 14


pressure relief valve
endcaps
pressure gauge

nozzles
inlets
shell outlets

external supports
endcaps

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 15

12. SOME DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


a. Design pressure
b. Design temperature
c. Material of construction
d. Design strength of material (see AS 1210, Table 3.3.1)
e. Welded joint efficiency () (see AS 1210 table 1.6)
f. Corrosion allowance
g. Design load
Primary - static pressure
static liquid
maximum weight of vessel + content
maximum weight of vessel + content under hydrostatic test conditions
wind load
earthquake load (seismic)
other equipment load supported by vessel
Secondary- local stress due to internal structure, pipes, support structure
shock load – water hammer, pump starting, etc.
bending moment
stress due to temp and expansion
stress due to fluctuation of pressure
h. Minimum practical wall thickness
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 16
Operating, Design and Relief Pressures

Operating pressure—the highest pressure to which the vessel is subjected


under normal operation. It is determined by the technical requirements of
the process.

Design pressure—the maximum gauge pressure, at a designated


temperature, which is allowed at the top of the vessel. Usually somewhat
higher than the operating pressure.

Design Pressure = Inside Pressure – Outside Pressure, for internally


pressurised vessels

Where pressure relief devices are used, the design pressure is often
assumed to be 5 percent to 10 percent above the operating pressure at
the most severe condition, but where wide surges in pressure and
temperature may occur, this margin may need to be increased. The
design pressure shall not be less than the set pressure of the lowest set
pressure-relief device. (more detail in chapter 6 about pressure relief
devices)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 17

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 18


13. DESIGN PROCEDURE
- Follow AS 1210
- Straight forward, but watch details for design of vessel with moderate
design temperature and pressure
- For more severe conditions, refer to a pressure vessel designer

a. Establish design conditions

(i) design pressure - internal


- external
- combination of both

(ii) design temperature - maximum


- minimum expected

(iii) corrosion from content

(iv) capacity of vessel - volume


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 19

b. Select class of vessel (see AS 1210, Table 1.6 and 1.7, Clause 1.7)
Classification is made based on the design, construction, testing
and inspection requirements of the Code.

- Lethal substance, must be Class 1

- non-corrosive special operation vessels, must be Class 1


e.g. vacuum insulated cryogenic vessel not practical to
provide inspection opening for frequent inspection

- Welded joint efficiency must be achieved

- Any vessel with wall thickness >x mm as specified in Table 1.7

- Class 2 – less stringent conditions, any vessel with wall


thickness >x mm as specified in Table 1.7

- Class 3 – when a Class 1 or Class 2 vessel not required


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 20
1.7.1 WELDED CONSTRUCTION

1.7.2.1 Vessel of class 1 welded construction.


Class 1 construction shall be used for -

(a) vessels constructed of materials of thicknesses which requires


Class 1 construction (see Table 1.7)
(b) vessels designed with a welded joint efficiency which requires
Class 1 construction ( see Table 3.5.1.7)
(c) vessels which are to be pneumatically tested to a pressure
greater than 20 percent of the test pressure required by
Clause 5.10.2.1 prior to hydrostatic testing
(d) vessels containing lethal substances referred to in Clause 1.7.1
(e) vessels for special non-corrosive applications, e.g. vacuum
insulated cryogenic vessels, where it is not practicable to
provide inspection openings for subsequent inspection
(see Clause 3.2.6(b))
(f) transportable vessels required by Clause 3.26 to be of
Class 1 Construction

AS 1210, 1997, section 1.7


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 21

1.7.2.2 Vessels of class 2 welded construction.


Class 2.A or 2 B construction shall be used a minimum for –

(a) vessels constructed of materials of thicknesses which require


Class 2 construction (see Table 1.7)

(b) vessels designed with a welded joint efficiency which require


Class 2 construction ( see Table 3.5.1.7)

(c) transportable vessels having a capacity not greater than 5m3


water capacity and allowed by Clause 3.26 to be of
Class 2 construction.

1.7.2.3 Vessels of Class 3 welded construction.


Class 3 construction may be used where Class 1 or 2
construction is not necessary.

Note: new subclasses added in 2010 version.

AS 1210, 1997, section 1.7


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 22
AS 1210, 1997
Table 1.7

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 23

AS 1210, 1997
Table 1.6

Number in parentheses is
the welded joint efficiency
() if  = 1, the structure is
not weakened by the
weld, if  = 0.5, the
structure has half the
strength

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 24


A matter of economics – Classification issue

- When a higher class is used, the welding efficiency goes up, the wall
thickness comes down. It may be cheaper to manufacture a Class 2
vessel than a Class 3 vessel.

- But the welding has to be done with better care to give a better quality
weld, and more testing procedures have to be followed and performed.
Hence the costs of testing must be considered and included.

Selection

- Start with a Class 3 vessel and apply the rules changing the class until
all the rules are passed.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 25

c. Select material of construction


metal – carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloy, copper alloy, aluminium,
non-metal – polypropylene, polyethylene, fiberglass reinforced resins,
concrete.

d. Select volume per tank


- If capacity is too big, use multiple tanks. (see next page)
- No limit on vessel diameter and length by AS. But you have to be practical
as an engineer. The vessel heads are usually manufactured by spinning
on a lathe.
- Preferably head diameter < 120 inches, < 3 m
- Aspect ratio between 2 to 1 and 5 to 1 has to be maintained
- Therefore volume is somewhat limited
- In general vessels can be installed vertical or horizontal

e. Select tank configurations


cylindrical vs spherical, vertical vs horizontal, (see next page)
select end cap type (see AS 1210 Fig 3.12.3)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 26
PRESSURE VESSEL
Optimum L/D = 3, range 2 to 5
Guidelines for pressure dependence
Presssure kPa 0 to 1750 1751 to 3500 3501 +
L/D 3 4 5

PRESSURE VESSEL
General guidelines
Less than 4000 L – vertical tanks on legs: L/D ≈ 3 to 4
More than 4000 L – horizontal tanks on saddles : L/D ≈ 3 to 4

ASPECT RATIOS FOR DIFFERENT UNIT OPERATIONS


Reactors L/D  1
Pressure Vessels L/D  2 to 5
Heat Exchangers L/D  4 to 10
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 27

f. Select the end cap type – heads and closures of the cylindrical shells.

The principle types used are (see AS 1210, Fig. 3.12.3)


(i) Flat heads formed from flat plates – welded or bolted
(ii) Hemispherical heads also called
(iii) Ellipsoidal heads Domed head or
(iv) Torispherical heads Dished Ends
Domed head are formed by casting or spinning

Economical considerations:
Non-pressure vessels – Flat Plates okay
Up to 10 bar (i.e. P < 1.0 MPa) use Torispherical heads
Above 15 bar (i.e. P > 1.5 MPa) use Ellipsoidal heads
Between 10–15 bar (i.e. 1.0–1.5 MPa) costs are about the same

Hemi-spherical heads form the strongest closure, operating pressure can


be twice as big as that of torispherical heads. But the cost of production will
obviously be higher.

The specific sizes of various typical end caps available are given in the
Australian Pressure Vessel Heads data sheet (see the following page)
Note, Ellipsoidal and Semi-Ellipsoidal refer to the same thing and can be used interchangeably.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 28
SF

R = ICR = Inner Crown Radius


r = IKR = Inner Knuckle Radius
SF
h = ITH = Inside Tangential Height
SF = Straight Flange
SE = Semi ellipsoidal
AS 1210, 1997 TOR = Torispherical

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 29

Australian Pressure Vessel Heads Pty Ltd

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 30


g. Sheets/Plates of material of construction
Plates of steel and other commonly used metal are available in standard
dimension and thickness. See data sheet provided by the supplier and
other standards tables.
Widths
Increments of 100 mm from 1200 mm to 3300 mm
Thicknesses (mm)
5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, and so on
Lengths
Increments of 200 mm from 4000 mm to 18000 mm
Common Sizes
Widths - 1800 mm, 2400 mm, and 3000 mm
Lengths - 6000 mm and 9000 mm
Steel quality
Pressure vessels from boiler and pressure vessel grades
Non-pressure vessels from structural grades
h. Estimate tank diameter
Use aspect ratio of 3:1 where possible, but range of 2 to 5 are commonly seen.
See page 27. Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 31

i. Calculate vessel wall thickness

(i) Cylindrical Shells


AS1210
circumferential stress = c

PD
tc  t 
2 f  P 3.7.3 (1), AS1210

t = minimum calculated thickness (mm)

P = design pressure (MPa)

D = inside diameter of shell (mm)

f = design tensile strength (MPa)


See AS1210, 1997, Table 3.3.1
See AS1210, 2010, Table B

 = efficiency of joint (dimensionless)


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 32
AS1210
Longitudinal stress = L
PD
t 3.7.3 (2), AS1210
( 4 f  P )
= tL

Note that this value of tL is about half that


of the thickness needed to overcome the
circumferential stress, tc.

Use Eq. 3.7.3 (2) for seamless pipe with

 = 1.0 for class 1 vessels

 = 0.7 for class 3 vessels

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 33

(ii) Spherical Shells


Minimum calculated thickness

PD
t 3.7.4, AS1210
4 f  P

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 34


j. Thickness of dished ends
The shape of typical ends is given in
Fig. 3.12.3

(i) Ellipsoidal ends

Minimum calculated thickness


PDK 3.12.5.1, AS1210
t
(2 f   P)

1  D  
2
where K  2    
6   2h  

D
K is a factor depending on the proportion of
2h

D
In any case, keep: < 600
t
(see AS1210, Table 3.12.5.1)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 35

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 36


(ii) Torispherical ends
Minimum calculated thickness
PRM
t 3.12.5.2, AS1210
 2 f   0.5P 

1 R 
1/ 2

Where M = 3    
4   r  

R
M is a factor depending on
r
r/R > 0.06
or R/r < 16.66
hence R/r = 16.66 is the limit
(see AS1210, Table 3.12.5.2)
D
For safety reasons, keep < 100 otherwise, buckling due to the
t
setting up of localized stresses during the initial hydrostatic testing may
occur.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 37

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 38


(iii) Hemispherical ends
Minimum calculated thickness
PR
t 3.12.5.3, AS1210
 2 f   0.5P 

The actual pressure shell thickness must be larger than the minimum
calculated thickness.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 39

k. Type of welded joints


AS1210, Fig. 3.5.1.5, are for arc welding of carbon and stainless steel parts.
(i) Butt joint
single welded square butt joint

Not recommended
(thin plates only)

double welded square butt joint

Recommended

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 40


Doubled welded single V butt joint
Double welded double V butt joint

For stronger joint

For stronger joints

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 41

(ii) Fillet joint

Single welded

Double welded

Not recommended for pressure vessels.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 42


l. Efficiencies of welded joints
(see AS1210, Table 1.6 and 3.5.1.7)
doubled welded butt joints

Maximum welded joint efficiency ()


Radiographic
Examination Class 1 Class 2A Class 2B Class 3
Full 1.0
Spot 0.85
None 0.8 0.7

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 43

AS 1210, 1997

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 44


m. Corrosion allowance (relies somewhat on experience)
- a complex phenomena
- not possible to give specific values for estimating the allowance.
- carbon and low alloy steel
2mm – less severe corrosion
4mm – more severe corrosion
1mm – minimum
- under normal conditions 0.1 mm/year corrosion is expected
(after Coulson and Richardson, Vol. 6,)
n. Legs and supports

Vertical tanks on legs Horizontal tanks


Bracket support Saddle support
Column support Ring support
Skirt support

(see AS1210, Fig 3.24, page 46)


(see also Figures on pages 47-50)
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 45

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 46


AS 1210, 1997
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 47
AS 1210, 1997

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 48


AS 1210, 1997
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 49
C & R Vol 6

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 50


C & R Vol 6
o. Nozzles, access holes, accessories
- A hole to be cut
- Proper connection and support tube to be used
- seamless pressure tube vs welded tubes
- wall thickness of the parts used
- Welding procedures must be up to standard
- Compensating reinforcement for the opening
- must observe guideline set by standards

- Seals and enclosures


- flanged plate
- seals and gasket
- bolts and nuts
- flange design
Nozzles should be sized for target fluid velocity as shown in the
pipeline chapter
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 51

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 52


p. Standard size for opening
(see AS1210, table 3.20.9

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 53


AS 1210, 1997

q. Compensation for openings and brackets

- an opening weakens the shell


- give rise to local stress

Compensation

- wall thickness adjacent to hole is increased to provide reinforcement


- over-reinforcement will reduce flexibility of wall
- give rise to ‘hard spot’ and secondary stress
- add a welded pad around the opening
- pad o.d. = opening d. X (1.5 or 2)
- equal area method: provide reinforcement equal in cross sectional area
to the area removed
- see Fig. 13.13, Coulson and Richardson, Vol. 6

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 54


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 55

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 56


r. Minimum nominal thickness of pressure parts
(see AS1210, Table 3.4.3)
Vessel Outside Forged Brazed Cast
Diameter
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
<225 2 0.1 x (d0)1/2 4
>225 < 1000 2.3 1.5 8
>1000 2.4 2.4 10
Lethal contents – twice the above values
As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness of non supported
walls: for both pressure vessels and non-pressure vessels.
Vessel diameter Minimum wall thickness
(m) (mm)
<1.0 5 Note these values are somewhat
1.0 – 2.0 7 larger than category 4 and 5 AS 1692
tanks due to the specifications
2 – 2.5 9
required by AS 1692
2.5 – 3.0 10
3.0 – 3.5 12
See non-pressure vessel chapter for thickness of supported walls
The minimum practical wall thickness is set to ensure that any vessel is
sufficiently rigid to withstand its own
Chapter weight.
2 Pressure Vessels 57

s. Stayed and Unstayed flat ends

- Plate thickness
- Welded vs bolted ends
- Gaskets may be needed for sealing
- Flange design must meet the Standards
- Gaskets need to be properly designed
- Supports for the flat ends
- See Fig 13.9, C & R, Vol 6

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 58


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 59

FLAT END CAPS

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 60


t. Tests for Integrity
(i) Hydrostatic test
(a) (internal pressure)
fh AS1210
Ph  1.5 P  (5.10.2)
f
where Ph = hydrostatic test pressure (MPa)

P = design pressure of vessel (MPa)


f h = lowest ratio of design strength at test temp
f design strength at design temp

- f values to be taken from Table 3.3.1


- test pressure should include the static head
(b) (external pressure)
Ph = 1.5 (absolute atm pressure – design internal pressure)
(ii) Pneumatic test
- Avoid if possible
- May be used in place of hydrostatic test in special circumstances
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 61

PRESSURE VESSEL EXAMPLE

It is necessary to store 3.4 tonnes of CO2 on site, at a


maximum operating gauge pressure of 9 atm at room
temperature.
Design the vessel (s).

(a) Preliminary design

- Cylindrical

- Diameter  3 m

- L/D = 3

- Say, flat ends


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 62
(b) Check capacity/vessel
D=3m bar  cm3
R  83.14
moleK
L = (3)(3) = 9 m
For flat ends bar  m 3
R  83.14 x10 3
Vol kmoleK
  (1.5m) 2 (9m)  63.6m 3
Vessel
1bar  0.987 atm
PV = nRT 9 atm gauge = 10atm abs

(10atm)(63.6  106 cm3 ) 1.0132bar  1atm


n  26.0kmole
atm  cm3
(82.05 )(298 K )
moleK 1bar  100kPa

Mass=(26.0 kmole)(44kg/kmole)
= 1.14 tonnes 1.01bar  101kPa

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 63

Let us design for 3 tanks at

1133 kg/tank
1133kg
No. of moles   25.75kmole
44kg / kmole

nRT
V
P
atm  cm3
(25750mole)(82.05 )(298 K )
V moleK  63.0  106 cm3
(10atm)

V  63.0m3

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 64


Dimension calculations
Try 3 m diameter (c) Material selection:

Say – Carbon steel AS1548-7-430

Vol.   r 2 L Strength at design temp, f = 108 MPa

Specify corrosion allowance = 2mm


63m3
L  8.9m
 (1.5m) 2 Try class 3 first, CO2 is not very
corrosive, or toxic.

L 8.9m
  2.97
D 3m

Ok, close to 3

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 65

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 66


(d) Calculate shell thickness
PD
t
2 f  P
P  1MPa

1 atm
10 atm D  3000mm

f  108MPa

  0.7

t  19.97 mm

P = Operating Pressure c  2mm


= 9 atm
Assume the design pressure is about ttotal  21.97 mm
10% greater than the operating
pressure say Select 25 mm plate
P = Design Pressure = 10 atm
= 1 x 106 Pa Specify double welded butt joint.
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 67

AS 1210 1997

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 68


Double welded single V butt joint

Double welded double V butt joint

For stronger joints

For stronger joints

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 69

Widths
Increments of 100 mm from 1200 mm to 3300 mm.

