215 994 A

2008−03

Processes
TIG (GTAW) Welding

Guidelines For Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1. Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2. Selecting A GTAW Powersource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3. Typical GTAW Welding System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 − GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1. Typical GTAW Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 − SELECTING AND PREPARING A TUNGSTEN FOR DC OR AC WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1. Selecting Tungsten Electrode (Wear Clean gloves To Prevent Contamination Of Tungsten) . . . . . . . . 4-2. Preparing Tungsten Electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 5 − GTAW WAVEFORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 6 − ARC SHAPING CAPABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1. Arc Starting With Different Polarities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2. Balance Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3. AC Frequency Adjustment Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4. Amperage Adjust Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5. Frequency Adjustment Control - 60Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6. Frequency Adjustment Control - 200Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 7 − TIG SHIELDING GASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1. Shielding Gases For TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 8 − GUIDELINES FOR GTAW WELDING (TIG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1. Lift-ArcE And HF TIG Start Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2. Torch Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3. Suggested Inverter Power Source Starting Parameters For Various Aluminum Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4. TIG Welding Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 9 − GTAW TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19

D Use only well-maintained equipment. drive roll housing. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp locations or while wearing wet clothing. use proper tools and/or wear heavy. and local codes. ground it directly with a separate cable. Maintain unit according to manual. And. do not work alone! D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment. 215 994 Page 1 . use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder. D Do not touch live electrical parts. For these conditions. D Turn off all equipment when not in use. or lying. away. especially children. use of a DC. Read and follow all Safety Standards. D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent contact with any metal object. or if there is a danger of falling. Indicates special instructions. In most situations. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. Symbol Usage DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which. gratings. or another electrode from a different machine. The safety information given below is only a summary of the more complete safety information found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. ground. D Do not touch hot parts bare handed. if not avoided. constant voltage wire welder is recommended. D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be present. could result in death or serious injury. use remote output control if present on unit. hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. will result in death or serious injury. Lockout/tagout input power according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. state. Only qualified persons should install. wire reel. when in cramped positions such as sitting. During operation. and HOT PARTS hazards. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding. This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC SHOCK. and discharge input capacitors according to instructions in Maintenance Section before touching any parts.147 (see Safety Standards). D Properly install and ground this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national. D Turn Off inverter. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the hazards. D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece or worktable as near the weld as practical. keep everybody. D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process. if movement is confined. on metal structures such as floors. insulated welding gloves and clothing to prevent burns. and repair this unit. MOVING PARTS. SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter-type welding power sources after removal of input power. D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly grounded receptacle outlet. kneeling. D To handle hot parts. D Do not drape cables over your body. 1-2. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. 1-1. D Keep all panels and covers securely in place. Arc Welding Hazards The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual to call attention to and identify possible hazards. D Allow cooling period before working on gun or torch. D When making input connections. and protected from hot metal and sparks. and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. or scaffolds. NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury. attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections. and follow the related instructions to avoid the hazard. 2) a DC manual (stick) welder. D Keep cords dry. D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required. D Wear dry. if not avoided. D Frequently inspect input power cord for damage or bare wiring − replace cord immediately if damaged − bare wiring can kill. D If AC output is required. D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. operate. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. disconnect input power. maintain. D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work. . Indicates a hazardous situation which. free of oil and grease. When you see the symbol. D Do not use AC output in damp areas. the wire. damaged.SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any single weld output terminal. watch out. undersized.READ BEFORE USING som _2007−04 7 Protect yourself and others from injury — read and follow these precautions. D Do not use worn. D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level. HOT PARTS can cause severe burns. or poorly spliced cables. or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage.

