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Exorcism In Biblical and Contempory Christianity
This dissertation is a result of my own work. Material from the work of others has been acknowledged and quotations and paraphrases suitably indicated.
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Table of contents.
Chapter One: The Introduction................................................................................ Page 3 Chapter Two: Biblical Exorcism........................... ................................................. . Page 6 Chapter Three: Exorcism in the Modern Church............................ ........................ Page 12 Chapter Four: A Comparison of Biblical and Modern Exorcism........................... Page 21 Chapter Five: The Conclusion........................................................ ........................ Page 27 The Bibliography................................................................................ .................... Page 29
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Chapter One: The Introduction The study of demons and exorcism is often thought of as being the dark heart of Christianity and is generally assumed to be a niche topic with no real bearing on mainstream church life either now or in the times of the early Christians. However, I would make the argument that exorcism is much more central to the understanding both of the ministry of Jesus and of his early disciples than has often been thought. In this study of exorcism my task is twofold; I will examine and compare both the biblical view and the modern view of exorcism focusing on the methods used and use the results to make a judgement over whether the methods of exorcism as used by the modern church have remained consistent with the practice of exorcism as seen in the bible. My study will be split into three main central chapters, chapter two will focus on biblical exorcism and chapter three will focus on the modern church¶s use of exorcism and chapter four will compare the two views. Demonology and the practice of exorcism has taken a prominent role within Christianity from the earliest days of Jesus to the early church and beyond. Jesus was a famous exorcist as his disciples also became in the early days of the church. The church Father John Chrysostom would often preach about the devil and the role of demons in attacking the church while Augustine described the church as being in a war against the demon realm in his book µCity of God.¶ In the early modern age the famous exorcist Girolamo Menghi published his translation of ancient exorcism texts to be used by other exorcists in the mid sixteenth century. Exorcism has been a staple part of the activities and ministry of the church for as long as it has existed. But with the rise of the enlightenment thinkers and the de-mythologizing of the bible the world of the spirit gave way to the empirical sciences that even pervaded into theology and religion. However there has been increased interest in exorcism over the last half century which in part can be explained by cultural changes such as the revivalism of spiritualism in the 1960s stemming from the eastern mystical religions imported during those years and the rise of the new age movement towards the end of the twentieth century. The study of this subject can be difficult and I join with Stephen C. Barton when he says that ³The task is, as we might say, µdevilishly difficult¶!´1 To make an effective critical study of exorcism is to attempt to study stories and accounts that can seem even more bizarre than fiction and more frightening at times than a horror film. Indeed, exorcism has formed the basis of many films within the horror scene not least the famous film of the 1970s simply titled µThe Exorcist¶ that had audiences screaming,
Stephen C. Barton, Thinking about demons and the demonic (Journal of Theology 111 2008) P. 83
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still is considered such has returned to prominence in the dawn of the twenty first century. By the end of this study I aim to show that exorcism was central to the ministry and mission of Jesus. the use of gestures and items helps to understand if the exorcist believes the exorcism is successful because of what is said. that it became an important tool within the evan gelism of the early 2 Amy Plantinga Pauw. The increasing strength of the charismatic movement can also once again help to explain the rising interest in exorcism. Where Theologians Fear To Tread (Journal of Modern Theology 16:1 2000) 4|P ag e . The main focus of this topic is on the comparison of the methods used by in the biblical exorcisms and in the exorcisms of the modern church. whilst dealing with the spirit realms and their interaction with this world and so therefore not necessarily what would be thought of as central to the eschatological mission of Jesus. creation. I believe this because the way in which an exorcism is carried out can help to identify what the exorcist believes the exorcism is doing. eschatology. but functons to enhance the main theological themesi God. to help explain other central tenets and to shine the spotlight on topics of high interest.crying and entering into therapy after its release. The methods used will help to highlight the reasons behind the exorcism and some of the theology integral to the use of exorcism. what was once considered a relic of the medieval age. The study of angels and demons may indeed play only a supporting role. and so on. Christ. But exorcism. Further more what is said will help us to understand whether the exorcist believes that the demons are a literal spiritual reality or a psychological problem to be helped medically with the exorcism as a kind of therapy. and in some circles. is in fact a central role within the ministry of Jesus as will be shown later in this study. It is my argument throughout this study that exorcism played a central role within the ministry of Jesus. Amy Plantinga Pauw puts the argument across using the analogy of music when she says: ³I propose the practice of Baroque musical ornamentation as an analogy to the place of reflection of angels and demons in Christian theology.´2 While Plantinga Pauw does offer a good argument against ignoring the role that angels and demons and therefore exorcism plays within Christianity she does not make an argument for its centrality within the ministry of Jesus. Thus I believe that by focusing on the methods it will help to reveal some of the understanding of the theology of exorcism whilst allowing me to make best use of the space at hand by narrowing my view to the methods used. because of who or what is asked to help or even because of their own merits. I will be able to only briefly touch on some of the more theological issues that underline the use of exorcism as it is an incredibly complex task and this study is limited in size. It is not the main melody. The words used. Salvation.
5|P ag e .Christians and that it still plays an important role within the modern church as both evangelism and as a direct combative mission against the enemies of the church.
An argument can be made that much of the beliefs concerning the spirit world did not develop within Judaism until during the exile. Within the Bible from the very beginning spirit creatures take a role. to the Babylonian magi who would bind and control the spirits to power their spells. angelic messengers and the fallen nephilim are just some examples. Revelations obviously is the centre piece of spiritual encounters. I will then look at the exorcisms of Jesus and of his disciples. the spirit has taken a dominant role within religion. I will do so by first setting some context and making some brief explanations on the nature of the historical exorcist. However within the New Testament the spirit world plays a much larger part within the narratives of the Gospels and in Acts. It is perhaps surprising then that there is no real mention of exorcistic practise within the Old Testament. When the world of the spirit takes a role within the physical world then it is not long before an exorcist is needed. a belief which can be found within many ancient cultures and within the cultures of late antiquity. It is my argument that exorcism played an important part of the evangelism of early Christianity and also played an important role in the ministry of Jesus. Them majority of the exorcisms found on cuneiform tablets are focused on 6|P ag e . The Psalms and the book of Isaiah compare the gods of the other nations to demonic or unclean spirits but the world of the spirit hardly plays a major role within the narrative of the Old Testament. This chapter of my study of exorcism is based mainly on Biblical cases of exorcism as well as some general contextual information on how other contemporary cultures practiced exorcism. Both Babylon and Assyria had rich and complex angel and demonologies and many of the names given to demons comes from these cultures.Chapter Two: Biblical Exorcism. Throughout history spirituality and the world of the spirit has played a large role within religion and has played a considerable role in forming the cosmological views of the early civilisations. Within the Babylonian culture evil spirits were often believed to have caused diseases. I intend in this chapter to study the methods of exorcism and to make an argument for its importance within early Christianity. From the earliest animistic and shamanistic religions that would voluntarily offer their sorcerer-priests to become possessed by beneficial spirits in order to banish the detrimental spirits.