Thicknesses (mm)
5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40 and so on.

Lengths
Increments of 200 mm from 4000 mm to 18000 mm.

Common sizes
Widths – 1800, 2400 mm, and 3000 mm
Lengths – 6000 mm and 9000 mm

Steel quality
- Pressure vessels from boiler grades
- Non-pressure vessels from structural grades

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 70


(e) T (selected) = 25 mm

compare with data on Table 1.7

- This looks like a Class 2 vessel,


Class 1 not needed according to thickness

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 71

If Class 2 vessel, Then follow Class 2 procedures

larger  All requirement in the Table 1.6 must


be satisfied
thinner wall
Qualified welder needed,
more stringent tests standard welding procedure

better quality welding Production of weld test plate needed


(AS3992)
recalculate t
Must perform hydrostatic test

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 72


AS 1210,
Table 1.6

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 73

(f) Test pressure, Ph

Ph= 1.5 (10 atm)

= 15.0 atm

fh
Where 1
f

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 74


If you want to try to save some cash, you can try to keep it a Class 3, but
don’t skimp on safety
(g) Try dia. = 2.7 m
Vol
L
 r2

63m3
L  11.0m
 (1.35m) 2

L 11.0m
  4.07
D 2.7 m

A bit higher than 3, but not too bad if well supported,


> 4 m3, so may be horizontal tanks on saddles.

Still keep as a Class 3 vessel.

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 75

PD
t
2 f  P

P  1MPa

D  2700mm

f  108MPa

  0.7

t  17.97 mm

c  2mm

t total  19.97

Select 20 mm plate & remain as a Class 3 vessel.

Specify double welded butt joint


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 76
Is it a pressure vessel?

- Check with Fig. 1.3.1, AS1210

P=1MPa = 1000kPa

D=3m or 2.7m

Yes, a pressure vessel

Must register vessel with WorkSafe


Victoria

Must keep a good record of design

Must perform hazard analysis

Check minimum wall thickness


>10mm OK
1.3.1 Vessels subject to internal pressure

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 77

As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness:

Vessel diameter Minimum Wall thickness


(m) (mm)
<1.0 5
1.0 – 2.0 7
2 – 2.5 9 Leg support = saddle
2.5 – 3.0 10
3.0 – 3.5 12 Nozzles – inlet & outlet

Std. pipe diameter


Std. flange size
must be specified

Pressure relief valve ~ 10 atm

Pressure indicator

Support for flat ends

Man-hole, 450 mm dia.


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 78
FLAT END CAPS
Try welding configuration (f)

0.5
m = 17.97/20 = 0.90  P 
t  D 
K = 3/0.90 = 3.33  Kf  
0.5
 1MPa 
t  2700mm   170mm
 3.33 108MPa  0.7 
Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 79

Equipment Sketch not Drawing

11.0 m

2.7 m

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 80


170 mm thick flat end plate is too thick to be reasonable!!

Alternatives

- Does not have to be flat ends

- For 10 bars, can also be torispherical


or ellipsoidal heads

- Volume of head
Data provided by Australian Pressure
Vessel Heads Pty Ltd

*Hot pressed ends

*Hot spun ends

Try semi-ellipsoidal 2731 mm ID

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 81

Australian Pressure Vessel Heads Pty Ltd

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 82


Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 83

tSE 
PDK
K depends on D
2 f  P
2h
D = 2731mm ID
D 2731
  2.00
h =ITH = 682 2h 2(682)
K = 1.0

1MPa(2731)(1) 2731
tse    18.18mm
2(.7)(108)  (1) 151

+ 2mm CORROSION ALLOWANCE ~ 20mm thick Semi-elliptical head

OK, this is reasonable

Chapter 2 Pressure Vessels 84


SPECIFICATIONS

All dimensions are shown in millimetre’s (mm) with intermediate and hard metric sizes available on
request. For Head and End specifications, please refer to the following tables.

Hot Pressed Code Ends


Weight Cubic End Thickness in mm
End Disc
Form ICR IKR ITH SF (kg) per Cap
Diameter Diam 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 36 40 50 60+
10mm Litres
102 OD SE ID/4 25 178 1.95 0.07
114OD SE ID/4 25 178 1.95 0.1
141 OD SE ID/4 25 178 1.95 0.2
154 OD SE ID/4 25 222 3.04 0.3
165 OD TOR 152 32 40 25 254 3.98 0.5
168 OD SE ID/4 25 254 3.98 0.4
203 OD SE ID/4 25 292 5.26 0.8
219 OD SE ID/4 25 305 5.74 1.0
238 OD TOR 165 63 76 25 318 6.23 1.9
254 OD TOR 229 63 71 38 356 7.81 2.4
259 OD SE 62 38 375 8.67 1.8
273 OD SE ID/4 38 393 9.52 2.0
286 OD TOR 229 63 81 25 378 8.81 3.4
292OD TOR 229 63 82 25 393 9.52 3.4
305 OD TOR 229 63 83 25 413 10.52 3.8
310 OD SE ID/4 38 425 11.14 3.2
324 OD SE ID/4 38 445 12.21 3.6
336 OD SE ID/4 38 470 13.62 4.1
356 OD SE ID/4 32 482 14.32 5.0
356 ID SE 89 32 520 16.67 6.0
368 OD TOR 330 51 82 32 489 14.74 5.2
381 OD TOR 330 51 82 38 508 15.91 5.8
386 OD SE ID/4 38 515 16.35 6.4
406 OD TOR 305 63 105 38 533 17.52 8.0
432 OD TOR 324 63 108 38 559 19.27 9.3
437 OD SE ID/4 38 552 18.79 9.5
458 OD TOR 420 76 102 32 584 21.03 12
458 OD SE ID/4 51 610 22.94 11
508 OD TOR 457 63 106 38 660 26.86 13.5
508 OD SE ID/4 51 693 29.61 15.1
508 ID SE 127 51 711 31.17 17
533 ID SE 133 51 750 34.68 19.7
559 OD SE ID/4 51 750 34.68 20.5
572 OD TOR 508 63 118 51 705 30.64 18.6
610 OD TOR 533 63 125 51 762 35.80 22
610 OD SE ID/4 51 813 40.75 26.8
610 ID SE 152 51 838 43.30 29.6
635 ID SE 158 51 864 46.02 33.4
660 OD TOR 628 63 127 51 838 43.30 26.3
686 OD TOR 610 63 135 51 864 46.02 30
686 OD SE ID/4 51 940 54.48 38.6
686 ID SE 171 51 965 57.41 42
711 OD SE ID/4 51 965 57.41 43
711 ID SE 177 51 965 57.41 47
737 ID SE 184 63 1028 65.15 52
762 OD TOR 660 63 149 51 950 55.64 40
762 ID SE 190 63 1041 66.81 57
813 OD SE ID/4 51 1080 71.91 65
813 ID SE 203 63 1092 73.52 70
838 OD TOR 711 70 165 51 1054 68.49 55
864 OD SE 711 70 165 51 1054 68.49 55
864 ID SE 216 63 1194 87.90 84
914 OD TOR 787 70 175 51 1118 77.06 69
914 ID SE 228 63 1232 93.58 100
8 10 12 16 20 25 32 36 40 50 60 70 80+
940 ID SE 235 63 1270 99.4 108
950 ID SE 237 63 1296 103.6 112
965 ID SE 241 63 1296 103.6 117
991 OD TOR 940 70 172 50 1169 84.3 81
991 ID SE 247 63 1346 111.7 127
1016 ID SE 254 63 1346 111.7 137
1067 OD TOR 914 76 203 51 1270 99.4 108
1067 ID SE 266 76 1422 124.7 158
1118 ID SE 279 76 1460 131.4 183
1137 ID SE 284 76 1524 143.2 192
1143 OD TOR 914 102 246 51 1397 120.3 150
1219 OD TOR 1067 108 240 51 1473 133.8 174
1219 ID SE 304 76 1600 157.8 237
1270 ID SE 317 76 1651 168.1 267
1290 ID SE 322 76 1727 183.9 280
1372 ID TOR 1270 82 248 76 1676 173.2 220
1372 ID SE 343 76 1778 194.9 330
1524 OD TOR 1397 152 302 76 1854 211.9 353
1524 ID SE 381 76 1981 242.0 462
1676 ID SE 419 76 2185 294.3 615
1715 OD TOR 1651 127 305 76 2032 254.6 437
1829 OD TOR 1753 152 335 76 2159 287.4 558
1829 ID TOR 1753 152 335 76 2197 297.6 577
1829 ID SE 457 76 2387 351.3 800
1981 OD TOR 1829 152 366 76 2336 336.4 700
1981 ID SE 495 76 2565 405.6 1016
2134 OD TOR 2057 152 376 76 2514 389.7 835
2134 ID SE 533 76 2718 455.5 1270
2270 ID SE 567 76 2947 535.5 1528
2286 OD TOR 2133 228 450 76 2718 455.5 1201
2330 ID SE 582 76 2972 544.6 1653
2438 OD TOR 2362 165 421 76 2870 507.8 1222
2438 ID SE 609 76 3100 592.5 1893
2600 OD TOR 2515 165 441 76 2972 544.6 1452
2591 ID SE 647 76 3226 641.6 2272
2731 ID SE 682 76 3429 724.9 2661
2743 ID TOR 2591 241 515 76 3302 672.2 1992

Denotes manufactured size to order Denotes stock size

Hot Spun Code Ends

With the spinning process as tables below, diameters can be infinitely varied within the range. ie from
2850mm inside diameter to 6200mm outside diameter. The below table shows data for typical sizes
to assist in preliminary sizing only.
Weight Cubic End Thickness
Disc No.
End Diam Form ICR IKR ITH SF kg per Cap
Diam Pcs 10 12 16 20 25 28 32 36 40 50
10mm Litres
2896 ID SE 724 76 3556 2 780 3173
2896 ID TOR 2819 254 541 76 3327 2 682 2326
3048 ID SE 762 76 3759 2 871 3700
3048 ID TOR 2972 254 569 76 3505 2 757 2651
3353 ID SE 838 76 4153 2 1063 4925
3353 ID TOR 3277 279 624 76 3861 2 919 3523
3658 ID SE 914 76 4547 2 1275 6394
3658 ID TOR 3581 305 681 76 4191 2 1083 4575
3962 ID SE 990 76 4850 2 1450 8125
3962 ID TOR 3886 330 736 76 4572 2 1289 5806
4267 ID SE 1066 76 5131 2 1623 10150
4267 ID TOR 4191 356 793 76 4978 2 1528 7253
4572 ID SE 1143 76 5486 2 1856 12485
4572 ID TOR 4496 381 848 76 5309 2 1738 8913
4877 ID SE 1219 76 6200 3 2370 15154
4877 ID TOR 4801 406 904 76 6000 2 2220 10809
5182 ID SE 1295 76 6600 3 2686 18179
5182 ID TOR 5105 432 960 76 6300 3 2447 12970
5486 ID SE 1371 76 7000 3 3021 2686
5486 ID TOR 5410 457 1016 76 6600 3 2886 15378
5791 ID TOR 5715 508 1087 76 6708 3 2774 18491
6096 ID TOR 6020 508 1128 76 7027 3 3044 21089
Segmented Torispherical and Semi-Ellipsoidal Ends
In addition to the range of hot pressed and hot spun Torispherical and Semi-Ellipsoidal Ends we also
offer segmented versions.

The knuckle section will be hot pressed with the crown being either hot or cold pressed. Please refer
to the table for size range available, intermediate sizes are available on request. For diameters and
thickness outside of the range shown please contact our sales representatives.[See Dimensional Drawing
- Torispherical] [See Dimensional Drawing - Semi Ellipsoidal] [See Dimensional Drawing Abbreviations]

End Thickness in mm
End Diameter
25 28 32 36 40 45 50 55 60 70 80
3000
3500
4000
4500 HOT SPUN
5000
5500
6100
6200
6500
7000
7500
8000

Segmented Hemispherical Ends

Hemispherical Ends from 85mm to 1676mm ID and 6mm to 150mm thick, are hot pressed from a one
piece disk. Segmented hemispherical Ends are available as per the table, intermediate sizes are
available on request. For diameters and thickness outside of the range shown please contact our
sales representatives.[See Dimensional Drawing] [See Dimensional Drawing Abbreviations]
End Thickness in mm
End Diameter
12 16 20 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 55 60 70 80
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000

Inspection Openings
Elliptical Inspection openings are manufactured From certified boiler plate and are supplied complete
with neoprane gaskets. [See Dimensional Drawing] [See Dimensional Drawing Abbreviations]
All units are approved by the relevant statutory authority in each Australian State of Territory and
meet the requirements of:
• AS 1210 Unfired Pressure Vessel Code
• AS 1228 Water Tube Boiler Code
Nominal Weight Dimensions Maximum Design Pressure mPa at Degree C
No. of Bolts
Size (kg) L W H E T t Code 200o 250o 300o 350o 400o
AS1210 0.94 0.83 0.61 0.54
400 X 300 2 75 408 306 80 250 32 25
AS1228 0.99 0.77 0.69 0.59
AS1210 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.6
400 X 300 2 82 408 306 80 250 32 32
AS1228 2.25 1.9 1.75 1.6
AS1210 4.2 3.9 3.4 3.2
400 X 300 2 90 408 306 80 250 32 40
AS1228 4.1 3.55 3.35 3.1
AS1210 7.3 6.9 6 5.6
400 X 300 2 105 408 306 80 250 32 50
AS1228 7.05 6.15 5.8 5.45
AS1210 3.6 3.2 2.3 2
180 X 125 1 11 178 123 45 165 16 20
AS1228 3.7 2.9 2.6 2.25
115 X 90 1 6 113 88 40 130 12 16 AS1210 3.7 3.3 2.3 1.9
CHAPTER 3. NON-PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar with non-pressure vessel applications.
To understand the difference between pressure and non-pressure
vessels.
To become familiar with rules of thumb regarding vessel design.
To be familiar with design of very large storage tanks and small drums.
To be able to determine the minimum design thickness.
To be able to design and specify the details of safe non-pressure vessels.
To be able to design non-pressure vessels in a economically efficient
manner.
To be able to design tank farms.
To be able to produce non-pressure vessel specification sheets and
equipment sketches.

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 1

CHAPTER 3. NON-PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN


1. Function of Vessel
Operating pressure is at or near ambient pressure
Process operations
i.e. the external housing for:
- Distillation column
- Packed column
- Heat Exchanger
- Reactor
- Leaching tank
- Crystallizer
- Filter
Storage
- Reactant and product storages (longer term)
- Buffer storage (shorter term) (to match supply and demand)
- Knock out drum
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 2
Non-Pressure Vessels
Storage Tanks

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 3

Non-Pressure Vessels
Buffer and Surge Tanks

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 4


Large Liquid Storage Tanks
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 5

Heat Exchanger Shell

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 6


KNOCK OUT DRUMS

(a) (b)

Figure 18.7. Key dimensions of knockout drums equipped with mesh pads
(a) Vertical knockout drum (b) Horizontal knockout drum
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 7

2. LOADS
Storage
- Primary load is hydrostatic pressure of liquid or solid
- Secondary load such as wind, earth quake and other
equipment

Process operation tank


- In addition to the primary and secondary loads, also need to
take into consideration the extra weight and stress due to:
- internal parts (tray, packing, etc)
- shock and stress associated with operations
(pump starting)
(stirrer starting)
(temperature and pressure changes)
(erosion)
(reaction)
etc.
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 8
3. CONTENT
Solid
Liquid
Gas (near 1 atm)
Any combination of the above

We will deal with liquid storage first.

4. TYPICAL APPLICATION OF SIMPLE VESSELS


- Crude oil storage tank
- Flash vessel gas/liquid separator
- Decanter – oil/water separator
- Surge tank/buffer tank
- Reflux drum
- Sedimentation tank

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 9

5. CONFIGURATION – SIMPLE NON PRESSURE VESSEL


- Mainly liquid storage tanks
- For bulk storage, at atmospheric pressure
- Vertical or horizontal
- Cylindrical
- Main load is the hydrostatic pressure of liquid (and other content)
- Other loads are wind, earth quake, vessel weight, other equipment,
corrosion, thermal stress, etc.
- L/D depends on capacity
- Mixing tank, L/D ~ 1
- Diameter is economic related
- Fitted with nozzles

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 10


6. CAPACITY AND CONFIGURATION –NON PRESSURE VESSELS

General Guidelines only, subject to variation


(a) Liquid drums – horizontal
Liquid-gas separator – horizontal or vertical
Reflux drums – horizontal
(b) Drums – smaller size, hold up – few minutes
Tanks – larger size, may be longer time storage
(c) Volume of process drum = number of minutes of flow at half full
For many services, 5-10 minutes half full is usually adequate.
Volume of tanks = determined by period of reserve required
(hours or days of supply), typically 15-30 days for raw material,
depends on transportation schedule.
(d) Liquid storage
Vapor space or free board volume are required.
<2000 litres 15% of total volume
>2000 litres 10% of total volume

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 11

(e) Liquid Storage


Roof – dished or conical
Bases – flat bottom, on firm foundation of oil sand or concrete
Roof plate thickness – 3/16” minimum (Walas)

(f) Liquid with high vapor pressure including liquefied gases


Stored in elongated horizontal vessels, dished ends

(g) Gas Storage


Stored at atmospheric pressure in vertical gas holder with
floating roofs that are sealed in a double wall.

