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FROM
THE EDITOR'S DESK

"AT THE END OF THE


DAY, THE MOST
OVERWHELMING KEY
TO A CHILD'S
SUCCESS IS THE
POSITIVE
INVOLVEMENT OF
PARENTS."

JANE D. HULL

THE FINEST GUIDE


The role of Parents is very important in a may also learn from many different sources e.g., from teachers at
school, from TV programs, from their parents at home etc.
child’s education, especially for an IIT It is said that children learn the first and the most from their
aspirant. IIT JEE is the test of both parents. I agree with this belief. Children spend most of their time
Intelligence and emotional quotient. That’s with their parents and they are always watching what they did and
how they did it. In most of the cases the first idols of a child’s life are
why I consider, parental guidance as important their parents. Even though they don´t realize this.
as a mentor’s role in sharpening your skills. There is another belief that people when became old are going to be
just as their parents were. I can see this in my father, who is
Parents play a very important role in the lives of their gradually adapting to my grandfather every day. Even he has started
children. They have to build a solid foundation for their kids following those things from his father which bothered him earlier.
in order to provide them a successful and rewarding life. The These believes clearly indicate the importance of parents in
foundation of an individual can be broken down into several someone’s life.
different parts, such as morals, religious beliefs, political The moral support that a parent can provide on your failures can’t
standpoints, and education, to name a few. Likewise a child be expected from anybody else. However, sometimes it also

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FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK

happens that parental support often turns out to be an added soon becomes a metal block. Formation of this block is
pressure. We can define this pressure as “the pressure of tough to overpower and creates a great hindrance in their
expectation” or the “pressure of faith” in you. This faith may studies.
inculcate a fear i.e., the fear of not standing up to their 2. Secondly, do not impose too much of restrictions on your
expectations or the fear of failure on the D-day. At such a child. This may direct them towards revolt or non-cordial
juncture it is important not to lose focus on the present relations. These non-cordial relations do not holds good
preparation and self-motivate yourself. Following 5 mantras and create stress, frustration and finally reflect upon the
each for students and parents will help a lot to avoid such academic performance along with mental and social health
situations. of the student. In such a situation instead of scolding and
screaming out in frustration, both sides should discuss
FIVE MANTRAS FOR STUDENTS their differences with open minds.
1. Talk regularly to your parents. Many aspirants find refuge 3. In my opinion parents should recommend but not
from parental pressure by reducing communication with command; after all, one cannot clear IIT JEE until and
them, but instead one must indulge in regular interactions. unless he/she is self-motivated towards the goal. All that
This will help a lot. required is a balance between ‘parental guidance’ and
2. Never lied to them about anything. Even tell them you’re ‘parental pressure’.
below par performances and try to accept your failures as 4. While I say that parents should avoid unnecessary
your motivation and inspiration. One of my student’s was interference, it is also important for them to maintain
in the habit of sticking all his failures around his study regular touch with their ward, keep records of all tests and
table. According to him these failures always motivate him ask for explanations for each performance. It is widely
to do better. Today he is a successful Engineer in Armed accepted that most parents cannot directly help in the
Forces. studies of their ward but their moral support is very
3. Try to listen them carefully and at the same time you may important. At an age when the child is most vulnerable to
put your views also but in assertive manner only. get misled, parental support is the only thing that can keep
4. There is the possibility that the views of your parents things on the right track.
and you may not match. In such a case the acceptability at 5. Try to develop an ignorance factor as well for your ward.
both the ends is necessary e.g., I cannot impose my opinion Mix this wisely with your check or restrictions in
about chemistry on my son. He may have a different controlling your ward. Such a mixing always creates
perception about this subject according to his strength or positive impact of your actions on your ward’s mind.
weaknesses. So as a parent it’s my duty to listen and
understand his perception about this subject too.
Remember!
5. Most of your views may contradict with your parents.
No relation can be as strong as a ‘parent-child’ relation. It’s
This may be due to generation gap or anything else. Try to only your parents and teachers who selflessly wish for your
be open with your parents. Discuss your problems openly best. Understand their motive of constantly pushing you to
to seek their guidance and support. study, enquiring about your status in school and coaching,
imposing ‘restrictions’ upon you or any other action on their
FIVE MANTRAS FOR PARENTS part which supposedly ‘irritates’ you. Develop a mutual
1. The support of parents can create wonders for anybody. It understanding with them which will help you not just in
is really important for parents not to make their child clearing IIT JEE but also in your future ventures.
realise that IIT JEE is the end of the world. Such a realisation Further, always keep following great lines of ANNE FRANK
creates a mental pressure in student’s mind, which very in your mind

“Parents can only give good advice or show the right path, but the final
forming of a person’s character lies in their own hands”

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EXAM CRUX that applies a force F = - kv, where k is a constant,


on the body? (Graphs are schematic and not drawn
• In Physics paper, 17 questions were asked from class XII and 13 to scale)
questions from class XI. Most of the questions were asked from v
all chapters but more weightage given to Current Electricity. v
• According to topicwise distribution, the number of questions were
(a) (b)
asked from class XI-Unit, Dimensions and Vectors (1), Kinematics a a
(1), Laws of Motion (1), Work, Power and Energy (1), Centre of
Mass, Impulse Momentum (1), Simple Harmonic Motion (1), Solids t t
and Fluids (3) Waves (1) and Heat and Thermodynamics (2).
• As per topicwise distribution in class XII-Optics (3), Current a v
Electricity (4), Electrostatics (1), Magnetics (1), Alternating Current
(1), Atoms (3), Nuclei (2) and Semiconductor (2). (c) (d)
• As per difficulty level, around 44% of questions can be considered a
v
to easy overall, 42% of questions are relatively moderate and
t t
14% questions are to be tough by Arihant Team.
3. A rocket is fired vertically from the earth with an
1. In the following I refers to current and other acceleration of 2g, where g is the gravitational
symbols have their usual meanings. Choose the acceleration. On an inclined plane inside the
option that corresponds to the dimensions of rocket, making an angle q with the horizontal, a point
electrical conductivity. object of mass m is kept. The minimum coefficient of
friction m min between the mass and the inclined
(a) [ML-3 T -3 I 2 ] (b) [M-1 L3 T 3 I]
surface such that the mass does not move is
(c) [M-1 L-3 T 3 I 2 ] (d) [M-1 L-3 T 3 I]
(a) tan q (b) 2 tan q (c) 3 tan q (d) tan2 q
2. Which of the following option correctly describes
the variation of the speed v and acceleration a of a
4. A car of weight W is on an inclined road that rises by
point mass falling vertically in a viscous medium 100 m over a distance of 1 km and applies a constant
frictional force W/20 on the car.

14
While moving uphill on the road at a speed of 10 displacement - A / 2 and they are moving towards
ms -1 , the car needs power P. If it needs power P/2 each other. If they cross each other at time t, then t is
while moving downhill at speed v, then value of v is (a) T/6 (b) 5T/6 (c) T/3 (d) T/4
(a) 20 ms -1 (b) 15 ms -1 (c) 10 ms -1 (d) 5 ms -1 11. Two engines pass each other moving in opposite
5. A cubical block of side 30 cm is a=30 cm directions with uniform speed of 30 m/s. One of
moving with velocity 2 ms -1 on a them is blowing a whistle of frequency 540 Hz.
smooth horizontal surface. The O Calculate the frequency heard by driver of second
surface has a bump at a point O engine before they pass each other. Speed of sound
as shown in figure. The angular velocity (in rad/s) of is 330 m/s
the block immediately after it hits the bump, is (a) 450 Hz (b) 540 Hz (c) 648 Hz (d) 270 Hz
(a) 5.0 (b) 6.7 (c) 9.4 (d) 13.3 12. The potential (in volts) of a charge distribution is
6. Figure shows elliptical path c given by V (z) = 30 - 5z2 for |z| £ 1 m
abcd of a planet around the V (z) = 35 - 10|z| for |z| ³ 1m.
sun S such that the area of d b
V (z) does not depend on x and y. If this potential is
S
triangle cSa is 1/4 the area of generated by a constant change per unit volume
the ellipse. (See figure) With a r0 (in units of e0 ) which is spread over a certain
db as the semimajor axis and region, then choose the correct statement.
ca as the semiminor axis. If t1 is the time taken for (a) r 0 = 10 e0 for| z| £ 1 m and r 0 = 0 elsewhere
planet to go over path abc and t2 for path taken over (b) r 0 = 20 e0 in the entire region
cda, then (c) r 0 = 40 e0 in the entire region
(d) r 0 = 20 e0 for| z| £ 1 m and r 0 = 0 elsewhere
(a) t 1 = t 2 (b) t 1 = 2 t 2 (c) t 1 = 3 t 2 (d) t 1 = 4 t 2
7. Consider a water jar of radius R that 13. Three capacitors each of 4 mF are to be connected in
R such a way that the effective capacitance is 6 mF.
has water filled up to height H and is
kept on a stand of height h (see H This can be done by connecting them
figure). Through a hole of radius 2r (a) all in series
(b) two in series and one in parallel
r (r << R) at its bottom, the water
(c) all in parallel
leaks out and the stream of water (d) two in parallel and one in series
h R
coming down towards the ground
has a shape like a funnel as shown in 14. In the circuit shown, the R

the figure. If the radius of the 2x resistance r is a variable


r
cross-section of water stream when it hits the resistance. If for r = fR, the heat
ground is x. Then generation in r is maximum,
1/ 2
æ H ö æ H ö then the value of f is
(a) x = r ç ÷ (b) x = r ç ÷
è H + hø è H + hø (a) 1/4 (b) 1/2 (c) 3/4 (d) 1

æ H ö
1/ 4
æ H ö
2
15. A magnetic dipole is acted upon by two magnetic
(c) x = r ç ÷ (d) x = r ç ÷
è H + hø è H + hø fields which are inclined to each other at an angle of
75°. One of the fields has a magnitude of 15 mT.
8. 200 g water is heated from 40°C to 60°C. Ignoring The dipole attains stable equilibrium at an angle of
the slight expansion of water, the change in its 30° with this field. The magnitude of the other field
internal energy is close to (Given, specific heat of (in mT) is close to
water = 4184 J/kg/K) (a) 11 (b) 36 (c) 1 (d) 1060
(a) 8.4 kJ (b) 4.2 kJ (c) 16.7 kJ (d) 167. 4 kJ 16. A 50 W resistance is connected to a battery of 5 V. A
9. The ratio of workdone by an ideal monoatomic gas galvanometer of resistance 100 W is to be used as an
to the heat supplied to it in an isobaric process is ammeter to measure current through the resistance,
(a) 3/5 (b) 2/3 (c) 3/2 (d) 2/5 for this a resistance rs is connected to the
galvanometer. Which of the following connections
10. Two particles are performing simple harmonic should be employed if the measured current is
motion in a straight line about the same equilibrium within 1% of the current without the ammeter in the
point. The amplitude and time-period for both circuit?
particles are same and equal to A and T, (a) rs = 0.5 W in parallel with the galvanometer
respectively. At time t = 0, one particle has (b) rs = 0.5 W in series with the galvanometer
displacement A while the other one has (c) rs = 1 W in series with galvanometer
(d) rs = 1 W in parallel with galvanometer

15
17. A series L-R circuit is connected to a voltage source When the separation between the slits is varied, the
with V (t) = V0 sin Wt . After very large time, current interference pattern disappears for a particular
distance d0 between the slits. If the angular
æ Lö
I(t) behaves as çt0 >> ÷ resolution of the eye is 1°/60, the value of d0 is close
è Rø
to
I(t) (a) 1 mm (b) 2 mm
(c) 4 mm (d) 3 mm
(a)
t=t0
t
21. When photons of wavelength l1 are incident on an
isolated sphere, the corresponding stopping
potential is found to be V. When photons of
I(t) wavelength l2 are used, the corresponding stopping
potential was thrice that of the above value. If light
(b)
t0
t of wavelength l3 is used, then find the stopping
potential for this case
hc é 1 1 1ù hc é 1 1 1ù
(a) - - (b) + -
I(t) e êë l 3 l 2 l1 úû e êë l 3 l 2 l1 úû
hc é 1 1 3 ù hc é 1 1 1ù
(c) + - (d) + -
(c) e êë l 3 2 l 2 2 l1 úû e êë l 3 2 l 2 l1 úû
t
t=t0 22. A hydrogen atom makes a transition from n = 2 to
n = 1 and emits a photon. This photon strikes a
I(t)
doubly ionised lithium atom (z = 3) in excited state
and completely removes the orbiting electron. The
(d) least quantum number for the excited state of the
t ion for the process is
t=t0
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5
18. Microwave oven acts on the principle of 23. The truth table given in figure represents
(a) transferring electrons from lower to higher energy levels in
water molecule A B Y
(b) giving rotational energy to water molecules 0 0 0
(c) giving vibrational energy to water molecules 0 1 1
(d) giving translational energy to water molecules 1 0 1
19. A convex lens, of 1 1 1
focal length 30 cm, a
(a) AND Gate (b) OR Gate (c) NAND Gate (d) NOR Gate
concave lens of focal
length 120 cm and a 24. An audio signal consists of two distinct sounds:
plane mirror are |Focal length| |Focal length| one a human speech signal in the frequency band
arranged as shown =30 cm =120 cm of 200 Hz to 2700 Hz while the other is a high
60 cm 20 cm frequency music signal in the frequency band of
in the figure. For an 70 cm
object kept at a 10200 Hz to 15200 Hz. The ratio of the AM signal
distance of 60 cm from the convex lens, the final bandwidth required to send both the signals
image, formed by the combination, is a real image, together to the AM signal bandwidth required to
at a distance of send just the human speech is
(a) 60 cm from the convex lens (a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 2
(b) 60 cm from the concave lens 25. A simple pendulum made of a bob of mass m and a
(c) 70 cm from the convex lens metallic wire of negligible mass has time period 2s
(d) 70 cm from the concave lens at T = 0°C. If the temperature of the wire is increased
20. In Young’s double slit experiment, the distance and the corresponding change in its time-period is
between slits and the screen is 1.0 m and plotted against its temperature, the resulting graph
monochromatic light of 600 nm is being used. A is a line of slope S. If the coefficient of linear
person standing near the slits is looking at the expansion of metal is a, then the value of S is
fringe pattern. a 1
(a) a (b) (c) 2 a (d)
2 a