Eds. From its sheer volume. µemptiness¶.H. This is the most widely documented form of exorcism and it can be argued that it was therefore the most common type of exorcism. Previously published T & T Clark. A. Demonic Possession in the New Testament: Its Historical. Anand Bhatt and Guttenberg. Sayce and Ralph T. charismatic magicians and charismatic exorcists.´5 The story in the apocryphal book of Tobit regarding a woman called Sarah is often explained as an exorcism. and µnothings. 18 5 Graham H. and their worship in Israel was forthwith discountenanced.¶ Deprived thus of public recognition and support. Jewish Monotheism can also be seen as a reason for the richness that developed within Judaic demonologies. As Twelftree argues: ³That is. In the Name of Jesus: Exorcism among the Early Christians (USA MI: Baker Academic 2007) P. actions. The main difference between the three types is where the authority and power that makes the exorcism work comes from. The pretentions of these deities were completely exposed.healing3. Griffith.NET. William Menzies Alexander makes this argument saying: ³The stern logic of events had demonstrated at once the utter impotence of the heathen gods as effective agents in history. the burnings of the fish entrails driving away 3 Rev. Tobias is instructed by the angel Raphael to burn the lungs and liver of a fish and the smell drives away the demon Asmodeus who has been killing all of her husbands. as well as chronological and geographical range. The exorcists of ancient civilisation and of late antiquity would most often be healers before they were exorcists. Twelftree. With their encounters with other nations and focus on the spirit within Babylonian culture it would not be unusual for the deities of their enemies to be derided as lesser beings. 4 they sank to that vague position which the conventions of the east assign to demonic creatures. and Theological Aspects (Oregon USA: Wipf and Stock publishers 2001. They became µlies¶. However it is my argument that within early Christianity the role of the exorcist takes on a different persona as does the meaning of the exorcism itself. 36 7|P ag e . This can be seen as a form of magical exorcism.´ The role of the exorcist is often an unusual one and for much of early civilisation could be generally labelled as just a more specialised magician as has already been noted. For the magical exorcist the exorcism is not done by the exorcist but rather by the power-authority they call upon or by the ritual words. at one end of the spectrum of kinds of exorcisms and exorcists are thought to be successful because of what was said and done rather than because of who performed them. From Cuneiform and Vedic Translations (Lexington USA: Sonicwave 2009) 4 William Menzies Alexander. 1902) P. and the peerlessness of Jehovah as Governor among the nations.H. this material probably reflects the most commonly known form of exorcism across the world of late antiquity. The Original Exorcisms: Ancient Man and His Demons. Medical. items and spells that they use. A fatal blow was struck at their supremacy. Graham Twelftree makes th e argument that within the ancient near eastern civilisations there were three main types of exorcist: magical exorcists.
for he adjured the demon never to come back into him. and the very sight of David is said to have cheered Saul from his moods. Ben Temalion.Only when the man had fallen down. enters the emperor¶s daughter. This shows that were attempting to exorcise not by their own power-authority but by the power-authority of a higher spiritual power or deity. In the Name of Jesus. deity or person with spiritual authority. 166-169) describes his as being a charismatic magician. P. The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity (Journal of Roman Studies 61. 16.´ 7 Twelftree again provides us with an example: ³Among historical figures thought to be successful in controlling or exorcising demons in this way. does Eleazar turn to using poems or songs. Josephus¶ Antiquities. The story of David (1 Sam. which depended on traditional µpoetic songs¶ and µmethods¶. The playing of David¶s lyre banished the demons from hurting Saul and making him fall into depression.. it is who performs the exorcism rather than what is said and done that is important. we have an example in the rabbinic literature. but nor do they rely in their own personal power-authority.. 100. Peter Brown explains the difference and development of the charismatic exorcist from the magical exorcist like this. Rabbi Simeon is said simply to call out to the demon.The resulting successful exorcism is portrayed as depending entirely on the charismatic force of the exorcist. Where the magical exorcist relies on the power-authority that he draws on to perform the exorcism. Charismatic exorcists are at the complete opposite end of the spectrum from the magical exorcist.the demon. speaking Solomon¶s name´6 The charismatic magician does not exorcise by asking an outside power-authority to intervene such as a greater spirit. 38 Peter Brown. they are significantly later than the time of the first Christians. the Charismatic exorcist relies on his own force of personality. 8 Twelftree. a fourth generation Tannaitic rabbi. 6. The story can be expected to reflect what would have been known about exorcism by the early Christians is told as an example of the exorcisms Josephus has see him conduct.´8 It is significant that whilst the stories of the charismatic exorcist can be considered to be like the exorcisms of Jesus. skills that had previously been preserved by society at large.. 45 8|P ag e . To bring about a cure. They combined both the ritualistic and magical approach of the magician alongside the personal power of the exorcist. 1971). This 6 7 Ibid P. a demon. The name of Solomon is often used as is his seal: ³[From Josephus] comes the well known story of Eleazar the Jew. This is an example of how not only the actions taken but also the person performing them produces the result. In a story concerning Simeon ben Yose. ³the holy man was thought of as having taken into his person. after the demon left. A New Testament example of this form of exorcism is Acts 19: 13-19 where the sons of Sceva try to exorcise in the name of Jesus..
But at the same time Jesus does not call on any power-authority during his exorcisms and thus would seem to suggest that it is by his own merits of personal force that the exorcism was accomplished successfully. 48 . Twelftree calls these episodes ³Power-Encounters´ such as when the man screams when Jesus enters the Capernaum synagogue (Mark 1:24). However to accept this on its own would be to ignore the importance of Jesus saying that he casts the demons out ³by the spirit (or finger) of God. This indicates some sort of spiritual clash between two powers. That he did not mention this power-authority during his exorcisms would also tend to indicate that he believed that he was able to act with a right to use the power of his spiritual supporter at will. 9:1-2. Whilst much of the exorcistic practise of Jesus would seem to place him within the Charismatic Exorcist end of the spectrum. At first glance it might appear that the exorcisms of Jesus were different from the work of previous exorcists and so this would be an indication that they had a different importance as well.49 9|P ag e . Mark 3:21-30)9 I would make the argument that Jesus was.´ (Matt 12:28 and Luke 11:20) This indicates that he did not think he was doing it alone or that it was by his own power that acted. In Mark 1:25 Jesus commands the demon to ³Be Silent (or bound). Taking into account that exorcisms were a fairly common occurrence and that miracles were not expected as eschatological signs by the Jews it seems unusual that Jesus should make a unique claim to his particular exorcisms being the vanguard of his battle with Satan and marking the coming of the kingdom of God itself. 10:6-8 Luke 11:20.significance cannot be underestimated if we are to understand what the early Christians might have known about exorcism. when it 9 Ibid Pp. In order to try and understand why Jesus performed exorcisms and how he did so I will first do a general overview before looking in more depth at some individual cases from scripture. which attributes power to Jesus that the demonically possessed man recognises. he does used traditional formula and actions as well. (Matt 12:28. Others might claim that Jesus performed exorcisms to fit into the culture of his age rather than to appear to be going against cultural norms. It was common practice within antiquity for an exorcist to transfer a demon to an object which could later be destroyed.´ in the story of the geresene demoniac Jesus asks for the demons name and transfers the demons to a herd of pigs (Mark 5:12-14). Much of Jesus¶ activity was dominated by conducting miracles and exorcisms are some of the most obvious and most important aspects of this ministry (Matt 12:28 and Luke 11:20) and those exorcisms that Jesus does perform can often be seen as a form of encounter between Jesus and the demonic.