Once the approximate capacity and dimensions are known, vessel


wall thickness can be estimated.

7. STANDARDS FOR NON-PRESSURE VESSELS


- Not many
- AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids
- AS1940 Storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 12
AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 13

AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 14


AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 15

AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

Note these values are somewhat smaller than the minimum practical
wall thickness recommended for pressure and non-pressure vessels
due to the specifications required by AS 1692

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 16


AS1692 Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

Note these values are somewhat smaller than the minimum practical
wall thickness recommended for pressure and non-pressure vessels
due to the specifications required by AS 1692
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 17

Non-pressure vessel or Tank

General guidelines

Less than 4000 L – vertical tanks on legs: L/D ~ 3 to 4

Between 4000 L and 40,000 L – horizontal tanks on saddles: L/D ~ 3 to 4

More than 40,000 L – vertical tanks on concrete pad: L/D ~ 0.5 to 2

Aspect ratios for different unit operations


Storage Vessel or Tank as above
Reactors L/D  1
Pressure Vessels L/D  2 to 5
Heat Exchangers L/D  4 to 10

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 18


Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 19

8. WALL THICKNESS
Minimum wall thickness
 H gD
t  L L 6t
2 f t10
HL = liquid depth (m)
L = liquid density (kg/m3)
 = joint weld factor also J = joint factor
g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
ft = design stress for tank material (MPa)
Dt = tank diameter (mm)
t = wall thickness (minimum) (mm)
Small tanks
Constant wall thickness calculated at maximum liquid depth
Sometimes determined by requirement of rigidity rather than strength
(see table 13.5 C&R, Vol. 6)
Larger tanks
Economic reasons
Increase in hydrostatic pressure with depth
increase wall thickness with depth
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 20
Note: The minimum wall thickness is based on the maximum
hydrostatic pressure (see previous page), but the vessel is
considered a non-pressure if it is subject only to pressures
caused by the static head of its contents .
As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness of non
supported walls: for both pressure vessels and non-pressure
vessels.
Vessel diameter Minimum wall thickness
(m) (mm)
<1.0 5
1.0 – 2.0 7
2 – 2.5 9
2.5 – 3.0 10
3.0 – 3.5 12
Extrapolate for larger diameters
The minimum practical wall thickness is set to ensure that any
vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight. Note these
values are somewhat larger than category 4 and 5 AS 1692 tanks
due to the specifications
Chapterrequired by AS
3 Non-Pressure 1692
Vessels 21

UNSUPPORTED CONICAL ROOFS


Adapted from: Guide to Storage Tanks and Equipment, B. Long and B. Garner, 2004

Unsupported conical roofs must be able to


support their own weight. The roof angle () and 

the thickness of the roof plates must be specified. 


RC
Unsupported roofs are not recommended for L
tanks greater than 8 m in diameter.
R

-  should be between 9.5o and 37o D

-  depends on L and D such that the roof plates


are perpendicular to a line running from the
bottom centre of the tank to the top outer diameter
(RC) in order to minimise the stress in the roof.
-  is determined by the geometric relationships:

R
sin   and RC  L2  R 2
RC

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 22


UNSUPPORTED CONICAL ROOFS
Adapted from: Guide to Storage Tanks and Equipment, B. Long and B. Garner, 2004

The minimum thickness (tmin) of the roof plates (excluding


corrosion allowance) is determined by the geometric factors
as well as the self weight of the metal roof (Pe) and the
elastic modulus (E) of the roof metal.
40 R 10 Pe
tmin 
sin  E
Where, Pe = loading per square meter due to the self weight
of the metal and E = Youngs modulus of the metal.
For steel plates take Pe = 2.2 kN/m2 and E = 200,000kN/m2
Then tmin simplifies to:
0.41R
tmin  
sin 

RC
In any case tmin should be 5 mm or greater. L

R
D
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 23

FOR VESSELS SUPPORTED BY STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 24


9. STANDARD PLATES
For cylindrical wall and roof (steel frame supported)

- Width
- Thickness
- Length
- Material

10. LOCATION

- For bulk storage, usually in a reserved area such as tank farm


- For process vessels, location decided by the process
- Underground, for safety reasons, avoid leak, difficult to detect
and service.

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 25

Tank Farms for both Pressure Vessels and Storage Tanks


Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 26
Tank Farms for both
Pressure Vessels and
Storage Tanks

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 27

11. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION


- Steel (stainless and mild)
- Plastic – polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced epoxy
- Concrete

12. SUPPORTS
(same as that for pressure vessel)
- Legs, brackets, saddles, skirts
- Flat bottom on concrete

13. INSTRUMENTS
- Level gauge
- Temperature and pressure indicator
- Alarms
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 28
14. SAFETY DEVICES
- Overflow pipes
- Non pressure vent and breathers
- Pressure relief valve
- Bund
- Floating roofs

15. SOLID STORAGE – MAINLY COVERED IN PARTICLE MECHANICS


- Generally called hoppers, bunkers, silos.
- Fill through the top
- Gravity feed and discharge
- Empty through bottom
- Conical bottom for discharge
- Weight of solid and impact momentum → design stress

16. FILLING
- Possible damage to solid handled due to the fall.
- Possible damage to wall of silo for abrasive solids.
- Segregation of differing sizes
Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 29

Bins
Hoppers
Silos

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 30


17. DISCHARGE
- Possible damage during discharge as the solid falls.
- Free flowing material, no real problem.
- Powder may stick to silo wall
- Rat-holing and arching
- Need steep cone angle
- Dust generation
- Output flow control:
- Slide gate
- Vibration devices
- Conveyor – screw or belt

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 31

18. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION


- Steel (stainless or mild)
- HDPE (high density polyethylene)
- HDPP (high density polypropylene)

19. LOAD CONTROL


- Ultrasonic level detector from top
- Load cell – monitoring mass of content

20. NOTE
- Silo design is still an art
- Sometimes the properties of content are difficult to predict
- Best to copy existing design

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 32


Fig. 13.2

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 33

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 34


21. Gas Storage
-At near 1 atm
-Gas Holder or Gasometer
-Expandable volume of vessel

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 35

Piston type Telescoping type

Chapter 3 Non-Pressure Vessels 36


CHAPTER 4. PIPING
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar with and able to use AS4041.
To be aware that pipes and pipe components are usually supplied in
standard sizes.
To understand the differences between pipes and tubes.
To be familiar with different types of joinings, fittings, flanges.
To be familiar with the rules of thumb for pipeline average velocities.
To be able to use mechanical energy balance to determine pipeline
pressure drops.
To be able to determine the minimum design thickness.
To be able to design and specify the details of safe pipelines.
To be able to design pipelines in a economically efficient manner.

Chapter 4 Piping 1

CHAPTER 4. PIPING
1. DEFINITION OF PIPING
Piping is an assembly of pipes, pipe fitting, valves, and pipe
accessories for containing fluids, including associated bolting,
gaskets, and pressure retaining parts, or other components
normally considered to be a part of piping. It includes pipe-
supporting elements, but does not include the structure such
as building frames and foundations. (AS4041, Clause 1.7.37)

2. IMPORTANCE OF PIPING
Typically 20% of investment cost
Without piping, chemical plant cannot operate
AS4041 available in the Uni library. (e-version + hardcopy)
search for SAI Global or under standards

Chapter 4 Piping 2
Chapter 4 Piping 3

Chapter 4 Piping 4
Chapter 4 Piping 5

3. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
Victorian registration is not required
Design must be recorded, verified, and the results kept for the life of the plant
The philosophy is ‘If it fails, you have to show that it was correctly designed’.

4. NATIONAL STANDARDS
- AS4041 Pressure Piping
- ANSI/ASME B31.1 Power Piping
- ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
- BS806 Specification for the design and construction of ferrous piping
installations for an in connection with land boilers
- AS4041 takes the best of the overseas standards
- Allowed to use any approved national standard but not to mix
standards in the one application (AS4041, Clause 1.6)
- Standards set out the factors to be considered when designing,
supplying and erecting piping.

Chapter 4 Piping 6
5. COMPANY STANDARDS
- Mainly in bigger and especially oil companies
- May have to devise a set for the project
- Generally set out preferred options acceptable to the code,
e.g. flange ratings AS, ANSI or ISO and preferred options not
covered by the code, e.g. pipes in overhead or ground level
tracks.
6. PIPING CLASSIFICATION
- Table 1.4 and 1.5, AS4041
- Classes available - 1, 2A, 2P and 3

7. AIM OF CLASSIFICATION
Piping class is to give a high level of reliable performance and
adequate protection to life and property taking into account the
fluid and conditions inside the pipe.

Chapter 4 Piping 7

TABLE 1.4
APPLICATION OF PIPING CLASSES FOR SERVICE CONDITIONS

AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 8
AS 4343, 2005

Chapter 4 Piping 9

AS 4343, 2005

Chapter 4 Piping 10
Chapter 4 Piping 11
AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 12
AS 4041, 2006
AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 13

Chapter 4 Piping 14
AS 4041, 2006
Chapter 4 Piping 15
AS 4041, 2006

AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 16
8. DESIGN FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
- Nature of fluid – Lethal
Flammable
Toxic
Harmful to human tissue
Not harmful
Corrosive
- Consequences of failure
- Service condition – Design temperature
Design pressure
- Material of construction
- Thickness of pipe wall
- Quality of joints and welded seams

Once classified, the material of construction, design method,


construction method, (e.g. seamless ), jointing methods, (e.g. butt
welding), testing procedures, inspection procedures are laid down
and to be followed.
Chapter 4 Piping 17

Class 3, for less demanding situation, least quality, cheapest


Class 2, for higher T&P, stricter rules
Class 1, for maximum safety, more stringent construction and
checks, best quality, most expensive.

9. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION FOR PIPING


- Determined by the process

- Parameters to consider include:


- Temperature, pressure, corrosion, hazardous nature, health requirements

- E.g. carbon steel and stainless steel, other


- Copper and copper alloy
- Nickel and nickel alloy
- Aluminium and aluminium alloy
- Galvanized iron
- PVC, poly-propylene and other plastics
Chapter 4 Piping 18
10. PIPING COMPONENTS
- Pipes
- Fittings
- Flanges
- Valves
- Pipe accessories
- Support units

Chapter 4 Piping 19

11. STANDARD PIPES


Pipes are available in standard sizes only, i.e. in standard lengths
(6m) and diameters

Nominal size – specifies outside diameter

Schedule No – specifies wall thickness and inside diameter

DN is code designed to match the standard sized pipes (e.g. pipes


with 1” nominal bore) which are manufactured according to the
American system.

Most frequently used ones are Schedule 40 and Schedule 80

The inside pipe diameter, i.d., is chosen to give the Schedule 40 and
Schedule 80 pipe an i.d. close to that specified by the DN code.

Specification sheets from BlueScope Steel available on LMS and


next 2 pages. Chapter 4 Piping 20
Chapter 4 Piping 21

Chapter 4 Piping 22
Chapter 4 Piping 23

Chapter 4 Piping 24
When the pipe is bent, thinning of material occurs in the outside
of the bend. There is a limit to angle of bend, depending on wall
thickness and nature of material. When in doubt, use a fitting.

Pipe of same Schedule have same maximum design pressure,


e.g. if a Schedule 40 pipe of one diameter is shown by
calculations to be OK for a fixed design pressure, then it is
generally OK for other diameter Schedule 40 pipes to be
operated under the same design pressure.

12. THE WALL THICKNESS OF PIPES


Another way of specifying the wall thickness of pipes:

STD = Schedule 40, standard weight


XS = Schedule 80, extra strong
XXS = Schedule 160, extra, extra strong
Nominal = So called, but not exact

Chapter 4 Piping 25

13. STANDARD TUBES


- Tubes are available in standard sizes only, and in standard lengths,
i.e. discrete sizes (small jumps in diameter).
- Size – specifies outside diameter
Gauge – specifies wall thickness and inside diameter
e.g. commonly seen gauges are: 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18 gauge
- See Table D-7 (next page)
- No code equivalent to the ‘DN’ code is available.
Just go by the diameter and gauge, e.g. 1” tube, gauge 14
1 ½” tube, gauge 16 etc.
14. PIPES VS TUBES
Tubes are for Heat Exchanger design:
The o.d is exact, i.e. exactly the specified value;
The i.d. varies, depending on the gauge specified (wall thickness).
Referred to, by tube diameter and gauge specification.

Pipes are for Fluid Transport:


The o.d. has a fixed value, but i.d. and o.d. are nominal, (not exact) i.d. and od.
are close to the specified DN value.
The i.d. varies, depending on Schedule Number (wall thickness).
Referred to by nominal pipe diameter, (nominal size) and Schedule Number.
Chapter 4 Piping 26
TEMA
standards

Chapter 4 Piping 27

15. TYPES OF PIPES/TUBES


- Seamless
- Welded seam (for large pipe diameter only)
- ERW (Electric Resistance Welded)

ERW is welded seam pipe. For pipes with diameters up to 300-


450 mm, they are available as seamless pipes. Directly extruded
without seam. But for diameters>450 mm, usually welded. ERW
is just one of the products.

16. SERVICE LIMIT


- The operating temperature and pressure limit, maximum operable
temperature and pressure

Chapter 4 Piping 28
17. PIPE ROUGHNESS
Only an approximation
See Table 3.3 Coulson and Richardson, Volume 1 and Walas
Table 3.3 Values of the roughness , for use in equation 3.92

Chapter 4 Piping 29

18. JOINTING
Welded - Most commonly used – usually with fittings
Flanged - Use in areas where access to pipe at regular internals is needed
used for final connection to process equipment.
Screwed - less used, small diameters only.
19. JOINTING WITH FITTINGS
Some commonly used ones are:
Straight union – for straight connections.
Elbows – fittings are usually used for 90o turns at the joint to
avoid bending the pipes by force. When pipes are bent,
stresses are built in the inside and outside of the bend,
and the pipe is weakened.
Tee - for branching
- direct welding of pipes to form the Tee joint, less preferred.
Reducer - for joining pipes of different diameter.
Usually forged or cast.
Fittings also have standard sizes made to fit the standard pipes
Wall thickness is also specified by the Australian and American Standards.
Chapter 4 Piping 30
butt weld cap
90o butt weld elbow 450 butt weld elbow

butt weld tee butt weld concentric reducer butt weld eccentric reducer

socket weld tee


can be screwed socket weld reducer
socket weld elbow

Chapter 4 Piping 31
Royston 5.13

Figure 3.17 Standard pipe fittings

C&R, Vol 1

Chapter 4 Piping 32
20. TYPES OF FLANGES

- Raised face or flat face


- Welding neck flanges
- Lapped joint flanges
- Slip on flanges
- Grooved flanges
- Blind or blank flanges
- Socket welding flanges
- Screwed flanges
- See C&R, Vol. 6, Fig 13.33

Chapter 4 Piping 33

Welding - neck Slip-on blind

Lap-joint Screwed Socket weld


Chapter 4 Piping 34
C&R, Vol. 6
21. GASKETS
- To make a leak tight joint
- See AS1210 Table 3.21.6.4
- Choice of material depends on temperature, pressure, and nature of fluid

Commonly used in bolted flange joints:

- Full face gasket


- Gasket within bolt circle
- Spigot and socket
- Ring type with a grove
- Blind or blank gasket
- See AS1210, Fig 3.21.2

Chapter 4 Piping 35

Chapter 4 Piping 36
AS 1210, 1997
full-face joint (gasket within bolt circle) (spigot and socket) (ring type joint)
narrow face joint Narrow face joint narrow face joint

FIGURE 3.21.2 TYPES OF BOLTED FLANGE JOINT

Chapter 4 Piping 37
AS 1210, 1997

22. FLANGE DESIGN


- Equations are available
- Good vs. bad designs
- See AS1210, fig 3.21.3 and C&R, vol 6, fig 13.36