16
26. A uniformly tapering conical wire is made from a The focal length of the convex lens is f1 and that of
material of Young’s modulus Y and has a normal, mirror is f2 . Then, taking index correction to be
unextended length L. The radii, at the upper and negligibly small, f1 and f2 are close to
lower ends of this conical wire, have values R and (a) f1 = 12.7 cm, f2 = 7.8 cm
3R, respectively. The upper end of the wire is fixed (b) f1 = 7. 8 cm, f2 = 12.7 cm
to a rigid support and a mass M is suspended from (c) f1 = 7.8 cm, f2 = 25.4 cm
its lower end. The equilibrium extended length, of (d) f1 = 15.6 cm, f2 = 25.4 cm
this wire, would equal
(a) L æç1 +
2 Mg ö
(b) L æç1 +
1 Mg ö 29. An experiment is performed to determine the I - V
÷ ÷
è 9 pYR 2 ø è 3 pYR 2 ø characteristics of a Zener diode, which has a
(c) L æç1 +
1 Mg ö
(d) L æç1 +
2 Mg ö protective resistance of R = 100 W and a maximum
÷ ÷
è 9 pYR 2 ø è 3 pYR 2 ø power of dissipation rating of 1 W. The minimum
voltage range of the DC source in the circuit is
27. To know the resistance G of a galvanometer by half
deflection method, a battery of emf VE and (a) 0 - 5 V (b) 0 - 8 V
resistance R is used to deflect the galvanometer by (c) 0 - 12 V (d) 0 - 24 V
an angle q. If a shunt of resistance S is needed to get 30. An unknown transistor needs to be identified as a
half deflection then G, R and S are related by the n-p-n or p-n-p type. A multimeter, with positive and
equation negative terminals, is used to measure resistance
(a) 2S ( R + G ) = RG (b) S ( R + G ) = RG between different terminals of transistor. If terminal
(c) 2S = G (d) 2G = S 2 is the base of the transistor, then which of the
28. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, a following is correct for a p-n-p transistor?
student records the following data (a) positive terminal 2, negative terminal 1, resistance high
(b) positive terminal 1, negative terminal 2, resistance high
Object pin Convex lens Convex mirror Image pin (c) positive terminal 3, negative terminal 2, resistance high
22.2 cm 32.2 cm 45.8 cm 71.2 cm (d) positive terminal 2, negative terminal 3, resistance low

Answers with Explanation


1. (c) Electrical conductivity denoted by ( s ) and related to 2. (d) Consider figure and respective gravitational and drag
current density J and electric field E forces working on point mass.
J = sE …(i)
J
s= …(ii) F=mg F= – kx
E
Putting respective dimensions of J and E.
Gravitational Drag
[I1 L-2 ]
s = 1 1 -3 -1 force force
[M L T I ] F = mg downward gravitational force
\ s = [M-1L-3T 3 I 2 ] F ¢ = - kv upward drag force
Alternative Method \ Resulting force on the point mass
Electrical conductivity denoted by s, derived from inverse of FR = F + F ¢ = mg + ( - kv )
resistivity r. FR = mg - kv
1
\ s= mg > kv
r
Gravitational force will dominate. Due to viscous force of
1 medium, body will not fall freely but with less gravitational
1 R× A l acceleration a
s= = =
r l R× A a<g
l× I lI I I (q ) I ( I t ) \ a = g - av
\ s= = = = = dv
V × A Vl2 Vl w × l w× l = g - av
dt
Putting respective dimensions v dv t

=
[I(IT)] ò0 g - av = ò0 dt
[ML2T -2 ] [L ]
g - av ö
log æç ÷ = - at
= [M-1 L-3 T 3 I 2 ] è v ø
v = v 0 (1 - e - at )

17
Acceleration of a point mass, 5. (c) According to law of conservation of angular momentum,
dv we have
a= = v 0 a . e - at = a0 . e - at
dt Total angular momentum = Z-axis momentum + ^ momentum
3. (a) Force acting on a point object of mass m at rest, on an \ L = Lz + L^
inclined plane with an angle q L = Lz [\ LT = 0]
(i) W = mg , acting vertically downward. Path of block
(ii) N, normal force on point object after collision
(iii) f s , static frictional force, opposing the impacting motion. 30 cm
v = 2m/s
30 cm
Bumb
Linear momentum = Angular momentum
N fs B a 2 3v
mv . = ma 2w, w = = 5 rad/s
2 3 4a
6.
θ

(c) KEY CONCEPT According to Kepler’s second law of


sin

θ
g

areas state that the speed of planet varies in such a way


m

mg cos θ
a A that the radius vector drawn from the Sun to a planet
mg sweeps out equal areas in equal interval of time.
Rocket All planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits and sun
situated of at focus. Orbital motion of planets follow Kepler’s law
a=2g
(i) law of orbits (ii) law of area (iii) law of periods
In equilibrium resulting force is zero.
According to Kepler’s second law, we have
mg sin q = f s …(i) DA
mg cos q = N …(ii) = constant
Dt
If rocket (system) moving with a = 2 g , all components will be Consider the given points
affected equally A
a Area of sadc =
Þ m . sin q = f s …(iii) 4
2
Minor axis
a c
m . cos q = N …(iv)
2
Dividing Eq. (iii) by Eq. (iv), we get Major axis
d focus b
f S
tan q = s = mmin
N s
4. (b) When a car moves uphill, an additional force is required to
work against gravitation. Consider figure in uphill move. a
W
Given W, fk = , v = 10 m/s A 3A
20 B Þ Area of sabc = A - =
4 4
Case I When a car is moving
DA 3A A
upwards, Using Þ = , t 1 = 3t 2
Dt 4t 1 4t 2
00

Total power of car = Power against


≅ r
05 Ca

100 m
10

gravitation + Frictional power Wsin θ 7. (c) Since, tank is open, then water will fall from opening as
10

PT = Pg . v + Ff . v fk free falling body. Here, speed of efflux,


W A
= W sin q × 10 + × 10 O 1000 m R
20
1 W 3W
= W × × 10 + = H
10 2 2
Case II When a car is moving downwards 2r
B
W
Given, W , fk = , P, v = ?
20 fk h
Þ PT = 0 + fk × v
00
r
Ca

P 100 m
\ = fk × v
10

2x
Wsin θ

2 v1 A1 = v 2 A 2
05
10

3W
\ pX 2 2 g ( H + h) = pr 2 2 gH
2 = W .v
O A X2 2 gH
2 20 1000 m =
3 v¢ r2 2 g ( H + h)
= Þ v = 15 m/s
4 20 H
X =r 4
H+ h

18
8. (c) If heat supplied to water by surrounding DQ and DU It should be a sheet lying in x-y plane of thickness Z = 2 m
change in internal energy
40°C 60°C

P0=0 P0=10ε0 P0=0

200 g 200 g

\ DQ = DU Z=–1 Z=0 Z=+1


\ DU = msDT = 02
. ´ 416
. ´ 20 = 167
. kJ s r(2 ) r
For| Z| ³ 1 m E = = = = 10 Þ r = 10e0
9. (d) KEY CONCEPT The molecules of a monoatomic gas 2 e0 2 e0 e0
has three translation degree of freedom plus increasing 13. (a) In parallel connection of capacitors over all capacitance
area. greater than highest value capacitor in connection.
DW = pDV = nRDT In series connection of capacitor over all (resulting)
5
\ DQ = nC p DT = nRDT capacitance less than lowest value capacitor present in circuit.
2 Obviously there will be mixed combination to obtain resulting
DW 2 6 mF from 4 mF capacitor.
=
DQ 5 4 μF 4 μF
where, W : work done
6 μF
p : pressure
⇒ ⇒
V : volume
n : number of moles
R : universal constant. 4 μF 4 μF CR=2 μF
T : temperature
C R = 2mF
C p : specific heat of constant pressure
Electric work (W )
10. (a) P1 14. (a) Electric power ( P ) =
time (t )
P1 P2 R
π/3 π/3 R
O

r
A
2 P2

Position of particles P1 and


Position of particles P1 and W V ´ I´t
P2 at time t = 0
P2 at time t when crossing to P= =
each other t t
V2
p T \ P = VI = I R =
2
\ t = = R
3w 6
Electric power or heat P = I 2R, depends on current I more value
11. (c) KEY CONCEPT When a sources and observer raced of current, more value of power in a resistance provided
away or move toward each other, then pitch of sound resistance is low i.e. allow to flow more current.
changes same phenomena exist in light case, known as
\ Value of r must be small
Doppler effect. r
High pitch Source and observer moving towards each other. r = fR, =f
R
Low pitch Source and observer moving away from each other. 1 (= r )
r : R = 1 : 4 or f =
30 m/s 30 m/s 4 (= R )
Engine-I Engine-II
15. (a) A magnetic dipole B2
Given, consists of two unlike poles of
æv + vö æ 330 + 30 ö equal strength and separated Dipole
\ n = n0 ç s ÷ = 540 ç ÷
èvs - vø è 330 - 30 ø by a small distance. Magnetic
dipole moment is the product 45º
= 648 Hz of strength of either pole ( m) 30º
DQ and magnetic length (2 l) of
12. (a) Volume charge density given by r = C / m3 B = 15mT
DV the magnet. In equilibrium
where, DQ : microscopically charge condition dipole will be stationary.
DV : microscopically volume Þ B1 sin 30° = B2 sin 45°
é 10Z V /m | Z| £ 1 m B . sin 30° B1
E=ê B2 = 1 = = 10.60 mT » 11 mT
sin 45° 2
ë10 Z V / m | Z| ³ 1 m

19
16. (d) An ammeter is made by connecting a low resistance rs in Image formed by convex lens on the other side of lens.
parallel to galvanometer G. rs known as shunt. Then, from Case II Here, u = + 40, f = - 120
circuit 1 1 1
- = ; v = + 60 cm
\ 2 g . G = (2 - 2 g ) rs v + 40 - 120
æ 2g ö f=+30
rs = ç ÷G
è2 - 2g ø
V 5
Current through battery wire 2 = = = 01
. A 40 I2
g 50
100% = 01 . A
Case III Reflection from mirror
1% = 0.001 A = 2 g
Here, G = 100 W given
æ 0.001 ö
\ rs = ç ÷ 100 @ 1 W
. - 0.001ø
è 01
I2
50 Ω i ig i 10 cm 10 cm

i – ig
Case IV Again refraction from concave lens
rs 1 1 1
- = ; v = - 30
v 40 - 120
5V 30
17. (b) In RL circuit, current will log with voltage by a phase f and I4 I3
is given by, I( f ) = I0 sin ( wt - f)
But it will follow the same path of voltage with decrease in
amplitude depends upon value of R.
V(t ) V0 sin ( wt )
I= = Case V Again refraction from convex lens
R R 1 1 1
I0 . R sin wt - = , v = + 75 cm
I= = I0 sin wt v - 50 30
R
and graph will be sinusoidal.
I 75 I4
50
I(t)
f
fv
i.e. 75 cm from convex lens.
18. (c) Microwave oven acts on the principle of giving vibrational 20. (b) Consider figure and data. The separation between any
energy to water molecules because of microwaves lie in two consecutive bright and dark fringes is called fringe width
range of vibrating energy of water molecules. Dl
b, given by b =
19. (d) Consider the figure according to question, d
Convex Concave P
lens lens
S1 x
S
Object d
Light O
f=30 f=120 source S2 D=100 cm
20
60 70
Rays are comming from object firstly interacting of with convex
lens which has the property of conversion light ray using lens Angular fringe width of interference pattern
formula for finding location of image after interacting with b l
q= =
convex lens. D d
Case I Here, u = - 60 , f = + 30 1°
If q = , then value of d 0 is
1 1 1 60
- = , v = + 60 cm
v - 60 30 l 1° p
= =
f=+30 d 0 60 180 ´ 60
180 ´ 60 ù
I1 d 0 = lé
0 êë p úû
60 60
= 2 ´ 10 -3 m = 2mm

20
21. (c) KEY CONCEPT Stopping potential is the minimum 26. (b) Consider tapering wire fixed with support and a mass M is
negative potential given to the anode in a photocell for suspended to its other end.
which the photoelectric current becmes zero. On suspending mass M then, will be stress and strain on the
hc wire, given by
for l1 Þ eV = - f0 …(i)
l1 Normal stress
Y =
hc Longitudnal strain
for l 2 Þ 3 eV = - f0 …(ii)
l2 F
hc FL Mg
for l 3 Þ eV ¢ = - f0 …(iii) = A = = P
l3 DL A . DL pR 2. dL
L dx x
Using above equations, we get
As the different cross sectional area exist.
hc æ 1 1 3ö
V¢ = ç + - ÷ So, different stress will also exist. r
e è l 3 2 l 2 l1 ø
r - R 3R - R
\ =
22. (c) Consider energy of proton of hydrogen atom. x L
Proton, energy = 13.6 - 3.4 = 102. eV. Þ r = R 1+ é 2R ù
êë 3R
Z2 L úû
. eV > 13.6 2 where, Z = proton
Then, 102
n Mg . dx
dL = 2
9
pR 2 é1 +
Quantum number n2 > 13.6 2 R1 ù
102. êë L úû
n > 3.5 or n @ 4 Mg L dx MgL
g p R 2 ò0 æ
DL = =
So, minimum value of n = 4 2R ö
2
3pR 2Y
23. (b) Table has two inputs and one output. Then, respective ç1 + ÷
è L ø
Boolean equations are given as
\ Increase in length
A × B - AND gate
L ¢ = L + DL = L é1 +
1 Mg ù
A + B - OR gate êë 3 3pR 2Y úû
A × B = A + B - NAND gate 27. (b) Case I When S is not in circuit, then current through the
A + B = A × B - NOR gate circuit
OR gate equation is fit for given table. R i1
24. (c) Bandwidth is difference between high frequency to lower G
frequency components.
Thus, bandwidth of human speech = 2700 - 200 = 2500 HZ
Bandwidth for both signals, = 15200 Hz - 200 Hz = 15000 Hz
15000 VE
Ratio of both the signals to the human speech = =6
2500 VE
i1 = …(i)
25. (d) Case I When temperature 0°C, time period = 2 s R +G
l0 Case II When S is in circuit , then current
t 0 = 2 = 2p …(i)
g
R i i1 /2
G
t