they can throw off slag. or cadmium plated steel. lead. D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder. plasma arc cutting. D Wear protective clothing made from durable. physical damage. high shoes. consumables. D If ventilation is poor. D After completion of work. sparks. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. from your person before doing any welding. Be sure the breathing air is safe. and fire hazards. drums. D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. Check and be sure the area is safe before doing any welding.1 and Z87. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields even under your welding helmet. D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted Medical Devices should keep away. D Read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for metals. bulkhead.FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous. D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is high. inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks.252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby. hot workpiece. and while wearing an air-supplied respirator. such as tanks. ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin. or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause sparks. and fittings designed for the specific application. such as galvanized.7 m) of the welding arc. FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. gas. wire brushing. WELDING can cause fire or explosion. overheating. D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter lenses to protect your face and eyes when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49. If this is not possible. floor. heavy shirt. D Do not weld in locations near degreasing. drums. D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat. ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. D If inside. coatings. D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. gouging. regulators. D Use the right equipment. or induction heating operations. D Be aware that welding on a ceiling. MAGNETIC FIELDS can affect Implanted Medical Devices. slag. D Do not weld where the atmosphere may contain flammable dust. D Remove any combustibles. 215 994 Page 2 CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. The flying sparks. or fire. and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. or pipes. D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. a cylinder can explode. wear an approved air-supplied respirator. Noise from some processes or equipment can damage hearing. If damaged. cuffless trousers. unless they are properly prepared according to AWS F4. BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill. D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. explosion. D Do not weld on closed containers such as tanks. D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping. D Keep your head out of the fumes. mechanical shocks. D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10. or pipes. warn others not to watch the arc. D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders. D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated. and arcs. maintain them and associated parts in good condition. D Welding. or partition can cause fire on the hidden side. D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. and sufficient number of persons to lift and move cylinders. sparks. D Watch for fire. and degreasers. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your helmet. open flames. hoses. D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result. possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock. and flames. tightly cover them with approved covers. Do not breathe the fumes. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process. D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form highly toxic and irritating gases. Sparks can fly off from the welding arc. and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. and a cap. unless the coating is removed from the weld area. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin. Welding produces fumes and gases. NOISE can damage hearing. or spraying operations. such as a butane lighter or matches. D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910. D Always ventilate confined spaces or use approved air-supplied respirator. D Use only correct shielding gas cylinders. the area is well ventilated. D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder. chipping. Welding on closed containers. heavy cotton. D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from traveling long. D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. D Shut off shielding gas supply when not in use. or liquid vapors (such as gasoline). glowing embers. D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. flame-resistant material (leather. correct procedures.1 listed in Safety Standards). Welding fumes and gases can displace air and lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. . D Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather gloves. As welds cool. glare and sparks. Do not oversize or bypass them. Sparks fly off from the weld. cleaning. associated equipment. cleaners. can cause them to blow up. spot welding. or wool) and foot protection. D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. Shielding gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure. D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding. and grinding cause sparks and flying metal. be sure to treat them carefully. D Do not weld on coated metals.1 (see Safety Standards).

and use grounding and shielding to minimize the possibility of interference. ARC WELDING can cause interference. NOT running gear. over. computers. D Do not install or place unit on. D Keep all doors. Operation. And Maintenance FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard. D Keep away from moving parts. the user must take extra measures such as moving the welding machine. MOVING PARTS can cause injury. rated. D Use equipment of adequate capacity to lift and support unit. or shielding the work area. stop using the equipment at once. D D D D STATIC (ESD) can damage PC boards. READ INSTRUCTIONS. keep spark gaps at correct setting. gas cylinders.F. or near combustible surfaces. If notified by the FCC about interference. and body protection. D If using lift forks to move unit. D Have only qualified persons familiar with electronic equipment perform this installation. Locate welding operation 100 meters from any sensitive electronic equipment. using shielded cables. H. be sure forks are long enough to extend beyond opposite side of unit. RADIATION can cause interference.F. D Put on grounded wrist strap BEFORE handling boards or parts. D Reinstall doors. covers. D Keep away from pinch points such as drive rolls. D Use only genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer. D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is properly sized. or any other accessories. Have the installation regularly checked and maintained. and protected to handle this unit. panels. The user is responsible for having a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem resulting from the installation. D Sparks can cause fires — keep flammables away. or ship PC boards. D Do not point gun toward any part of the body. D D D D WELDING WIRE can cause injury. keep weld cables as short as possible. D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face. close together. panels. D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before starting to weld again. 215 994 Page 3 . Keep high-frequency source doors and panels tightly shut. move. FALLING UNIT can cause injury. MOVING PARTS can cause injury. D Electromagnetic energy can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment such as computers and computer-driven equipment such as robots. and down low. covers. If interference still occurs. safety services. D High-frequency (H. D Use lifting eye to lift unit only. D Read Owner’s Manual before using or servicing unit. and guards closed and securely in place. hand. Be sure this welding machine is installed and grounded according to this manual. To reduce possible interference. D Do not press gun trigger until instructed to do so. D Do not block or filter airflow to unit. such as on the floor. D Keep away from moving parts such as fans. using line filters. Additional Symbols For Installation. D Be sure all equipment in the welding area is electromagnetically compatible. or any metal when threading welding wire. and communications equipment. D Have only qualified persons remove doors. D Use proper static-proof bags and boxes to store.1-3. or guards when maintenance is finished and before reconnecting input power. or guards for maintenance as necessary. follow rated duty cycle. panels. D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with proper guards in a safe location wearing proper face. covers.) can interfere with radio navigation. OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING D Allow cooling period. FLYING SPARKS can cause injury. other people. D Do not install unit near flammables.