acting in the style of a charismatic magician. Important to note is that the demon attacks them because it does not know them. Th is means that what at first sight would appear to be the disciples acting as magical exorcists using the power authority to drive out the demons.came to matters of exorcism. The way in which it comes across is the opposite from the exorcisms of Jesus where. The sons attempt an exorcism using the name of Jesus but it does not succeed and the demon attacks them. They believe that demons cause illness (Acts 19:13) and Paul says that the pagan gods are only demons (1 Cor 10:20). Thus it can be argued that the early Christians were charismatic magicians in the process of exorcism with a focus on the powerauthority rather than the individual. The first disciples of Jesus were likely to have perfor med exorcisms during his life time especially during the mission that he sent them on (Mark 6:7-13. µIn the name of Jesus¶. This would also suggest that while the formula used is important there is also a deal of importance as to who uses the name. it was also the unique status of Jesus that allowed him to utilise the power-authority of God as it was his own. It is interesting to note that the beliefs of the early Christians seem to be in line with much of the contemporary culture surrounding the actions of demons. It is interesting to note the story of the storm and the sinking ship as found in Mark 4:35-41. Exorcism clearly takes an important role for them as Jesus gives them authority over evil spirits (Luke 9:1) but as to the form it takes it is harder to be certain of. Luke 10. And it will help to understand the role that exorcism played for the early Christians. 1-12. although he drew on a power-authority. they are in fact acting as charismatic magicians since it would appear their own person is important. The story of the sons of Sceva (Acts 19:11-20) would also seem to suggest the formula of the name of Jesus being used. The disciples carry out their exorcisms µin the name of Jesus¶ but the story of the sons of Sceva would also suggest that it was in part due to their own standing that the exorcisms were successful. which meant that it was easy to believe that it was directly due to Jesus¶ own personality that the exorcisms were successful and so miss that. Matt 10:1-15). Although there are many interpretations as to Jesus¶ use of this style of language in 10 | P a g e . he did not make that claim. The method is using the formula. His claim that his exorcisms served an eschatological purpose alongside a healing purpose must also be noted as it is integral to the understanding of why Jesus practiced exorcisms. nor did he make a deprecatory statement during his exorcisms. Mark 9:38 would allow us to assume that the disciples are using the same method as the unknown exorcists and Luke 10:17 would suggest that the 72 also used this method. to draw on Jesus as a source of power-authority. Here Jesus uses the language of exorcism to quiet the storm and control the elements.
I would suggest that the use of the language of exorcism in this case was an assertion and demonstration over the elements of the created world. that the language was to establish the authority of J esus as creator in an eschatological statement or that the Gospel writers utilised this language when describing the actions of Jesus because they could not understand what he did in any other way. then it would seem possible and even likely that the use of that same language here would be to demonstrate the authority of a creator over the created. thus highlighting the power of Jesus as their source of power-authority and therefore serving as an evangelistic tool. 11 | P a g e . nor whether he knew the storm to have occurred because of demonic activity. that the role of exorcisms was important for both the early Christians and for Jesus. It would seem logical that the disciples would have believed that the storm was a result of demonic activity. If it is the case that the exorcisms of Jesus were of an eschatological nature. helping to identify Jesus and his mission to herald the kingdom of God. They were granted authority from their source of powerauthority to command evil spirits and so succeed in exorcisms. My initial instinct is to go with the second interpretation that I presented but I cannot be certain. The belief that spirits lived in the air was common during the times of Jesus and natural disasters were placed at the feat of the pagan gods or of demons. But it seems out of character for Jesus to act in a certain way to adhere to cultural norms when so much of his mission was counter-cultural. Overall I would suggest that my argument has been successfully made. The disciples of Jesus acted in much the same way and with much the same intentions behind their exorcisms. identifying him as an agent of God able to utilise the power of the µfinger of God¶ but doing so due to his own merits. But they also directly dr ew from the source of power-authority during exorcisms and did not claim that it was their own merits. The exorcism miracles played a highly important role within the ministry of Jesus. It cannot be said whether Jesus would have agreed with this. And so I am left with only a few interpretations to suggest. This in turn places Jesus¶ exorcism miracles within his eschatological mission as a herald of the coming kingdom. That either the storm was demonically charged.this situation the actual reason remains unclear.
there are two words that will be repeatedly used during this work and what I mean by each of them needs to be explained first. before I do so. Thus the only Comment [WRT1]: Be consistent with capitalization or lower-case usage. 12 | P a g e . despite the decline of its practice during the enlightenment age. To this end. often hidden and secretive lest it bring mockery and scorn from the modern world upon the church. Quite often. There are two terms often used within this particular field of ministry and those are µexorcism¶ and µdeliverance¶. However. Comment [WRT3]: Indent the first line of a new paragraph. I would argue that the words do mean different things and refer to differing aspects of this ministry. I will look at the Catholic liturgy of exorcism and some of the methods used by Protestant denominations. has not only been made widely known but has been publicly endorsed by church leaders. I would argue that the term µdeliverance¶ can be used for any prayers that are not a form of sacramental prayer. In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI told his bishops to create teams of trained exorcists in their diocese in order to counter the demonic threat 10 and even went so far as to create a school for exorcists within Rome itself. the two terms are interchangeable in both meaning and application.Chapter Three: Exorcism in the Modern Church For two thousand years the ministry of exorcism has played an important role in the church and. The ministry of exorcism. Below µchurch¶ (line 7) has been rendered in lower-case. the ministry of exorcism has been growing relentlessly throughout Europe and the United States. Due in part to its popularity in the mass media. However. especially within Protestant denominations. The role played by the exorcist in the wide range of Christian denominations is varied as are their methods. Comment [WRT2]: Spelling. even if only in films and books. Following on from this. As more people have become increasingly aware of its existence. Comment [WRT4]: See comment 1. It is these that I will be looking at in closer detail during this chapter as well as the wider role played by exorcism within the church and the reasons for its use. This means that the term µexorcism¶ is used when describing a prayer or ritual that is a sacrament. there has also been a rise in the need for the modern church to be able to respond. I will then consider the role that exorcism plays within the modern church and will look at some of the views of those who practise exorcism. it has once again entered a period of growth.
and r integrity of life. Gabriele Amorth. The role of the exorcist is normally assigned to an aging priest in a parish by the bishop. one who is: ³A priest . 12 The Roman Ritual: II Christian Burial. However. especially commas. 1994). He should fulfil this devout undertaking in all constancy and humility. Moreover. Often this priest will hold the title and role of exorcist for as long as he stays within that diocese or until he retires. which we can collectively call ³deliverance prayers´.person who could legitimately be called an µexorcist¶ would be an ordained priest granted the authority of their church (I shall explore this more later). Exorcists receive an additional. p. I am referring to private prayer.¶ This is why many of the more evangelical churches do not use the terms µexorcism¶ or µexorcist¶ as they do not have a sacramental belief system. 169 13 | P a g e . the Roman Catholic Church is normally the first denomination they think about. must be properly distinguished fo his piety. 153. (Milwauke Usa: The Bruce Publishing Company)P. 11 Fr.´ 12 The role of exorcist is normally reserved for the bishop. he ought to be of mature years and revered not alone for his office but for his moral qualities. When someone thinks of exorcism. The second priest is normally the parish priest of the person in question or the apprentice of Comment [WRT7]: Perhaps this should be stated in your introduction.when he intends to perform an exorcism over persons tormented by the devil. prudence. This is important to remember in the distinction between deliverance and exorcism. You need to improve your bibliographical citation style. Exorcisms. Gabriele Amorth states: ³I believe I have made it sufficiently clear that Jesus gave the power to expel demons to all those who believe in Him and act in His name. all others would be termed µdeliverance ministers. a priest can be granted permission to perform an exorcism for a short duration and for a specific case. but on the divine power. being utterly immune to any striving for human aggrandizement. As Fr. Reserved Blessings. The authority of an exorcist to perform his duties stems from the bishop and thus from the church. unlike private prayer. where you mention the difference between µdeliverance¶ prayers and µexorcism¶ prayers. but the bishop can then delegate this responsibility to a priest who meets the qualities shown above. or the dissertation handbook. Comment [WRT6]: You should take more care over punctuation. if required. The authority of bishop and church is required because the roman rite of exorcism is a sacrament of the church and is thus undertaken with the priest standing in the place of Christ.´11 Comment [WRT5]: The quotation needs an introduction. involves the intercession of the Church. I am speaking of those priests who are specifically assigned by their bishop«these priests administer a sacramental t hat. An Exorcist Tells His Story (San Francisco: Ignatius press.one who is expressly and in special wise authorized by the Ordinary. The ritual of exorcism itself is a collection of prayers and bible readings intended to be celebrated by two priests with attendant helpers. See the degree programme handbook for advice. particular power. and relying not on his own.