Time S=α
period i1

2

Temperature (T) VE

Case II When temperature T, time period t s. VE


Þ i = …(ii)
l R +
GS
t = 2p …(ii)
g G+S
l0 (1 + a T ) G = æç i - 1 ö÷ S
i1 i
t = 2p or
g 2 è 2ø
t = 2 (1 + a T )1/ 2 = 2 + a T i 1 (G + S ) = 2 i S
T0 Substituting i 1 and i from Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii), we get
\ 2 = 2p
g S ( R + G ) = RG
Subtract Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get 28. (b) Consider and visualise complete system
t - t 0 = aT f1: convex lens
Dt = aT f2: convex mirror

21
Convex Convex 29. (c) KEY CONCEPT Zener diode is based on reverse
lens mirror breakdown (Zener) region, a very small change in voltage
across the Zener diode produces a very large change in
Current through the circuit but the voltage across the
O P I Zener remains constant.
+I Forward
R=100 Ω biased
0 cm 22.2 cm 32.2 cm 45.8 71.2 100 i
Vz
Case I Object V s convex lens –V +V
Vz V–100i=Vz
Here, u = - 10 cm
v = 39 cm
uv 390 Reverse
\ f1 = = = 7.8 cm V biased
u -v 49 –I

Power acros Zener diode


PZener = ( V - 100i ) i = 1
O I = Vi - 100i 2 = 1 = 100i 2 - vi + 1 = 0
i must be real Zener has no capacity to store energy in electro
magnetic field.
10 cm 39 cm
V 2 - 4(100) ³ 0
Case II Image v s convex mirror V ³ 20
R = 25.4 30. (a) A transistor has two junctions J1 and J 2.
R
f2 = 1 Junctions have low resistance when forward biased and high
2
when reserved biased.
= 12.7 cm
When terminal 2 positive and terminal 1 negative, then
resistance of J1 will be high.
J1 J2

P I Emitter Collector
1 p n p 3

25.4
Base
2

Continued from Page 12 12. (b) Electric potential inside a charged conducting spherical
shell remains constant throughout the shell. This potential is
9. (c) Let E A = Electric field at M due to charge placed at A. same as the potential at the surface of the conducting shell.
E B = Electric field at M due to charge placed at B. When charge on the outer surface of shell increases by Dq,
EC = Electric field at M due to charge placed at C. increases in potential will be same throughout the shell. While
As seen from the figure,| E B| = | EC|, So that the net electric considering potential difference VA - VB , this change will be
field at M, Enet = E A in the direction of vector 2. cancelled out and it remains as DV. Thus, VA - VB = DV
q throughout, in the variation of charge with time.
10. (c) In the expression of Gauss’s law, ò E × dS = enclosed
e0 13. (c) According to Gauss’s law,
Qenc
q enc = net charge within the Gaussian surface ò E.dS = e0
and E = electric field associated with all the charges inside
and outside the Gaussian surface. where, Qenc = enclosed charge
Therefore in the given situation electric field is associated with At any point over the spherical Gaussian surface, net electric
all the charges q 1 , q 2, - q 3 and q 4 and present around the field is the vector sum of electric field due to charges + q 1, - q 1
Gaussian surface f. and q 2.
11. (d) A point situated at a distance 2 a from the smaller sphere 14. (d) According to Gauss’s theorem in electrostatics,
q
may be located at P or Q.
ò E × dS = e0
. Here, E is due to all the charges q 1, q 2, q 3, q 4
At point P, if resultant electric potential is zero, then
KQ1 - KQ 2 P Q -2 and q 5. As q is charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface,
= Þ 1 = 1 =
2a 5a P2 Q 2 5 therefore, q = q 2 + q 4 .

Potential at internal point of a spherical shell is constant. 15. (c) Under electrostatic condition, all points lying on the
Therefore, we cannot have the location of the point at Q which is conductor are at same potential. Therefore, potential at A is
inside the larger spherical shell. equal to the potential at B. Hence, option (c) is correct.

22
FORMULAE AT A GL ANCE

Electric Fields and Charges


• Quantization of charge, q = ± ne where, n is integral multiple of • For a charged conducting sphere/shell of radius R and total
charge and e is charge of an electron. charge Q, the electric field is given by
Q
• Coulomb’s law, force of attraction/repulsion of charges, (i) E = 0 and r < R (ii) E = , for r = R
4 πε 0 R 2
K|q1||q 2| ⎡ 1 9⎤
F= ⎢Q K = 4 πε = 9 × 10 ⎥ (iii) E =
Q
, for r > R
r2 ⎣ 0 ⎦ 4 πε 0 r 2
F
• Electric field, E = lim , where q 0 is a small positive test charge • Electric dipole moment, p = q(2 a )
q 0 → 0q

which experiences a force F at a given point. • Electric field due to a dipole.


ε (i) At a point distant r from the centre of a dipole along its
• Relative permittivity of the given medium ( ε r ) = 1 2 pr
ε0 axial line is given by E = ⋅
4 πε 0 ( r 2 − a 2 )2
where, ε 0 = absolute electric permittivity of the given medium.
1 qq (ii) At a point distant r from the centre of a dipole along its
• In a dielectric medium, F = ⋅ 1 2 1 p
4 πε 0 K r 2 equatorial line is given by E = − ⋅
4 πε 0 ( r 2 + a 2 )3 / 2
where, K is called dielectric constant.
• The total positive or negative charge on an object of mass m having • At a point distant r from the centre of a short dipole along a line
inclined at an angle θ with the dipole axis,
mass number A and atomic number Z, 1 p
mN E= ⋅ 3 3 cos 2 θ + 1
q= ×Z 4 πε 0 r
A
1
where, N = 6.02 × 10 is Avogadro number.
23
• E subtends at an angle β from r such that tan β = tan θ.
2
• When a charge q is placed at the centre of line joining two equal
• Electric field due to a solid sphere of volume charge density ρ and
charges Q, the system of the three charges will be in equilibrium, if
radius R.
Q
q=− . 1 q
4 (i) E = ⋅ , for r > R (Outside the sphere)
4 πε 0 r 2
Δq
• Linear charge density ( λ ) = , where Δl is change in length. 1 qr
Δl (ii) E = ⋅ , for r < R (Inside the sphere)
Δq 4 πε 0 R 3
• Surface charge density ( σ) = , where ΔS is change in surface area. 1 q 4
ΔS (iii) E = ⋅ , for r = R (at the surface) where, q = πR 3ρ.
Δq 4 πε 0 R 2 3
• Volume charge density (ρ ) = , where ΔV is change in volume.
ΔV • Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field, τ = p × E = pE sin θ.
• Electric field at a distance r from a point charge q is given by
• Workdone for rotating the dipole, W = pE(cos θ 2 − cos θ1 ).
1 q
E= ⋅ .
4 πε 0 r 2 • Potential energy of a dipole, U = − pE cos θ

• Electric flux, φ E = ∫ Eds cos θ = ∫ E ⋅ ds = ∫ E ⋅ n$ d s, where n$ is the


• If q1 and q 2 are two like point charges, separated by a distance r, a s
neutral point between them is obtained at a point distant r1 from q1 unit vector normal to area element ds.
r 1
such that r1 = . • Gauss’ law, φ E = ∫ E ⋅ ds = [Qenclosed ]
⎡ q2 ⎤ s ε0
⎢1 + ⎥
⎣ q1 ⎦
• If an infinite number of charges each equal to q are placed along
• Electric field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire is X-axis at x = 1, 2, 3, 4 … and so on, then the electric field at the
λ point x = 0 due to this set of charges is given by E =
q
given by, E = . .
2 πε 0 r 3 πε 0

• Electric field due to a charged cylinder, we have • If in the above setup, the consecutive charges have opposite
q
(i) For a conducting charged cylinder of linear charge density λ sign, then the electric field at the point x = 0, is given by E = .
5πε 0
and radius R, the electric field is given by
λ • The electric field due to a semi-circular arc of radius a, having a
E= , for r > R λ
2 πε 0 r uniform charge per unit length equal to λ, is given by E = .
λ 2 πε 0 a
E= , for r = R and E = 0, for r < R
2 πε 0 R • Electric field between two infinite plane parallel sheets of charge
σ
λr of surface charge density + σ and− σ is given by E = .
(ii) For a non-conducting charged cylinder, for r ≤ R, E = ε0
2 πε 0 R 2
λ • Electric field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet is
and E = for r > R
2 πε 0 r σ
given by E = .
2 ε0
EXAM SPECTRUM

NEET
NATIONAL ELIGIBILITY CUM ENTRANCE TEST

SOLVED PAPER 2016


INSTRUCTIONS
G
This test consists of 45 questions and each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.
G
Candidates will be awarded marks as stated above for correct response of each question. 1/4 mark will be
deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will be made if
no response is indicated for an item in the answer sheet.
G
There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will
be treated as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instruction.

EXAM CRUX 2. To get output 1 for the following circuit, the correct
choice for the input is
• In physics paper, 45 questions were asked from class XII and 26 A
questions from class XI. Most of the questions were asked from all B Y
chapters but more weightage given to Heat and Thermodynamics. C
• According to topicwise distribution, the number of questions were (a) A = 1, B = 0, C = 0 (b) A = 1, B = 1, C = 0
asked from class XI- Kinematics (2), Laws of Motion (2), Work, (c) A = 1, B = 0, C = 1 (d) A = 0, B = 1, C = 0
Power and Energy (1), Rotation (3), Gravitation (3), Centre of Mass,
Impulse and Momentum (2), Solids and fluids (2), Waves (4) and 3. A potentiometer wire is 100 cm long and a constant
Heat and Thermodynamics (7). potential difference is maintained across it. Two cells
are connected in series first to support one another and
• As per topicwise distribution in class XII-Optics (4), Electrostatics
then in opposite direction. The balance points are
(3), Magnetics (4), Electromagnetic induction and AC (3), Modern
obtained at 50 cm and 10 cm from the positive end of
Physics (5).
the wire in the two cases. The ratio of emf is
• As per difficulty level, around 48% of questions can be considered (a) 5 : 4 (b) 3 : 4 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 5 : 1
to be easy overall, 42% of questions are relatively moderate and
10% questions are to be tough by Arihant Team. 4. When a metallic surface is illuminated with radiation
of wavelength l, the stopping potential is V. If the
same surface is illuminated with radiation of
1. A capacitor of 2 mF is 1 2 wavelength 2l, the stopping potential is V/4. The
charged as shown in threshold wavelength for the metallic surface is
S 5
the figure. When the (a) 5l (b) l (c) 3l (d) 4l
switch S is turned to 2
V
position 2, the 2μF
8μF 5. Two non-mixing liquids of densities r and nr(n > 1) are
percentage of its put in a container. The height of each liquid is h. A solid
stored energy cylinder of length L and density d is put in this container.
dissipated is The cylinder floats with its axis vertical and length pL (p
(a) 20% (b) 75% < 1) in the denser liquid. The density d is equal to
(c) 80% (d) 0% (a) {2 + ( n + 1) p} r (b) {2 + ( n - 1) p} r
(c) {1 + ( n - 1) p} r (d) {1 + ( n + 1) p} r

24
6. Out of the following options which one can be used to 15. The magnetic susceptibility is negative for
produce a propagating electromagnetic wave? (a) paramagnetic material only
(a) A stationary charge (b) ferromagnetic material only
(b) A chargeless particle (c) paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials
(c) An accelerating charge (d) diamagnetic material only
(d) A charge moving at constant velocity 16. A siren emitting a sound of frequency 800 Hz moves
7. The charge following through a resistance R varies away from an observer towards a cliff at a speed of
with time t as Q = at - bt 2 , where a and b are positive 15 ms -1 . Then, the frequency of sound that the
constants. The total heat produced in R is observer hears in the echo reflected from the cliff is
(a)
a 3R
(b)
a 3R
(c)
a 3R
(d)
a 3R (Take, velocity of sound in air = 330 ms -1 )
3b 2b b 6b (a) 800 Hz (b) 838 Hz (c) 885 Hz (d) 765 Hz

8. At what height from the surface of earth the gravitation 17. A body of mass 1 kg begins to move under the action of
potential and the value of g are -5.4 ´ 107 Jkg -2 and a time dependent force F = (2t $i + 3t 2 $j) N, where $i and $j
6.0 ms -2 respectively? Take the radius of earth as are unit vectors along X and Y-axes. What power will
6400 km. be developed by the force at the time (t )?
(a) 1600 km (b)1400 km (c) 2000 km (d) 2600 km (a) (2 t 2 + 4 t 4 ) W (b) (2 t 3 + 3 t 4 ) W
(c) (2 t 3 + 3 t 5 ) W (d) (2 t + 3 t 3 ) W
9. Coefficient of linear expansion of brass and steel rods
are a1 and a2 . Lengths of brass and steel rods are l1 and 18. From a disc of radius R and mass M, a circular hole of
l2 respectively. If (l2 - l1 ) is maintained same at all diameter R, whose rim passes through the centre is cut.
temperatures, which one of the following relations What is the moment of inertia of the remaining part of
hold good? the disc about a perpendicular axis passing through
(a) a1l22 = a2l12 (b) a12l2 = a22l1 the centre ?
(c) a1l1 = a2l2 (d) a1l2 = a2l1 (a) 13 MR 2/32 (b) 11 MR 2/32 (c) 9 MR 2/32 (d) 15 MR 2/32

