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2018 Anc ent Near Eastern seals and seal ng pract ces - W k ped a

Ancient Near Eastern seals and sealing

Two main types of seals were used in the Ancient Near East, the stamp seal and the cylinder seal. Stamp seals first
appeared in ‘administrative’ contexts in central and northern Mesopotamia in the seventh millennium and were used
exclusively until the fifth millennium. Cylinder seals appeared first around 3600 bc in southern Mesopotamia and south-
western Iran (Middle Uruk Period). They gradually replaced stamp seals, becoming the tool of a rising class of bureaucrats
in the early stages of state formation. Even though stamp seals were still produced in the third and second millennia,
cylinder seals predominated. In the first millennium, stamp seals made a strong comeback and eventually replaced cylinder
seals entirely.

Containers that were sealed: jars, boxes, baskets, sacks

Place names and sites

Eshnunna (T. Asmar),
Shaduppum (T. Harmal),
Mari (Tell Hariri),
Sippar-Yahrurum (T. Abu Habbah),
Sippar-Amnanum (T. ed-Der),
Babylon (near al-Hillah),
Kish (T. Uhaimir),
Nippur (T. Nuffar),
Larsa (T. Senkereh),
Isin (Ishan Bahriyat),
Kisurra (T. Abu Hatab)
Ur (T. el-Muqayyar)
Urkesh (Tell Mozan)

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Shapes and Materials and Sealing

Period/Style Area Iconography Sites
sizes Manufacture practices/use
Stamp seals Impressed
mostly conoid or Baked clay, multiple times
Geometric Tell Buqras,
PPN B Syria pyramid shaped, steatite, on gypsum
patterns Ras Shamra
commonly jadeite slabs; used as
perforated amulets
Stamp seals
mostly conoid or
Tell es-
pyramid shaped, Impressed,
Geometric Sawwan, Tell
Syria, tetrahedron form, Baked clay, multiple times
patterns, Hassuna, Tell
Hassuna/Samarra Iraq, looped, ridge steatite, on gypsum
seldom Cudeyde,
Amuq handled, jadeite slabs, used as
human figures Yarimtepe I,
anthropomorphic, amulets
Ras Shamra
Stamp seals Baked clay,
Tell Halaf,
Geometric mostly conoid or steatite, Container
Chagar Bazar,
patterns, Saint pyramid shaped, jadeite, sealings
Syria, Tell al-Kowm,
Andrews double axe or chlorite, (clay),
Iraq, Tell Sabi
Halaf Cross cloverleaf seal, serpentine, sealings on
Amuq, Abyad,
appears, grooved and oval diorite, gypsum slabs,
Turkey Arpaciya, Tell
seldom animal disk seals limestone, used as
figures commonly rock crystal, amulets
Tepe Gawra
perforated sandstone
stamp seals:
tabloid, lentoid
first scenes and Baked clay,
appear, cultic, hemispheroid steatite,
erotic, seals, seals with jadeite,
Container and
captives, small marginal chlorite, Tepe Gawra,
Syria, door sealings;
Ubaid animal and lug handles, serpentine, Oueili, Eridu,
Iraq used as
human amulet seals with diorite, Arpaciya
figures, a leaf or wedge, limestone,
geometric conoid or rock crystal,
patterns pyramid shaped, sandstone
double axe or
cloverleaf seals
Circular and Soft
rectangular limestones
Geometric stamp seals; preferred; Uruk, Tepe
Iraq, Container
Early Uruk patterns, average diameter designs Gawra, Tell
Syria sealings (clay)
animal motifs c. 2.5-3.5 cm, gouged and Brak, Susa
sometimes up to sometimes
4 cm drilled
seals: "baggy
sealings, door Uruk,
style", animal Cylinder and
sealings, jar Tello,Nippur,
rows, animal Cylinder seals: stamp seals:
stoppers, Niniveh,
combat, daily tall, large soft bright
sealed hollow Yorgan Tepe
life scenes, diameter; stamp limestones,
clay balls; (Nuzi), Tell
Iraq, 'nude hero' seals: circular, gypsum.
sometimes Brak, Tell
Middle Uruk Iran, mastering rectangular, increasing use
counter- Qraya, Tell
Syria animals; zoomorphic, of the drill,
sealing with Hamoukar,
stamp seals: kidney shaped; deeply cut
stamp seals, Tell Sheikh
animals average diameter designs
sometimes Hassan, Susa,
antithetically c. 3-3.5 cm smoothened
multiple Sharafabad,
arranged, with a graver
impressions of Choga Mish
stamp seals
Late Uruk Iraq, Cylinder Cylinder seals: Soft, bright Container Uruk, Ur,
Iran, seals: tall and large limestones, sealings, door Jemdet Nasr,
Syria, Geometric (two groups; one gypsum, sealings, jar Habuba
Turkey designs, files with heights steatite, rarely stoppers; Kabira-South,
of animals, ranging from 4– lapis lazuli, sealings on Tall Qannas,
ladder- 6 cm, diameters shell and ivory; tablets, hollow Jebel Aruda,