If cleared by your doctor.com).org). plasma arc cutting.S. Keep welding power source and cables as far away from operator as practical. Connect work clamp to workpiece as close to the weld as possible. 1-5. or other reproductive harm. CSA Standard W117. or induction heating operations. Until the final conclusions of the research are reached. 25 West 43rd Street. Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of Containers and Piping. For Diesel Engines: Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer. or using a cable cover. birth defects. website: www. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184.1. Subpart Q. website: www. chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. from National Fire Protection Association. website: www. terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. 3. Government Printing Office. California Proposition 65 Warnings Welding or cutting equipment produces fumes or gases which contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause birth defects and.osha. CGA Pamphlet P-1. For Gasoline Engines: Engine exhaust contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer.nfpa. OSHA. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. ANSI Standard Z87. There has been and still is some concern about such fields.gov). 4221 Walney Road. and Other Hot Work. website: www. and other reproductive harm. 5.” However. However. 2. website:www. Pittsburgh. NFPA Standard 51B. National Electrical Code. you may wish to minimize your exposure to electromagnetic fields when welding or cutting. Cutting. is 312-353-2220. sparky. Subpart J.1.global.O. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator.cganet.) Battery posts. cancer. Cutting. has not demonstrated that exposure to powerfrequency electric and magnetic fields is a human-health hazard. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). P. from American National Standards Institute. NY 10036–8002 (phone: 212-642-4900. MA 02269-9101 (phone: 617-770-3000. after examining more than 500 studies spanning 17 years of research. use the following procedures: 1. from National Fire Protection Association. Safe Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection. Box 9101. NFPA Standard 70. New York. Quincy. VA 20151 (phone: 703-788-2700. Ontario. EMF Information Considerations About Welding And The Effects Of Low Frequency Electric And Magnetic Fields Welding current. 1-6.5 et seq. About Implanted Medical Devices: Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before performing or going near arc welding.com). studies are still going forth and evidence continues to be examined. as it flows through welding cables. Chantilly. website: www. MA 02269-9101 (phone: 617-770-3000. Box 9101. Chicago. 5060 Mississauga. Principal Safety Standards Safety in Welding. Do not coil or drape cables around your body.org. Wash hands after handling.1-4. website: www. Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders.2. 5th Floor. will cause electromagnetic fields.csa-international. birth defects. from U. Superintendent of Documents. 215 994 Page 4 .global. in the committee’s judgment. PA 15250-7954 (phone: 1-866-512-1800) (there are 10 Regional Offices—phone for Region 5.ihs. and Part 1926. Quincy. from Canadian Standards Association. in some cases. To reduce magnetic fields in the workplace. spot welding. ANSI Standard Z49.1. Standards Sales. American Welding Society Standard AWS F4.org). gouging. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them. Box 371954. 4. P.nfpa. then following the above procedures is recommended. Canada L4W 5NS (phone: 800-463-6727 or in Toronto 416-747-4044.O. and Allied Processes.com). (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding.org and www. P. website: www.ansi. Part 1910.ihs.org). from Compressed Gas Association. Code for Safety in Welding and Cutting. Title 29.O. a special blue ribbon committee of the National Research Council concluded that: “The body of evidence. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry.