10. The intensity at the maximum in a Young’s double slit 19. In a diffraction pattern due to a single slit of width a,
experiment is I0 . Distance between two slits is d = 5l, the first minimum is observed at an angle 30° when
where l is the wavelength of light used in the light of wavelength 5000 Å is incident on the slit. The
experiment. What will be the intensity in front of one of first secondary maximum is observed at an angle of
(a) sin-1 æç ö÷ (b) sin-1 æç ö÷ (c) sin-1 æç ö÷ (d) sin-1 æç ö÷
the slits on the screen placed at a distance D = 10 d? 2 1 3 1
I 3 I è 3ø è2 ø è 4ø è 4ø
(a) 0 (b) I0 (c) 0 (d) I0
4 4 2 20. A square loop ABCD carrying a current i is placed near
11. Given the value of Rydberg constant is 107 m -1 , the and coplanar with a long straight conductor XY
wave number of the last line of the Balmer series in carrying a current I, the net force on the loop will be
hydrogen spectrum will be B C
(a) 0.5 ´ 10 7 m -1 (b) 0. 25 ´ 10 7 m -1 Y
(c) 2.5 ´ 10 7 m -1 (d) 0.025 ´ 10 4 m -1
I
12. The ratio of escape velocity at earth (v e ) to the escape i L

velocity at a planet (v p ) whose radius and mean


density are twice as that of earth is X A D
(a) 1 : 2 2 (b) 1: 4 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1: 2
L/2 L
13. A long solenoid has 1000 turns. When a current of 4 A
flows through it, the magnetic flux linked with each m 0Ii 2m 0IiL m 0IiL 2m 0Ii
(a) (b) (c) (d)
turn of the solenoid is 4 ´ 10 -3 Wb. The self-inductance 2p 3p 2p 3p
of the solenoid is 21. A black body is at a temperature of 5760 K. The energy
(a) 3 H (b) 2 H (c) 1 H (d) 4 H of radiation emitted by the body at wavelength 250 nm
14. A car is negotiating a curved road of radius R. The road is U1 , at wavelength 500 nm is U2 and that at 1000 nm is
is banked at angle q. The coefficient of friction between U3 . Wien's constant, b = 2.88 ´ 106 nmK. Which of the
the tyres of the car and the road is m s . The maximum following is correct?
safe velocity on this road is (a) U 3 = 0 (b) U1 > U 2 (c) U 2 > U1 (d) U1 = 0
æ m + tan q ö
(a) gR ç s
g æ m s + tan q ö 22. An air column, closed at one end and open at the other,
÷ (b) ç ÷
è 1 - m s tan q ø R è 1 - m s tan q ø resonates with a tuning fork when the smallest length
of the column is 50 cm. The next larger length of the
g æ m s + tan q ö æ m + tan q ö column resonating with the same tuning fork is
(c) ç ÷ (d) gR 2 ç s ÷
R 2 è 1 - m s tan q ø è 1 - m s tan q ø (a) 100 cm (b) 150 cm (c) 200 cm (d) 66.7cm

25
23. The molecules of a given mass of a gas have rms 30. Match the corresponding entries of Column I with
velocity of 200 ms -1 at 27°C and 10 . ´ 105 Nm-2 Column II. [Where m is the magnification produced by
pressure. When the temperature and pressure of the the mirror]
gas are respectively, 127°C and 0.05 ´ 105 Nm-2 , the
rms velocity of its molecules in ms -1 is Column I Column II
400 100 2 100 m= -2 a. Convex mirror
(a) (b) (c) (d) 100 2 A.
3 3 3
B. 1 b. Concave mirror
24. Consider the junction diode as ideal. The value of m=-
2
current flowing through AB is
1 kΩ C. m=+2 c. Real image
A B
+4 V –6V D. 1 d. Virtual image
m=+
2
(a) 10 -2 A (b) 10 -1 A
(c) 10 -3 A (d) 0 A (a) A® a and c; B® a and d; C® a and b; D® c and d
(b) A® a and d; B® b and c; C® b and d; D® b and c
25. If the magnitude of sum of two vectors is equal to the
(c) A® c and d; B® b and d; C® b and c; D® a and d
magnitude of difference of the two vectors, the angle
(d) A® b and c; B® b and c; C® b and d; D® a and d
between these vectors is
(a) 90° (b) 45° 31. If the velocity of a particle is v = At + Bt 2 , where A and
(c) 180° (d) 0° B are constants, then the distance travelled by it
26. An astronomical telescope has objective and eyepiece between 1 s and 2 s is
3 7
of focal lengths 40 cm and 4 cm respectively. To view (a) 3 A + 7 B (b) A+ B
2 3
an object 200 cm away from the objective, the lenses
A B 3
must be separated by a distance (c) + (d) A + 4B
2 3 2
(a) 46.0 cm (b) 50.0 cm
(c) 54.0 cm (d) 37.3 cm 32. A disc and a sphere of same radius but different masses
roll off on two inclined planes of the same altitude and
27. An n-p-n transistor is connected in common emitter
length. Which one of the two objects gets to the bottom
configuration in a given amplifier. A load resistance of
of the plane first?
800 W is connected in the collector circuit and the
(a) Sphere (b) Both reach at the same time
voltage drop across it is 0.8 V. If the current
(c) Depends on their masses (d) Disc
amplification factor is 0.96 and the input resistance of
the circuits is 192 W, the voltage gain and the power 33. Two identical charged spheres suspended from a
gain of the amplifier will respectively be common point by two massless strings of lengths l, are
(a) 3.69, 3.84 (b) 4, 4 initially at a distance d (d < < l) apart because of their
(c) 4, 3.69 (d) 4, 3.84 mutual repulsion. The charges begin to leak from both
the spheres at a constant rate. As a result, the spheres
28. A gas is compressed isothermally to half its initial
approach each other with a velocity v. Then, v varies as
volume. The same gas is compressed separately
a function of the distance x between the spheres as
through an adiabatic process until its volume is again
(a) v µ x (b) v µ x -1/ 2
reduced to half. Then,
(c) v µ x -1 (d) v µ x1/ 2
(a) compressing the gas through adiabatic process will require
more work to be done 34. A particle moves so that its position vector is given by
(b) compressing the gas isothermally or adiabatically will r = cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ , where w is a constant.
require the same amount of work Which of the following is true?
(c) which of the case (whether compression through isothermal (a) Velocity and acceleration both are parallel to r.
or through adiabatic process) requires more work will (b) Velocity is perpendicular to r and acceleration is directed
depend upon the atomicity of the gas towards to origin
(d) compressing the gas isothermally will require more work to (c) Velocity is perpendicular to r and acceleration is directed
be done away from the origin
29. A long straight wire of radius a carries a steady current (d) Velocity and acceleration both are perpendicular to r.
I. The current is uniformly distributed over its 35. A piece of ice falls from a height h so that it melts
cross-section. The ratio of the magnetic fields B and B¢ completely. Only one quarter of the heat produced is
a absorbed by the ice and all energy of ice gets converted
at radial distances and 2a respectively, from the axis
2 into heat during its fall. The value of h is [Latent heat of
of the wire is ice is 3.4 ´ 105 J/kg and g = 10 N/kg]
1 1 (a) 544 km (b) 136 km
(a) (b) 1 (c) 4 (d)
2 4 (c) 68 km (d) 34 km

26
36. A uniform circular disc of radius 50 cm at rest is free to 41. An electron of mass m and a photon have same energy
turn about an axis which is perpendicular to its plane E.The ratio of de-Broglie wavelengths associated with
and passes through its centre. It is subjected to a them is
1 1 1
torque which produces a constant angular 1
(a) æç
E ö2 1 æ2 m ö 2 1 æ E ö2
acceleration of 2.0 rad/s. Its net acceleration in ms -2 at ÷ (b) c(2 mE )2 (c) ç ÷ (d) ç ÷
è2 m ø cè E ø c è2 m ø
the end of 2.0 s is a approximately
(a) 7.0 (b) 6.0 (c) 3.0 (d) 8.0 (c being velocity of light)

37. What is the minimum velocity with which a body of 42. When an a-particle of mass m moving with velocity v
mass m must enter a vertical loop of radius R so that it bombards on a heavy nucleus of charge Ze, its distance
can complete the loop? of closest approach from the nucleus depends on m as
1 1 1
(a) 2 gR (b) 3gR (c) 5gR (d) gR (a) (b) (c) m (d)
m m2 m
38. A small signal voltage V (t ) = V0 sin wt is applied across
43. A refrigerator works between 4°C and 30°C. It is
an ideal capacitor C
required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in
(a) over a full cycle the capacitor C does not consume any
order to keep the temperature of the refrigerated space
energy from the voltage source
constant. The power required is
(b) current I(t) is in phase with voltage V(t)
(c) current I(t) Ieads voltage V(t) by 180° (Take, 1 cal = 4 . 2 joule)
(d) current I(t), lags voltage V(t) by 90° (a) 23.65 W (b) 236.5 W (c) 2365 W (d) 2.365 W
39. A uniform rope of length L and mass m1 hangs 44. A particle of mass 10 g moves along a circle of radius
vertically from a rigid support. A block of mass m2 is 6.4 cm with a constant tangential acceleration. What is
attached to the free end of the rope. A transverse pulse the magnitude of this acceleration, if the kinetic
of wavelength l1 is produced at the lower end of the energy of the particle becomes equal to 8 ´ 10 -4 J by the
rope. The wavelength of the pulse when it reaches the end of the second revolution after the beginning of the
top of the rope is l2 . The ratio l2 / l1 is motion?
m1 + m2 m2 m1 + m2 m1 (a) 0.15 m/s 2 . m/s 2
(b) 018 (c) 0.2 m/s 2 (d) 0.1 m/s 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
m2 m1 m1 m2 45. The angle of incidence for a ray of light at a refracting
surface of a prism is 45°. The angle of prism is 60°. If
40. An inductor 20 mH, a capacitor 50 mF and a resistor the ray suffers minimum deviation through the prism,
40 W are connected in series across a source of emf the angle of minimum deviation and refractive index of
V = 10 sin340 t. The power loss in AC circuit is the material of the prism respectively, are
(a) 0.67 W (b) 0.76 W (c) 0.89 W (d) 0.51 W 1 1
(a) 30°; 2 (b) 45°; 2 (c) 30°; (d) 45°;
2 2

Answers with Explanation


1. (c) Consider the given figure, 2. (c) Consider the given figure,
When the switch S is connected to point 1, then initial energy A
1 B Y
stored in the capacitor can be given as = (2 mF ) ´ V 2. C
2
1 2 The resultant Boolean expression of the above logic circuit will be
S Y = ( A + B) × C
Now, let us try with inputs A, B and C given in the options and let
V 2μF see, which one of them will give output 1 at Y.
8μF If A = 0, B = 0, C = 0
Þ Y = ( 0 + 0) 0 Þ Y = 0
If A = 1, B = 1, C = 0
When the switch S is connected to point 2, energy dissipated on Þ Y = (1 + 1) 0 Þ Y = 10 Þ Y = 0
connection across 8 mF will be
If A = 1, B = 0, C = 1
1 æ C1C 2 ö 2 1 2 mF ´ 8 mF Þ Y = (1 + 0 ) 1 Þ Y = 1 . 1 Þ Y = 1
= ç ÷.V = ´ ´ V2
2 è C1 + C 2 ø 2 10 mF
If A = 0, B = 1, C = 0
1
= ´ (1.6 mF ) ´ V 2 Þ Y = ( 0 + 1). 0 Þ Y = 10 Þ Y = 0
2
So, we have seen that among the given options, only option (c) is
1.6
Therefore, % loss of energy = ´ 100 = 80%. the correct choice, i.e.,
2
Output Y = 1 only when inputs A = 1, B = 0 and C = 1.