Then the bishop will either assign the diocesan exorcist to the case or grant special authority to the parish priest for the duration of the case to serve as exorcist. months or even years of prayers being said before the person is freed from their possession. This stems from the belief that a place can be demonically infested. to ascertain whether he thinks there is a genuine case of demonic activity. a medical doctor is there as witness and to monitor the victim¶s vital signs. then he will take the case to his bishop and seek permission for an exorcism. Comment [WRT10]: Spelling. things and animals.´ 14 Gathered alongside the priests are family members. it has become common practice for some sort of tape recorder to be present in the room in order to provide another witness should something go wrong and someone be hurt. The exorcism ritual itself can take anything from a single hour-long session of prayer to many days. when possible. Since it is usual for an exorcist to be of senior years it is not unknown for the strain of an exorcism to leave the exorcist dead or dying. Comment [WRT9]: Don¶t omit the possessive apostrophe. Pp. Since the advent of new recording technology. 13 Generally it is not the person who is possessed or is being oppressed by demons that comes to the Church but a family member. In the case of a person being affec ted. Comment [WRT8]: Can you cite evidence/statistics for this? 13 14 Malachi Martin. This is known as µdiabolic infestation¶ which simply refers to when demonic activity affects houses. Also.104 105 14 | P a g e . These can often be compared to the activities of a poltergeist except that the effects are often more extreme and seem focused Comment [WRT11]: Explain further. a medical psychologist is often brought in to examine the individual to see if it might be anything mundane. ³Since not all demons are from the same hierarchy. In the ritual of exorcism itself there are three main exorcism prayers and a small separate ritual designated to be used to counter the work of Satan over a place or locality rather than a person as the first part of the ritual is intended. As a result. then. When all these tests are completed and if the priest still believes there to be a case for demonic activity. Jose Antonio Fortea. as laid out in The Roman Ritual. Hostage to the Devil (London: Arrow Books 1988) P. he will then perform an investigation to look for certain signs. Interview with an Exorcist. some demons are more difficult to expel than others. not all have the same power. LLC 2006). some physically strong and spiritually faithful members of the parish to aid with prayers and with holding down the person should things become violent. run away or be otherwise incapacitated.the senior exorcist learning the role before being appointed himself as an exorcist. The role of the second priest is to be ready to take over and step in should the senior exorcist fail. (Ascension Press. When this is taken to the local priest. 15 Fr.
being said as often as needed. 20 15 | P a g e . 20 Matt Baglio. Amorth. P. This is in part due to the sacramental nature of the rite of exorcism and due to the authority given to the exorcist by the bishop to act in the authority of the intercession of the Church. 15 16 Fr. however. the rite of exorcism is prayed through from beginning to end. few exorcists pray it this way. the rite of exorcism places great power and trust on the intercession of the saints and in particular on the Virgin Mary. Amorth. The alternate sections of the exorcism ritual are more properly called deprecatory prayers. (San Francisco: Ignatius press 1994). discretion is placed on the celebrating priest to include other prayers of deliverance. Although it is expected that the rite is to be prayed through from beginning to end in its entirety. These are the prayers imploring God¶s aid and asking Him for help to either relieve the sufferings of the possessed or to strengthen and forgive the exorcist. From this stems Mary¶s unique relationship with the Holy Trinity´18 Prayer is the most important aspect of the rite of exorcism. In the same way are the prayers of the saints. P. The longer the exorcist has been practicing will generally determine how strictly he follows the ritual to the letter: ³To follow the ritual straight through from start to finish would probably take about forty five minutes to an hour. 69 Ibid 17 18 Fr. If the firstborn creature is the Word become flesh. these are the heart of the matter and are often used outside of the full ritual to µtest the waters¶ when trying to identify a case of possession. (San Francisco: Ignatius press 1994). several other prayers of protection and glory to God and readings from scripture including gospel passages and psalms. ³We cannot omit a reflection about the Virgin Mary. often intermingling psalms of their own choosing or spontaneous exorcism prayers. An Exorcist Tells His Story. The Rite(UK : Simon and Schuster 2009) P. 17 As would be expected from a Roman Catholic source. 16 ´ The key point of the exorcism rite are the three prayers of exorcism. all of which is based on their experience. personal prayers and to use the prayers that make up the ritual separate from the order they can be found in the rite. This is because rather than asking God to act the prayers are instead a command issued from the exorcist in the authority of his ministry and on behalf of the church and God.15 In the main part the rite is made up of the three exorcism prayers. An Exorcist Tells His Story. In truth. During an exorcism.on destruction. These three prayers of exorcism are known as imperative prayers. she who would be the means of the incarnation must also have been present in the divine thought before every other creature. Gabriele. both the prayers dictated within the ritual and the prayers of the helpers. Gabriele.
but in line 6 it is lower-case. The rite is carried out very much in the sense that the priest is acting directly on behalf of God. adds an interesting dimension to the rite of exorcism within the Catholic tradition. where one individual may be granted an extended authority to perform exorcisms as the occasion and the need arises. During the exorcism itself. the Church of England. especially Michael. and to the saints. alongside these prayers and set biblical passages. The Church of England is probably closest to the Roman Church in its methods of dealing with exorcism. anointing door frames and window sills with oil and pouring salt across thresholds. The priest is also directed to place the end of his stole onto the person and to lay his hand on the person¶s head. An entire section of the final and separate exorcism as detailed within the Roman Ritual. The Anglican church also will only appoint priests to perform exorcisms and will not allow anyone to perform them unless authorized by a bishop. They perform a specific purpose within the church and are seen as being symbolic of the presence of God and representative of the prayers said over the object in its consecration.10) and is called upon in a prayer dedicated to gaining his aid. oil or salt. Here you capitalize the word µRite¶. The rite specifies that on occasions the priest must make the sign of the cross either over the possessed and those in the room or directly. Often an exorcist will establish a tea m of lay folk within his field of operation and have them pray for a case he is working on or during the exorcism from a separate location. The involvement of such entreaties to the angels. by tracing it. normally water. Again the similarity between the Church of Rome and the Church of England can be 16 | P a g e Comment [WRT16]: See comment 17. . the exorcism of Satan and the Fallen Angels. The Archangel Michael is said to have a particular strength of intercession when dealing with the possessed (Rev 12: 7 . whilst having the post of exorcist. However. including the use of certain sacramentals such as blessed salt and oil and holy water. other actions are commonly used during the exorcism. A sacramental object is an object. other actions are also taken to further aid the exorcism. All three of these sacramentals are also used in healing and are often seen as being symbolic of purity as well as healing. Comment [WRT13]: See comment 13. They are either used on the room itself through sprinkling holy water. Comment [WRT12]: Be consistent with your capitalization. or on the person in question as a way of again increasing the efficacy of the exorcism and indirectly causing harm to the demon in question. requires that exorcist to seek permission before every exorcism performed. is devoted to the Archangel Michael. Unlike the Catholic Church. All such actions are dictated by the rite itself. Comment [WRT15]: How µon the room¶²by sprinkling? Comment [WRT14]: Define a µsacramental¶. These deliverance prayers are valued as aids to the work of the exorcist and in helping the exorcism to be successful. that has been blessed and exorcised before being consecrated for use by the church. onto the body of the possessed.angels and of the Virgin Mary sought and asked for.