Advantages of GTAW welding: D Concentrated Arc . nickel alloys such as Monel® and Inconel®. copper. aluminum. therefore no slag to obscure the welder’s vision of the molten weld pool D No Sparks or Spatter . magnesium. zinc. If ventilation is poor. it may be added manually in the same manner as it is added in the oxyacetylene welding process. Steel.No requirement for flux with this process. Be sure that proper ventilation is supplied. They pose no odor and are transparent. nickel and so on. Selecting A GTAW Powersource Your choice of TIG powersource is driven by the type of material and thickness you will weld. Inert gas (usually Argon) is inactive or deficient in active chemical properties.) D Thickness of materials to be welded D Package solution that suits the welding application D Accessory components that add performance to the system 215 994 Page 5 . the molten metal and the tungsten electrode are all shielded from atmospheric contamination by a blanket of inert gas fed through the GTAW torch.(Aluminum. The GTAW process can produce temperatures of up to 35. This will determine whether you require a machine for all weldable metals except Aluminum (DC) or one that is for all weldable metals (AC/DC).No transfer of metal across the arc.Permits pin point control of heat input to the workpiece resulting in a narrow heat-affected zone D No Slag . Keep your head and helmet out of the fumes rising off the workpiece. D Welds more metals and metal alloys than any other process D Good for welding thin material Disadvantages of GTAW welding: D Slower travel speeds than other processes D Lower filler metal deposition rates D Hand-eye coordination is a required skill D Brighter UV rays than other processes D Equipment costs can be higher than other processes D Concentrations of shielding gas may build up and displace oxygen when welding in confined areas − ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases.Compared to other arc-welding processes like stick or flux cored welding.SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) 2-1. copper. Items to consider: D Type of metal to be welded . the base metals being welded may contain coatings or elements such as lead. Process Description Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Inert gases such as Argon and Helium do not chemically react or combine with other gases. few fumes are produced. No molten globules of spatter to contend with and no sparks produced if material being welded is free of contaminants D Little Smoke or Fumes . In some instances Hydrogen gas may be added to ehance travel speeds. GTAW can also weld dissimilar metals to one another such as copper to brass and stainless to mild steel. The torch contributes heat only to the workpiece. The shielding gas serves to blanket the weld and exclude the active properties in the surrounding air.426° C). However. also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a process that produces an electric arc maintained between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. wear an approved air-supplied respirator 2-2. that may produce hazardous fumes. The heat-affected zone. Stainless etc. bronze and even gold. especially in a confined space.000° F (19. permitting the the welder maximum visibility of the arc. If filler metal is required to make the weld. titanium. brass. GTAW is used to weld stainless steel.

Typical GTAW Welding System 9 8 1 7 6 5 4 3 Ref.2-3. 804 846-A 2 1 2 3 Welding Power Source − Constant Current (CC) Foot Control Workpiece 4 5 6 Work Clamp Torch Coolant Out Hose 7 8 9 Coolant In Hose Cooling System Shielding Gas 215 994 Page 6 .

Use local exhaust (forced ventilation) at the grinder or wear an approved respirator. Keep flammables away. Read MSDS for safety information. Arc length is the distance from the tungsten to the workpiece. Tungsten extension is the distance the tungsten extends out gas cup of torch. diameter. 3 4 5 6 Torch Filler Rod (If Applicable) Gas Cup Tungsten Electrode tungsten 10−25° Select and prepare according to Section 4. Typical GTAW Welding Set-Up ! Grinding the tungsten electrode produces dust and flying sparks which can cause injury and start fires. 1/16 in 3/16 in Bottom View Of Gas Cup Ref. Consider using cerium or lanthanum based tungsten instead of thoriated. (For example. Wear proper face. gas cup should be a minimum of 3/16 in. Workpiece 3 2 4 90° 1 1 Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. The tungsten extension should be no greater than the inside diameter of the gas cup. ST-161 892 215 994 Page 7 . Guidelines: 5 6 The inside diameter of the gas cup should be at least three times the tungsten diameter to provide adequate shielding gas coverage. and body protection. hand. 2 10−15° 4 5 6 Work Clamp Place as close to the weld as possible. if tungsten is 1/16 in. Thorium dust contains low-level radioactive material.SECTION 3 − GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) PROCEDURE 3-1. diameter. Properly dispose of grinder dust in an environmentally safe way.