27
3. (c) Key Concept As emf of the cell is directly proportional to 7. (d) Given, charge Q = at - bt 2 …(i)
the balancing length, i.e. dq
We know that current, I =
E µl …(i) dt
Now, in the first case, cells are connected in series to support one So, Eq. (i) can be written as
another, i.e. d
I = ( at - bt 2 ) Þ I = a - 2 bt …(ii)
Net emf = E1 + E 2 dt
From Eq. (i), E1 + E 2 = 50 cm (given) …(ii) For maximum value of t, till the current exist is given by
Again cells are connected in series in opposite direction i.e, Þ a - 2 bt = 0
a
Net emf = E1 - E 2 \ t= …(iii)
2b
From Eq. (i), E1 - E 2 = 10 …(iii)
The total heat produced ( H ) can be given as
From Eqs. (ii) and (iii), t a / 2b é a ù
E1 + E 2 50 E1 5 + 1 6 3 H = ò I 2 R dt = ò ( a - 2 bt )2 R . dt êQ t = 2 b ú
= Þ = = = 0 0
ë û
E1 - E 2 10 E2 5 - 1 4 2 a / 2b
=ò ( a 2 + 4 b2t 2 - 4 abt ) Rdt
4. (c) Key Concept Emission of free electrons from a metal 0
a / 2b
surface by falling light, which has energy greater than the é t 3 4 abt 2 ù
work-function of the metal) is called photoelectric emission. H = ê a 2t + 4 b2 - ú R
ë 3 2 û0
The electrons so emitted is called photoelectrons.
a 3R
In Ist case, when a metallic surface is illuminated with radiation of Solving above equation, we get H =
wavelength l, the stopping potential is V. 6b
So, photoelectric equation can be written as 8. (d) Gravitational potential at some height h from the surface of
GM
eV =
hc hc
- …(i) the earth is given by V=- …(i)
l l0 R+h
And acceleration due to gravity at some height h from the earth’s
In IInd case, when the same surface is illuminated with radiation of GM
V surface can be given as g ¢ = …(ii)
wavelength 2 l, the stopping potential is . So, photoelectric ( R + h )2
4
equation can be written as From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
eV hc hc 4 hc 4 hc | V| GM ( R + h )2 | V|
= - Þ eV = - …(ii) = ´ Þ =R+h …(iii)
4 2l l0 2l l0 g ¢ ( R + h) GM g¢

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get Q V = - 5.4 ´ 10 7 J kg -2 and g ¢ = 6.0 ms -2


hc hc 4 hc 4 hc Radius of earth, R = 6400 km
Þ - = -
l l0 2l l0 Substitute these values in Eq. (iii), we get
1 1 2 4 5.4 ´ 10 7
Þ - = - Þ l0 = 3l = R + h Þ 9 ´ 10 6 = R + h
l l0 l l0 6.0
Þ h = ( 9 - 6.4 ) ´ 10 6 = 2 .6 ´ 10 6 m Þ h = 2600 km
5. (c) According to question, the situation can be drawn as
following. 9. (c) According to question,
A Coefficient of linear expression of brass = a1
Coefficient of linear expression of steel = a 2
(1– ρ)L d ρ
Length of brass and steel rods are l1 and l2 respectively.
ρL As given difference increases in length ( l¢2 - l1¢ ) is same for all
temperature.
So, l2¢ - l1¢ = l2 - l1
Applying Archimedies’ principle
Þ l2 (1 + a 2 Dt ) - l1 (1 + a1 Dt ) = l2 - l1 Þ l2 a 2 = l1 a1
Weight of cylinder = (Upthrust)1 + (Upthrust) 2
10. (c) Key Concept According to law of Malus, when a beam of
i.e. ALdg = (1 - p) LArg + ( pLA) nrg
completely plane polarised light is passed through analyser,
Þ d = (1 - p) r + pnr = r - pr + n pr the intensity (I) of the transmitted light varies directly as the
= r + ( n - 1) pr = r [1 + ( n - 1) r ] square of angle q between the transmission direction of
polariser and analyser. i.e. I = I0 cos2 q
6. (c) A particle is known that an electric charge at rest has electric where, I0 is the maximum intensity of transmitted light.
field in the region around it, but no magnetic field. A moving Screen
charge produces both the electric and magnetic fields. If a charge
is moving with a constant velocity, the electric and magnetic fields S1 2.5d
will not change with time. Hence, no EM wave will be produced. 5d
But if the charge is moving with a non-zero acceleration, both the S2 O
electric and magnetic field will change with space and time, it 50λ
then produces EM wave. This shows that accelerated charge
emits electromagnetic waves. In the above figure, S 1 and S 2 are the two different slits.
Given, distance between slits S 1 and S 2, d = 5 l

28
Distance between screen and slits, D = 10 d = 50l 14. (a) According to question, a car is negotiating a curved road of
Here, l is the wavelength of light used in the experiment. radius R. The road is banked at angle q and the coefficient of
According to question, the intensity at maximum in this Young’s friction between the tyres of car and the road is m s . So, this given
double slit experiment is I0. situation can be drawn as shown in figure below.
Ncosθ
Þ Imax = I0
d
d ´ θ
Q Path difference =
dYn
= 2 =d =l [Q d = 5l ]
Nsinθ
D 10 d 20 4 Fl cosθ
θ
fl
A path difference of l corresponds to phase difference 2p
fl sinθ
So, for path difference l / 4, phase difference θ
2p l p mg
f= ´ = = 90 °
l 4 2
Considering the case of vertical equilibrium,
f
As we know, I = I0 cos 2 N cos q = mg + fl sin q
2
2 Þ mg = N cos q - fl sin q …(i)
90 ° æ 1 ö I0
Þ I = I0 cos 2 Þ I = I0 ´ ç ÷ Þ I= Considering the case of horizontal equilibrium,
2 è 2ø 2
mv 2
11. (b) Key Concept According to Bohr’s theory, the wavelength of N sin q + fl cos q = …(ii)
R
the radiation emitted by H-atom is given by
Divide Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get
1 é 1 1ù
= R H ê 2 - 2 ú where R H is Rydberg’s constant. v 2 sin q + m s cos q
l n
ë 1 n2 û
= [Q fl µm s ]
Rg cos q - m s sin q
-1
Given, Rydberg constant, R = 10 m 7
æ sin q + m s cos q ö æ tan q + m s ö
Q For last line in Balmer series, n 2 = ¥, n1 = 2 . Þ v = Rg ç ÷ Þ v = Rg ç ÷
è cos q - m s sin q ø è 1 - m s tan q ø
As we know that
1 æ 1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 15. (d) As we know the relation between the magnetic permeability
= R ç 2 - 2 ÷ Þ = 10 7 ç 2 - ÷ and susceptibility of material, i.e.
l è n1 n 2 ø l è2 ¥ø
m r = 1 + cm …(i)
1 10 7 Q Diamagnetic substances, m r < 1
Þ v= = = 0 . 25 ´ 10 7 m -1
l 4 So, according to Eq. (i), the magnetic susceptibility ( c m ) of
12. (a) Key Concept Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with diamagnetic substance will be negative.
which a body must be projected from the surface of the Earth, While in the case of para and ferromagnetic substances,
so that it escapes the gravitational field of the Earth and never diamagnetic susceptibility is positive.
return on its own. It is given by v e = 2gR
16. (b) According to question, situation can be drawn as follows.
where, g is acceleration due to gravity and R is radius of Earth.
Since, the escape velocity of earth can be given as
8
ve = 2 gR = R pGr [Q r = density of earth] Cliff
3 15 m/s
Source
8
Þ ve = R pGr …(i) Observer
3
As it is given that the radius and mean density of planet are twice Frequency of sound that the observer hear in the echo reflected
as that of earth. So, escape velocity at planet will be from the cliff is given by
8 æ v ö
vp = 2 R pG2 r …(ii) f¢ = ç ÷
3 è v - vS ø
Divide Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get
where, f = original frequency of source
8
R pGr v = velocity of sound
ve 3 ve 1
= Þ = v s = velocity of source
vp 8 vp 2 2
2R pG2 r æ 330 ö
3 So, f¢ = ç ÷ 800 = 838 Hz
è 330 - 15ø
13. (c) Given, number of turns of solenoid, N = 1000
Current, I = 4 A 17. (c) According to question, a body of mass 1 kg begins to move
under the action of time dependent force,
Magnetic flux, f B = 4 ´ 10 -3 Wb
F = (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j ) N
Q Self-inductance of solenoid is given by
where, $i and $j are unit vectors along X and Y-axis.
f .N
L= B …(i) F
I Q F = ma Þ a =
Substitute the given values in Eq. (i), we get m

4 ´ 10 -3 ´ 1000 (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j )
L= = 1H Þ a = [Q m = 1kg ]
4 1

29
Þ a = (2 t i$ + 3 t 2 $j ) m / s 2 In the case of XY and arm CD, the direction of currents are in the
dv opposite direction. So, there exist a force of repulsion which will
Q Acceleration, a = Þ dv = a dt …(i) be experienced by CD as
dt
m 0 IiL
Integrating both sides, we get FCD =
æ 3L ö
2p ç ÷
ò dv = ò a dt = ò (2 t i$ + 3t
2$
j ) dt è2 ø

v = t 2 $i + t 3 $j Therefore, net force on the loop ABCD will be


m IiL é 1 1 ù
Q Power developed by the force at the time t wil be given as Floop = FBA - FCD = 0 ê -
2 p ë ( L / 2 ) ( 3 L / 2 ) úû
P = F × v = (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j ) × (t 2 $i + t 3 $j ) = (2 t × t 2 + 3 t 2 × t 3 )
2 m 0 iI
P = (2 t 3 + 3 t 5 ) W Floop =
3p
18. (a) Considering the information given in the question, let us draw 21. (c) Given, temperature, T1 = 5760 K
the figure
I Since, it is given that energy of radiation emitted by the body at
If the above figure is considered, then wavelength 250 nm is U1 , at wavelength 500 nm is U 2 and that at
moment of inertia of disc will be given as 1000 nm is U 3.
I = Iremain + I( R / 2) R R/2
Q According to Wien’s law, we get
Þ Iremain = I - I( R / 2) l mT = b
Putting the values, we get where, b = Wien’s constant = 2.88 ´ 10 6 nmK
éM æ Rö
2 ù b 2 .88 ´ 10 6 nmK
ê ç ÷ 2ú Þ lm = Þ lm = Þ l m = 500 nm
MR 2 ê 4 è2 ø M æ Rö ú T 5760 K
= - + ç ÷
2 ê 2 4 è2 ø ú Q l m = wavelength corresponding to maximum energy, so,
ê ú
êë úû U 2 > U1.

MR 2 é MR 2 MR 2 ù MR 2 é MR 2 + 2 MR 2 ù 22. (b) The smallest length of the air column is associated with
= -ê + ú= -ê ú fundamental mode of vibration of the air column as shown in the
2 ë 32 16 û 2 ë 32 û diagram.
MR 2
3 MR 16 MR - 3 MR
2 2 2
= - =
2 32 32
13 MR 2
Iremain =
32
L
19. (c) As the first minimum is observed at an angle of 30° in a
diffraction pattern due to a single slit of width a.
λ
Lmin= —
2
i.e. n = 1, q = 30 °
Q According to Bragg’s law of diffraction,
a sin q = nl l
Q Lmin =
Þ a sin 30 ° = (1) l [Q n = 1] 4
é 1ù l
Þ a =2l êQ sin 30 ° = 2 ú …(i) Þ 50 cm = Þ l = 200 cm
ë û 4
For Ist secondary maxima, The next higher length of the air column is
3l 3l l l l + 2 l 3l 3
Þ a sin q1 = Þ sin q1 = …(ii) L= + = = = ´ 200 = 150 cm
2 2a 4 2 4 4 4
Substitute value of a from Eq. (i) to Eq. (ii), we get 23. (a) It is given that
3l 3 vrms = 200 ms -1, T1 = 300 K, p1 = 10 5 N/m 2
sin q1 = Þ sin q1 =
4l 4
T2 = 400 K, p2 = 0.05 ´ 10 5 N/m 2
æ 3ö
Þ q1 = sin -1 ç ÷
è 4ø As, rms velocity of gas molecules,
é 3 RT ù
20. (d) Consider the given figure, Q vrms µ T êQ vrms = ú
ë m û
From the above figure, it can be seen that the direction of currents
in a long straight conductor XY and For two different cases,
B C
arm AB of a square loop ABCD are in Y ( vrms )1 T
the same direction. Þ = 1
( vrms )2 T2
I i L
So, there exist a force of attraction
200 300 3
between the two, which will be Þ = =
experienced by FBA as X ( vrms )2 400 4
A D
m IiL L/2 L 2 400
FBA = 0 Þ ( vrms )2 = ´ 200 = ms -1
æLö 3 3
2p ç ÷
è2 ø

30
24. (a) Let us assume that current through the diode is I. 28. (a) The solution of this question can be understood by plotting a
From the given condition, p-V graph for the compression of a gas isothermally and
adiabatically simultaneously to half of its initial volume. i.e.
V - VB 4 - ( -6 ) 10
Q I= A = = = 10 -2 A
R 1 kW 1 ´ 10 3
Adiabatic curve
25. (a) Suppose two vectors are P and Q.
Isothermal curve
It is given that p
|P + Q | = |P - Q |
Let angle between P and Q is f.
\ P 2 + Q 2 + 2 PQ cos f = P 2 + Q 2 - 2 PQ cos f V/2 V
Volume V
Þ 4 PQ cos f = 0
Since, the isothermal curve is less steeper than the adiabatic
Þ cos f = 0 [Q P, Q ¹ 0 ] curve. So, area under the p-V curve for adiabatic process has
p more magnitude than isothermal curve. Hence, work done in
Þ f = = 90 °
2 adiabatic process will be more than in isothermal process.
26. (c) According to question, 29. (b) Key Concept Ampere’s circuital law states that the line
Focal length of objective lens ( f0 ) = + 40 cm integral of B around any closed path or circuit is equal to m 0
times the total current crossing the area bounded by the closed
Focal length of eyepiece lens ( fe ) = 4 cm
path provided the electric field inside the loop remains
Object distance for objective lens (u 0 ) = - 200 cm constant.
Applying lens formula for objective lens
Note
Objective lens Eyepiece lens (i) At every point of the closed path, i.e. B || dl
(ii) Magnetic field has the same magnetic B at all places on
4 cm
the closed path.
a
Consider two amperian loops of radius
200 cm v
2
a/2
and 2 a as shown in the diagram. Applying
Ampere’s circuital law for these loops we get
1 1 1
- = ò B . dL = m 0Ienclosed 2a
v u f For the smaller loop,
1 1 1
Þ - = 2
v -200 40 a I æaö 1 m I
Þ B ´ 2p = m 0 ´ 2 ´ p ç ÷ = m 0I ´ = 0
1 1 1 5-1 4 2 pa è2 ø 4 4
Þ = - = =
v 40 200 200 200 m I a
Þ B I = 0 ,at distance from the axis of the wire.
Þ v = 50 cm 4pa 2
Image will be form at first focus of eyepiece lens. Similarly, for bigger amperian loop.
So, for normal adjustment distance between objective and B ¢ ´ 2 p (2 a ) = m 0 I
eyepiece lenses (length of tube) will be
[total current enclosed by Amperian loop is 2]
v + fe Þ 50 + 4 Þ 54 cm
m I
Þ B¢ = 0 ,
27. (d) Given, resistance across load, RL = 800 W 4pa
Voltage drop across load, VL = 0.8 V at distance 2 a from the axis of the wire.
Input resistance of circuit, Ri = 192 W B m I 4pa
So, ratio of = 0 ´ =1
V 0.8 8 B ¢ 4pa m 0 I
Collector current is given by IC = L = = = 1 mA
RL 800 8000
30. (d) A concave mirror forms real and virtual images, whose
Output current magnification can be negative or positive depending upon the
Q Current amplification =
Input current position of the object.
IC If object is placed between focus and pole the image obtained will
= = 0.96 be virtual and its magnification will be positive. In all other cases
IB
concave mirror forms real images whose magnification will be
1 mA negative. A convex mirror always forms a virtual image whose
Þ IB =
0.96 magnification will always be positive.
VL V 0.8 ´ 0.96 31. (b) Velocity of the particle is given as
Q Voltage gain, AV = = L = = 4 Þ AV = 4
Vin IB Ri 10 -3 ´ 192 v = At + Bt 2
2
IC2 RL æI ö R 800 where, A and B are constants.
and power gain, AP = = ç C ÷ . L = ( 0.96 )2 ´
IB2 Ri è IB ø Ri 192 dx é dx ù
Þ = At + Bt 2 êQ v = dt ú
dt ë û
AP = 3.84
Þ dx = ( At + Bt 2 ) dt