Chapter 4 Piping 38
23. STANDARD FLANGES

- See following specifications, Flanges to Australian Standards, and


Flanges to American Standards

- Specified by rating

- Each rating differs in thickness and bolt diameter

- Must suit design conditions

- ANSI Class 150 and 300 are most commonly used

- Bolt holes in multiples of four

- Thickness, diameters: i.d. and o.d., blind flanges

Chapter 4 Piping 39

Chapter 4 Piping 40
Chapter 4 Piping 41

Chapter 4 Piping 42
Chapter 4 Piping 43

Chapter 4 Piping 44
24. PRINCIPLES OF PIPING DESIGN

- To design a piping system which allows the fluid to be transported


at a suitable velocity

- Does not generate excessive friction loss and pressure drop

- Economises the distance of travel by the fluid

- Strikes a balance between the capital cost and the operating cost

- And yet handles the transportation of the fluid safely and efficiently

Chapter 4 Piping 45

25. PIPING DESIGN PROCEDURES


1. Establish process conditions
- Flow rate
- Fluid temperature and pressure
- Nature of fluid
2. Design preliminary run
3. Determine pipe size
4. Select material
5. Select piping class
6. Calculate ∆P
7. Calculate wall thickness
8. Determine testing procedure required
9. Establish testing parameters
10. Perform flexibility analysis
11. Establish final piping layout
Chapter 4 Piping 46
26. TYPICAL FLUID VELOCITIES
From C&R, Vol. 6

Liquids
Pipes 1 – 3m/s
Water 1.5m/s to 2.5m/s

In Heat Exchanges
Shell side 0.3 – 1m/s
Tube side 1 – 3m/s

Vapors
Vacuum 50 – 70m/s
Atm pressure 10 – 30m/s
High pressure 5 – 10m/s

Chapter 4 Piping 47

27. PRESSURE DROP IN A PIPING NETWORK

The Bernouli equation represents the energy balance for the fluid
flow between two points in a piping network:

v12 v22
gh p  gh1  P1   gh2  P2   gh f
2 2

When this equation is rearranged, the Bernouli equation in a


form where each term is expressed as a head change is
obtained.
P1 v12 P2 v22
h p  h1    h2    hf
g 2 g g 2 g

Where hp is the pump head


hf is the friction head

Chapter 4 Piping 48
2
And h  (  all K )
v
f i
2g
K i  Equivalent number of velocity heads

fL
For straight pipe K 
D

For other fittings see Table 6.4, Perry’s, and Table 3.2, C&R, Vol 1.
Note that these K values are rough estimates only, difficult to count
all the fittings and bends.
Once all K are counted -
fL v2
h f  (  K1  K 2    )
D 2g

Straight Other
Pipe Resistances
Chapter 4 Piping 49

C & R Vol 1

Chapter 4 Piping 50
Perry’s
64
For Re <2100, f  Darcy’s Friction Factor
Re
2
  0.135 6.5  Note:
And Re>2100, f  1.6364 1n   
  D Re  Fannings’ Friction
Factor is one quarter
(Eq. 6.2 Walas) of Darcy’s

Where  = pipe roughness, in mm


D = pipe id, in mm
Dv
Re =

For - a horizontal pipe
- no pipe diameter change
- no pump
- constant  and µ
∆P = P1 – P2 = ghf

Chapter 4 Piping 51

28. FRICTION FACTOR

Watch out – not all friction factors are the same.


Depends on which one you choose to use.
f hf

Fanning friction factor 16  4 fL  v


2
 
Re  D  2g

64  fL  v
2
Darcy friction factor  
Re  D  2g

 L  v  64 
2

Both relationships give: h f      


 
D 2 g  Re 

Chapter 4 Piping 52
Chapter 4 Piping 53

29. FOR NON-CIRCULAR PIPES

4 x Cross section area of flow


Hydraulic diameter = DH =
Wetted Perimeter

A quick check gives:


D 2
4
For Circular pipes, DH =
4 D
D

30. FLOW REGIMES


Laminar Flow Re<2100
Transition Flow Re 2100 – 4000
Turbulent Flow Re>4000

Chapter 4 Piping 54
31. WALL THICKNESS OF STRAIGHT PIPE
tm = tf + G

tm = required minimum wall thickness (mm)

tf = pressure design minimum wall thickness (mm)

G = sum of appropriate allowances (mm)

G = corrosion allowance + 12.5% of tm

Corrosion allowance (relies somewhat on experience)


For carbon and low alloy steel
2mm – less severe corrosion
4mm – more severe corrosion
1mm – minimum

Chapter 4 Piping 55

32. WALL THICKNESS FOR PIPES OPERATING UNDER PRESSURE

D
Thin wall pipe tf 
6

D
Thick wall pipe tf 
6
We will consider thin wall pipes only and steel pipe only (ferritic,
austenitic steel pipes).

Under internal pressure (AS4041):

(a) Based on od of pipe


PD
tf  3.14.3 (1)
2 feM  P

Chapter 4 Piping 56
(b) based on id of pipe
Pd
tf  3.14.3 (2)
2 feM  P
Where:
D = outside diameter (mm)
M = pipe class factor (Table 3.12.3)
d = inside diameter (mm)
e = weld joint factor or cast quality factor (Table 3.12.2)
f = design strength (MPa) (Table D2)
P = design pressure, (MPa)
tf = pressure design minimum wall thickness (in mm)

Safety Factors:
M = to allow for quality of the pipes
e = to allow for quality of longitudinal welding or allow for
quality of cast pipes.

Chapter 4 Piping 57

AS4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 58
TABLE D2
AS 4041
2006
MATERIAL PROPERTIES, DESIGN PARAMETERS-CARBON, CARBON-MANGANESE
STEEL, PIPE AND TUBE
(not including joint factor or class design factor

Note: Re is Yield Strength


not Reynolds Number

Chapter 4 Piping 59

33. MANUFACTURE UNDER TOLERANCE


Tolerance = 12.5% from U.S. Standard
G = Σ Gi
G = G1 + G2 + …. + 0.125tm
34. OTHER PRACTICAL RULE OF THUMB
The pipes must support its own weight even when there is no fluid in
the pipe. Particularly when most pipes are only supported with
anchors and guides every 4-6 metres.

To ensure the pipes have sufficient wall thickness to prevent excess


sagging, most petro-chemical/chemical plants use these conventions:

For carbon steel


Up to DN40 Use schedule 80
DN50 – DN150 Use schedule 40

For stainless steel, due to cost considerations


Up to DN150 Use schedule 10S
Chapter 4 Piping 60
35. TESTINGS
1. Visual test
2. Radiographic test
3. Hydrostatic test
4. Material test
5. Magnetic particles test
6. Penetrant test

36. PENETRANT TESTING


A low viscosity oil is smeared on the pipe, it is then wiped clean.
A fine powder coating is placed on the pipe and one must then
wait for development. If there is a crack, oil will initially be
trapped in the crack. When powder is spread on, the oil will seep
out and become absorbed onto the powder coating showing up
as a track line along the fine cracks.

Chapter 4 Piping 61

37. MAGNETIC PARTICLES TESTING


The pipe is magnetized. Fine iron filings are placed on the
outside of the pipe. Where there is a crack, there will be
concentrated gathering of filings, even standing up on their ends.

38. HYDROSTATIC TESTING


For steel pipes
0.83P Re
Ph  (AS4041, 6.7.2(a))
f

Where Ph = hydrostatic test pressure (in MPa)


P = design pressure ( MPa)
Re = specified minimum yield strength at test temperature (in MPa)
f = design strength at design temperature (in MPa)
Note: Re is Yield Strength not Reynolds Number
Chapter 4 Piping 62
39. HOOP (CIRCUMFERENTIAL) STRESS
Ph D
fa 
2t

Where fa = actual hoop stress during pressure test (in MPa)


D = outside pipe diameter (in mm)
t = wall thickness (in mm)

The actual hoop stress, fa, during the pressure test shall not
exceed 90% of Re, the specified minimum yield strength.

f a  0.9 Re

Chapter 4 Piping 63

40. GENERAL COMMENTS


1. Generally easier to run between two points, e.g. tank to tank via a
pump

2. More difficult when pipes are used to handle utilities streams e.g. air,
steam
- Provide spare capacity for future demand?
- How much?
- How many branches?.

3. Balances to be made between installing cost and operating cost


- Bigger pipes, higher equipment cost initially, but lower operating
cost later.

4. Thermal insulation – is this required?

5. Access to valves and support for piping.

Chapter 4 Piping 64
25. PIPING DESIGN PROCEDURES
1. Establish process conditions
- Flow rate
- Fluid temperature and pressure
- Nature of fluid
2. Design preliminary run
3. Determine pipe size
4. Select material
5. Select piping class
6. Calculate ∆P
7. Calculate wall thickness
8. Determine testing procedure required
9. Establish testing parameters
10. Perform flexibility analysis
11. Establish final piping layout
Chapter 4 Piping 65

PIPELINE WORKED EXAMPLE 1


Two tanks are located – 30 x 10 x 8 meters away from each other
as shown in the diagram on the next page.

Water at ambient temperature and pressure is to be pumped from


tank 1 to tank 2. The suction line is located at a point 3 metres
below the liquid level in tank 1. The discharge is located at the top
of tank 2.

14 tones of water must be transferred per hour by the pump.

1. Specify the piping required.

2. Determine friction loss in the pipe.

3. Determine the pump head.

Chapter 4 Piping 66
All pipes should be
vertical or horizontal
and orthogonal to each
other.

Chapter 4 Piping 67

Pump should be near


the source.

Chapter 4 Piping 68
- Water at room temp

- Non-corrosive

- Try Class 2P or 3 piping


.
m = 14000 kg/hr
= 3.889 kg/s

- Carbon steel

kg
3.889
V  s
1000 kg 3
m
3
 3.889 10 3 m
s

TABLE 1.4
Application of piping classes for service conditions

AS4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 70
Select pipe size

Target v = 2.0 m/s, middle of the range

V
v  2.0 m
A s

V 3.889  103 m 3 / s
A   0.00194m 2
v 2m / s

A  0.00194m 2 A  R 2

A 0.00194m 2
R   0.0248m
 
D = 0.0497 m = 49.7 mm
Select nearest standard pipe size
Select DN50, try Schedule 80

Chapter 4 Piping 71

Extra Strong is the same as Schedule 80

Chapter 4 Piping 72
o.d = 60.3 mm kg
3.889
Wall t = 5.54 mm V  s
1000 kg
i.d. = 49.22 mm m3

Double check actual velocity 3


 3.889 10 3 m
 0.0492m 2
s
A  R  2

4
V 3.889  103 m3 / s
 1.903 10 3 m 2 v   2.044m / s
A 1.903  103 m 2

V
v   2.044 m
A s

OK
Chapter 4 Piping 73

 fL  v2
2
h f    K i 
P1 v12 P2 v22 D  2g
hp  h1    h2    hf
 g 2g  g 2g
L  30  10  8m
v1  0 Large reservoir
 48m
P1  P2  latm
K i : in no of velocity heads
Elbows 2 x 0.75 =1.50
v22
hp   h f   h2  h1  Straight union 7 x 0.04= 0.28
2g
Flanges 4 x 0.04= 0.16

h2  h1  10m  3m  7 m Valves 1x6 = 6.00


 Ki =8.02

Chapter 4 Piping 74
Pump should be near
the source.

Chapter 4 Piping 75

C & R Vol 1

Chapter 4 Piping 76
Perry’s
 fL  v2
2
h f    K i 
P1 v12 P2 v22 D  2g
hp  h1    h2    hf
 g 2g  g 2g
L  30  10  8m
v1  0 Large reservoir
 48m
P1  P2  latm
K i : in no of velocity heads
Elbows 2 x 0.75 =1.50
v22
hp   h f   h2  h1  Straight union 7 x 0.04= 0.28
2g
Flanges 4 x 0.04= 0.08

h2  h1  10m  3m  7 m Valves 1x6 = 6.00


 Ki =8.02

Chapter 4 Piping 77

2
  0.135  6.5 
f  1.6364ln  
  D  Re 

v  2.044 m
s

  1000 kg
m3

  110 3 kg ms

D  0.0492m

Dv
Re   100606

  0.05mm   0.05 / 49.2  0.001


D

f  0.0226 Chapter 4 Piping 78


O

Chapter 4 Piping 79

Chapter 4 Piping 80
FRICTION LOSS PUMP HEAD

fL 0.0226 48m  v2
D

0.0492m   0.213m
2g

 22.05 Velocity heads


h p  7 m  6.40m  0.21m
v2
h f  22.05  8.02 
2g  13.6m of water

v2
 30.07
2g

2
 m
30.07 2.044 
 s
hf 

2 9.81 m s 2 
 6.40m of water head
Chapter 4 Piping 81

SUCTION SIDE HEAD TOTAL HEAD

P1 v12 ht  hp  hs
hs  h1  
 g 2g
ht  13.6m  13.33m
v1  0  26.9m of water
hf  0
The maximum pressure in the pipeline
will be that just after the pump. So use
101,300 the value of ht -1 atm (the pressure
hs  3m  outside of the pipe) to determine the
1000  9.8
design pressure.
hs  3m  10.33
hs  13.33m of water head P   g (ht  hatm )

P  1.63 105 kg = 163kPa


ms 2

Chapter 4 Piping 82
Pd
WALL THICKNESS tf 
2 feM  P

Design pressure = 163kPa


f  184 MPa
Not too high
P  0.163MPa
Try ASME-A-106 – C grade
(equivalent to e  1.0
ASTM-A-106 – C grade)

Buy seamless pipe M  0.7

d  49.22mm

t f  0.031mm
For liquid – pressure pipe not needed.
Add corrosion allowance = 2mm, still very thin.
Chapter 4 Piping 83

TABLE D2
AS 4041
2006 MATERIAL PROPERTIES, DESIGN PARAMETERS-CARBON, CARBON-MANGANESE
STEEL, PIPE AND TUBE
(not including joint factor or class design factor

Note: Re is Yield Strength


not Reynolds Number

Chapter 4 Piping 84
AS4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 85

- At least 9 lengths of 6m pipe are needed

- Must record design

- Friction loss ~ 30 velocity heads

- Pump head ~ 13.6m of water

- Design pressure = 163kPa

- DN50, diameter ok

- Wall thickness 5.54mm

- Check Table 3.14.2 class 2P or 3, both ok

- Check Table 1.4 T & P ok

Chapter 4 Piping 86
AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 87

AS4041,2006

Chapter 4 Piping 88
Chapter 4 Piping 89
AS 4041, 2006

CLASS 3
-100o TO 180oC

CLASS 2P
0 to 99oC

Specify carbon steel check with Table 1.3 ok.

Perform visual inspection 100% 4.1

Hydrostatic test or equivalent required 4.5


-
If class 2P, 10%
Pipes tested
Penetrant 4.2
Magnetic Particle 4.3
Radiographic 4.4

Let’s stay as Class 3 for this design


Chapter 4 Piping 90
- Jointing with fittings

- Welded joints with straight union

- Connection to vessels and valves with Flanges

- Flat full face flanges, not high pressure

- Socket welding flanges (cheapest)

Chapter 4 Piping 91

PN is equivalent to the maximum pressure rating 100 kPa.


ie. PN 20 is nominally rated to 2000 kPa

For our case, Design pressure = 163kPa,


at 25oC, PN20 (Class 150) is Ok
Chapter 4 Piping 92
Chapter 4 Piping 93

- Class 150 flanges appear sufficient,


DN50 flanges.