Gas Type♦ .6 mm) 3/32 in. 1.010 in. (6. (2.8 mm) 1/4 in. (1 mm) .020 in. (1 mm) 1/16 in. (3. (2.040 in. (1 mm) . Or 2% Thorium (Red Band) Alloy Tungstens . (3.040 in.6 mm) 3/32 in. 4-1.2 mm) 5/32 in. (1 mm) 1/16 in.4 mm) 1/8 in. Figures listed are a guide and are a composite of recommendations from American Welding Society (AWS) and electrode manufacturers.5% Lanthanum (Gray Band).SECTION 4 − SELECTING AND PREPARING A TUNGSTEN FOR DC OR AC WELDING gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 Whenever possible and practical. (1. 215 994 Page 8 .2 mm) Pure Tungsten Not Recommended For DCEN − Argon 10-60 50-100 100-160 150-210 Up to 20 15-35 20-80 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 400-500 600-800 ♦Typical argon shielding gas flow rates are 11 to 35 cfh (cubic feet per hour). (4. (4.Polarity Electrode Diameter (DCEN) − Argon Direct Current Electrode Negative (For Use With Mild Or Stainless Steel) AC − Argon Balance Control @ 65% Electrode Negative (For Use With Aluminum) 2% Ceria (Orange Band).4 mm) Up to 25 15-40 25-85 50-160 135-235 250-400 400-500 500-750 750-1000 Pure Tungsten (Green Band) . Selecting Tungsten Electrode (Wear Clean gloves To Prevent Contamination Of Tungsten ) Amperage Range . use DC weld output instead of AC weld output.0 mm) 3/16 in.4 mm) 1/8 in. (1.

Preparing Tungsten For AC Welding With Phase Control Machines 1 1 − 1-1/2 Times Electrode Diameter 1 2 2 Tungsten Electrode Balled End A pure tungsten is recommended. not radial. lanthana. Do not use wheel for other jobs or tungsten can become contaminated causing lower weld quality. and body protection. Grinding dust from thoriated electrodes contains low-level radioactive material. Ball end of tungsten by applying AC amperage recommended for a given electrode diameter (see Section 4-1). 215 994 Page 9 . Keep flammables away. Wear proper face. or yttria instead of thoria. Diameter of this flat determines amperage capacity. hand. Preparing Tungsten Electrode Grinding the tungsten electrode produces dust and flying sparks which can cause injury and start fires. Use local exhaust (forced ventilation) at the grinder or wear an approved respirator. 2 3 4 Wrong Tungsten Preparation Ideal Tungsten Preparation − Stable Arc Tungsten Electrode Flat A 2% ceriated tungsten is recommended. hard abrasive wheel before welding. Properly dispose of grinder dust in an environmentally safe way.4-2. Read MSDS for safety information. Consider using tungsten containing ceria. Preparing Tungsten For DC Electrode Negative (DCEN) Welding or AC Welding With Inverter Machines 1 Radial Grinding Causes Wandering Arc 2-1/2 Times Electrode Diameter 2 3 1 Grinding Wheel Grind end of tungsten on fine grit. 4 Straight Ground Grind lengthwise. Let ball on end of the tungsten take its own shape.

SECTION 5 − GTAW WAVEFORMS 1 1 2 AC Sine Wave Weld Sample 40.0 0.0 0 10.0 − Ref.0 −10.0 −30.0 Time + Current Amperage Time 1/60 Second 2 30.0 −20. The percentage of time spent 1 Zero Crossover Area + Current 0 − Ref. .0 −40. 805 186-A 1 Zero Crossover in the Zero Crossover Area affects the quality of the welding arc.0 20. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 10 .

Faster transition time between 40. 805 186-A 1 2 1 Conventional Squarewave AC Weld Sample electrode positive and electrode negative.0 Amperage Time + Current 2 10.1 Squarewave Imposed Over Sine Wave crossover with squarewave output.0 −40.0 −10. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 11 .0 0. .0 0 − Ref.0 20.0 −30.0 −20. .0 30. Less time is spent in zero 1 + Current 0 − Ref.

shallow penetration. Narrow. 2 High AC Frequency Focused arc with deeper penetration. 1 2 Ref. Arc Starting With Different Polarities Electrode Positive Starting Preheats tungsten Repeatable starting Cleans work on starts Can damage tungsten tip Good for AC TIG Electrode Negative Starting Preferred for Precision DC Repeatable starting NO cleaning on starts NO damage to tungsten Acceptable for AC . 1 2 Ref. 805 185-A 6-4. Arc shaping capabilities are enhanced by improved balance control.SECTION 6 − ARC SHAPING CAPABILITIES 6-1. AC Frequency Adjustment Control 1 Low AC Frequency Soft. Deeper penetration. faster travel speeds. wide arc with shallower penetration. 805 185-A 6-3. 6-2. faster travel speeds. deep penetration. 805 185-A 215 994 Page 12 . 1 2 Ref. Balance Control 1 2 More EP Time More EN Time Shallower penetration. Independent Amperage Control 1 2 More EP Amperage More EN Amperage Wide. AC frequency control and independent amperage control.