31
Integrating both sides, we get Therefore, Eq. (i) can be rewritten as
x2 2
Kq 2
òx dx = ò ( At + Bt ) dt 2 x /2
1 1 =
x 2 mg x2
Þ
2
Dx = x 2 - x1 = A ò t dt + B ò t 2dt
2 l2 -
1 1 4
ét 2 ù ét 3 ù
2 2
Kq 2 x
= Aê ú +Bê ú Þ = or q 2 µ x 3
2 x 2 mg 2l
ë û1 ë 3 û1
A 2 B Þ q µ x 3/ 2
= (2 - 12 ) + (2 3 - 13 )
2 3 dq d ( x 3 / 2 ) dx
Þ µ .
\ Distance travelled between 1 s and 2 s is dt dx dt
A B 3 A 7B dq
Dx = ´ ( 3 ) + (7 ) = + Þ µ x .v
1/ 2
2 3 2 3 dt
32. (a) Key Concept Acceleration of an object rolling down an 1
Þ v µ 1 / 2 or v µ x -1 / 2
g sin q x
inclined plane is given by a =
1 + I / mr 2 34. (b) Position vector of the particle is given by
where, q = angle of inclination of the inclined plane r = cos wt x$ + sin wt y$
m = mass of the object where, w is a constant.
I = moment of inertia about the axis through centre of mass Velocity of the particle is
dr d
For disc,
I
=
1 / 2 mr 2
=
1 v= = (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )
2 dt dt
mr mr 2 2
= ( - sin wt ) wx$ + (cos wt ) wy$
I 2 / 5mr 2 2
For solid sphere, 2
= = = - w(sin wt x$ - cos wt y$ )
mr mr 2 5
Acceleration of the particles
I 2 / 3 mr 2 2
For hollow sphere, = = dv d
mr 2 mr 2 3 a = = [ - wsin wt x$ + wcos wt y$ ]
dt dt
g sin q 2
\ a disc = = g sin q = 0.66 g sin q = - w2 cos wt x$ - w2 sin wt y$
1 3
1+ = - w2 (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )
2
g sin q 5 Þ a = - w2 r = w2 ( -r )
a solid sphere = = g sin q = 0.71 g sin q
2 7 Assuming the particle as P, then its position vector is directed as
1+
5 shown in the diagram.
g sin q 3 Y
ahollow sphere = = g sin q = 0.6 g sin q
2 5
1+
3 P
Clearly, a solid sphere > a disc > a hollow sphere r
Type of sphere is not mentioned in the question. Therefore, we will
assume the given sphere as solid sphere. X
O
\ a solid sphere = a hollow sphere > a disc
Therefore, acceleration is directed towards -r that is towards O
33. (b) According to question, two identical charged spheres (origin).
suspended from a common point by two massless strings of Now, we have
length l.
v × r = - w(sin wt x$ - cos wt y$ ) × (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )

θ = - w[sin wt . cos wt + 0 + 0 - sin wt . cos wt ]


l2
= - w( 0 ) = 0 [Q x$ ^ y$ ]
A q Þ v^r
F q
B Thus, velocity is perpendicular to r.
x/2
θ 35. (b) According to question as conservation of energy, energy
x
C mg gained by the ice during its fall from height h is given by
E = mgh
Q In DABC
As given, only one quarter of its energy is absorbed by the ice.
F F
tan q = or = tan q …(i) mgh
mg mg So, = mL f
4
Since, the charge begins to leak from both the spheres at a mL f ´ 4 L f ´ 4 3.4 ´ 10 5 ´ 4
constant rate. As a result, the spheres approach each other with Þ h= = = = 13.6 ´ 10 4
mg g 10
velocity v.
= 13600 m = 136 km

32
36. (d) According to given question, a uniform circular disc of radius 38. (a) For an AC circuit containing capacitor only, the phase
50 cm at rest is free to turn about an axis having perpendicular to p
difference between current and voltage will be (i.e. 90°).
its plane and passes through its centre. This situation can be 2
shown by the figure given below: p
In this case current is ahead of voltage by .
2

0.5m Hence, power in this case is given by


P = VI cos f
(f = phase difference between voltage and current)
P = VI cos 90 ° = 0
39. (a) According to question, we have
\ Angular acceleration, a = 2 rad s -2 [given] Wavelength of transverse pulse,
Angular speed, w = at = 4 rad s -1 v
l= …(i)
Q Centripetal acceleration, ac = w2 r = ( 4 )2 ´ 0.5 = 16 ´ 0.5 f
ac = 8 m/s 2 (v = velocity of the wave, f = frequency of the wave)

Q Linear acceleration at the end of 2 s, As we know,


T
a t = a r = 2 ´ 0.5 Þ a t = 1 m/s 2 v= …(ii)
m
Therefore, the net acceleration at the end of 2.0 s is given by
(T = tension in the spring, m = mass per unit length of the rope)
a = ac2 + a t2
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
a = ( 8 )2 + (1)2 = 65 Þ a » 8 m/s 2 1 T
l= Þl µ T
37. (c) According to question, we have f m

C So, for two different cases, we get


l2 T m1 + m 2
= 2 =
R TC l1 T1 m2

TB
B 40. (d) Given,
Inductance, L = 20 mH
v0 Capacitance, C = 50 mF
A
Resistance, R = 40 W
mg emf, V = 10 sin 340 t
Let the tension at point A be TA . So, from Newton’s second law Q Power loss in AC circuit will be given as
2
mvC2 éE ù
TA - mg = Pav = IV2 R = ê V ú . R
R ë Z û
1 é ù
Energy at point A, = mv 02 …(i)
2 2
ê ú
æ 10 ö ê 1 ú
1 =ç ÷ . 40 ê 2ú
Energy at point C is mvC2 + mg ´ 2 R …(ii) è 2ø
2 ê 2 æ 1 ö ú
ê 40 + çè 340 ´ 20 ´ 10 -
3
÷ ú
Applying Newton’s second law at point C, ë 340 ´ 50 ´ 10 -6 ø û
mvC2 100 1
TC + mg = = ´ 40 ´
R 2 1600 + ( 6.8 - 58.8 )2
2000
To complete the loop, TC ³ 0 = » 0.46 W » 0.51 W
1600 + 2704
mvC2
So, mg =
R 41. (d) Key Concept de-Broglie’s wavelength for an electron will
be given as
Þ vC = gR …(iii) h
le = …(i)
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) by conservation of energy, P
1 1 where, h = Planck’s constant
mv 02 = mvC2 + 2 mgR
2 2 p = Linear momentum of electron
1 1 p2
Þ mv 02 = mgR + 2 mgR ´ 2 [Q vC = gR ] As kinetic energy of electron, E =
2 2 2m
Þ v 02 = gR + 4 gR Since, it is given that electron has mass m.
Þ v 0 = 5gR Þ p = 2 mE …(ii)

33
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
44. (d) Given, mass of particle, m = 0.01 kg
h
le = …(iii) Radius of circle along which particle is moving, r = 6.4 cm.
2 mE
Energy of a photon can be given as Q Kinetic energy of particle, KE = 8 ´ 10 -4 J

E = hn 1
Þ mv 2 = 8 ´ 10 -4 J
hc hc 2
Þ E= Þ lp = …(iv)
lp E 16 ´ 10 -4
Þ v2 = = 16 ´ 10 -2 …(i)
Hence, l p = de-Broglie’s wavelength of photon. 0.01

Now, divide Eq. (iii) by Eq. (iv), we get As it is given that KE of particle is equal to 8 ´ 10 -4 J by the end of
le h E second revolution after the beginning of motion of particle. It
= . means, its initial velocity (u ) is 0 m/s at this moment.
lp 2 mE hc
Q By Newton’s third equation of motion,
lc 1 E
Þ = . v2 = u 2 + 2 a t s Þ v2 = 2 a t s
lp c 2 m
Þ v 2 = 2 a ts [Q s = 4p r]
42. (d) When an a-particle of mass m moving with velocity v
bombards on a heavy nucleus of charge Ze, then there will be no [Q particle covers 2 revolutions]
loss of energy as in this case, initial kinetic energy of a-particle = v2 16 ´ 10 -2
potential energy of a-particle at closest approach. Þ at = =
8pr 8 ´ 3.14 ´ 6.4 ´ 10 -2
1 2 Ze 2 1 [Q from Eq. (i), v 2 = 16 ´ 10 -2 ]
Þ mv 2 = Þ r0 µ
2 4pe 0 r0 m
\ a t = 0.1 m/s 2

This is the required distance of closest approach to a-particle


from the nucleus. 45. (a) Key Concept Refractive of the material of the prism (m)
which is given by
43. (b) Given, temperature of source,
æ A + dm ö
T = 30 °C = 30 + 273 sin ç ÷
è 2 ø
m=
T1 = 303 K A
sin
Temperature of sink, 2
T2 = 4 °C = 4 + 273 where A is angle of prism and dm is minimum angle of
deviation.
T2 = 277 K A
As, we know that
60°
Q1 T1
= 45° 30° 45°
Q 2 T2 30° 30°
P Q R S
Q 2 + W T1
Þ = [Q W = Q1 - Q 2 ]
Q2 T2
B C
where, Q 2 is the amount of heat drawn from the sink (at T2 ), W is Consider a ray of light PQ incident an the surface AB and moves
work done on working substance, Q1 is amount of heat rejected to along RS, after passing through the prism ABC.
source (at room temperature T1 ). It is given that the incident ray suffers minimum deviation.
Þ WT2 + T2 Q 2 = T1Q 2 Therefore, the ray inside the prism must be parallel to the base BC
of the prism.
Þ WT2 = T1 Q 2 - T2 Q 2
From the geometry of the prism and the ray diagram, it is clear
Þ WT2 = Q 2 (T1 - T2 )
that
æT ö
Þ W = Q 2 çç 1 - 1÷÷ Angle of incidence, i = 45°
è 2
T ø Angle of refraction, r = r ¢ = 30 °
æ 303 ö Angle of emergence, e = 45°
Þ W = 600 ´ 4.2 ´ ç - 1÷
è 277 ø Therefore, minimum deviation suffered by the ray is
æ 26 ö dmin = i + e - ( r + r ¢ ) = 90 ° - 60 ° = 30 °
W = 600 ´ 4. 2 ´ ç ÷
è 277 ø
A = 60 °
W = 236.5 joule æ 60 ° + 30 ° ö
sin ç ÷
Work done W è 2 ø sin 45°
Power = = \ m= =
Time t 60 ° sin 30 °
sin
236.5 2
=
1 1/ 2 2
= = = 2
= 236.5 W 1/2 2

34
EXPLICATION Shitiz Upreti
DRONE TECHNOLOGY
An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone is an aircraft
without a human pilot on board. Its flight is either controlled autonomously by computers
in the vehicle, or under the remote control of navigator, or pilot (in the military UAVs called
Manufacturing Process More advanced drone combat system officer) on the ground or in another vehicle.
are made from large, old anti-ship missiles,
which had their war heads removed. Obsolete Antenna wi-fi
jet and propeller powered aircraft have also been A 2.4 GHz monitoring
5.0 GHz video Lithium polymer
modified into remote controlled drones, but such battery rechargeable
modifications are costly. Four propellers

Four propellers

Principle The design of the flying drone Working Process The launching of a
consists of the quad rotor with four target drone, used as a weapon carrier
propelling wings. Out of the four motors, to attack on a required target is controlled
the left and right induce pull action, while of in commanding centre. It is monitored
the front and back induce push action. Electric by commanding officers called Combat
The brain of the robot is a microcontroller engine System Officers in the operating room.
board that has been designed for auto- brushless Electric These pilot sensor operators in the
piloting drones. The microcontroller is Ultra light engine operating room send commands to
combined with an inertial measurement unit. carbon brushless satellite (to fly the drone via satellite link).
C Speaker
This unit consists of a 3 axis gyro, 3 axis (8 W) structure Satellite will receive command and
accelerometer and a barometric pressure then it further sends to aircraft. The heat
Landing gears Laser micro-
gauge. An RC transmitter is used to navigate detectors present in the aircraft detects
B projector
the robot. Functionalities of the robot Adjustable support
warm and heat of living bodies. After
can be enhanced further by fitting a GPS chip on an axis stabilized finding and identifying, it automatically
for gauging latitude and longitude and a SONAR Infrared camera fixes and tracks the ground targets.
D full HD 1080
system for gauging the altitude.