- Full face gasket, rubber

- Structural support

Chapter 4 Piping 94
PIPELINE WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Design pressure piping for steam.
Operating P = 4500-5000 kPa Gauge
Operating T = 340-360oC
Superheated steam is to be conveyed.
What wall thickness is required?
What hydrostatic test P should be applied?
Given, but normally need to

V
DN200 PIPE IS TO BE USED calculate from v 
A
Using a target velocity
Use AS4041 Pressure Pipe
Fluid type - Tables 1.4 and AS 4343
Fluid No. 2 - harmful to human tissue, class 2P is excluded

Chapter 4 Piping 95

TABLE 1.4
APPLICATION OF PIPING CLASSES FOR SERVICE CONDITIONS
AS 4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 96
AS 4343, 2005

Chapter 4 Piping 97

Try Class 2A first


Pressure – 5MPa and 360oC
– Class 3 is excluded Choose ASTM-A-106-C
(ASME-A-106-C)
Must be Class 1 or 2A @400oC → f = 101MPa
Try Schedule 40,DN200
Class 1 – No restriction on
T and P and wall thickness id = 202.72 mm
o.d. = 219.08 mm
Class 2- max 10 MPa, 400oC,
32 mm wall thickness
Pd
tf 
Class 1 – more stringent construction 2 feM  P
and testing procedures
P = 5 MPa d = 202.72 mm
e=1 tf = 5.15 mm
M=1

Chapter 4 Piping 98
TABLE D2
AS 4041
2006 MATERIAL PROPERTIES, DESIGN PARAMETERS-CARBON, CARBON-MANGANESE
STEEL, PIPE AND TUBE
(not including joint factor or class design factor

Note: Re is Yield Strength


not Reynolds Number

Chapter 4 Piping 99

Standard is the same as Schedule 40

Chapter 4 Piping 100


AS4041, 2006

Chapter 4 Piping 101

G1: Assume corrosion


Allowance = 3 mm
G2: Manufacture under tolerance = 12.5%
By U.S. Std. widely adopted in Australia,
therefore add 12.5% to the final thickness
G = G1+ G2
G = 3 + 0.125tm

tm = tf + G
tm = 5.15 + 3 + 0.125 tm
tm = 9.19 mm
Check with pipe line data sheet
Sch’d 40 w.t. = 8.18 mm
Sch’d 80 w.t. = 12.7 mm
Select Schedule 80
o.d. = 219.08 mm
i.d. = 193.68 mm Chapter 4 Piping 102
Extra Strong is the same as Schedule 80

Chapter 4 Piping 103

Recalculate using
i.d. = 193.68 mm,
But tm won’t change much

Pressure piping, yes


Wall thickenss <32 mm
Class 2A, ok.

Good record needed

Tests needed, Table 1.5

Carbon steel, ok
Table 1.5

Minimum wall thickness


Schedule 80, OK,

Chapter 4 Piping 104


AS 4041, 1992

Chapter 4 Piping 105

Chapter 4 Piping 106


AS 4041, 2006
Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Common method is to fill the pipes with cold water, and pump up to the
required pressure.

For carbon steel pipe


0.83P Re in MPa
Ph 
f

Re is Yield Stress not Reynolds number.


P  5MPa

f  101MPa

Re  276 MPa

Ph  11.34 MPa
Chapter 4 Piping 107

TABLE D2
AS 4041
2006 MATERIAL PROPERTIES, DESIGN PARAMETERS-CARBON, CARBON-MANGANESE
STEEL, PIPE AND TUBE
(not including joint factor or class design factor

Note: Re is Yield Strength


not Reynolds Number

Chapter 4 Piping 108


HOOP STRESS

Ph D
fa 
2t

fa 
11.34 MPa 219.08mm 
2 12.70mm 
= 97.8 MPa
Re = Specified min. yield stress

fa<0.9 Re

97.8 <?? (0.9) (276)

97.8 < yes 248

Chapter 4 Piping 109

OTHER ISSUES

Check fluid velocity

Flanges – type, class PN100

Welding method

Fittings

Test methods Table 1.5

Structural support

Record keeping

Chapter 4 Piping 110


PN is equivalent to the maximum pressure rating 100 kPa.
ie. PN 20 is nominally rated to 2000 kPa

For our case, Design pressure = 5MPa,


at 400oC, PN100 (Class 600) is Ok – 6.9 MPa
Chapter 4 Piping 111
Pipeline Supplies
Technical Data Chart

Call 1300 66 11 56
Fax (03) 8543 1146

Face side of chart Reverse side of chart


CARBON STEEL LINEPIPE • DIMENSIONS 1
NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS FOR WELDED & SEAMLESS STEEL PIPE
ASME B36.10 All dimensions are shown in millimetres
NOMINAL OUT-
SIZE SIDE
DIAM. STAN- EXTRA XX SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED. SCHED.
DN mm DARD STRONG STRONG 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

6 10.3 1.73 2.41 – – – – – – – – –


8 13.7 2.24 3.02 – – – – – – – – –
10 17.1 2.31 3.20 – – – – – – – – –

SAME AS EXTRA STRONG W.T. (X.S.)


15 21.3 2.77 3.73 7.47 – – – – – – – 4.78

SAME AS STANDARD W.T. (Std. W.T.)


20 26.7 2.87 3.91 7.82 – – – – – – – 5.56
25 33.4 3.38 4.55 9.09 – – – – – – – 6.35
32 42.2 3.56 4.85 9.70 – – – – – – – 6.35
40 48.3 3.68 5.08 10.15 – – – – – – – 7.14
50 60.3 3.91 5.54 11.07 – – – – – – – 8.74
65 73.0 5.16 7.01 14.02 – – – – – – – 9.53
80 88.9 5.49 7.62 15.24 – – – – – – – 11.13
90 101.6 5.74 8.08 – – – – – – – – –
100 114.3 6.02 8.56 17.12 – – – – – 11.13 – 13.49
125 141.3 6.55 9.53 19.05 – – – – – 12.70 – 15.88
150 168.3 7.11 10.97 21.95 – – – – – 14.27 – 18.26
200 219.1 8.18 12.70 22.23 – 6.35 7.04 10.31 15.09 18.26 20.62 23.01
250 273.1 9.27 12.70 25.40 – 6.35 7.80 XS 15.09 18.26 21.44 XXS 28.58
300 323.9 9.53 12.70 25.40 – 6.35 8.38 10.31 14.27 17.48 21.44 XXS 28.58 33.32
350 355.6 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 7.92 Std.W.T. 11.13 15.09 19.05 23.83 27.79 31.75 35.71
400 406.4 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 7.92 Std.W.T. XS 16.66 21.44 26.19 30.96 36.53 40.49
450 457 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 7.92 11.13 14.27 19.05 23.83 29.36 34.93 39.67 45.24
500 508 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 Std.W.T. XS 15.09 20.62 26.19 32.54 38.10 44.45 50.01
550 559 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 Std.W.T. XS – 22.23 28.58 34.93 41.28 47.63 53.98
600 610 9.53 12.70 – 6.35 Std.W.T. 14.27 17.48 24.61 30.96 38.89 46.02 52.37 59.54
650 660 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS – – – – – – – –
700 711 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS 15.88 – – – – – – –
750 762 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS 15.88 – – – – – – –
800 813 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS 15.88 17.48 – – – – – –
850 864 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS 15.88 17.48 – – – – – –
900 914 9.53 12.70 – 7.92 XS 15.88 19.05 – – – – – –
1050 1067 9.53 12.70 – – – – – – – – – – –

Formula to attain approximate mass in kilograms per metre (kg/m) for Steel Round Pipe and Tubing

{ {
m = (D – t) t x 0.02466 Nominal Size Step 1. 323.9 – 9.53 = 314.37
Where, DN300 NPS12 Step 2. 314.37 x 9.53 = 2995.9461
EXAMPLE: OD = 323.9mm Step 3. 2995.9461 x 0.024 66
m = mass to the nearest 0.01 kg/m
D = Outside Diameter in millimetres W.T. = 9.53mm = 73.88kg/m
(To nearest 0.1mm for OD up to 406.4mm)
(To nearest 1.0mm for OD 457mm and above)
t = Wall Thickness to nearest 0.01mm

Call 1300 66 11 56 • Fax (03) 8543 1146

1 Carbon Steel Pipe • Dimensions Carbon Steel Pipe • Weights 2


FLANGE ASME B16.5 FORGED FLANGES 7

NOMINAL SIZE
CLASS 150 (PN20) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150# 200# 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
OD A 90 100 110 120 130 150 180 190 230 255 280 345 405 485 535 600 635 700 815
MIN THICK* D 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.0 17.5 19.5 22.5 24.0 24.0 24.0 25.5 29.0 30.5 32.0 35.0 37.0 40.0 43.0 48.0
HUB LENGTH** C 16 16 17 21 22 25 29 30 33 36 40 44 49 56 57 64 68 73 83
HUB LENGTH W/N B 48 52 56 57 62 64 70 70 76 89 89 102 102 114 127 127 140 145 152
PCD K 60.5 70.0 79.5 89.0 98.5 120.5 139.5 152.5 190.5 216.0 241.5 298.5 362.0 432.0 476.0 540.0 578.0 635.0 749.5
BOLT HOLE DIA H 16 16 16 16 16 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 26 26 30 30 33 33 36
No BOLTS 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20
WEIGHT Kg*** 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.1 1.4 2.2 3.8 4.1 5.9 6.1 8.2 12.7 17.2 27.2 35.4 42.2 52.6 65.3 91.6
WEIGHT Kg W/N 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.8 4.4 5.2 7.5 9.5 11.3 19.1 25.4 38.1 51.3 63.5 74.9 89.4 121.7
WEIGHT Kg BLIND 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.3 3.2 4.1 7.7 9.1 12.0 21.4 30.5 50.6 63.0 85.0 99.0 129.0 190.0

CLASS 300 (PN50) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150# 200# 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
OD A 95 120 125 135 155 165 190 210 255 280 320 380 445 520 585 650 710 775 915
MIN THICK* D 14.5 16.0 17.5 19.5 21.0 22.5 25.5 29.0 32.0 35.0 37.0 41.5 48.0 51.0 54.0 57.5 60.5 63.5 70.0
HUB LENGTH** C 22 25 27 27 30 33 38 43 48 51 52 62 67 73 76 83 89 95 106
HUB LENGTH W/N B 52 57 62 65 68 70 76 79 86 98 98 111 117 130 143 146 159 162 168
PCD K 66.5 82.5 89.0 98.5 114.5 127.0 149.0 168.5 200.0 235.0 270.0 330.0 387.5 451.0 514.5 571.5 628.5 686.0 813.0
BOLT HOLE DIA H 16 20 20 20 22 20 22 22 22 22 22 26 30 33 33 36 36 36 42
No BOLTS 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24
WEIGHT Kg*** 0.7 1.3 1.4 2.0 2.8 3.1 4.5 6.1 9.5 12.7 16.3 25.4 35.4 50.8 72.2 95.3 114.9 139.4 222.3
WEIGHT Kg W/N 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.3 3.1 3.7 5.6 8.2 11.8 16.3 20.0 32.2 45.4 64.4 93.5 113.1 138.4 167.5 235.6
WEIGHT Kg BLIND 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.7 3.2 3.6 5.5 7.3 12.7 16.8 21.8 35.9 55.0 83.0 110.0 143.0 188.0 234.0 364.0

CLASS 600 (PN100) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150# 200# 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
OD A 95 120 125 135 155 165 190 210 275 330 355 420 510 560 605 685 745 815 940
MIN THICK* D 14.5 16.0 17.5 21.0 22.5 26.5 29.0 32.0 38.5 44.5 48.0 55.5 63.5 66.5 70.0 76.5 83.0 89.0 102.0
HUB LENGTH** C 22 25 27 29 32 37 41 46 54 60 67 76 86 92 94 106 117 127 140
HUB LENGTH W/N B 52 57 62 67 70 73 79 83 102 114 117 133 152 156 165 178 184 190 203
PCD K 66.5 82.5 89.0 98.5 114.5 127.0 149.0 168.5 216.0 267.0 292.0 349.0 432.0 489.0 527.0 603.0 654.0 724.0 838.0
BOLT HOLE DIA H 16 20 20 20 22 20 22 22 26 30 30 33 36 36 39 42 45 45 52
No BOLTS 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24
WEIGHT Kg*** 0.9 1.4 1.6 2.0 3.0 3.6 5.5 6.8 15.0 28.6 36.3 44.0 80.4 97.6 117.6 166.2 216.1 277.9 397.7
WEIGHT Kg W/N 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.5 3.6 4.5 6.4 8.2 16.8 30.9 38.1 50.6 85.8 102.6 157.5 218.4 252.0 313.3 443.6
WEIGHT Kg BLIND 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.6 6.8 9.1 18.6 30.9 39.1 63.0 105.0 134.0 172.0 240.0 302.0 389.0 534.0

* MINIMUM THICKNESS INCLUDING RAISED FACE BUT EXCLUDING HUB OR WELD NECK
** HUB LENGTH FOR SLIP ON SCREWED & SOCKET WELD FLANGES
*** APPROXIMATE WEIGHT FOR SLIP ON SOCKET WELD & SCREWED
# OD OF PIPE MUST BE NOMINATED

Call 1300 66 11 56 • Fax (03) 8543 1146

7 Forged ANSI B16.5 Forged Flanges Forged ANSI B16.5 Forged Flanges 8
FLANGE ASME B16.5 FORGED FLANGES 8
NOMINAL SIZE
CLASS 900 (PN150) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150# 200# 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
OD A 240 295 350 380 470 545 610 640 705 785 855 1040
MIN THICK * D 38.5 44.5 51.0 56.0 63.5 70.0 79.5 86.0 89.0 102.0 108.0 140.0
HUB LENGTH** C USE CLASS 1500 DIMENSIONS 54 70 79 86 102 108 117 130 133 152 159 203
HUB LENGTH W/N B 102 114 127 140 162 184 200 213 216 229 248 292
PCD K 190.5 235.0 279.5 317.5 393.5 470.0 533.5 559.0 616.0 686.0 749.5 901.5
BOLT HOLE DIA H IN THESE SIZES 26 32 35 32 39 39 39 42 45 52 54 68
No BOLTS 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 20 20
WEIGHT Kg*** 14.1 24.1 37.7 49.0 78.1 111.2 148.0 172.5 208.4 293.7 359.6 671.9
WEIGHT Kg W/N 13.2 23.2 39.0 49.9 84.9 121.7 168.9 255.2 311.0 419.5 528.5 956.6
WEIGHT Kg BLIND 14.0 24.6 39.6 51.0 90.0 132.0 188.0 225.0 281.0 400.0 503.0 954.0

CLASS 1500 (PN250) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150# 200# 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
OD A 120 130 150 160 180 215 245 270 310 375 395 485 585 675 750 825 915 985 1170
MIN THICK * D 22.5 25.5 29.0 29.0 32.0 38.5 41.5 48.0 54.0 73.5 83.0 92.0 108.0 124.0 133.5 146.5 162.0 178.0 203.5
HUB LENGTH** C 32 35 41 41 44 57 64 73 90 105 119 143 159 181
HUB LENGTH W/N B 60 70 73 73 83 102 105 118 124 155 171 213 254 283 298 311 327 356 406
PCD K 82.5 89.0 101.5 111.0 124.0 165.0 190.5 203.0 241.5 292.0 317.5 393.5 482.5 571.5 635.0 705.0 774.5 832.0 990.5
BOLT HOLE DIA H 22 22 26 26 30 26 30 33 36 42 39 45 52 56 60 68 76 80 94
No BOLTS 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16
WEIGHT Kg*** 2.7 2.7 3.4 4.5 6.4 10.0 16.3 21.8 33.3 59.9 74.5 117.1 197.9 302.8
WEIGHT Kg W/N 3.2 3.2 3.9 4.5 6.4 10.9 16.3 21.8 31.3 59.9 74.5 123.9 206.1 313.3
WEIGHT Kg BLIND 1.8 2.7 4.1 4.6 6.4 11.4 15.9 21.8 33.2 65.0 72.0 137.0 230.0 352.0

* MINIMUM THICKNESS INCLUDING RAISED FACE BUT EXCLUDING HUB OR WELD NECK
** HUB LENGTH FOR SLIP ON, SCREWED & SOCKET WELD FLANGES
*** APPROXIMATE WEIGHT FOR SLIP ON, SOCKET WELD & SCREWED
# OD OF PIPE MUST BE NOMINATED

TEMPERATURE PRESSURE RATINGS


CARBON STEEL PIPE FLANGES TO ASME B16.5 (BS. 1560)
FORGINGS TO ASTM A105 – Not recommended for prolonged use above 427°C
FORGINGS TO ASTM A350-LF2 – Not to be used above 343°C
MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE IN kPa BY PN
TEMPERATURE PN20 PN50 PN100 PN150 PN250
IN °C CLASS 150 CLASS 300 CLASS 600 CLASS 900 CLASS1500
-29 to 38 1960 5110 10210 15320 25530
50 1920 5010 10020 15020 25040
100 1770 4640 9280 13910 23190
150 1580 4520 9050 13570 22610
200 1400 4380 8760 13150 21910
250 1210 4170 8340 12520 20860
300 1020 3870 7750 11620 19370
350 840 3700 7390 11090 18480
375 740 3650 7290 10940 18230
400 650 3450 6900 10350 17250
425 560 2880 5750 8630 14380
450 470 2000 4010 6010 10020
475 370 1350 2710 4060 6770
500 280 880 1760 2640 4400
525 190 520 1040 1550 2590
540 130 330 650 980 1630

FLANGES ABOVE DN 600 ARE NOT INCLUDED IN ASME B16.5 AND THE CLASS DESIGNATIONS IN THESE
LARGE DIAMETERS DO NOT IMPLY SPECIFIC TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE RATINGS.