805 186-A 6-6.60 Hz 1 2 AC Waveform Weld Sample 1 At 60 Hz the bead doesn’t quite penetrate the thick aluminum. Frequency Adjustment Control . Lower AC frequencies create a wider arc cone. + Current . + Current .6-5. 0 − 1/60th of a second 2 Ref. 0 − 1/200th of a second 2 Ref. Higher AC frequencies create a narrower arc cone. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 13 .200 Hz 1 2 AC Waveform Weld Sample 1 At 200 Hz the bead is much tighter and penetrated the thicker metal. Frequency Adjustment Control .

Shielding Gases For TIG Welding 1 Shielding Gas Cylinder Types of Shielding Gases: 1 D Argon D Helium D Argon/Helium Mixtures Ref.SECTION 7 − TIG SHIELDING GASES gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 7-1. 804 419-A CHARACTERISTICS Travel Speed Penetration Cleaning Arc Starting Arc Stability Arc Cone Arc Voltage Flow Rate Cost ARGON Reduced travel speeds Reduced penetration Good cleaning action Easier arc starting Good arc stability Focused arc cone Lower arc voltages Lower flow rates 10-30 CFH Lower cost and greater availability HELIUM Faster travel speeds Increased penetration Less cleaning action Difficult arc starting Less low amperage stability Flared arc cone Higher arc voltages Higher flow rates (2 times) Higher cost than Argon ARGON/HELIUM MIXES Improved travel speeds over 100% Argon Improved penetration over 100% Argon Cleaning properties closer to Argon Improved arc starting over 100% Helium Improved arc stability over 100% Helium Arc cone shape more focused than w/Helium Arc voltages between 100% Argon and Helium Higher flow rates than Argon Costs higher than Argon 215 994 Page 14 .

or to replace the scratch method. Arc is formed when electrode is lifted. Application: HF start is used for the DCEN GTAW process when a non-contact arc starting method is required. sticking. Application: Lift-Arc is used for the DCEN or AC GTAW process when HF Start method is not permitted. and slowly lift electrode.SECTION 8 − GUIDELINES FOR GTAW WELDING (TIG) gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 8-1. or hand control. Normal open-circuit voltage is not present before tungsten electrode touches workpiece. High frequency turns off when arc is started. or getting contaminated. HF Start High frequency turns on to help start arc when output is enabled. 215 994 Page 15 . and turns on whenever arc is broken to help restart arc. The solid-state output contactor does not energize until after electrode is touching workpiece. foot control. only a low sensing voltage is present between electrode and workpiece. Type of power source and output polarity may affect when high frequency turns off after arc is started. Lift-Arc™ And HF TIG Start Procedures Lift-Arc Start 1 2 TIG Electrode Workpiece Lift Arc Start Method 1 2 Touch tungsten electrode to workpiece at weld start point and enable output and shielding gas with torch trigger. “Touch” 1−2 Seconds Do NOT Strike Like A Match! . This allows electrode to touch workpiece without overheating. Hold electrode to workpiece for 1-2 seconds.

ST-162 002-B Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely. Repeat process. 215 994 Page 16 . Torch Movement During Welding Tungsten Without Filler Rod Welding direction 75° Form pool Tilt torch Move torch to front of pool. Tungsten With Filler Rod Welding direction 75° 15° Form pool Tilt torch Add filler metal Remove rod Move torch to front of pool.8-2. Repeat process. Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual.

Torch Position For Making a Butt Joint 90° . 1/8 in. .8-3. Hold the electrode nearly perpendicular to the work. 70° 20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 T-Joint 20° Torch Position For Making a T-Joint Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work. practice running beads of weld metal on flat plates using a full electrode. travel at a uniform speed. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. 1/8 in. 5356 5356 5356 5356 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 3/32 in. travel at a uniform speed. 1/8 in. To produce the best results. 70° 10° 20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 215 994 Page 17 . TIG Welding Techniques Butt Joint After learning to start and hold an arc. 3/32 in. hold a short arc. To produce the best results. 3/32 in. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. 3/32 in. 1/8 in. although tilting it ahead (in the direction of travel) will be helpful. hold a short arc. 1/8 in. Argon Argon Argon Argon 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 90-120 100-125 90-110 80-90 65-75% 70-75% 70-75% 65-70% 60-120 Hz 100-200 Hz 100-150 Hz 100 Hz 8-4. 1/8 in. Suggested Inverter Power Source Starting Parameters For Various Aluminum Joints Weld Joints Butt Joint T-Joint Lap Joint Corner Joint Amperage Balance Frequency Base Base Filler Filler Tungsten Tungsten Shielding Gas Flow Material Material Rod Alloy Type Diameter Gas Alloy Thickness Diameter 6061 6061 6061 6061 1/8 in. 1/8 in.