Key Applications
Technical Characteristics Automatic pollination of field of crops Weather and climatic mapping
A. Wireless antenna and audio/video transmission. Search and rescue operations Forest monitoring
B. Laser microprojector for augmented reality. Traffic monitoring Geological surveying
C. Speaker of communications. Exploring hazardous sites Instant environmental
D. Infrared camera with artificial vision and image recognition. Military surveillance Impact assessment
AIIMS CAPSULE

MOTION
IN A PLANE
Chapterwise Collection of Best Assertion-Reason
Problems for Medical Entrances
Directions for Questions 1-15 These questions consist of two statements each printed as Assertion and Reason.
While answering these questions you are required to choose any one of the following five responses.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If the Assertion and Reason both are false.
(e) If Assertion is false but Reason is true.

1. Assertion The maximum horizontal range of projectile 7. Assertion When range of a projectile is maximum, its
is proportional to square of velocity. angle of projection may be 45° or 135°.
Reason The maximum horizontal range of projectile is Reason Whether θ is 45° or 135°, the value of range
equal to maximum height attained by projectile. remains the same, only the sign changes.
2. Assertion A body of mass 1 kg making 1 rps in a circle 8. Assertion During a turn, the value of centripetal force
of radius 1 m. Centrifugal force acting on it is 4 π2 N. should be less than the limiting frictional force.
mv2 Reason The centripetal force is provided by the
Reason Centrifugal force is given by F = .
r frictional force between the tyres and the road.
3. Assertion A coin is placed on phonogram turn table. 9. Assertion When a vehicle takes a turn on the road, it
The motor is started, coin moves along the moving travels along a nearly circular path.
table. Reason In circular motion, velocity of vehicle remains
Reason The rotating table is providing necessary same.
centripetal force to the coin. 10. Assertion As the frictional force increases, the safe
4. Assertion Two similar trains are moving along the velocity limit for taking a turn on an unbanked road
equatorial line with the same speed but in opposite also increases.
direction. They will exert equal pressure on the rails. Reason Banking of roads will increase the value of
Reason In uniform circular motion, the magnitude of limiting velocity.
acceleration remains constant but the direction 11. Assertion A particle is projected with speed u at an
continuously changes. angle θ with the horizontal. At any time, during motion,
5. Assertion When a body is dropped or thrown speed of particle is v at an angle α with the vertical,
horizontally from the same height, it would reach the then v sin α is always constant throughout the motion.
ground at the same time. Reason In case of projectile motion, magnitude of
Reason Horizontal velocity has no effect on the radial acceleration at top most point is maximum.
vertical direction. 12. Assertion Improper banking of roads causes wear and
6. Assertion When the velocity of projection of a body is tear of tyres.
made n times, its time of flight becomes n times. Reason The necessary centripetal force is provided by
Reason Range of projectile does not depend on the the force of friction between the tyres and the road.
initial velocity of a body.

38
13. Assertion In order to hit a target, a man should point his Reason At the highest point, velocity of projectile will
rifle in the same direction as target. be in horizontal direction only.
Reason The horizontal range of the bullet is dependent 15. Assertion In circular motion, the centripetal and
on the angle of projectile with horizontal direction. centrifugal force acting in opposite direction balance
each other.
14. Assertion In projectile motion, the angle between the
instantaneous velocity and acceleration at the highest Reason Centrifugal and centripetal forces don’t act at
point is 180°. the same time.

Answers with Explanation


1. (c) Horizontal range of a projectile 8. (a) The body is able to move in a circular path due to
u 2 sin 2θ centripetal force. The centripetal force in case of vehicle is
R = provided by frictional force. Thus, if the value of frictional force
g
μmg is less than the centripetal force, then it is not possible for
u2
∴ Rmax = when θ = 45°. a vehicle to take turn and the body would over turn.
g Thus, condition for safe turning of vehicle is, μmg ≥ mv 2 / r.
As Rmax ∝ u 2 9. (c) In circular motion, the frictional force acting towards the
u 2 sin2 θ u2 centre of the horizontal circular path provides the centripetal
Height, H = ⇒ Hmax = when θ = 90°.
2g 2g force and avoid overturning of vehicle. Due to the change in
direction of motion, velocity changes in circular motion.
R
It is clear that Hmax = max . 10. (b) On an unbanked road, friction provides the necessary
2
centripetal force mv 2 / r = μmg.
2. (a) Centrifugal force acting on a body is given by Therefore, v = μrg
mv 2 m( rω )2
F = = = mrω 2 = mr(2 πv )2 = 4 π 2 mrv 2 Thus, with increase in friction, safe velocity limit also
r r increases.
Here, m = 1 kg, v = 1 rps, r = 1 m When the road is banked with angle of θ, then its limiting velocity
∴ F = 4 π 2 × 1 × 12 = 4 π 2N rg (tanθ + μ)
is given by v =
3. (d) Within a certain speed of the turn table, the frictional force 1 − μ tan θ
between the coin and the turn table supplies the necessary
centripetal force required for circular motion. On further increase Thus, limiting velocity increases with banking of road.
of speed, the frictional force cannot supply the necessary 11. (b) Assertion (A) v sinα = horizontal component of velocity.
centripetal force. Therefore, the coin flies off tangentially.
= constant
4. (e) Due to Earth’s axial rotation, the speed of the trains relative to
Earth will be different and hence, the centripetal forces on them Reason (R) Radial acceleration of a particle, ar = g 2 − at 2
will be different. Thus, their effective weights mg − mv 2 / r and At highest point, a t = 0
mg + mv 2 / r will be different. So, they exert different pressure on
the rails. Thus, ar is maximum.
12. (a) When roads are properly banked, force of friction between
5. (a) Both bodies will take same time to reach the Earth because
tyres and road provides partially the necessary centripetal
vertical downward component of velocity for both the bodies will force. This cause wear and tear of tyres.
be zero and time of descent, t = 2 h / g . Horizontal velocity has
no effect on the vertical direction. 13. (e) The man should point his rifle at a point higher than the
target, since the bullet suffers a vertically downward deflection
6. (c) As, time taken by a projectile, T ∝ u and R ∝ u 2. ⎛ S = 1 gt 2 ⎞ due to gravity.
⎜ ⎟
When velocity of projection of a body is made n times, then its of ⎝ 2 ⎠
flight becomes n times and range becomes n2 times.
14. (e) At the highest point, vertical component of velocity
u 2 sin 2θ
7. (a) Range, R = becomes zero, so there will be only horizontal velocity and it is
g perpendicular to the acceleration due to gravity.
When θ = 45°, Rmax =
u2
sin 90° =
u2 15. (d) While moving along a circle, the body has a constant
g g tendency to regain its natural straight line path. This tendency
gives rise to a force called centrifugal force. The centrifugal
u2 −u2
When θ = 135°, Rmax = sin 270° = force does not act on the body in motion is centripetal force.
g g The centrifugal force acts on the source of centripetal force to
So, negative sign shows opposite direction. display it radially outward from the centre of the path.

39
ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND
CAPACITANCE
• Electrostatic potential difference between two
• For a charged conducting sphere/shell having total
charge Q and radius R, the potential at a point distant r
from the centre of the sphere/shell is
Q
CONCEP
your Revi
V
points B and A in an electrostatic field is the (i) V = , for r > R
amount of work done in carrying unit positive test 4 πε 0 r r<R
charge from A to B (against the electrostatic 1 Q
(ii) V = ⋅ , for r = R r >R
force of the field) along any path between two 4 πε 0 r
points, i.e. VB − VA = WAB / q 0 = − ∫ E ⋅dl Q
(iii) V = , for r ≤ R r=R r
• SI unit of potential is volt, where 1V = 1 J / 1 C. Its 4 πε 0 R
dimensional formula is [ML2 T −3 A −1 ]. • For a charged non-conducting (dielectric) sphere of
XEROG
Xerography is widely used to make photocopies of printe
• Electric potential is a state function and does not radius R, the charge Q is uniformly distributed over the
electrostatics and optics. The one idea that makes the pro
depend on the path followed. entire volume.
material to form an image. A photo conductor is a materi
Q Q
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT (i) V = , for r > R (ii) V = , for r = R reasonably good conductor wen exposed to light.
4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0 As figure 1 illustrates the steps in the Xerographic proces
CHARGE
Q thin film of the photoconductive material (usually
Potential due to a point charge Q, at a distance r is (iii) V = , for r ≤ R selenium), and the photoconductive surface is given a
1 Q 4 πε 0 R
given by V = ⋅ positive electrostatic charge in the dark as shown in fig
4 πε 0 r • For a charged non-conducting (dielectric) sphere of (a).The page to be copied is then projected onto the
(i) At the centre of the line joining two equal and radius R, the charge Q is uniformly distributed over the charged surface fig. (b). The photoconducting surface
opposite charges, V = 0 but E ≠ 0. entire volume becomes conducting only in areas where light strikes, the
(ii) At the centre of the line joining two equal and Q Q the light produces charge carrier in the photoconductor
(i) V = , for r > R (ii) V = , for r = R
like charges, E = 0 but V ≠ 0. 4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0 R that neutralize the positively charged surface. The charge
(iii) If four identical charges q each are placed at remain on those areas of the photoconductor not exposed
Q ⎡ 3 R2 − r 2 ⎤ to light, however, leaving a hidden image of the object in
the four vertices of a square, then the net (iii) V = , for r < R
electric field at the centre of the square is zero 4 πε 0 ⎢⎣ 2 R 3 ⎥⎦ the form of a positive distribution of surface charge.
(iv) At the centre of the sphere V Next, a negatively charged powder called a toner is dusted
2q
but V = i.e. r = 0 r<R
onto the photoconducting surface (fig. (c)).The charged
π ε 0r powder adheres only to the areas that contain the positive
3Q 3
V= = Vs charged image. At this point, the image becomes visible. I
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO SYSTEM 8 πε 0 R 2 r>R is then transferred to the surface of a sheet of positively
OF CHARGES charged paper. Finally, the toner is ‘‘fixed’’ to the surface o
⎡ Q ⎤
⎢Vs = 4 πε R ⎥
If a number of charges q 1 , q 2 , q 3 ,... are present in r=R r the paper by heat (fig. (d)), resulting in a permanent copy
space, then the electric potential at any point will be ⎣ 0 ⎦ of the original.
V = V1 + V2 + V3 + ... ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY
The steps for producing a document on a laser printer are
1 ⎡ q1 q2 ⎤ 1 n ⎛ qi ⎞ similar to those used in a photocopy machine in that par
= + + .... ⎥ = Σ ⎜ ⎟ • The electric energy of a system of charges is the work The difference between the two techniques lies in the way

4 πε 0 ⎣ r1 r2 ⎦ 4 πε 0 i = 1 ⎝ ri ⎠ that has been done in bringing those charges from laser printer, the command to print the letter O, for instan
infinity to near each other to form the system. rotating mirror inside the printer causes the beam of the
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO AN • For a system of two point charges q 1 and q 2 separated interlaced pattern (fig. e). Electrical signals generated by
ELECTRIC DIPOLE by a distance r, the potential energy is given by that traces out the letter O in the form of positive charges
• The electric potential at a point situated at a 1 q1q2 the transfer to paper is accomplished as in a photocopy m
distance r from the mid-point of a short electric U= ⋅
4 πε 0 r
dipole of dipole moment p and inclined at an
angle θ from the axial line of dipole is given by • If two charges are like charges, then force between SPECIAL CASE
them is repulsive. Work is being done against this • When θ = 90 ° , then U = 0, i.e. potential energy of a
1 p cos θ 1 p ⋅ r$
V= ⋅ = ⋅ repulsive force while bringing the charges to their dipole is zero.
4 πε 0 r2 4 πε 0 r 2 present positions and hence electric potential energy • When θ = 0 °, then U = − pE, i.e. potential energy is
• At a point situated on the axial line of electric of the system will be positive. minimum and stable equilibrium.
dipole of θ = 0 ° or π and hence potential • If two charges are unlike one, force between them is • If θ = 180 °, then U = − pE, i.e. potential energy is
1 q attractive and work is being done by the attractive maximum and unstable equilibrium.
difference, V = ± . Here, positive sign is
4π ε0 r 2 force. Consequently, potential energy of the system
CONDUCTORS
taken for θ = 0 ° and negative sign is taken for will be negative.
• For a system of n point charges, the total electrical Those materials through which electricity can pass
θ = π. through easily because they contains a large number of
potential energy of the system is given by
• Electric potential at any point situated on the free electrons, e.g. metals like copper, silver, etc.
equatorial line of an electrical dipole (θ = 90 ° ) is 1⎡ 1 n n q .q ⎤
i j INSULATORS
zero, i.e. V = 0. U= ⎢ ⋅ Σ Σ ⎥
2 ⎢ 4 πε 0 i = 1 j = 1 rij ⎥ Those materials through which electricity cannot pass
• Electric potential due to an electric dipole, in ⎣ i ≠ j ⎦ through easily because they do not contain free
general is inversely proportional to square of the Here the factor 1/2 has been incorporated on account electrons, e.g. rubber, ebonite, mica, etc.
distance of the point from mid-point of a dipole, of the fact that in the summation each term has been When a conductor is placed in an electric field, it exhibits
i.e. V ∝1 / r 2 counted twice ij and ji in the above expression. the following properties
• Work done for rotating an electric dipole of dipole (i) Net electric field inside the conductor is zero.
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO SOME moment p in a uniform electric field E from
COMMON CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS (ii) Electric charge always resides on the outer surface
orientation θ 1 to orientation θ 2 is given by the conductor, the electric field is perpendicular
• Potential at a point distant r from an infinitely U = − p ⋅ E = − pE (cos θ 2 − cos θ 1 )
long wire having linear charge density, λ (normal) to the surface at every point.
• If initially the dipole is perpendicular to the field. E, (iii) Net electric charge in the interior of the conductor
i.e. V = ( λ / 2 π ε 0 ) ⋅ ln r Q 1 = 90 ° and Q 2 = Q , then U = − pE cosθ. is zero in equilibrium state.
PT MAP POLARISATION
• When a dielectric is placed in an external electric
field, the centres of positive and negative charges
get separated in non-polar dielectrics, so the
CAPACITORS IN SERIES
The equivalent capacitance C s of number of capacitors
connected in series is given by
1 /C s = 1 /C 1 + 1 /C 2 + 1 /C 3

ision
molecules of dielectrics gain of permanent
CAPACITANCE IN PARALLEL
electric dipole moment. This process is called