Call 1300 66 11 56 • Fax (03) 8543 1146


PIPE DIMENSIONS & WEIGHTS

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD STAINLESS STEEL PIPE

inches mm Wall thickness in mm Theoretical inside diameter in mm Weight in kg/m


Nominal Outside
Bore Diameter 5S 10S 40S 80S 160 XXS
6 10.3 1.24 1.73 2.41
1/8 0.405 7.82 6.84 5.48
0.28 0.37 0.47
8 13.7 1.65 2.24 3.02
1/4 0.540 10.40 9.22 7.66
0.49 0.63 0.80
10 17.1 1.65 2.31 3.2
3/8 0.675 13.80 12.48 10.70
0.63 0.84 1.10
15 21.34 1.65 2.11 2.77 3.73 4.78 7.47
1/2 0.840 18.04 17.12 15.80 13.88 11.78 6.40
0.80 1.00 1.27 1.62 1.95 2.55
20 26.7 1.65 2.11 2.87 3.91 5.56 7.82
3/4 1.050 23.40 22.48 20.96 18.88 15.58 11.06
1.03 1.28 1.69 2.20 2.90 3.64
25 33.4 1.65 2.77 3.38 4.55 6.35 9.09
1 1.315 30.10 27.86 26.64 24.30 20.70 15.22
1.30 2.09 2.50 3.24 4.24 5.45
32 42.2 1.65 2.77 3.56 4.85 6.35 9.790
1-1/4 1.660 38.90 36.66 35.08 32.50 29.50 22.80
1.65 2.70 3.39 4.47 5.61 7.77
40 48.2 1.65 2.77 3.68 5.08 7.14 10.15
1-1/2 1.900 44.90 42.66 40.84 38.04 33.92 27.90
1.91 3.11 4.05 5.41 7.25 9.56
50 60.3 1.65 2.77 3.91 5.54 8.74 11.07
2 2.375 57.00 54.76 52.48 49.22 42.82 38.16
2.40 3.93 5.44 7.48 11.11 13.44
65 73.0 2.11 3.05 5.16 7.01 9.53 14.02
2-1/2 2.875 68.78 66.90 62.68 58.98 53.94 44.96
3.69 5.26 8.63 11.41 14.92 20.39
80 88.9 2.11 3.05 5.49 7.62 11.13 15.24
3 3.500 84.68 82.80 77.92 73.66 66.64 58.42
4.51 6.45 11.29 15.27 21.35 27.68
90 101.6 2.11 3.05 5.74 8.08
3-1/2 4.000 97.38 95.50 90.12 85.44
5.18 7.40 13.57 18.63
100 114.3 2.11 3.05 6.02 8.56 13.49
4 4.500 110.08 108.20 102.26 97.18 87.32
5.84 8.36 16.07 22.32 33.54
125 141.3 2.77 3.40 6.55 9.53
5 5.563 135.76 134.50 128.20 122.24
9.47 11.57 21.77 30.97
150 168.3 2.77 3.40 7.11 10.97
6 6.625 162.76 161.50 154.08 146.36
11.32 13.84 28.26 42.56
200 219.1 2.77 3.76 8.18 12.70
8 8.625 213.56 211.58 202.74 193.70
14.79 19.96 42.55 64.64
250 273.1 3.40 4.19 9.27 12.70
10 10.750 266.30 264.72 254.56 247.70
22.63 22.63 27.78 60.31 96.01
300 323.9 3.96 4.57 9.53 12.70
12 12.750 315.98 314.76 304.84 298.50
31.25 31.25 36.00 73.88 132.08
350 355.6 3.96 4.78
14 14.000 347.68 346.04
34.36 41.30
400 406.4 4.19 4.78
16 16.000 398.02 396.84
41.56 47.29
450 457.0 4.19 4.78
18 18.000 448.62 447.44
46.81 53.26
500 508.0 4.78 5.54
20 20.000 498.44 496.92
59.25 68.61
550 559.0 4.78 5.54
Dimensions according to ANSI/ASME B36. 19 for Stainless Steel Pipe.
22 22.000 549.44 547.92
65.24 75.53 Dimensions according to ANSI/ASME B36. 10 for Welded and Seamless Wrought
600 610.0 5.54 6.35 Steel Pipe.
24 24.000 598.92 597.30 Weights are given in kilograms per meter and are for carbon steel pipe with plain
82.47 94.45 ends. The different grades of stainless steel permit considerable variations in weight.
750 762.0 6.35 7.92 The austenitic stainless steels may be about 2% greater, and the ferritic stainless
30 30.000 749.30 746.16 steels about 5% less than the values shown in the table.
118.31 147.36

Information obtained from the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association.


CHAPTER 5. PIPING LAYOUT
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar with good pipeline layout rules of thumb.
To be familiar with pipeline accessories such as supports, hangers,
expansion joints, tees etc.
To be able to calculate the change in length of a pipeline due to thermal
expansion.
To be able to determine when a formal flexibility analysis is required.
To be able to design pipelines that do not need formal flexibility analysis.
To be able to determine pipeline layout that is safe and cost effective.

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 1

CHAPTER 5. PIPING LAYOUT


1. INTRODUCTION

An art rather than a science


Run parallel in bundles
Pipings should be 90o to each other, therefore orthogonal
arrangement
Segregated area, such as overhead rack or ground level track
Adequate spacing from other pipes, equipment and walls
Convenient access to valves, pressure gauges, flanges and
other items
Piping should not be an obstruction of other equipment
Suitable arrangement for joining and leaving a pipe track

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 2


Good Piping Layout

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 3

Piping Layout could be improved


Pipelines blocking easy access to equipment

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 4


2. PIPE SPACING

These are ‘rule of thumb’ only:


Use common sense

- Need enough room to do welding or disconnect a set of flanges

- Nuts and bolts and spanners need to be turned conveniently

- Also depends on actual pipe diameter and flange diameter

- Allow room for supporting units to be installed.

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 5

Pipe spacing.

Spacing – clearance to outside of


bare pipe and insulation.

Clearance shown to structure,


wall, column, trench, etc. or to
equipment.

Allows extra for expected


sideways movement due to
thermal expansion.

From Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 6


3. PIPING SUPPORT
a) Pipe rack structure – ground level or overhead
- Needs to be sturdy
- Carry the weight of the fluid, piping, valves, etc.
- Attached to it are individual pipe supports.

b) Platform for worker, if overhead


- Structure allow convenient access of worker for installation,
maintenance, and inspection

c) Individual pipe support


- Properly anchored at certain points
- Provide sufficient guide for the pipe at other sections
- Provide enough support against minor vibrations
- Flexibility of pipe is maintained, but able to expand and
contract with temperature change.

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 7

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 8


By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 9

By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 10


By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 11

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 12


By Perry

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 13

4. LOCATING VALVES
- Must be accessible for adjusting flow rates

- Easily reached from ground or platform

- Branch isolating has to be close to main

- Main isolation to be located at plant boundary

- Should be near to source

5. BRANCHES AND OFF TAKES FROM MAIN RUN


- Use a Tee or welded pipes, see Fig 6.85, Perry

- Clean liquids, anywhere

- Dirty liquids, side or top

- Steam or air, top


Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 14
Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 15

Top, side or bottom Ok

Top or side Ok,


not bottom due to solids

By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 16


Side or bottom Ok,
Top vent gas only

Top Ok,
bottom for condensate drainage

Top or side Ok,


not bottom
otherwise
condensate drips
down and out
By Royston
Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 17

6. THERMAL EXPANSION
- Heated pipes expand and generate large forces

- Build in flexibility

- Pipe Expansion Provisions

- Expansion Joint as an alternative (see Fig. 6.87-6.89, Perry)

- Expansion joint weaker than pipe, avoid if possible

Metals expand as they heat up.

This behaviour is controlled by a material property called the Coefficient of


Thermal Expansion =  = L/(LoT)

The change in length of a pipe can be determined by L=LoT

Where Lo is the pipe length and T is the anticipated temperature change

 = 11.4 x 10-6 for steel


Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 18
7. VIBRATION
- Always a problem, extent of vibration is sometimes difficult to predict

- Typical source, positive displacement pump, water hammer

- Need to control with dampers or anchors

- Vibrating pipes can break

- Weak point where small pipe branches off main

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 19

By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 20


By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 21

Case Study: inappropriate use of bellows


Fixborough UK, Cyclohexane plant explosion, 1974
29 people killed

from Lees Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 22


Case Study: inappropriate use of bellows

from Lees Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 23

Case Study: inappropriate use of bellows

from Lees Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 24


8. FILTERS
- To protect pumps and other equipment
- Fixed or cleanable or self cleaning
- Start-up permanent strainers
- Regular checks necessary to ensure not blocked

9. CLEANING
- Before using a pipe for the first time or after shut down, check
that inside is clear of debris
- Some systems need special treatment, hygienic for food
- Degree of cleanliness depends on the service

10. COLOUR CODING


- Totally uncoded, not recommended
- Band at suitable intervals for stainless or aluminium pipes which
are not usually painted
- Completely colour coded is best
- AS1345 identification of the contents of piping, conduits and ducts
Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 25

11. NON-METAL PIPING


- Poly-ethylene, poly-propylene, poly-vinyl chloride

Used more recently because

- Maximum operating pressure and temperature increasing


- More experience with existing installations
- Very desirable properties
- Better fabrication methods
- More fittings now available

Applicable Australian Standards

- AS2033, AS4030, AS4031, AS4129 AND AS/NZS4130


- Refer to these when involved with an installation

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 26


12. FLEXIBILITY OF PIPING

The piping should be designed and installed with sufficient


flexibility to:

- Absorb displacement caused by thermal expansion of pipework


and expansion of supporting structures.

- Absorb forces on pipework caused by wind, dead weight,


seismic effect, etc.

- Excess movement or vibration due to fluid hammer, starting of


pump etc.

If piping is not sufficiently flexible, add an expansion band, see


next page

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 27

By Royston

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 28


13. NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS
According to AS4041, a formal flexibility analysis is generally not
needed if:

Dy
 208
L  u 2 (AS4041, 3.27.2.2)

D= outside pipe diameter (mm)


L= developed length of the pipe route (m)
u= the length of straight line joining the anchor points (m)
y= resultant thermal expansion and terminal point movement
to be absorbed by the piping system (mm)

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 29

PIPELINE LAYOUT WORKED EXAMPLE

Determine if the following pipelines will need formal flexibility


analysis.
If flexibility analysis is needed, show how the pipelines could be
altered to avoid formal flexibility analysis.

(a) 200 m
X X

70 m
X
(b)
20 m
X

The anticipated temperature change is 420oC


and the OD of the DN200 piping is 219 mm
The coefficient of thermal expansion of steel  = 11.4 x 10-6/K
Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 30
(a)
y  (11.4 10 6 )(200)(420)  0.958m
Dy (219)(958)
 208    208
L  u 2 200  2002
Formal flexibility analysis would be needed, so lets design an
expansion loop.
200 m
X X
a a

(219)(958)
 208 a  15.9m
200  2a  2002
The expansion loop should be greater than 15.9 m to avoid formal
flexibility analysis.

Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 31

(b) 70 m
X
20 m y  (11.4 10 6 )(72.8)(420)  0.349m
u 70 2

 20 2  72.8m
X
Dy (219)(349)
 208  258  208
L  u 2 90  72.82
Formal flexibility analysis would be needed, so lets design an
expansion loop.
70 m
(219)(349) b b
 208 X
90  2b  72.82 20 m
X
b  0.985m

The expansion loop should be greater than 1.0 m to avoid formal


flexibility analysis.
Chapter 5 Pipeline Layout 32
CHAPTER 6. VALVES
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To be familiar the operation of various types of valves and their typical
applications.
To become familiar with types of pressure relief valves and how to design
with them.

Chapter 6 Valves 1

CHAPTER 6. VALVES
1. TYPES OF VALVES
(a) Manual valves
- For stopping and starting flow
* Isolating a unit
* By-passing a section of the plant
- For manual flow rate control
- For diverting flow
* Such as 3-way valves
- For handling complex fluid, e.g. fluid with solid in suspension
(b) Check valve
- For preventing reverse flow
* One way valves
(c) Pressure relief valve
- Relieving a system of excess pressure
(d) Actuator
- Electrically or pneumatically driven
- For automatic flow rate control
Chapter 6 Valves 2
2. MANUAL VALVES
This is sub-classified according to the way the closure member moves
onto the seat.
(a) Close down valves
- A disk like closure member is moved squarely to and from the seat
in the direction of stem axis: e.g. globe valves.
- Opening varies in direct proportion to the travel of the disc
- This proportionality makes the valve ideal for regulation of flow rate.

Globe valves

McCabe and Smith Chapter 6 Valves Perry 3

(b) Slide valves


- A plug like closure member is moved across the flow passage on the
seat bore. E.g. gate valves.
- Wedge gate valve is wedge in shape.
- By applying pressure from stem, a high seating load is achieved
which allows a seal to be made between the gate and the surface of
the seat at the downstream side.

Gate valves

Chapter 6 Valves Perry 4


McCabe and Smith
(c) Rotary valves
-A closure member is rotated within the flow passage to control the
flow opening. E.g. Plug valves, Ball valves, Butterfly valves.

Plug valves
Chapter 6 Valves 5

Zappe
Ball valves
C&R vol 6

Chapter 6 Valves 6
Chapter 6 Valves Royson 7

(d) Flex-body valves


The closure member flexes to control the flow opening, diaphragm
valves.

Royson
Chapter 6 Valves 8
Perry

Zappe

Chapter 6 Valves 9

Pinch Valves
Chapter 6 Valves 10
3. MANUAL VALVE SELECTION
Zappe

Chapter 6 Valves 11

4. CHECK VALVES
A valve which opens with forward flow and closes against reverse flow.

(a) Lift check valve

Perry

McCabe and Smith Chapter 6 Valves 12


4. CHECK VALVES
A valve which opens with forward flow and closes against reverse flow.

(b) Ball check valve

McCabe and Smith


Chapter 6 Valves 13

4. CHECK VALVES
A valve which opens with forward flow and closes against reverse flow.

(c) Swing check valve

Perry
McCabe and Smith
Chapter 6 Valves 14
4. CHECK VALVES
A valve which opens with forward flow and closes against reverse flow.

(d) Diaphragm check Valve

Zappe
Chapter 6 Valves 15

5. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES

A device which automatically relieves a pressure system of excess


pressure, and re-closes when the pressure recedes again below a set
limit.

(a) Direct acting


- Actuated directly by pressure at valve inlet

(b) Piloted pressure relief valve


- Actuated by a pilot mechanism in response to system pressure
- Full ON or OFF, no flow rate control.

Chapter 6 Valves 16
Chapter 6 Valves 17

Zappe Chapter 6 Valves 18


Pressure greater than the design pressure can occur within the process
stream due to mechanical failure or operator error. If the pressure rises
above a safe level, the vessel or pipeline may burst and release a toxic or
flammable material.
A relief system consisting of a relief device and a downstream system to
capture and safely handle the ejected material should be used.
Set Pressure: The pressure at which the relief device begins to activate.
Should be no higher than the design pressure.
Design Pressure: The maximum allowable working pressure within the
vessel or pipeline.
Operating Pressure: The normal operating pressure, usually 10% below
the Design pressure.
Overpressure: The pressure increase in the vessel over the set pressure
during the relieving process.
Back Pressure: The pressure at the outlet of the relief device during the
relief process due to pressure in the discharge system.
Blow-Down: the pressure difference between the relief set pressure and
the reseating pressure.
From D. A. Crowl and J. F. Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals
with Applications, Prentice Hall,1990
Chapter 6 Valves 19

Types of Relief Devices


1) Spring Operated Relief Valve: The set pressure is
adjusted by the spring tension. It shuts itself off when
the pressure inside the vessel reduces. Conventional
type may shut down early due to back pressure.
2) Balanced Bellows Spring Relief Valve: the bellows
insures that the valve reseating mechanism is not
subject to the back pressure within the process
stream.
Both types of spring operated valves may leak a bit.
The flow rate increases as the overpressure
increases. They could get jammed shut due to dirt or
debris.
3) Rupture Disc: A thin sheet of material designed to
break at a set pressure. It will not leak, thus
preventing any minor slow leak. Once blown, it cannot
be shut down until replaced. It is unlikely to get
clogged shut.
Chapter 6 Valves 20
Crowl and Louvar
Typical uses of
combinations of Relief
Devices

Rupture Disc

Spring Operated

The relief valve and outlet


pipeline must be sized (big
enough flow rate) that the
pressure will not build up
too much. Should be able
to handle at least as fast as
the material entering the
vessel.

Chapter 6 Valves Crowl and Louvar 21

Unless the material is non-toxic and non-flammable, it cannot be vented


to atmosphere. Thus the relief device should be vented to a knockout
drum or blow-down system. The blowdown drum or catch tank collects
the liquid while the vapour is vented to a scrubber, condenser or burn off
flare.