the prayers are not formed into a rite or ritual that is celebrated in the same way as is found in the Catholic church. The most common method is to celebrate the Eucharist within the house of the one affected and then to use prayers from the Common Book of Prayer and ones that either the exorcist has made up himself or has found in resource material. it is believed. They will offer communion.K 1972) 17 | P a g e .B. except when deemed extraordinary by the bishop. bless each room of the house and when dealing with a possessed individual. It is rare for anyone younger than middle-aged to be appointed as exorcist and despite the rapid changes made in recent years.C. they will offer prayers over that person and for that person along with the family present. ed.P. Exorcism: The Findings of a Commission Convened by the Bishop of Exeter (London: S. The Church of England does not have a set liturgy or rite for the practice of exorcism. Comment [WRT17]: Insert pagination. The biggest difference between the Roman practice of exorcism and the Anglican methods is the lack of set formula or liturgy within the Church of England. Unlike the Catholic Church. so as to Comment [WRT18]: You should express yourself in a suitably neutral way. The Anglican Church generally appoints priests who are either retired or who are amongst the elders of the diocese so that their life experience may grant them more insight into their duties.S. depending on their own understanding of what exorcism is and its underlying theology. Within it is are a few brief chapters on the history of Christian exorcism followed by suggested prayers for use on a person or a place. The majority of Anglican exorcists. In the 1970s the Bishop of Exeter convened a commission to investigate the role of exorcism within the Anglican church and published a small booklet in 1972.seen in the kind of priests that are appointed. Although it does suggest suitable forms for prayers to be used in exorcism. In Catholicism. 19 Beyond the prayers used. and the priest who turns up a week later to offer counselling and advice on how to cope with the situation and will offer a few quiet prayers. fall somewhere in the middle of these two extremes. and this means that the methods used vary greatley from exorcist to exorcist. an academic exercise. At either end of the spectrum is the priest who arrives the same day as being assigned to the case in cloak and berretta and uses the full panoply of High Church Anglicanism. 19 Dom Robert Petitpierre O. after all. of whom there are relatively few. the rite of exorcism causes the demon pain and suffering. This is due to a difference in the way that the exorcism is said to work on the demon. This is. the methods of the exorcism itself vary considerably from one exorcist to another. holy water and incense. exorcisms are performed once for any individual case and not over an extended period of time. it is still rare to find a female exorcist.
Whether Catholic or Protestant the role that exorcism plays is generally the same. It is often practiced alongside a healing ministry but this is not always the case. Unfortunately I do not know of any exorcist who has not had to suffer at the hands of priests determined to speak about and end the scandal of medieval superstition for the good of the Church. Exorcism is undertaken in order to free people and to relieve suffering and to fight the devil. Jose Antonio Fortea. including those of the pagan pantheon. The exorcism is still considered a sign of the dominance and power of Christ and the authority of the Christian Church over its enemies. Rephrase. In the early church. The reason for exorcism. it can be argued that the understanding of exorcism is that the demonic presence is forced to leave not by any words spoken causing pain to the demon but instead through the direct involvement of God in answering the prayers of the exorcist20. those who 20 Ibid. During an exorcism the priest will often offer teaching about what is happening. within the Anglican Church. Interview with an Exorcist (Ascension Press. although it is only a generalisation. is the same in both cases. exorcism was one of the premier modes of evangelism. although it is not so obviously done nor as widespread. it also provides an avenue of evangelism. However. ³Every exorcist knows fellow clergymen who think he is crazy and that his work is a danger to the reputation of the Church. Pp. It is an overt and powerful proof that is offered for those that experience it even though for those who do not experience it and do not believe it is still a subject of ridicule. The exorcist is seen both as healer and as holy warrior and the field of exorcism is generally termed spiritual warfare because of this. between good and evil.21´ Comment [WRT21]: Awkward sentence. As well as providing liberation for those in need. Comment [WRT20]: What is your source for these theological understandings of exorcism? Official sources should be cited. The exorcism itself is a moment of direct confrontation between the exorcist and Satan. by establishing the greater power of the Christian Church to cast out and control the demonic spirits. however. Even within the Church those who perform the ministry of an exorcist will often find themselves ridiculed by their colleagues. even within their own religion. Comment [WRT19]: Is this understanding anywhere stated in official Anglican documentation? Within a world that has made profound scientific discoveries and is pushing the boundaries of human knowledge and medical science the world of the exorcist can easily be seen to be superstitious by many. 11-28 21 Fr. they arose as dominant over the local primitive religions. between the Church and the Fallen.force it to leave as well as call ing on God to directly expel the demon. LLC 2006) Pp. 102103 18 | P a g e . why the exorcism is said to work and will try to encourage the individual to pray. The same is true today. However.
this is the one that I agree with and would suggest to be th e strongest one. to pagans and Wiccans and to those who are involved in the occult. organized religion. Amorth. politicians and actors . he is unable to understand the meaning of life and even the meaning of hardships. the practice itself is still carried out with a veil of secrecy that is slow to lift or be withdrawn by those who carry out this ministry. Gabriele. as it is seen by the church. health. (San Francisco: Ignatius press 1994)Pp. Although there are other interpretations. be it science.Thus we see everyone . labourers. card readers. Humans are by their very nature given over to have faith in something. the exorcist is on the front lines of the conflict between the Church and the superstitious beliefs of the day. the exorcist becomes the front line evangelist to new age groups. it performs it fo r the same reason. And when this is not placed in the right direction. If popular knowledge of the work of the exorcist continues. The Church is fighting back against such beliefs in the same way that it has done for two thousand years and as he was at the beginning of the Church so he is here. soothsayers. It seems that the age old superstitions of mankind are still in abundance in today¶s world of empirical faith. He longs for the happiness that the world holds out as a lure: wealth.young and old.perform exorcism say this is the threat they were called to deal with And that as faith declines in the face of the new belief in the empirical. An Exorcist Tells His Story. And more so in recent times. love. To liberate people who are under oppression and possession and so to grant them freedom from the situations they find themselves in. Fr.seeking the µtruth¶ about their future. professionals. he is poor and unhappy. Many serious business men and women look up their star signs in the newspapers every day and many more people go to a medium or spiritualist when their loved ones die. ³When man is separated from God. Although each denomination performs the exorcism in a different manner. suffering and death. power. atheism or even just a general spirituality. superstition also increases right alongside. When faith is turned from the church it can find a myriad of other possible beliefs to adhere to. the faith of what is seen is my reality co-exists with faith in reading the future in the stars and in the spells of the VooDoo man. This sort of crowd will always find another crowd: sorcerers. 143-144 19 | P a g e . but there are others. It would seem that the rise in the ministry of exorcism will continue to grow as the belief and practice of superstition and magic also increases.´22 Comment [WRT23]: Are you making a statement here? Comment [WRT22]: Incomplete sentence. prana therapists and fortune teller s of all kinds. it can lead to the wrong one. 22 Comment [WRT24]: This is one interpretation. women. In an age where such extremes of belief can co-exist it becomes easier to see why the ministry of exorcism has increased. astrologers. pleasure and admiration«.