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pattern, between 3–5 cm; designs cut clay balls, Tall Sheikh
"master of the the other with and drilled; bullae, labels, Hassan, Tall
animals", average height images rather disks. Stamp Brak, Tall
monsters, and diameter c. plastic, seals Hamoukar,
intertwined 2 cm); stamp naturalistic, sometimes Hacinebi,
snakes, seals: circular, deeply cut impressed Hassek
pigtailed zoomorphic, designs; multiple times; Höyük?,
figures, kidney shaped; sometimes Cylinder Seal Arslantepe,
architecture, average diameter axial rolled across Hassek
heraldic 2.5 cm perforation of the tablets Höyük, Susa,
scenes; the cylinders and their Choga Mish,
activities, occurs; edges first, Tepe
(captives & sometimes then Sharafabad,
violence; cylinder seals inscribed; Godin Tepe,
hunting; are provided when applied Tal-i Malyan
herding; with a loop, on hollow clay
procession & either cut in balls,
cultic scenes; one piece with sometimes
depictions of the cylinder or the whole
the 'priest attached to it surface is
king'); stamp covered with
seals: different
geometric sealings
seals: daily
production Colored
processes limestones
(weaving), and dark, hard
pig-tailed stones Container
figures, preferred; sealings; Jemdet Nasr,
Jemdet Nasr Iran, Example
schematic steatite, sealings on Uruk, Ur,
designs (files serpentine, tablets, bullae
of animals, schist;
e.g. spiders extensive use
and of the drill
scorpions, eye
pattern, fish
darker stones
seals: Container
‘animals sealings, jar Susa, Tal-i
chlorite, schist,
acting as stoppers, door Malyan, Tepe
humans’, Tall, large sealings; Giyan, Tepe
Proto-Elamite Iran stone & figures
Rearing cylinders sealing of Sialk, Godin
animals, tablets, hollow Tepe, Tal-i
animal files, clay balls, Ghazir
floral designs, bullae
surfaces cut
with a pointed
Early Dynastic I Example Example Example Example Example Example
Early Dynastic II Example Example Example Example Example Example
Early Dynastic IIIa Example Example Example Example Example Example
Early Dynastic IIIb Example Example Example Example Example Example
Akkadian Iraq, Contest Cylinder seals Majority Container Tell Brak,
Syria scenes, with concave serpentine; sealings, (new Nippur, Tell
mythological sides (flared also diorite, package Asmar, Ur,
scenes (Sun ends). Large (3– greenstone, sealings), Khafaje, Tello
God and 4 cm tall) jasper, lapis door sealings, (Girsu), Tell
Water God), lazuli and rock bulla-labels Mozan
worship crystal
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presentation Majority Tello (Girsu),
Majority tablet
scenes in chlorite; also Nippur, Tell
sealings; door
many Small cylinder serpentine, Asmar
sealings and
Ur III Iraq variations; seals rarely more steatite, (Eshnunna),
some contest, than 2.8 cm tall limestone, Ur, Lagash,
sealings still
procession hematite and Umma,
and ritual lapis lazuli Drehem
Dark hard
also Goethite,
Contest jasper, agate,
scenes, rock crystal,
procession lapis lazuli Container
scenes. (often reused sealings and
Presentation Cylinder seals: seals and door sealings.
scenes; straight. Average scrap Also tablet Eshnunna,
libation or height: 2.5- material), soft and envelope Shaduppum,
animal 3.0 cm; "burgul" limestones sealings Sippar-
offerings. New seals with no and chlorite, (letters, legal Yahrurum,
motifs include iconography and terracotta. and Sippar-
Isin-Larsa male or deity used alongside More seldom administrative Amnanum,
holding a common cylinder shell, gypsum, documents) Kish, Nippur,
mace, deity seals at certain "greenstone", and Larsa, Isin,
with scimitar, sites (Eshnunna, obsidian, occasionally Kisurra, and
and nude Kish, Marad, carnelian, bullae; Ur, Mari (T.
female. Nippur, Isin, mudstone, and multiple Hariri)
Commonly Kisurra, and Ur). basalt. Drilling impressions of
mixture of and filing with the same or
elements from hand-held different seals
different tools. Use of
scenes. emery as
abrasive. Tool
traces are
masked by
and polishing.
Old Babylonian Iraq Contest Cylinder seals: Haematite Container Sippar-
scenes, straight, average mostly; sealings and Yahrurum,
presentation height: 2.5- magnetite door sealings. Sippar-
scenes, figure 3.0 cm; "burgul" around the Also tablet Amnanum,
holding a seals not 18th century; and envelope Babylon, Kish,
mace, deity attested after the the rest same sealings Nippur, Larsa,
with scimitar, 18th century BC. materials as (letters, legal Isin, Kisurra,
and nude Isin-Larsa. and and Ur
female. Less Introduction of administrative
introduction bow-driven documents);
scenes. cutting wheels multiple
Commonly and drills impressions of
mixture of during the mid- the same or
elements from 18th century different seals
different BC; now
scenes. Two unmasked drill
figures holes, filing-
flanking the and wheel
inscription on marks.
Late Old