20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 8-5. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. 70° 20° 30° ST-162 003 / S-0792 Corner Joint 90° Torch Position For Making a Corner Joint Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work. Strike the weld joint in the direction shown. (51-76 mm) 1/4 in. the arc length was probably too long. Torch Position For Making a Lap Joint . If the original beveled surface is visible the material was not fully melted which is often caused by insufficient heat or too fast a travel speed. If the weld is porous (many holes). If the weld contains bits of slag. To produce the best results. (6. This may happen on a V-groove joint made in several layers and calls for additional cleaning between layers. hold a short arc. hold a short arc.8-4. To 70° produce the best results. Weld Test 3 3 2 To 3 in. (51-76 mm) 2 1 S-0057-B 1 2 3 Vise Weld Joint Hammer the cause. TIG Welding Techniques (Continued) Lap Joint 40° Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work. examine it to determine 215 994 Page 18 .4 mm) 2 1 2 To 3 in. . the arc may have been too long or the electrode was moved incorrectly which allowed molten slag to be trapped in the weld. travel at a uniform speed. A good weld bends over but does not break. If the weld breaks. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. travel at a uniform speed.

Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Contaminated or improper filler metal. cuts.General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. Air-cooled torches get very warm. Check flow rate (15 to 20 CFH) and gas type. Remedy Check to be sure hose. may be restricted or coolant may be low. If using a water-cooled torch. Tighten fittings on torch and all hoses. Improper size tungsten for current used. diameter at a maximum of 235 amps. Remove all condensation from base metal before welding. Check all cable connections. Switch to electrode negative (DCEN). Raise the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/16 to 1/8 in. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. or pin holes. Use of gas containing oxygen or CO2. Increase tungsten size -Tungsten diameter may be too small for the amount of current being used. Excessive heating in torch body. Remedy Line should be purged with Argon for a few minutes. oil. Replace gas hose and check connections for leaks. Problem: Burning Through Tungsten Fast Probable Causes Inadequate gas flow. adjust setting towards maximum penetration (70-90). and torch are not restricted or the tank is not out of gas. Remedy Remedy Use less current or larger tungsten. Defective gas hose or loose connection. check coolant flow. Tungsten melting back into cup (AC). Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Metals stored in cold temperatures will condensate when exposed to warm temperatures. No shielding gas. Keep shielding gas flowing 10-15 seconds after arc stoppage (one second for each 10 amps of weld current). Check for gas flow at end of torch. If machine has Balance Control. Problem: High Frequency Present . Problem: Tungsten Contamination Probable Causes Tungsten melting into weld puddle. thoriated (DC). Problem: Shielding Gas Probable Causes Inadequate or too much gas flow or wrong gas type. Touching tungsten to weld puddle. Remove all grease. Operation on electrode positive (DCEP). If using pure tungsten.No Arc Power Probable Causes Incomplete weld circuit. Troubleshooting ! Turn off welding power source and disconnect power before troubleshooting. Remedy Check work connection. or lanthanated tungsten. Use ceriated (AC). Loose fittings in torch or hoses. Adjust flow rate as necessary. Check filler metal type. Tungsten oxidation during cooling. change to ceriated or lanthanated. Inadequate or too much gas flow. Use argon gas 100%.SECTION 9 − GTAW TROUBLESHOOTING 9-1. Check for empty cylinder or closed shut−off valve. 215 994 Page 19 . Keep tungsten from contacting weld puddle. Problem: Porosity and Poor Weld Bead Color Probable Causes Condensation on base metal. gas valve. Change tungsten . or moisture from filler metal.

Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Clean and sharpen tungsten. Remedy Lower the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/16 to 1/8 in. Problem: Unstable Arc While DC Welding Probable Causes Weld circuit polarity is incorrect. diameter and 8 cup.Problem: Porosity and Poor Weld Bead Color (Continued) Probable Causes Base metal is contaminated. Remove 1/2 in. grease. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Point will eventually round off after welding. Problem: Arc Wanders While DC Welding Probable Causes Improper arc length/tungsten in poor condition. Lower torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece no more than 1/16 to 1/8 in. Remove paint. With Squarewave and inverter machines. Remove 1/2 in. including mill scale from base metal. Tungsten is contaminated. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. Improper tungsten size or cup size. and dirt. Base metal is contaminated. Increase balance control toward more penetration. 215 994 Page 20 . Inadequate post flow. Incorrect arc length. Add filler metal. Shorten arc length. including mill scale from base metal. thick aluminum. including mill scale from base metal. Problem: Unstable Arc While AC Welding Probable Causes Excessive rectification in arc. Keep tungsten from contacting weld puddle. Grind marks should run lengthwise with tungsten. Increase post flow time. Match tungsten size and cup size to joint being welded. Set at 10 to 15 seconds. of tungsten and repoint tungsten. Raise the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/8 to 1/4 in. Base metal is contaminated. Adjust the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/8 to 1/4 in. grease. increase frequency to give proper arc stability and direction. when welding on 3/8 to 1/2 in. Tungsten is contaminated. Use correct arc length. Check tungsten type or size. Problem: Yellow Powder or Smoke on Cup-Tungsten Discolor Probable Causes Shielding gas flow rate too low. Select DCEN (Direct Current Electrode Negative). oil. Remedy Remove paint. and dirt. Argon/Helium is used. Arc too long. Remove 1/2 in. Use argon gas. grease. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. Improper shielding gas. Change shielding gas . and dirt. On welders with adjustable AC frequency. 100 to 180 Hertz is acceptable. Incorrect shielding gas or mixture. Light gray frosted appearance on end of tungsten. not circular. Remedy Check polarity switch on welder. Improperly prepared tungsten. Use proper grinding method and wheel. Improperly prepared tungsten Remedy Increase travel speed. Tungsten contamination.In some cases. Remove paint. Improper gas flow. Remedy Increase flow rate. use pointed tungsten. oil. oil. Check tungsten type or size. Frequency set too low.

Add filler metal. the narrower and deeper the penetration. Increase AC frequency on machines so equipped to stabilize and direct the arc. use pointed tungsten. including mill scale from base metal. Increase travel speed. Improper tungsten size and type. Base metal is contaminated. grease. The higher the frequency. Normal Balance Control setting is 70 . Remove paint. oil. Improper shielding gas flow.Problem: Arc Wanders While AC Welding Probable Causes Improper tungsten preparation. and dirt. Notes MATERIAL THICKNESS GAUGE 215 994 Page 21 229895 . General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. Increase balance setting toward more penetration.90. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. Remedy With Squarewave and inverter machines. Frequency set too low. Incorrect balance control setting. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Point will eventually round off after welding. Remove 1/2 in. Excessive rectification in arc. Increase balance toward more penetration. Tungsten is contaminated. diameter and ceriated or thoriated. Select proper size and type.

An Illinois Tool Works Company 1635 West Spencer Street Appleton. PRINTED IN USA © 2008 Miller Electric Mfg. Books) Technical Manuals (Servicing Information and Parts) Circuit Diagrams Welding Process Handbooks To locate a Distributor or Service Agency visit www.com Contact the Delivering Carrier to: File a claim for loss or damage during shipment. Co. Contact your Distributor for: Welding Supplies and Consumables Options and Accessories Personal Safety Equipment Service and Repair Replacement Parts Training (Schools. Always provide Model Name and Serial/Style Number.com or call 1-800-4-A-Miller Miller Electric Mfg.Owner’s Record Please complete and retain with your personal records.millerwelds.MillerWelds. Videos. 2008−01 . Model Name Purchase Date Distributor Address City State Zip Serial/Style Number (Date which equipment was delivered to original customer.) For Service Contact a DISTRIBUTOR or SERVICE AGENCY near you. Co. WI 54914 USA International Headquarters−USA USA Phone: 920-735-4505 Auto-Attended USA & Canada FAX: 920-735-4134 International FAX: 920-735-4125 European Headquarters − United Kingdom Phone: 44 (0) 1204-593493 FAX: 44 (0) 1204-598066 www. For assistance in filing or settling claims. contact your distributor and/or equipment manufacturer’s Transportation Department.

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