the use of items of special significance or special gestures and the drawing and naming of God as their source of powerauthority would all prima facie indicate that the exorcists of the modern church are in the style of magical exorcists. The approach of the chapter is largely descriptive. in this case a demonic spirit. To analyze this phenomenon properly. and alternative understandings (see comment 39) are hardly in evidence. 20 | P a g e . the use of set formulas. It is a source of liberation: the key r ole of the exorcism is to release the individual from possession and to allow them to act and live normally again. The style is poor (see my comments above). Comment [WRT25]: Incomplete sentence. This means that it is safe to argue that the exorcists of the modern church are in the style of the charismatic magician when it comes to the methods of exorcism.Its methods are diverse as is the basic understanding of the theology behind it across the differing denominations but there are binding factors that allow for one to speak of exorcism across the universal church. Christopher. However the use of the imperative µI¶ command in the rite of exorcism and the importance of the ministerial. The methods used for the exorcism. and the critical and analytical elements are hardly apparent. but apart from quoting exorcists themselves. In banishing the demon it removes a source of pain for the one who is possessed. Comment [WRT27]: There is a lot more work needed on this draft. Comment [WRT26]: This is an intra-faith or intra-ecclesiastical understanding. you will need to introduce alternative approaches and understandings. Exorcism is the front line in spiritual warfare: it is a direct confrontation between the exorcist as representative of God and Church against a demon that represents evil and the Fallen. sacramental and spiritual authority contained within the priest assigned to the role of exorcist is indicative of a charismatic exorcist. Exorcism is healing for the soul: it attempts to alleviate suffering by removing what has caused it. the statements you make are not backed up sufficiently with reference to official documentation. to restore to them their freedom.
I will attempt to compare the two. in a more neutral way. such as µthe exorcisms of Jesus. methods and the reasoning behind exorcism.Chapter 4: A Comparison of Biblical and Modern Exorcism Comment [WRT28]: Capitalize key words in main titles (or in section/subsection titles). The context of biblical exorcism places it in an area where exorcism a s a practice of a religion was not 21 | P a g e Comment [WRT31]: You will need to improve your style. When comparing the methods of biblical and modern exorcists. looking for any differences and similarities between them. I will start by briefly outlining both the methods used by Jesus as stated within the Gospel narratives and by modern exorcists as already examined in more depth in chapters two and three. but here you have introduced a double space. My aim in comparing the biblical and modern exorcisms is to attempt to understand more about the relationship between modern exorcisms and the biblical exorcisms and to attempt to establish whether there is a correlation of practice between them. µpractice¶ (noun). The principal method I will use is to compare the methods of exorcism as used by Jesus and by modern exorcists. Having now studied both biblical and modern examples. you have separated paragraphs with a first line indentation. There are two phrases that will be repeated often. I would make an initial argument that there will be a strong similarity of methods but that there will be a difference in some elements of the modern practice of exorcism such as the use of spiritually and religiously significant items and using special gestures. They are Imperative commands and Deprecatory prayer. as they are portrayed in the Gospels¶ or µas they are presented by the evangelists¶. it will be a good place to start and will be attend ed to in the most detail. Comment [WRT29]: All we have in the Gospels are stories of exorcisms performed by Jesus. You should choose one or the other. therefore. By these terms I mean either a command given to a demon from the exorcist on their own behalf and their own authority and a prayer asking for the support and aid of God as the source of the power-authority that allows the exorcism to succeed. The joining of these forms of exorcism are the essentials in forming the character of Christian exorcism as the exorcism is undertaken by the authority given to the individual by God or by the Church and it is also powered by God as the source of the individuals authority. I shall start by comparing the biblical and modern methods of exorcism. Since this is the most obvious area where any differences may be seen. You should state things. and no indentation. . and have already been used throughout this study but I will take a moment to expound on them further since they will feature so much. Above. In doing so my aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between the Jesus exorcisms of the Bible and the modern practise of exorcism. I will then compare the two. Comment [WRT30]: Watch your spelling: µpractise¶ (verb). and be consistent. We cannot be certain about their historicity.
which Rashi explains as µexorcism and the works of the shedim [type of semi-physical demon]. p. It has been argued that the Rabbinic Judaism of the last centuries of the eras before the common era and in the first few centuries of the common era was initially formed during their time in exile. H. Sayce & R. Even today exorcism is practiced by the magicians and sorcerers of many of the pagan and new-age religions. the evil spirit of the ulcer. spirit of earth remember. Their fine humanitarian tone alone thoroughly differentiates them from the vulgar glorification of the theurgist or the hateful spite of the sorcerer. 22 | P a g e . They contain exorcisms such as ³Wasting. (date?) Tablet III. However.uncommon. spreading quinsy of the gullet.´25 Comment [WRT33]: You haven¶t given enough examples yet to warrant a comparison. want of health. asking a demon its name and transferring a demon into another object. the magic arts were widely diffused. Exorcism for the most part would have been a lesser part of a healers work or party of the powers of a sorcerer. 23 Rev. ³Wholly remote from these magical practices are the miracles of our Lord. the noxious ulcer. 25 Ibid. it must be noted that as already discussed there are elements of the exorcisms of Jesus that conform to the magical exorcist form of exorcism wherein Jesus uses phrases that would be familiar to other exorcists such as commanding a demon to be silent or bound up. from Cuneiform and Vedic translation. It was quite widely practiced and would have been in common practice across much of the near eastern world. Griffith. Spirit of heaven remember. the methods of Jesus would seem to be different. 57. There are cuneiform tablets discovered that have written on them charms and spells of exorcism from Babylonian culture. imparting gifts to the sons of his concubines. (1902) Demonic Possession in the New Testament (London: Kessinger Publishing). staves or potions. T. ³Among the Jews in the time of our Lord. Set against the context of magical exorcism. A. page reference? 24 William Menzies Alexander. The Original Exorcisms: Ancient Man and His Demons. The rabbis performed exorcisms using magical formulae.´24 Comment [WRT32]: The correct way to date is to refer to µCE¶ (of the Common Era) and µBCE¶ (before the Common Era). Jesus did not perform exorcisms through magical poems or through using especially dedicated items such as wands. the violent ulcer. Abraham is made to figure as an expert. Exorcism was practised by both members of religious communities and by magicians and sorcerers.´ 23William Menzies Alexander argues that the Babylonian demonology lead to the rabbinic writings on the subject and both inspired and informed their own demonology. H. 59. 91b). An example of this can be taken from the book of Tobit in which an angel tells Tobit to burn the heart and lungs of a fish in order to frighten away a demon. p. These are µgifts of impurity¶ (Sanh.