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26.02.2018 Anc ent Near Eastern seals and seal ng pract ces - W k ped a
most common, Container
also sealings,
Introduction- magnetite, door- and
and lapis lazuli, window Assur (Qal’at
presentation limestone, sealings. Also Sherqat),
scenes, jasper, and tablet and Ninveh, Nuzi
chariots basalt. envelope (Yorghantepe),
Cylinder seals:
Iraq, drawn by Execution sealings Shubat-Enlil
straight. Average
Old Assyrian Syria, equids, bulls individual, (letters and (T. Leilan),
height: 1.8-
Anatolia on offering "flat, linear legal Kanesh
2.8 cm.
tables, style"of documents), (Kültepe),
procession- carving similar bullae and Acemhöyük,
and contest to Isin-Larsa triangular Alişar, and
scenes, water glyptic from tags; multiple Boğazköy.
god. the Diyala impressions of
area. Figures the same or
with fork-like different seals
Hasanlu, Beth
Shan, Byblos,
Kamid el-Loz,
'Arab, Nuzi,
Levant, Simple ritual Compositional,
Greece, scenes where sintered quartz
Cylinder seals: Most seals Megiddo,
Mittani Common Iran, figures flank a (frit) and
straight; height stem from Alalakh, Tell
Style Anatolia, tree, rows of faience. A few
varies. burials. Kazel, Tell Al-
Georgia, animals and of chert and
Armenia, humans. hematite
Dhekelia, Tell
Billa, Assur,
Kharaba, Tell
Ritual scenes,
drinking and
Iraq, carnelian,
offering Tablet and
Mittani Elaborate Syria, agate, chert, Nuzi, Alalakh,
scenes, Cylinder seals envelope
Style Greece, limestone; Tell Brak
animal rows. impressions
Levant colourful. Use
of the drill on
hard stones
Two figure
ritual scenes.
rosettes, Hard stones;
Small and Nuzi, Nippur,
First Kassite Style Iraq, Iran animals; chalcedony, Example
uniform size Nimrud
gazelles, agate
frogs, birds,
dogs and fish.
Pseudo-Kassite Iraq, More linear Example Soft composite Example Nippur, Choza
Style Iran, The than First materials; Zanbil, Susa,
Persian Kassite. sintered quartz Subeidi,
Gulf Inscriptions (frit) and glass. Failaka
not length of
whole seal
and without
real meaning
(only for
show). Double
lines and

