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Fuel tank cap Function

There is another important function of the fuel cap, it helps control flammable vapors.
An example would be if you parked a car inside a hot garage baking in the summer sun.
There would be an ignition risk from the enclosed place filled with gasoline vapors
leaking out of the open gas tank.

Fuel tank.
A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids. Though any
storage tank for fuelmay be so called, the term is typically applied to part of an engine system
in which the fuel is stored and propelled (fuel pump) or released (pressurized gas) into an

fuel pump use

Prior to the widespread adoption of electronic fuel injection, most carbureted automobile
engines used mechanical fuel pumps to transfer fuel from the fuel tank into the fuelbowls of
the carburetor. Most mechanical fuel pumps are diaphragm pumps, which are a type of
positive displacement pump.

A fuel pump is a frequently (but not always) essential component on a car or other internal
combustion engined device. Many engines (older motorcycle engines in particular) do not require
any fuel pump at all, requiring only gravity to feed fuel from the fuel tank or under high pressure to
the fuel injection system. Often, carbureted engines use low pressure mechanical pumps that are
mounted outside the fuel tank, whereas fuel injected engines often use electric fuel pumps that
are mounted inside the fuel tank (and some fuel injected engines have two fuel pumps: one low
pressure/high volume supply pump in the tank and one high pressure/low volume pump on or near
the engine)

Fuel supply system

The function of the fuel-supply system is to deliver fuel at a defined pressure to
the fuel injectors. The fuel injectors inject the fuel into the intake manifold (manifold injection) or
directly into the combustion chamber (gasoline direct injection).
vapor return line use
When a vapor return line is used during normal meter proving or calibration, most of
the vapor in the prover will be pushed through the vapor return line into the meter supply tank

Air filter

Knowing when to Change the Air Filter

A brand new air filter is typically white or off-white. If you notice any of the following
problems, you may need to replace the air filter:

1. Decreases in your car's gas mileage.

2. Spark plug problems, such as rough idling or difficulties starting the car, caused
by an overly rich air-fuel blend.
3. "Service Engine" light coming on, which can be the result of deposits in the
4. Problems with acceleration.
5. Visible soot, dirt or debris on the air filter

Thermostatic Air Cleaner.

The thermostatic air cleaner (Thermac) is on all gasoline engines. This system uses a
damper assembly in the air cleaner inlet, controlled by a vacuum motor to mix preheated and
cold air entering the air cleaner. This is necessary to maintain a controlled air temperature into
the carburetor.
throttle body
assembly is an integral part of a fuel-injected engine's air intakesystem. Its function is to
regulate the amount of air that flows into the engine – accounting for factors such
as throttle (gas pedal) position, idle speed, cold start warmup, and more

is an integral part of a fuel-injected engine’s air intake system. Its

function is to regulate the amount of air that flows into the engine –
accounting for factors such as throttle (gas pedal) position, idle
speed, cold start warmup, and more more details on -

low fuel warning

What the low fuel warning light means. The light has one function: to warn drivers of the low
fuel level. When the light comes on, there will still be some fuel in the tank, but not much. You
should try to find a gas station as soon as possible if this light illuminates while you're driving.
A sheet metal chamber that dampens pressure pulsations to reduce exhaust noise

It is used in conjunction with a resonator to quiet the noise


To ensure proper function, listen for a rattling noise when the car accelerates.

Check for rust

Do so by pushing upward on the muffler to check for weak, rusted inlet and outlet pipes.

Header pipe, intermediate pipe and tail pipe

Header pipe is made of steel tubing that carries exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold to the catalytic

Intermediate pipe is a piece of steel tubing that carries exhaust gases from the catalytic converter to the

Tail pipe

Consists of tubing that carries exhaust gases from the muffler to the rear of a car body

One of two tailpipes should be visible at the rear of the vehicle

They should extend out as far as the rear body overhand or bumper

Usually made of rust-resistant steel tubing

One end of each pipe may be enlarged to fit over the end of the next pipe
To keep the pipes clean make sure that there are no debris build up or obstructions. This could cause a car
to back fire an run rough.


is a hollow chamber in the exhaust tract that creates a frequency of pulses that reverse the pulses coming
down the exhaust pipe

It works in conjunction with the muffler to quiet the exhaustion being emitted from the car

You care for a resonator just like you do a muffler

Check for rattling to indicate loose pieces or debris build-up

Catalytic convertor

An enclosed, high-temperature afterburner that consumes and chemically treats pollutants in the engine

An afterburner used to reduce the amount of exhaust pollutants entering the atmosphere

One or more catalytic converters can be located in the exhaust system.

Types of convertors

Mini catalytic converter

A very small converter placed close to the engine exhaust manifold

It heats up quickly to reduce emissions during engine warm-up

Used in conjunction with a larger, main converter

Two-way catalytic converter

Sometimes called an oxidation converter

Can only reduce two types of emissions (HC and CO)

Three-way catalytic converter

Also called a reduction-type converter

Capable of reducing all three types of emissions (HC, CO and NO)

Dual-bed catalytic converter

Contains two separate catalyst units enclosed in a single hosueing

Normally has both the three way and two way catalyst

A mixing chamber is provided between the two

Air is forced into the mixing chamber to help burn the HC and CO emissions