Crowl and Louvar

Chapter 6 Valves 22
6. ACTUATOR
A valve controlled electrically or pneumatically to open to a definite
extent so that a pre-set flow rate is obtained.

FE = flow rate measuring element


FC = flow rate controller

Chapter 6 Valves 23

7. VALVE END CONNECTIONS


Valves are usually connected to a pipe section.
Threaded end connections
- With tapered threads and a sealant
- Primarily used with DN50 and under

Flanged end connections


- Joints are bulkier, more expansive
- Valves easily installed and removed
- Standard flanges, nuts and bolts to be used
- Gaskets needed, T & P may be dictated by this

Welded end connections


- Suitable for all pressures and temperatures
- More reliable at elevated T & P
- More difficult to remove valve once welded on

Swagelok end connection


- Front ferrule and back ferrule interlocking to form a wedged seal
Chapter 6 Valves 24
Chapter 6 Valves 25

8. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
- Selection based on T & P of operation
- Also based on nature of fluid
- Cast iron
- Carbon steel
- Stainless steel
- Brass and bronze
- PVC and other plastics

9. VALVE SEALS
(a) A fluid seal – the seal between the seat and the closure e.g. a
gate, a piston member, a globe

(b) A gland seal – the seal between the valve stem and union
bonnet/bonnet nut

Chapter 6 Valves 26
10. STEM-GLAND SEAL
- Compression packing under the gland nut – inert packing
- ‘O’ ring – rubber or synthetic rubber
- Flat Teflon washer

11. FLUID TIGHTNESS

- Atom class
- Steam class
- Low leakage class
- Nominal leakage class

12. IDENTIFICATION OF VALVE SIZE AND RATING


NPS2 = nominal pipe size 2 inch
DN50 = diameter nominal 50 mm
Class 150 = Class 150 lbs
PN20 = PRESSURE NOMINAL 20 BAR
e.g. See PSA data sheet for a turn flow gate valve, next page
Chapter 6 Valves 27

Chapter 6 Valves 28
CHAPTER 7. PUMPING EQUIPMENT FOR LIQUIDS
Learning Objectives and Expectations
To understand the fundamental differences between pumping liquids and
gasses.
To understand the difference between displacement and dynamic pumps.
To be familiar the operation of various types of pumps and their typical
applications.
To be able to select a type of pump based on inlet flow rate and outlet
pressure (head).
To be able to select the impeller size for a centrifugal pump based on
maximising efficiency using pump performance curves.
To be able to determine NPSH required and pump power.
Understand the use of throttling valves and how to avoid cavitation.
To be able to use pump affinity laws to make modifications to existing
pumps to change the duty point.

Chapter 7 Pumps 1

CHAPTER 7. PUMPING EQUIPMENT FOR LIQUIDS


1. DEFINITION
- A pump is a device for transferring energy from a source to a fluid.
- Pumps by this definition includes liquid pumps, compressors,
vacuum pumps, ejectors or any other similar devices.
- In this chapter, only pumps for liquids are considered.

2. ENERGY TRANSFER
- The energy appears in the fluid as an increase in pressure or
velocity or both

3. CONVENTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
- Pump – the fluid is substantially incompressible, e.g. liquids.
- Compressor – the fluid is significantly compressible under the
pumping conditions, e.g. air includes blower, fans, vacuum pump.

Chapter 7 Pumps 2
4. TRANSFERRING GAS VERSUS LIQUID
- Same basic type of mechanical equipment, but very different
construction.
- Lower density for gas, higher speed of operation
- For gas, volume decreases as it is compressed
- Cooling of gas may be needed
- Compression is carried out in a number of stages with cooling in
between.
- Compression and expansion of residual gas in cylinder (energy for
compression and expansion are not completely recoverable).

5. TRANSFERRING LIQUID ONLY


- In this chapter – see chapter 11 for transferring and compressing gasses

6. DRIVES
- Electrical motor, all sizes
- Steam turbine, large size
- Gas turbine, large size
- Compressed gas, mainly compressed air
Chapter 7 Pumps 3

Perry
Chapter 7 Pumps 4
TYPES OF PUMPS

(1) Dynamic centrifugal


(a) Radial flow, axial flow, mixed flow
- Most commonly used
- Available for a vast range of capacity and discharge needs
- Simplicity
- Low cost
- Uniform flow
- Low maintenance
- Adaptable to most drivers
- Impeller, open or shrouded
- Mounted on a shaft
(b) Propeller turbine pumps
- Very high capacity, very low head
- Closed loop circulation system with low ∆P
- Axial flow

Chapter 7 Pumps 5

radial axial

Chapter 7 Pumps 6
Perry

Chapter 7 Pumps 7

Centrifugal pumps

Chapter 7 Pumps 8
Turbine pump
Diffuser Type
Centrifugal pump
Stationary Vanes

Chapter 7 Pumps 9

Chapter 7 Pumps 10
Perry
Chapter 7 Pumps 11

Chapter 7 Pumps 12
(2) Positive displacement pumps
- Fluid is displaced (pushed along) under pressure
- Much lower capacity, much higher dynamic heads or discharge pressure
- For viscous fluids
- Flow rate depends mainly on pulsation rate or gear rotary rate.
(a) Reciprocating pump
(i) The piston pump
- Consists of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston connected to
a driving-rod which passes through a gland.
- Liquid enters the suction line through a suction valve
- Liquid is discharged through a delivery valve
- Single acting – deliver liquid in forward stroke, not backward
stroke
- Double acting – deliver liquid in both forward and backward
stroke.
(ii) The plunger pump
- Same in principle as the piston type
- The gland is located at one end of cylinder making it easier to
replace.
Chapter 7 Pumps 13

Rhodes

Chapter 7 Pumps 14
C&R Vol 1

Chapter 7 Pumps 15

(iii)The diaphragm pump, (fig. 8.3, C&R vol 1)


- For handling corrosive liquids
- For liquid containing suspension of abrasive solids
- A diaphragm is driven to flex back and forth in a chamber
- Fluid enters through a suction valve
- Fluid is discharged through a delivery valve
- Diaphragm - Rubber
- Plastic
- Teflon
- Diaphragm action - Mechanical drive
- Air actuated

Pumps with flow rate control – metering pumps


- Usually reciprocating type pumps
- i.e. positive displacement pumps
- Used where a constant rate of delivery is required, irrespective of
changes in discharge pressure
- Flow rate is monitored and adjusted by adjusting the stroking rate.

Chapter 7 Pumps 16
Chapter 7 Pumps Diaphragm pump C&R Vol 17
1

Some disadvantages of reciprocating pumps


- Pulsating flow – may need damping
- Slurry and dirty liquid can cause substantial wear
- NPSH harder to calculate due to pulsating flow
- More wearing parts than a centrifugal pump
- Separation can occur.

Chapter 7 Pumps 18
(b) Rotary pumps
Liquid is (displaced) pushed along by rotating gear and screw
housed in a chamber which has been carefully designed in shape
and size.

No valves
Small clearance between gear wheels and the case
More even flow than reciprocating pump

(i) Gear pumps


- Most widely used of the positive action rotary pumps
- Gear wheels inside casing
- Liquid is carried in space between consecutive teeth
- Deliver against high pressure
- ~35 MN/m2
- Priming is unnecessary

Chapter 7 Pumps 19

Perry

Chapter 7 Pumps 20
Gear pumps

Chapter 7 Pumps 21

Internal Gear pumps

Chapter 7 Pumps 22
(ii) Mono Pump
- A specially shaped helical rotor
- Revolves in a specially shaped housing
- A cavity is formed continuously as the rotor turns
- The fluid advance gradually toward the discharge end
- Uniform flow
- Can handle corrosive and gritty liquids, e.g. slurries
- Should never run dry
- Can pump against high pressure
- The higher the delivery pressure, the longer the rotor that is needed

(iii) Screw pump


- For high viscous material e.g. screw extruder in the polymer
industry
- A screw revolves in a stationery barrel
- The fluid is in the space between the barrel and the screw
- The fluid is under shear force in two directions – forward and
tangentially.

Chapter 7 Pumps 23

C&R Vol 1
Chapter 7 Pumps 24
C&R Vol 1

Chapter 7 Pumps 25

8. SELECTION OF TYPE OF PUMP

- Volumetric flow rate


- Total head

See typical diagrams – operation range charts

Fig. 10.-26, Perry,


Table 10.16, C&R, Vol. 6,
Table 7.1 & 7.2, Walas,

Chapter 7 Pumps 26
305 m =

30.5 m =

Perry

Chapter 7 Pumps 27

Chapter 7 Pumps 28
Chapter 7 Pumps 29
Walas

Walas

Chapter 7 Pumps 30
9. SELECTION OF PUMP SIZE AND POWER
- Pump size selection data sheets usually provided by supplier, (see
KSB, data sheets next pages and on LMS)
- Volumetric flow rate
- Total head
Once a specific size pump has been selected, other data concerning
physical nature of the pump are also usually provided by the supplier
- Pump dimensions
- Power of motor
- Weight
- Connection to pipes, flanges usually inlet and outlet pipe dimensions
- Speed of pump
- Configuration of pump feet
More importantly, a pump performance curve diagram is also available.
- Pump head vs flow rate
- Pump efficiency, power consumption, and NPSHR
e.g. commonly used is centrifugal pump turning at 1450 rpm with feet
mount on common base plate with electric motor.
Chapter 7 Pumps 31

KSB Mega series pumps

Chapter 7 Pumps 32
KSB Mega series pumps

Chapter 7 Pumps 33

Chapter 7 Pumps 34
Chapter 7 Pumps 35

Note: data is usually


for water. For liquids
with different density
the power
requirements will be
different and must be
calculated

Chapter 7 Pumps 36
Chapter 7 Pumps 37

30 to 35 L/s 18 to 20 m head

Chapter 7 Pumps 38
 = 0.73

Chapter 7 Pumps 39

 = 0.76

Chapter 7 Pumps 40
 = 0.67

Chapter 7 Pumps 41

10. POWER REQUIREMENT FOR PUMPING THROUGH PIPELINES

Vgh p VP
Power  
 
.
Where V = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

 = density (kg/m3)

hp = pump head (m)

g = 9.81, gravitational acceleration (m/s2)


 = Power delivered by Pump ~ 0.6 – 0.8
Power supplied to Pump

Chapter 7 Pumps 42
10. PUMP AND SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

Pump head required by the system is:

P  v2 
h p ( system)  h      h  h fd
g  2 g  fs
 
Where hfs = friction head on the inlet side (suction side)
hfd = friction head on the outlet side (discharge side)
.
For V =0, v = 0, hfs =0 and hfd =0,
we get hp = h + P/g = ho + P/g
.
For V =0 and P = 0, we get hp = h = ho

hp (pump) is the pump head delivered by the pump at the


nominated discharge rate
ho is the net difference in elevation of the two liquids

Chapter 7 Pumps 43

system curve
performance curve the relationship
between required
head and volumetric
flow rate of your
piping system

duty point

Note h = z
.
= V = volumetric flow rate
Chapter 7 Pumps 44
Note h = z

Chapter 7 Pumps 45

12. EMPIRICAL CORRELATION OF THE CURVES


. . .
Pump hp = aV2 + bV + c (a quadratic relationship between V and hp) (1)
. .
System hp = a’V2 + c’ (a parabolic relationship between V and hp) (2)

Pump curve: If the co-ordinates of three points on the curve are obtained,
then the constants a, b, and c can be obtained by solving
the three equations simultaneously.

System curve:If the co-ordinates of two points on the curve are known , the
constants a’ and c’ can be determined
.
co-ordinate (V, hp) = (0, h0) is always useful.
dh p
 2a 'V
dV
. dhp
at V = 0,  0 This boundary condition must hold for Eq.2.
dV

Chapter 7 Pumps 46
System Curve – determined with Bernouli’s eqn
v 2 P
hp  h f   h  For constant diameter pipe
2g g

V
 = Av
V v=
 fL  V
2
P A
h p    K i  2  h   =0
D  2A g g 1 ≈ V
For long pipe: V 2 , ∆V

h p  aV 2  c
 fL 
  K i  P
Where a  
D  and c  h 
2 A2 g g
h
 = 0, v = 0, ∆P=0 and h = 0
At V system curve
f (dynamic
velocity
Then hp = ∆h head)

dh p (static
And 0 gravity ∆h
dV head)

V
Chapter 7 Pumps 47

13. DUTY POINT


Duty point is the point where
. the pump and system characteristic
curves intersect on a h vs V diagram.

Where the pump performance meets the requirements of the


system.

Ideally – duty point should be located close to the point of


maximum efficiency.

14. IMPELLER DIAMETER


Impeller diameter directly affects the flow rate, pump head and power
input.

Choose the impeller diameter to be: <85% max


>15% min

e.g. between 283 and 310 mm for centrifugal pumps M65-315, this
allows later change of impeller diameter.

Chapter 7 Pumps 48
Chapter 7 Pumps 49

If you can’t match a performance curve to the flow rate you want, you
should add a throttling valve just downstream of the pump so that you can
control the flow rate to get the desired flow rate.

throttling
valve

. .
Desired V V

Chapter 7 Pumps 50
15. EXAMPLE USE OF PERFORMANCE CURVE AND DUTY POINT
Replacing an existing Impeller – centrifugal pump

1. Applying the Pump Affinity Laws


(a) Impeller Diameter variation
.
V2 D 2
. 
V1 D1

2
h p2 D 
  2 
h p1  D1 

3
P2  D 2 
  P  Power
P1  D1 

Chapter 7 Pumps 51

(b) Speed variation


.
V2 N 2
. 
V1 N1
2
h p2 N 
  2 
h p1  N1 
3
P'2  N 2 
 
P'1  N1 

This assumes power efficiency is unchanged in the variation.


.
2. This calculation requires the h p1 and P'1 are known at various V1
Locate original duty point, 1.
.
3. Using Affinity Laws, calculate V2 , h p 2 and P'2 . Draw the new pump
performance curve.
Chapter 7 Pumps 52
4. Establish the system curve
 2 + c’ and determine a’ and c’
hp = a’ V

i.e. determine h0 (no flow) and locate:

 , hp = (0, h0)
V

5. Draw the system curve and locate the new Duty Point, 2.
Make sure that this falls on the pump curve properly.

6. Check the power required against that of the motor available.

(a) existing motor → xkW


3
D 
(b) P  P  2 
' '
2 1
 D1 

(c) also P2'  gh pV

Some motors are only available in standard kW rating: 10, 12,
14, 15, 18 kW etc.
Chapter 7 Pumps 53

16. VAPORIZATION OF LIQUID – with bubble formation


Known as cavitation

(1) Formation of bubbles


- Bubbles can partially block the pipe and restrict the flow
- When the bubbles move to a region of greater pressure, e.g.
along the impeller, the bubble implodes.

(2) Imploding bubble


- Generates very large local pressure
- Generates characteristic rattling noise and vibration
- Erodes metal surfaces
- Eventually can destroy the pump

Chapter 7 Pumps 54
Cavitation

Chapter 7 Pumps 55

To avoid cavitation,
Require P > Pvp (vapour pressure at current T)
This condition is expressed in terms of the
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (HPSH)
Pvp
NPSH = hs 
g

h1

For NPSH, measure height (h1) from pump centreline

Chapter 7 Pumps 56
17. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD, NPSH

NPSH is the net head at the suction of the pump impeller.

NPSH must exceed a certain value (i.e. the vapor pressure head of
liquid) in order to prevent vaporization of the liquid and cavitation of
the metal.
Static Friction head Vapor NOTE: do not
NPSH = Pressure head + suction - in Suction - pressure head subtract
at source head line of liquid velocity head

2
P1  fL v P when v1 = 0
NPSH  h1    ΣK i   v and v2 = v
ρg D  2g ρg

Chapter 7 Pumps 57

P1  Pvp
Available NPSH =  h1  h fs
g

Available NPSH must be greater than the required NPSH


specified by the manufacturer to ensure no cavitation.

Required NPSH is specified to ensure P > Pvp throughout


.
the pump. The required NPSH increases with V.

Chapter 7 Pumps 58
PB P
Define  1  h1  h fs NOTE: do not subtract
g g velocity head

Where PB = apparent pressure at pump entry point


PB Pv
We get NPSH  
g g

PB PV
When NPSH >0,  , flow is satisfactory.
g g
PB PV , liquid will start to vaporize.
When NPSH < 0, 
g g

Chapter 7 Pumps 59

When the required NPSH (NPSHR) is not reached, vaporization


leads to

(1) Two phase flow – reduction in flow rate – reduction in pump


efficiency

(2) Bubble formation – partial blockage – due to bubble formation


cavitation

Problem is particularly serious when liquid is near boiling point at


suction point T & P, i.e. when Pv is large.
Pv
If we define hv 
g

and  refers to density of liquid,


PB
then NPSH =  hv
g
Chapter 7 Pumps 60
If NPSH is too small, possible remedies are:
- Increase pressure in suction vessel, P1
- Increase liquid head, h1
- Decrease friction head, hf
- Decrease liquid vapor pressure by reducing temperature

For stable operation of the pump, a value NPSHR is usually specified


and recommended by the pump maker for a particular liquid.