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26.02.2018 Anc ent Near Eastern seals and seal ng pract ces - W k ped a
Monsters and
Chthonic god
Hard stones
natural and
(colourful); Thebes,
chalcedony, Nippur, Ur,
Second Kassite elements. Tablet
Iraq Cylinder seals agate, lapis Subeidi,
Style Sacred tree sealings
lazuli. Glass. Assur, Aqar
flanked by
With golden Quf
human or
Animals or Soft stones
monster and quartz.
Ur, Uruk,
scenes, a few Gold caps Tablet and
Third Kassite Nippur, Abu
Iraq involving Cylinder seals flourish. Drill envelope
Style/Isin II Style Hatab,
humans. used less than sealings
marru. Linear in Second
tendency Kassite seals.
animal scenes
(horse and
winged bull
quartz, jasper, Assur, Tell
hunting with
carnelian, Sheikh Hamad
archer, Straight cylinder
lapis-lazuli, (Dur-
temples, seals; average Tablet and
talc, frit; either Katlimmu), Tell
antithetically diameter c. envelope
Iraq, cutting of high Mohammed
Middle Assyrian arranged pairs 1.6 cm, average sealings;
Syria quality or - for Arab, Tell
of figures height ranging container and
the cut-style - Fakhariya, Tell
including the between 3.2- door sealings
cursory Sabi Abyad,
winged 4.7 cm
engraving with Tell Billa, Tell
extensive use al-Rimah
of the cutting
included; also
worship, king
with bow and
in 4 styles;
linear (soft
steatite, Container
scenes, Nimrud,
serpentine and sealings. Jar
contest Nineve, Assur,
Iraq, Cylinder and sintered quartz stoppers.
Neo-Assyrian scenes, ritual Tell Sheikh
Syria stamp seals (frit)), modeled Door sealings.
scenes, Hamad (Dur-
(chalcedony), Bullae. Tablet
animal Katlimmu)
cut (hard and sealings
soft materials),
flanking a
tree. The

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Neo-Babylonian Example Example Example Example Example Example
Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Example Example Example Example Example Example Example

General bibliography:

Amiet, P. 1980 La Glyptique mésopotamienne archaique, Paris.

Collon, D. 2005 (2nd revised edition). First impressions: Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East. London: British

Collon, Dominique 2007. Babylonian Seals. In: Leick, Gwendolyn (ed), The Babylonian World: 95–123. New York &
London: Routledge.

Gibson, McG and R.D. Biggs (eds.) 1977. Seals and Sealing in the Ancient Near East. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 6, Malibu.

Gibson, McG. and R.D. Biggs (eds.) 1987. The Organization of Power. Aspects of Bureaucracy in the Ancient Near East.
Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations 46. Chicago: Oriental Institute.

Gorelick, L. and A. J. Gwinnett 1990, The Ancient near Eastern Cylinder Seal as Social Emblem and Status Symbol, Journal
of Near Eastern Studies 49 (1): 45-56.

Keel, O. and Uehlinger, C. (eds) 1990. Altorientalische Miniaturkunst. Die ältesten visuellen
Massenkommunikationsmittel. Mainz, Gabern, pp. 27–46.

Pittman, H. 1994 The Glazed Steatite Glyptic Style. The Structure and Function of an Image System in the Administration
of Protoliterate Mesopotamia, BBVO 16, Berlin.

Pittman, Holly 2013. Seals and Sealings in the Sumerian World. In: Crawford, Harriet (ed), The Sumerian World. New
York & London: Routledge.

Porada, E. 1947. Mesopotamian art in cylinder seals of the Pierpont Morgan Library. Pierpont Morgan Library.

Porada, E., Amiet, P., Özgüç, N., & Boardman, J. (eds.) 1980. Ancient art in seals: essays. Princeton, N.J.: University Press.

Radner, Karen 2009. Siegelpraxis, A. Philologisch, RlA: 466–469.

Otto, Adelheid 2009. Siegelpraxis, B. Archäologisch. In RlA: 469–474.

Teissier, B. 1984. Ancient Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from the Marcopoli Collection, Berkeley.

Manufacture and materials

Moorey, R. 1994. Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries, esp. pp. 74–77 (on materials for seals) and pp. 103–106
(on seal cutting)

Collon, D. 2005. First Impressions, Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East. (2nd revised edition), pp. 100–104.

Sax, M., and Meeks, N. D., 1994. The introduction of wheel-cutting as a technique for engraving cylinder seals: its
distinction from filing, Iraq, 56, 153-66.

Sax, M., D. Collon and M.N. Leese 1993. The availability of raw materials for Near Eastern cylinder seals during the
Akkadian, post Akkadian and Ur III periods. Iraq 55: 77-90.

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Sax, M. N. D. Meeks and D. Collon 2000. The Early Development of the Lapidary Engraving Wheel in Mesopotamia. Iraq
62: 157-176.