In the biblical exorcism carried out by the early Christians an element different to the exorcisms of Jesus became common and emerged. Twelftree (2007). This is supposed to be an academic piece of work. 51 and 52. Comment [WRT34]: Avoid the reverential capitalized pronoun. We have two independent witnesses to their method of casting out demons ³In the name of´ Jesus«we can suppose that the early Christians (by relying on Jesus¶ name) saw themselves as much more dependent on a declared outside power -authority than did Jesus. in this case a herd of swine. the disciples were calling on the external power and authority of Jesus. pp. 8:29 (all New King James Version). In the exorcisms performed by the disciples and early Christians we can see a strange 26 Graham H. They include using imperative commands. we are able to take this discussion at least one important step further and establish their method.Jesus practised exorcism using a few key elements common to other exorcists of the time within his own methodology.´26 Comment [WRT37]: Use colon to introduce insentence quotations. The key moment of the exorcisms of Jesus is the command for silence and commanding the demon to come out of the patient. His unusual and unorthodox methods are different from the norm that he is accused of casting out demons through the power of Satan (Luke 11:14-23 NKJV). As Twelftree argues: ³Given the distinct probability that Jesus¶ pre-Easter followers took up exorcism. Luke 4:35. This is the only account of Jesus asking for a demon¶s name but is included as part of the methods of exorcism none the less. other than that the Christians who composed these stories promulgated them as an act of faith (as well as of religious propaganda). In the Name of Jesus: Exorcism among Early Christians (Grand Rapids USA: Baker Academic). This means that rather than attempting to command the demons to leave purely by their own merits. that was the use of deprecatory prayer as well as imperative phrases. In the exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac. his power as an exorcist over demonic spirits is offered as a proof of his authority. Examples include Mark 5:8. This was in reference to his own personal and imperative commands given to the demon: ³I command you to leave´ as opposed to the more normal methods of calling either on a higher power or through utilising some totemic item or magical formula as a source of power. However it is highly likely that the charismatic style of exorcism was not known until long after the time of Jesus and the first Christians. It can be seen to stem from the Hebraic belief that if one knows the name of a creature or person then to an extent one would have control over it. It must be noted here that in later centuries there came a rise in charismatic exorcists that exorcised through their own power-authority and not by any spiritual superior power.. however. This is why the style of Jesus is highly original in his time. Comment [WRT36]: Explain. 9:25. Jesus does not have a long or extended dialogue with the demons he is exorcising. Comment [WRT35]: But how exactly is this different from other exorcisms in the ancient world. 23 | P a g e . Jesus asks the demon for its name. which suggests that they were not being performed as teaching exercises. asking for the demons name and using transference to take the demons from the possessed body and placing it within another object.
and in the name of the Holy Spirit. Gabriele Amorth. (1972) Exorcism: The Findings of A Commission Convened By The Bishop Of Exeter. I would compare this to the theories of agency. London: SPCK 29 Fr. if used with faith. that is. the exorcist was an agent acting with the loaned authority of the one whose name is used. The disciples however focus more on the power-authority of Jesus than they do on any authority given to them. This has been discussed in greater detail in chapter two. However. In the case of modern exorcisms. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.´28 These phrases form the basis of the exorcism and are the backbone of the exorcism prayers. in the Name of God the Father Almighty. and every phantom and diabolical legion. 27 28 The Roman Ritual: The Rite of Exorcism. depart and vanish from this creature of God. often outside. are greatly beneficial. The Roman Catholic Church makes use of sacramentals which are exorcised and blessed salt.R. power-authority. it is the name of Jesus. crucifixes and images of saints or the virgin are also used as Father Amorth attempts to make clear: ³I would like to add some reflections on the protective nature of sacred images. A segment of exorcistic prayer from the Roman Catholic rite of exorcism goes: ³I cast thee out.´27 An Anglican prayer is similar. The exorcisms of the modern church contain the same imperative deprecatory prayers as made by the early Christians. Petitpierre OSB. San Francisco: Ignatius press 24 | P a g e . It is again important to mention here how different this was to the exorcism of Jesus who relied on his own authority and his connection to God to utilise the power-authority of the Father at will. both on our bodies and on Comment [WRT39]: This quotation doesn¶t cohere with its introduction very well. every evil spirit. This can be seen in an example from Acts where Paul exorcises the fortune-telling slave girl: ³I command you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her´ (Acts 16:18 NKJV). along with the least encroachment of the wicked enemy. that harming no one you depart from this creature of God. other methods are also used within the exorcism ritual.´ 29 Comment [WRT38]: Don¶t use an apostrophe µs¶ for a plural. This stems again from the belief in power of the name. a command made in the name of another. Alongside this use of sacramental substances. water and oil. (1999) An Exorcist tells his story. it can be argued that at the most basic levels they do contain a strong similarity to the exorcisms of the New Testament. in the Name of Jesus Christ his only Son. thou unclean spirit. either to control and bind or to act in the power of the person whom the name belongs to (See also Philippians 2:10 for belief in the power and importance of the name).blending of imperative deprecation. 185 Edited by D. In this case. ³Among the means that exorcists commonly use I mention first exorcised water. p. exorcised oil. and exorcised salt«it is very useful to be aware of the specific use of these three sacramentals. saying: ³I command you. that is. which.
That as the use of exorcism changed from a tool to be used by all Christians to a tool of selected members of the church and eventually to a sacramental prayer. as far as we are able to be certain. the use of sacramental items and the addition of the use of scripture and calling on the saints and angels. by either Jesus or the disciples. and the argument needs considerable strengthening. of blessed items and of crosses and the priests stole are all very similar to the more magical style of exorcisms as practiced by Jesus¶ contemporaries and not practices. the invocation of the name of Christ and the command given directly to the demon. 30 Ibid. Comment [WRT40]: Incomplete sentence. It is interesting to note that where Jesus did not overtly call in the source of power-authority in order to identify himself with it and the disciples did not overtly reply on their own power-authority in order to draw attention to their spiritual supporter. the way in which it was performed changed from a simple prayer to a ritual format.´ This phrase forms the basis of the prayers of exorcism both in modern Christianity and in the biblical portrayal of exorcism. or the room most used by the family. ³I command you in the name of Jesus Christ. The use of incense. your sources (apart from Twelftree) seem to be dated and hardly objective. There are of course differences as well. the early Christians as far as can be asserted did not use items of special significance such as artefacts. which I have pointed out in previous draft chapters. Within both the Anglican and Roman traditions. The only part of the bible that might give rise to this would be the incident where the woman with a bleeding problem grasps Jesus¶ cloak and is healed or where the face and hand cloths of Paul Comment [WRT41]: This work is a long way from being satisfactory. However all of these things have become common within the modern practice of exorcism especially within the Catholic Church. Overall I would argue that there are similarities between the biblical and modern methods of practise on exorcism. in bedrooms.30 places such as the door of the house. There are numerous lapses in style. From this it can be seen that there also differences between the modern use of exorcism and the biblical practise. I am afraid. but it seems to me that you have a considerable amount of work to do on this. Christopher. Both the early Christians and modern exorcists utilise the phrase. but which you don¶t seem to have addressed. incense. great importance is placed on the Eucharist and it is often utilised for the practise of and aid in exorcism.´ This places them in the same style of Jesus and of the early disciples. for example. This is the key similarity between biblical and modern exorcism. rings or wands to carry out their exorcisms and we can say with some certainty that according to what we can learn from the Gospels Jesus did not have a library of spells and incantations nor a grimoire of demon names. the exorcists of the modern church seem to balance to the two together drawing on God as a source of power-authority whilst also utilising their own authority as ordained ministers. dining room. The approach is highly uncritical. Your bibliographical referencing also needs improvement. p. 50 25 | P a g e . These differences are found in the µaccessories¶ of the ritual. The essential similarity lies in the use of a joint imperative deprecatory phrase directed at the demon itself. the structure is poor. A complete and penultimate version of your dissertation was due today.