NPSHR is usually somewhat > hv

Hence, hv is the absolute minimum

And NPSHR is recommended lower limit

NPSHactual > NPSHR

Chapter 7 Pumps 61

NPSHR
(required)

Chapter 7 Pumps 62
NPSHR
(required)

Chapter 7 Pumps 63

18. TWO PUMPS OPERATING IN SERIES – Increases Head

The second pump in series must be rated for a greater pressure


than the first because it can be subjected to the full discharge
pressure of the first.

The second pump must be started only after the first is running
otherwise there may be problems in the suction of the second.
The extra resistance may cause problems with NPSH.

For a given system when the two pumps are running each pump
will be develop a smaller head than when one is running on its
own.

Royston

Chapter 7 Pumps 64
Chapter 7 Pumps Royston 65

19. TWO PUMPS OPERATING IN PARALLEL – Increases Flowrate

(a) Two pumps operating in parallel will deliver less than twice the
flow rate of an individual pump operating by itself in the same
system (due to increased friction with two pumps). It will also be
noted that the increase in quantity obtained by placing two pumps
in parallel is determined by the shape of the system resistance
curve. Thus, if there is considerable friction (as indicated by the
dotted line), two pumps in parallel may deliver only slightly more
than one pump operating by itself.

(b) One pump by itself will operate at a higher flow rate (A) than if it
were working in parallel with another pump (B). In other words, it
would be operating further out the curve, possible with greater
power requirements. Therefore when a pump is designed for a
parallel duty, also ensure that the driver is adequately rated for solo
operation.

Chapter 7 Pumps 66
Royston
Chapter 7 Pumps 67

20. NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR PUMPS


- Not many
- American Petroleum Institute - API 610
21. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
- Metal mostly
- Cast iron, mild steel, stainless steel, most commonly seen
- Polypropylene body diaphragm pump
- Non-metal diaphragm neoprene and teflon
- Erosion and corrosion are important consideration for choice of material.
22. ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
- Base plate and mounting
- Suction side filters
- Isolating valves
- By pass lines Note: chemical plants
- Pressure gauges and alarm cannot operate
- Coupling guards without pumps
23. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
- Stand by units
- Fire fighting water pumps
- Sealed motor with air cooling
Chapter 7 Pumps 68
24. PROCEDURE FOR PUMP DESIGN
(1) Collect the required data
- Flow rate, fluid type, T and P
- Run of the pipe
- Nature of the fluid
- Physical properties of the fluid
- Pipe diameter

(2) Calculate the pump head


- Using Bernouli equation with friction head and pump head
- Watch out, outlet pipe diameter usually < inlet pipe diameter
tank pressure on either side may also be different.

(3) Calculate theoritical power. required for pumping



- Power (theoretical)  gh pV
- Power (actual) gh pV


(4) Select the pump – capacity, pump head, type
Chapter 7 Pumps 69

(5) Obtain pump performance curve and check the duty point on
the curve (pump characteristic) curve
.
Duty point = (V, hp)

Duty point
hp

.
V

(6) Specify the motor power rating using actual power calculation

(7) Specify inlet and outlet pipe dimension and connection types

(8) Check NPSH is reached

Chapter 7 Pumps 70
PUMPS WORKED EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE USE OF PUMP SELECTION

Two tanks are located – 30 x 18 x 8 meters away from each other


as shown in the diagram on the next page.

Water at ambient temperature and pressure is to be pumped from


tank 1 to tank 2.
The suction line is located at a point 3 metres below the liquid level
in tank 1.
The discharge is located at the top of tank 2.

65 tones of water must be transferred per hour by the pump.

1. Specify the pump for the tank.

2. Is vaporisation of water and cavitation likely to occur?

Chapter 7 Pumps 71

P2 = 1 atm

30 m

18 m

3m 8m
P1 = 1 atm

Chapter 7 Pumps 72
. .
Flow rate = m = 65 tonnes/hr (1) Determine V
= 65000 kg/hr
.
P1 = P2 = 1 atm m = 65 000 kg/hr
. .
Large tank at source V = m = 65 m3/hr
so v1 = 0, v2 = v 
 = 1000 kg/m3 .
V = 1.806 x 10-2 m3/s
= 1x10-3 kg/ms

v 2 P
hp    h  h f
2g  g

2
 fL v
hf    K i 
 D  2g

Chapter 7 Pumps 73

(2) Select pipe size


o.d = 114.3 mm
Target v = 2.0 m/s, middle of the range Wall t = 6.02 mm
i.d. = 102.26 mm
V
v   2 .0 m
A s (3) Determine actual velocity, v2

V 1.806 102 m3 / s   0.1023m 


2
A   0.00903m2 AR  2
v 2m / s 4
A  0.00903m 2 A  R 2  8.22 103 m 2
A 0.00903m 2 2 m3
R   0.0536m V 1.806 10
  v2   s
3 2
A 8.22 10 m
D = 0.1072 m = 107.2 mm
Select nearest standard pipe size
v2  2.197 m / s
Select DN100, try Schedule 40

Chapter 7 Pumps 74
Standard is the same as Schedule 40

Chapter 7 Pumps 75

(2) Determine hf 1 additional valve for flow rate regulation

 fL v
2 ΣKi Contraction 1x0.5 = 0.5
hf    K i  Expansion 1x0.5 = 0.5
D  2g Elbows 2x0.75 = 1.5
Flanges 5x0.04 = 0.20
2 Straight Unions 7x0.04 = 0.28
  0.135 6.5   Globe Valve (open) 1x6 = 6
f  1.634 ln   
  D Re   Gate valve (1/2 closed) 1x4 = 4
---------------------------
 Dv2 ΣKi = 12.98
Re   225060

  0.05

f  0.019 ( also from ch. 4, p. 53)

 K i  12.98
Chapter 7 Pumps 76
C & R Vol 1

Chapter 7 Pumps 77
Perry’s

L  8  18  30  56m
P
0 Since P1 = P2
fL g
 10.4
D
h p  5.76  0.246 15 0
2
v
h f  (10.4  12.98) 2
 21.0m of water
2g

v22 Power   ghpV


 23.38
2g
V  1.806 102 m3 / s
(3) Determine hp
v22 Power  3.71103 kgm2 / s3
 0.246m of water
2g  3.71kW

V  18L / s
h f  5.76m of water
V  65m3 / hr
h  18  3  15m of water
Chapter 7 Pumps 78
hp  21.0m (4) Select Pump Type
 69 ft .
Use V, hp
V  18 L / s Table 10.16 C&R
 284gal / min
Fig. 10.-26 Perry
with
Select Centrifugal pump ok
3.8 L  1gal
3.28 ft  1m

Chapter 7 Pumps 79

65 m3/hr 21.0 m

X
X

Chapter 7 Pumps 80
21 m
= 69 ft

65 m3/hr = 284 gal/min

Chapter 7 Pumps 81

(5) Select Pump Size

Consult KSB pump chart

Try 1450 rpm

Elite E65-26
(6) Select Propeller Size

- Select 264 mm propeller

- Pump efficiency ~ 75.5%

- Will deliver ~ 19.5 L/s at hp calculated

- Use valve for fine flow rate adjustment

- Closing valve will increase hp


Chapter 7 Pumps 82
KSB Elite series pumps

21.0 m

18 L/s
Chapter 7 Pumps 83

21.0 m

System curve

Choose 264 mm
h = 15 m diameter impeller
closest one (above)

65 m3/hr = 18 L/s
Chapter 7 Pumps 84
Desired flow rate
= 18 L/s

Actual flow rate


with 264mm
impeller and
original piping
configuration =
19.5 L/s

Desired flow rate


can be achieved
by partially
closing a valve
which increased
the required head
and moves the
system curve up
Chapter 7 Pumps 85

Efficiency =  = 0.755

NPSHR = 2.2 m

Power = 5.2 kW

Chapter 7 Pumps 86
(7) Check Power Consumption

3.71kW
Power   4.91kW
0.755
≈ 5.2 kW  Ok, checked
Previous page

(8) Flanges
- Flange Connection between pump & piping
- Order flanges that will match those on the pump
- Need pipe reducer on inlet
DN100DN80, next page
- Need pipe expander on outlet
DN65DN100, next page

Chapter 7 Pumps 87

Chapter 7 Pumps 88
(9) Pump Dimensions
- Will replacement pump fit into existing space?

- Less restriction for new installation

- Leave lots of room around pump for heat dissipation and motor

- W = n1= 360 mm (previous page)

L = a + f = 570 mm

H = h1 + h2 = 450 mm

Chapter 7 Pumps 89

(10) Check Vaporisation


v2
PB P h f  (0.186  0.54)
NPSH    2g
g g

 (0.726)(0.408
0.246 m )
PB P
 1  h1  h f 1  0.3
0.18mm of water
g g

 fL v
2 P1


101  10 3 kgm / s 2 
hf 1  
D
  Ki 
 2g  
 g 1000 kg / m 3 9 .81m / s 

L  1m before pump  10 . 3 m of water

fL  0.019 1m  PB
 10 . 3  3  0 . 18  13 . 12 m of water
  0.186
D  0.102m  g

 K i : 1 contraction = 0.5
Pv  0 .02337 bar at 20oC
1 flanges = 0.04
(1 bar = 105 kg/ms2)
 K i  0.54
Chapter 7 Pumps 90
Pv  2337kg / ms 2
Pv
 0.238m of water
g
P P
 B  v
g g
P P - Consult pump supplier’s data
NPSH  B   Pg 86 NPSHR = 2.2 m of water
g g
NPSH  13.12  0.238m - NPSH >>NPSHR
NPSH  12.88m of water Unlikely to have vaporisation problems

If NPSH is too small, possible remedies are:

- Increase pressure in suction vessel, P1


- Increase liquid head, h1
- Decrease friction head, hf
- Decrease liquid vapour pressure by reducing
temperature
Chapter 7 Pumps 91

(11) Other Issues

- Pump location - Near liquid source at ground level to minimize hf1

- Foundation

- Mounting & support pressure gauge

- Isolation valves

- Weather proof motor

- Air cooled motor

Chapter 7 Pumps 92
PUMPS WORKED EXAMPLE 2
EXAMPLE USE OF PERFORMACE CURVE AND DUTY POINT
A certain centrifugal pump with a power rating of 10kW and an impeller diameter of
260 mm is transferring water at 20oC at a rate of 40 L/s against a pump head of
19.5m. The liquid level at suction side is lower than the liquid level at the delivery
side by 10m. Assume that the absolute pressure above each liquid is 101 kPa.
The following data describes the characteristic performance of the existing pump:
.
V (L/s) h (m) P’(kW) eff (%)
10 24.0 4.05 58
20 24.0 7.25 65
30 22.5 8.71 76
40 19.5 9.68 79
50 15.0 10.36 71
In the future, the duty for this pump will need to be increased to transfer 48 L/s of
water against a head of 22.0 m of water.
It is suggested that an impeller with a larger diameter (280 mm) may be fitted to
the existing unit.
(a) Will the pump be able to perform the required task?
(b) Will the existing electric motor be adequate and must it too, be replaced and
what would the rated power be? Chapter 7 Pumps 93

USE OF PERFORMANCE CURVE AND DUTY POINT


Replacing an existing Impeller – centrifugal pump

1. Applying the Pump Affinity Law


(a) Impeller Diameter variation
.
V2 D 2
. 
V1 D1

2
h p2 D 
  2 
h p1  D1 

3
P2  D 2 
  P  Power
P1  D1 

Chapter 7 Pumps 94
(b) Speed variation
.
V2 N 2
. 
V1 N1
2
h p2 N 
  2 
h p1  N1 
3
P'2  N 2 
 
P'1  N1 

This assumes power efficiency is unchanged in the variation.


.
2. This calculation requires the h p1 and P'1 are known at various V1
Locate original duty point, 1.
.
3. Using Affinity Laws, calculate V2 , h p 2 and P'2 . Draw the new pump
performance curve.
Chapter 7 Pumps 95

4. Establish the system curve


 2 + c’ and determine a’ and c’
hp = a’ V

i.e. determine h0 (no flow) and locate:

 , hp = (0, h0)
V

5. Draw the system curve and locate the new Duty Point, 2.
Make sure that this falls on the pump curve properly.

6. Check the power required against that of the motor available.

(a) existing motor → xkW


3
D 
(b) P  P  2 
' '
2 1
 D1 

(c) also P2'  gh pV

Some motors are only available in standard kW rating: 10, 12,
14, 15, 18 kW etc.
Chapter 7 Pumps 96
Given

V D
2
 2

V D1
1

2
h p2 D 
  2 
h p1  D1 

3
P2  D 2 
  
P1  D1 
 is the flow rate (L/s)
Where V
h is the head of liquid (m)
P’ is the power (kW)
D is the impeller (mm)

Note: Standard motor rated powers – 10, 12, 15, 18.5 kW etc.
Chapter 7 Pumps 97

Data for pump performance curve for 260mm impeller

 (L/s)
V
V h (m) P’(kW) eff (%)
10 24.0 4.05 58
20 24.0 7.25 65
30 22.5 8.71 76
40 19.5 9.68 79
50 15.0 10.36 71

Draw (plot) the performance curve for 260mm impeller

Chapter 7 Pumps 98
30
28
26
24
22
h (m)

20
260 mm
18
16
14 260 mm
12
10
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
 (l/s)
V
Q

Chapter 7 Pumps 99

Use the Affinity laws to calculate flow rates, heads and power for the
280 mm impeller
Data for pump performance
curve for 280mm impeller
  280    .
V2   V1  1.077V1
 260  V2 h2 P’2

2 10.77 27.84 5.06


 280  21.54 27.84 9.06
h2    h1  1.1597 h1
 260  32.31 26.10 10.989
43.08 22.64 12.10
3 53.85 17.40 12.95
 280 
P2    P1  1.249 P1 D = 280 mm
 260 
Draw (plot) the performance
curve for the 280mm impeller

Chapter 7 Pumps 100


30
28
26
24
22
h (m)

20 280 260 mm
280 mm
18 mm

16
14 260 mm
12
10
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
 (l/s)
V
Q

Chapter 7 Pumps 101

Determine the system curve

.
System Curve h p  a V 2  c '
'  h = 5.938 x 10-3 V2 + 10
.
Vsys hsys
 h  19.5 (a)
Boundary V  40 p 0 10
Conditions  10 10.59
V  0 hp  10 (b)
20 12.375
30 15.344
B.C. (b) gives 10 = a’(0)2 + c’ 40 19.500
 c’ = 10 50 24.84

B.C. (a) gives 19.5 = a’ (40)2 + 10


 a’ = 5.938 x 10-3 Draw (plot) the system curve on
. the same plot with the
 hp = 5.938 x 10-3 V2 + 10 performance curves

Chapter 7 Pumps 102


Duty Point 2
30
44.8 L/s
28
22 m
26
24
22
h (m)

20 280
260 mm
280 mm
18 mm system

16
14 Duty Point 1 260 mm
12 40 L/s
10 19.5 m
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
 (l/s)
V
Q

Chapter 7 Pumps 103

At duty point 2, Note:


1. Duty point 2 is not meeting the
hp = 22m  = 45 L/s
V 
required V

Power = g hpV  = 48 L/s required
V
For this duty point.  = 45 L/s delivered
V
 kg  m  m3  2. May try impeller D = 300 mm
P’2  1000 3  9.81 2   22m   0.045 
 m  s   s  3. Recalculate Power for D = 300 mm
At duty point 2, a 13 kW motor is
 9712
kgm2
 9.71kW
needed
s3
4. Is it better buying a complete new
pump?
9.71Kw
P’2  12.95kW (actual)
0.75

Power for 300 mm impeller


P’2 = (300/260)3 * 9.68
P’2 = 14.87 kW

Chapter 7 Pumps 104


30
28
26
24
22 260 mm
h (m)

20 280 mm 280 mm
system
18
300 mm
16
14 260 mm

12
10
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
 (l/s)
V
Q

Chapter 7 Pumps 105


Selection chart 1450 RPM
ISO 2858 /5199 Centrifugal Pump

Selection chart 2900 RPM


Elite

Selection Chart
1450 rpm

Note:
For final selection
refer to individual
performance
curves

Selection Chart
2900 rpm

Note:
For final selection
refer to individual
performance
curves