Sax, M., J. McNabb, N.D. Meeks 1998, Methods of Engraving Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals: Experimental Confirmation,
Archaeometry 40: 1-21.

Gorelick, L., and Gwinnett. A. J., 1992, Minoan versus Mesopotamian seals: comparative methods of manufacture, Iraq,
54: 51-64.

Gwinnett, A. J. and Gorelick, L. 1987. The Change from Stone Drills to Copper Drills in Mesopotamia. Expedition 29 (3):

Heimpel, W., Gorelick, L., and Gwinnett, A. J., 1988, Philological and archaeological evidence for the use of emery in the
Bronze Age Near East, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 40 (2): 195-210.

Prehistoric seals

von Wickede 1990, Prähistorische Stempelsiegel in Vorderasien. MVAS 6: p. 10-21 (form), 21-28 (design)

Sealing practice:

Duistermaat, K. 2010. Administration in Neolithic Societies? The First Use of Seals in Syria and Some Considerations on
Seal Owners, Seal Use and Private Property. In Müller (ed.) Die Bedeutung Der Minoischen Und Mykenischen Glyptik: VI.
Internationales Siegel-Symposium, Marburg, 9-12 Oktober 2008. (CMS Beiheft 8) Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von
Zabern: 167-182.

von Wickede 1990, Prähistorische Stempelsiegel in Vorderasien. MVAS 6

Duistermaat, K. 2013.

Rothman, Mitchell S. 1994. Sealings as a Control Mechanism in Prehistory: Tepe Gawra XI, X and VIII. In: Gil Stein &
Mitchell S. Rothman (eds), Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East: The Organizational dynamics of complexity: 103–
120. Madison: Prehistory Press.

Uruk seals

Brandes, M. A. 1979, Siegelabrollungen aus den archaischen Bauschichten in Uruk-Warka

Amiet, P. 1980 P. Amiet, Glyptique mesoptaminne archaique. (Paris 1980)

R. M. Boehmer 1999, Uruk. Früheste Siegelabrollungen. AUWE 24. (Mainz 1999)

B. Feller 2013, Die Anfänge der Bürokratie. Funktion und Einsatz von Siegeln im 4. und 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr., in Uruk.
5000 Jahre Megacity. Begleitband zur Ausstellung "Uruk – 5000 Jahre Megacity", 159-165.

M. Frangipane 2007 (Ed.), Arslantepe Cretulae. An Early Centralized Administrative System Before Writing. (Rome 2007)

R. J. Matthews 2002, Secrets of the Dark Mound. (Warminster 2002)

H. Pittman 2001, Mesopotamian Intraregional Relations Reflected through Glyptic Evidence in the late Chalcolithic 1-5
Periods, in M. Rothman (Ed.), Uruk Mesopotamia & its Neighbors. Cross-cultural Interactions in the Era of State
Formation, 403-443.

M. T. Rigillo 1991, Sealing Systems on Uruk Doors, BaM 22 (1991), 175-222

Early Dynastic seals

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Pittmann, Holly 1994, The Glazed Steatite Glyptic Style: the Structure and Function of an Image System in the
Administration of Protoliterate Mesopotamia. Berlin

Karg, N. 1984, Untersuchungen zur älteren frühdynastischen Glyptik Babyloniens. Aspekte regionaler Entwicklungen in
der ersten Hälfte des 3. Jahrtausends. BaF 8. Mainz

Pittman, Holly 2013. Seals and Sealings in the Sumerian World. In: Crawford, Harriet (ed), The Sumerian World. New
York & London: Routledge.

Sealing practice:

Jans G. & Bretschneider J. 2011 (2012), Seals and Sealings of Tell Beydar/Nabada (Seasons 1995-2001). Subartu XXVII,
Turnhout Brepols.

H. P. Martin and R. J. Matthews 1993, "Seals and Sealings," in A. Green, ed., The 6G Ash-Tip and Its Contents: Cultic and
Administrative Discard from the Temple? (London), pp. 23–81

R. J. Matthews 1991, "Fragments of Officialdom from Fara," Iraq 53: 1–16

Charvát, Petr 1988. Archaeology and Social History: The Susa sealings, ca. 4000–2340 BC, Paléorient 14(1): 57–63

Charvát, Petr 2005. The Backs of Some Sealings from Nineveh 5. Iraq 67: 391–397.