However what is essential is that at its core the method of exorcism. 26 | P a g e . Thus. The style being that of the charismatic magician and the understanding being that the authority of the individual allows them to confront the demon whilst it is the power-authority of the spiritual supporter that allows the exorcism to be successful. remains bound up in the same style and thus understanding of exorcism.are used to heal and drive away evil spirits. despite some of the differences. it can be argued that the biblical and modern methods of exorcism are similar and both highlight the importance of exorcism within the ministry and evangelism of the church. although having changed somewhat.
From this study I would suggest that one of the most important ideas that have come up is the relationship of Jesus to other exorcists. but as an eschatological statement about the person and mission of Jesus. It was an important part of his miraculous ministry and was a symbol of the power-confrontation inherent in the eschatological mission of Jesus. The use of exorcism was not just as a ministry of healing. Since both groups are followers of Jesus it is interesting to see how the two correlate.Chapter Five: The Conclusion Overall I believe the argument has been made that exorcism does take a central role within the mission and practice of Christianity and that the methods of the early and modern church have remained consistent. It is this centrality of his ministry of exorcism that sets him apart from other prophets or the expected messiah as many Jews would have understood it. I would suggest that it is also noteworthy that my study has highlighted the similarities and differences between the exorcisms of the early Christians and the exorcisms of the modern church. That Jesus used exorcism as eschatological miracles is also significant in differentiating him from his contemporary exorcists. Jesus did practice exorcism differently from many other exorcists of that time by utilising both magical and charismatic means. But the exorcisms were highlighting the coming kingdom of God by indicating the conflict that was to come and the authority of God and Jesus and their agents over the demonic spirits. at least within the core understanding of the style of exorcism used. although that was certainly a part of it. even if it was not something that could be seen everyday. I believe successfully. This 27 | P a g e . just as the incident of Jesus quieting the storm through the language of exorcism can be taken as an indication that he was demonstrating his authority over creation as only a creator could. The early Christians were keen to ensure that the exorcisms they carried out were seen to be done in the power of Jesus and not any other power including their own. That although exorcism was not rare. The argument has been made. The key difference of Jesus from other exorcists was how readily he was willing to be identified with his source of power-authority. that exorcism was of prime importance within the ministry of Jesus.
The authority of the priest as a priest. it has assessed biblical and modern methods of exorcism and compared them accordingly.is why their formula for exorcism is µIn the Name of Jesus. their prayers of deliverance seem as effective in driving out demons as does the exorcism rituals of the Catholic and Anglican churches. Its results are as I believed they would be. Overall I would say that the study has been successful and true to its aims and intentions. This can be seen in the incident in Acts 19:13 where the face and wash cloths of Paul are used to heal and drive away demons and in the following verses of Acts 19 where the Sons of Sceva attempt an exorcism but the demon says that it does not know them and so attacks them. crucifixes and pictures of saints all are different from the practices of the early Christians. There are of course differences that have become known during this study. This is similar to the modern church where the exorcisms are conducted in the name of Jesus and it is the power of Jesus that ultimately drives out the demons. It is clear to say that the use of these µmagical¶ artefacts and the use of long formulaic prayers lend themselves to the belief that the Roman and Anglican Church have both strayed from the original Christians in their style of exorcism. like the story of the unknown exorcist. but it is the special authority of the exorcist priest that enables him to become an exorcist at all. as a mediator for Jesus to the world and thus is able to wield the powers of Jesus as an agent and with the intercession of the church provides the priest with the special charismatic authority to perform exorcisms. or by ministers from a denomination that does not place high importance on the sacrament of ordination. However I would argue the case as it has been made during the previous chapters that the similarities out weigh the differences between the modern and biblical Christians. the use of significant items such as the blessed salt and oil or holy water. that the use of exorcism was central 28 | P a g e .¶ And yet they are also seen as having their own personal authority as agents of Jesus. The very fact that the disciples saw fit to bring it the attention of Jesus indicates that the exorcisms were probably successful and so that would seem to indicate that ei ther the name was sufficient or that the person who was outside of the group also wielded some special authority. This would indicate that it was not just the use of the name that made the exorcisms successful but the mediated authority of Jesus that the disciples used. Although it is interesting to compare that account to the account of the unknown exorcist within the Gospel narratives whom the disciples complained to Jesus about because he carried out exorcisms in the name of Jesus but was not part of the group. the role of deliverance prayers from the unordained and or officially sanctioned. not any authority of their own merits but mediated authority. However.
An exorcist tells his story. G. Klutz. 83 Baker.. R. pp. GA: Scholars. "Biblical Exorcism and Reader Response to Ritual in Narrative" in R. Binding the Devil. M. 2004 LaHurd. Privately Published 29 | P a g e . Doty (eds. Ebon. 1974 Best.. The Bibliography. Alexander. The Satanic Bible. 1990). Demonic possession and exorcism. 2004 Amorth. "Exorcism in the New Testament and Today". L. Biblical Theology. The Catholic Demonologist handbook. Witchcraft. Sheldon Press London. A. 2009 Barton. P. H. 100. LaVey. T. Kee. 53-63.B . Biblical Text and Secular Story (Atlanta. Cambridge university press. The exorcism stories in luke-acts. GA: Scholars. Atlanta. The Rite. 2006 Baglio. "The Terminology of Mark's Exorcism Stories". Biblical Text and Secular Story (Atlanta. K. J. C. Detweiler and W. pp. The Daemonic Imagination. Doty (eds. G.D. Doty (eds. 1-9. "The Language of Demon-Possession: A Key-Word Analysis" in R. M.S. Unless otherwise stated all Bible quotes are from the New revised Standard Version. R. 1974 Frieden. Simon and Schuster UK ltd. Biblical Text and Secular Story (AAR Studies in Religion. K. G. Exorcism. Brown. The Daemonic Imagination. 2008 Detweiler. 1990). Ignatius press san Francisco. pp. E. Cassel and Collier Macmillan publishing.). G. A New History of Witchcraft. 14 (1968). pp. B and Russell. 41-52. Deel. 1990). The Daemonic Imagination. C. New Testament Studies. 232-246.). Detweiler and W. Peter. 27 (1977). 1999 Angeles. 1971). GA: Scholars. theory and practice. Llewellyn publications. Thames and Hudson ltd.to the ministry of Jesus and the early Christians and the essential style of methods used are comparable and consistent between the early Christians and the modern church.). Stephen C.C... The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity (Journal of Roman Studies 61. Cambridge University Press. 2007 Almond. and W. S. Thinking about demons and the demonic (Journal of Theology 111 2008) P.
Africa Menghi. "Demon Possession and Exorcism in Mark 1:21-28". The Devil. 2002 Oldridge... 1977 Russell. D. 2007 The Roman Ritual 30 | P a g e . In the name of Jesus. Satan.. The devil s scourge. T.Loader.B. 1988 McHami. 2007 Wilkinson. Where Theologians Fear To Tread (Journal of Modern Theology 16:1 2000) Russell. M. E.B. Red Wheel/Weiser Boston. J. Cornell university 1981 Twelftree . The Vatican s exorcists. Amy Plantinga. "Challenged at the Boundaries: A Conservative Jesus in Mark's Tradition". G. Arrows books ltd. Sutton Publishing ltd. J. Hostage to the Devil. The Devil in early modern England. R. K. Martin. W. London. Baker Academic publishing. Cornell University. Warner Brooks NY. G H. 2000 Pauw.
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