Zettler, R. 2007, Clay Sealings from the Early Dynastic I levels of the Inanna Temple at Nippur: a preliminary analysis, in
Roth, M. W. Farber, and M. Stolper (eds), Studies presented to R. Biggs: 343–362.


Glyptic art:

Rakic, Yelena 2003. The Contest Scene in Akkadian Glyptic: A Study of its imagery and function within the Akkadian
empire. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania.

Collon, D. Catalogue of the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum: Cylinder Seals, vol 2 Akkadian and Ur III.

Boehmer, Rainer Michael 1965. Die Entwicklung der Glyptik während der Akkad-Zeit. (Untersuchungen zur Assyriologie
und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 4) Berlin: De Gruyter.

Amiet, P.1980. The Mythological Repertory in Cylinder Seals of the Agade Period (c. 2335-2155 B.C.). In Porada (ed.),
pp. 35–60.

Barrelet, M.T. 1970. Etude de glyptique akkadienne: l'imagination figurative et le cycle d'Ea. Orientalia 39: 213-251.

Sealing practice:

Rakic, Yelena 2003. The Contest Scene in Akkadian Glyptic: A Study of its imagery and function within the Akkadian
empire. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania. esp. Ch. 6;289-354

Matthews, D. Early Glyptic of Tell Brak, 176-183.


Glyptic art:

Collon, D. Catalogue of the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum: Cylinder Seals, vol 2 Akkadian and Ur III

Winter, I. 1986 "The king and the cup: iconography of the royal presentation scene on Ur III seals," inInsights through
Images (ed. by M Kelly-Buccellati), pp. 253 – 268. Malibu: Undena Publications. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 21.

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Winter, I. 1991 (1977) "Legitimation of authority through image and legend: seals belonging to officials in the
administrative bureaucracy of the Ur III state," in The Organization of Power (ed. by McGuire Gibson and R. Biggs), pp. 1 –
33. Chicago: Oriental Institute. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 46.

Suter 2010 (representation of the king)

Mayr, R. H. 2002a. The depiction of ordinary men and women on the seals of the Ur III kingdom. In Parpola, S. and
Whiting, R. M., editors, Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East: Proceedings of the 47th Rencontre Assyriologique
Internationale, Helsinki, July 2–6, 2001, pages 359–366. Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki.

Sealing Ur III:

Zettler 1987 "Sealings as artifacts of institutional administration in ancient Mesopotamia," Journal of Cuneiform Studies
39: 197 - 240.

Reichel 2001, Reichel, Clemens 2001. Seals and Sealings at Tell Asmar – A New look at an Ur III to Isin/Larsa Palace. In:
William Hallo & Irene J. Winter (eds.): 101–131.

Buccellati, G. / M. Kelly-Buccellati, The Royal Storehouse of Urkesh: The Glyptic Evidence from the Southwestern Wing.
AfO 42/43, 1995/96, 1-32. Sealing documents:

Hattori, Atsuko 2001. Sealing Practices of Ur III Nippur. In: William Hallo & Irene J. Winter (eds): 71–99.

Hattori, Atsuko 2002. Texts and Impressions: A Holistic approach to Ur III cuneiform tablets from the university of
Pennsylvania expeditions to Nippur (Iraq). PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania.

Laurito, R. in D’Agostino, Franco, Francesco Pomponio & Romina Laurito 2004. Neo-Sumerian Texts from Ur in the
British Museum: Epigraphical and archaeological catalogue of an unpublished corpus of texts and fragments. (Nisaba 5)
Messina: Di.Sc.A.M.

Tsouparopoulou, Christina 2015. The Ur III seals impressed on documents from Puzrish-Dagan (Drehem), HSAO 16,

Fischer, Claudia 1992. Siegelabrollungen im British Museum auf neusumerischen Tontafeln aus der Provinz Lagash –
Untersuchungen zu den Tierkampfszenen. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 82: 60–91.

Fischer, Claudia 1997. Siegelabrollungen im British Museum auf Ur-III-zeitlichen Texten aus der Provinz Lagash:
Untersuchung zu den Verehrungsszenen. Baghdader Mitteilungen 28: 97–183.

Reichel, Clemens 2003. Appendix: Sealing practice. In: Markus Hilgert, Drehem Administrative Documents from the
Reign of Amar-Suena (Oriental Institute Publications 121): 603–24. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.

Isin-Larsa / Old Babylonian

Blocher, Felix 2001. Sealing Tablets in Early Second Millennium Babylonia - Wealth and Significance of the Yale
Babylonian Collection, in: William W. Hallo (Hg.), Seals and Seal Impressions, Comptes rendus de la XLV Rencontre
Assyriologique Internationale (Boston/New Haven 5–10 July 1998), Vol. 3, New Haven/Boston, 133-148.

Collon, D. 2007. Babylonian Seals in Leick, G. (ed) The Babylonian World: 95-123 (esp. pp. 95–107)

Goddeeris, A. 2012. Sealing in Old Babylonian Nippur, in Fs Van Lerberghe pp. 215–234.

Gailani-Werr, L. al-, Chronological Table of Old Babyblonian Seal Impressions. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology,
University of London 17, 1980, 33-84

Gailani-Werr, L. al-, Studies in the Chronology and Regional Style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. BiMes. 23, 1988

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Klengel-Brandt, E., Siegelabrollungen auf altbabylonischen Tontafeln aus Babylon. AoF 10, 1983, 65-106

Blocher, F., Siegelabrollungen auf frühaltbabylonischen Tontafeln in der Yale Babylonian Collection, ein Katalog. MVS 9.
München 1992

Blocher, F., Siegelabrollungen auf frühaltbabylonischen Tontafeln im British Museum, ein Katalog. MVS 10. München 1992

Mitanni and Kassite

Salje, Beate 1990. Der "Common Style" der Mitanni-Glyptik und die Glyptik der Levante und Zyperns in der späten
Bronzezeit. Baghdader Forschungen, Band 11. Mainz: Zabern.

Porada, E., Seal Impressions from Nuzi. AASOR 24. New Haven 1947

Stein, D.L., A Reapraisal of the "Saushtatar Letter" from Nuzi. ZA 79, 1989, 36-60

Stein, D.L., Seal Impressions from Arrapha and Nuzi in the Yale Babylonian Collection, in: D.I. Owen - M.A. Morrison
(Hrsg.), Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians Vol. 2. Winona Lake 1987, 225-320

Stein, D.L., The Seal Impressions, in: G. Wilhelm (Hrsg.), Das Archiv des Shilwa-Teshup, Heft 8 und 9. Wiesbaden 1993

Beran, T., Die babylonische Glyptik der Kassitenzeit. AfO, 1957–58, 255-278

Matthews, D. M. Principles of Composition in Near Eastern Glyptic of the Later Second Millennium B.C. (1990)

Matthews, D.M., The Kassite Glyptic of Nippur. OBO 116. Freiburg (Schweiz) 1992

Wittmann, B., Babylonische Rollsiegel des 11.-7. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. BaM 23, 1992, 169 ff. (Nachtrag: Wittmann-von
Pilgrim, B. in: BaM 25, 1994, 597 ff.)

Middle Assyrian Moortgat, A., Assyrische Glyptik des 12. Jahrhunderts. ZA NF 14, 1944, 24-44

Moortgat, A., Assyrische Glyptik des 13. Jahrhunderts. ZA NF 13, 1942, 50-88

Beran, T., Assyrische Glyptik des 14. Jahrhunderts. ZA NF 18, 1957, 141-215

Kühne, Hartmut 1995. Der mittelassyrische, Cut Style', in ZA 85: 277-301

Kühne, H. / W. Röllig, Das Siegel des Königs Salmanasser I. von Assyrien, in: Emre, K. / M. Mellink / B. Hrouda / N.
Özgüç (Hrsg.), Anatolia and the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honor of Tahsin Özgüç. Ankara 1989, 295-299

Sealing practices:

Röllig, W. 1980. Notizen zur Praxis der Siegelung in mittelassyrischer Zeit. Welt des Orients 11: 111–116.

Postgate, Nicholas J. 1986. Middle Assyrian Tablets: The Instruments of bureaucracy. AoF 13: 10–39.

Postgate, Nicholas J. 2003. Documents in Government under the Middle Assyrian Kingdom. In: M. Brosius (ed.): 124–138.

Postgate, Nicholas J. 2014. Bronze Age Bureaucracy: Writing and the practice of government in Assyria. NY: CUP.

Feller, Barbara forthcoming. Siegel im Kontext der Gesellschaft. Die Siegelabrollungen auf den mittelassyrischen Tontafeln
aus dem Vorderasiatischen Museum Berlin.

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