Tool •
polarisation.
The electric dipole moment developed per unit
volume in a dielectric when placed in an external


The equivalent capacitance of a number of capacitors
connected in parallel is given by C p = C 1 + C 2 + ...
In a parallel combination of capacitors, the potential
electric field E is called polarisation vector P. For difference across each capacitor is same but the
GRAPHY charge on each capacitor is proportional to its
a linear isotropic dielectrics, P = χ e E. capacitance.
ed materials. It is based on simple concepts from
Where χ e is a constant, known as the electric
ocess unique, however, is the use of photo conductive ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR
susceptibility of the given dielectric, whose value
ial that is a poor conductor of electricity in the dark but a The energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C and
depends on the nature of dielectric and is a
characteristics of the dielectric. charge q with voltage V is given by
ss. First, the surface of a plate or drum is coated with a
EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACE 1 1 Q2 1
U = CV 2 = = QV
• For a given charge distribution, locus of all points 2 2 C 2
or regions for which the electric potential has a ENERGY DENSITY
Lens constant value are called equipotential regions The electrical energy stored per unit volume or energy
such equipotentials can be surfaces, volumes or density in a region with electric field E is given by
ere lines. U = (1 / 2 ) ε 0 E 2
• Lines of force always intersect an equipotential
e perpendicularly. LOSS OF ENERGY ON SHARING CHARGES
d Selenium • No two equipotential surfaces can intersect each If two conductors of capacitances C 1 and C 2 at potentials
coated Negatively V1 and V2 , respectively are connected together, a loss of
(a) Charging drum (b) Imaging (c) Applying other. If they do so, there will be two values of
charged
the drum the document the toner
toner electric potential at the point of intersection, energy takes place which is given by
d 1 C 1C 2
Interlaced pattern which is not possible. ΔU = × (V 1 − V 2 ) 2
of laser lines
• If a charge is moved from one point to the other 2 (C 1 + C 2 )
ely
It over an equipotential surface, work done will be
Laser zero as THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
beam
of WAB = U BA = q (VB − VA ) = 0 [As,VB = VA] One important application of electrical discharge in
y • Work has to be done to move a charge from one gases is the electrostatic precipitator. This device
(d) Transferring the (d) Laser equipotential surface to another. removes particulate matter from combustion
toner to the paper printer drum
e CAPACITOR gases, thereby reducing air pollution. It is
ts (a), (c) and (d) of Figure remain essentially the same. • A device which stores electrostatic energy. It especially useful in coal burning power plants and
y the image is formed on the selenium-coated drum. In a consists of conductors of any shape and size industrial operations that generate large quantities
nce, is sent to a laser from the memory of a computer. A carrying charges of equal magnitudes and of smoke, i.e. to eliminate more than 99% of the
laser to sweep across the selenium-coated drum in an
opposite signs and supported by an insulating ash from smoke as shown in figure. A high potential
bythetheprinter
printerturn
turnthethelaser
laserbeam
beamononand
andoffoffinina pattern
a pattern
s on the selenium. Toner is then applied to the drum, and medium. difference (40 to 100 kV) is maintained between a
machine. • SI unit of capacitance is farad wire running down the centre of a duct and the
1 coulomb 1 C ⎞ walls of the ducts, which are grounded.
(F, where 1 F = 1 farad = = ⎟ Insulator
(iv) Just outside the surface of a conductor, the electric 1 volt 1 V⎠
field is perpendicular (normal) to the surface at CAPACITANCE OF A SPHERICAL Battery
every point.
CONDUCTOR – Clean air out
(v) Electric field lines do not pass through the interior of +
It is proportional to the radius R of the spherical The high negative electric
the conductor. conductor, i.e. C = 4 πε 0 R. potential maintained on
(vi) Electric potential at all points of the conductor,
PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR the central wire creates a
situated inside as well as on its surface, is uniform corona discharge in the
moreover, it has the same value as its surface. It consists of two large parallel conducting plates, Dirty vicinity of the wire
each of area A, and separated by a small distance d. air in
DIELECTRIC MEDIUM ε A
Weight
Dielectrics are insulating materials which transmit Its capacitance is C = 0 .
d Dirt out
electric effect without conducting electricity. Electrostatic precipitator
e.g. Mica, glass, water, etc. SPHERICAL CAPACITOR
It consists of two concentric spherical conducting As the values of the field near the wire become
DIELECTRICS ARE OF TWO TYPES high enough to cause a corona discharge around
shells of inner and outer radii a and b, i.e.
Non-polar dielectrics and dielectrics. 4 πε 0 ab the wire, the air near the wire contains positive
• Non-polar dielectrics, e.g. O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , CH 4 etc. consist C= ions, electrons and such negative ions as O−2 . As
of non-polar molecules in which the centre of positive b−a
most of the charged dirt particles are negative, they
charge exactly coincides with the centre of negative CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR too are drawn to the duct walls by the electric field.
charge and dipole moment of a molecule is zero. It consists of two coaxial conducting cylinders of When the duct is periodically shaken, the particles
• Polar molecules, e.g. H 2O, HCl, NH 3 , alcohol are made inner and outer radii a and b of common length l. break loose and are collected at the bottom. In
of polar molecules in which centre of positive charge i.e. addition to reduce the amounts of harmful gases
does not coincide with centre of negative charge and l l and particular matter in the atmosphere, the
each molecule has some intrinsic electric dipole C = 2 πε 0 = 2 πε 0 electrostatic precipitator recovers valuable metal
moment. log e (b / a ) 2.303 log 10 (b / a )
oxides from the stack.
IRODOV MATE Kamal Upreti

ELECTRIC CAPACITANCE
ENERGY OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD

A simple approach to solve and understand


Problems in General Physics IE Irodov

As, change in flux due to long current-carrying wires, we have


Problem No. 3.108 f- b-a
æ l l ö
Straight Wire Conductor
i.e. - ò df = ò ç + ÷ dr
è 2 pe0r 2 pe0 ( b - r )ø
f+ a

Two long straight wires with equal cross-sectional radii a After integrating both sides, we get
are located parallel to each other in air. The distance l b - aö
f+ - f- = ln æç ÷
between their axes equals to b. Find the mutual pe0 è a ø
capacitance of the wires per unit length under the q q pe0 q
\ C= = or C =
condition b >> a. f+ - f- l æ b - aö b - aö
ln ç ÷ l ln æç ÷
Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION p e0 è a ø è a ø
Electric capacitance
Charge on positive plate Step III Capacitance per unit length is
=
pe0 æç ö÷
a
Potential difference between positive and
C è lø C pe0 l pe0
negative plates = or = =
l ( b - a) l æ b - aö æ b - aö
l ln l ln ç ÷ ln ç ÷
Step I The capacitance is shown in figure below. a è a ø è a ø

+q
b
–q
As, given that b >> a
C pe0
i.e. »
l ln
b
E1 E=E1+E2 E2 a

r
P Problem No. 3.134
Self-energy of a System
a a A system consists of two thin concentric metal shells of
radii R1 and R2 with corresponding charges q1 and q2 . Find
The net electric field at point P is E = E1 + E 2
the self-energy value W1 and W2 of each shell, the
where, E1 = electric field due to positive plate (cylindrical wire of
l
interaction energy of the shells W12 and the total electric
positive charge) = and E 2 = electric field due to negative energy of the system.
2 pe0 r
plate (cylindrical wire containing negative charge Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION
l
= The self-potential energy of
2 pe0( b - r ) spherical shell is
q
Step II Net electric field at point P, q
W = ò Vdq = ò 4pe0 R dq R1
q1
E = E1 + E 2 0
l l
E= + Þ - df = Edr q2 R2
2 pe0 r 2 pe0( b - r ) i.e. W=
8pe0R
q2

48 JUNE 2016 PHYSICS SPECTRUM


IRODOV MATE
Step I Work done by a thin concentric metal shell of radii R1 with C2
carrying charge q 1, we get h
d
q 12 C1
W1 =
8pe0 R1
Total charge on capacitor is q = sS
Step II Work done by a thin concentric metal shell of radii R 2 with q2
\ Energy stored on capacitor is U i =
carrying charge q 2, we get 2C 0
q 22 Step II In the final state, the system is equivalent to two capacitors in
W2 =
8pe0 R 2 series.
e S e eS
Step III The potential on the surface of first shell due to second C1 = 0 and C 2 = 0
q2 d -h h
shell is f =
4pe0 R 2 where, e is relative permittivity of water.
Step IV Interaction energy of the shells W12, we have Step III Net capacitance after rising the liquid is
C1C 2 e0eS
q1 q 2 C = =
W12 = q 1f = C1 + C 2 h + e(d - h)
4pe0 R 2
Step IV Total energy of system remains constant.
Total electric energy of the system, \ Energy of a system ( E ) = Electrical potential energy
i.e. W = W1 + W 2 + W12 + Gravitational potential energy = Constant
q2 h
q 12 q 22 q1 q 2 E= + mg = Constant
= + + 2C 2
8pe0 R1 8pe0 R 2 4pe0 R 2
q 2 ì h + e(d - h)ü r Sgh2
= í ý+ = Constant
1 é q 12 q2 q q ù 2 î e0eS þ 2
= ê + 2 + 1 2ú
4pe 0 ë 2 R1 2 R 2 R2 û dE q2
\ = (1 - e) + rSgh = 0
dh 2 e0eS
Problem No 3.144 q2
or rSgh = ( e - 1)
Parallel Plate Capacitor 2 e0eS
( sS )2
A parallel plate capacitor is located horizontally, so that rSgh = ( e - 1) [Q q = sS ]
2 e0eS
one of its plates is submerged into liquid while the other is
over its surface as shown in figure. The permittivity of the Þ Maximum height of the liquid in the capacitor rises after its
liquid is equal to e, its density is equal to r. To what height s 2( e - 1)
plates get a charge of surface density s, we get h = .
will the level of the liquid in the capacitor rise after its 2 e0 ger
plates get a charge of surface density s?
Problem No. 3.135
Uniformly Charged Sphere
A charge q is distributed uniformly over the volume of a
.
ball of radius R. Assuming the permittivity to be equal to
Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION unity, find
If capacitor is charged upto surface charge density s and then (a) the electrostatic self-energy of the ball.
disconnected from battery. The charge of capacitor will remain (b) the ratio of the energy W1 stored in the ball to the
constant during whole process. When liquid rises, capacitance energy W2 pervading the surrounding space.
of the capacitor changes.
Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION The energy stored
q2 1
But U = 0 per unit volume in an electric field is given by U = e 0e E 2.
2C 2
From this relation, energy stored in capacitor changes without Step I Let at some instant electric charge q is
changing charge on the plates of capacitance. When the liquid
assembled upto radius r. Now, we dr
rises between gap, gravitational potential energy increases but
bring dq charge from infinity and put it
energy stored in capacitor decreases. At an instant, total
on this sphere to increase the radius r
energy remains constant.
from r to ( r + dr ).
Step I The capacitance of capacitor before rising the liquid is 4
e0 S Here, q = pr 3r
C0 = 3
d dq = 4pr 2rdr

PHYSICS SPECTRUM JUNE 2016 49


IRODOV MATE
Step II The electric potential on the surface of sphere of radius r is And electric field due to negatively charged ball,
R q
q q E2 =
f= , i.e. U = ò fdq = ò ´ 4prr 2 dr
4pe0 r 4 pe r 4pe0e ( b - r )2
0 0

q R2 Step III Net electric field at point P is E = E1 + E 2


U= r
e0 2 q q
i.e. E= +
4pe0er 2 4pe0e( b - r )2
q 3q 2
Here, r= and U =
4 20pe0R \ Net electric flux in a system, - df = Edr
pR 3
3 Integrating both sides, we get
q f- b - aì q q ü
Step III The electric field outside the sphere is given by E = - ò df = ò í 2
+ 2ý
dr
4pe0r 2 f+ a 4 pe er 4 pe e( b - r )
î 0 0 þ
Here, q =
4
pR 3r, the energy stored outside the sphere is q é2 2 ù
f+ - f- = -
3 4pe0e êë a b úû
¥ ¥
æ ö
2 q 4pe0e 2 pe0e
1 1 q C = = =
W2 = ò 2
e0 E 2dV = e0
2 ò çè 4pe r 2 ÷ø × 4pr 2dr f+ - f- é2 - 2 ù b-a
r=R R 0 êë a b úû ab
¥ 2 ¥
1 q 2
r dr q é - 1ù
2
q2 But b >> a, b - a » b
=
2 4pe0 ò r 4
=
ê ú
8pe0 ë r û R
=
8pe 0R i.e. C =
2 pe0
Þ C = 2 pe0 ea
R
b / ab
Step IV As we know, total energy stored inside the ball, U = W1 + W 2.
Net capacitance of a system of two identical metal balls,
The ratio of the energy W1 stored in the ball to the energy W 2 C = 2 pe0ea.
pervading the surrounding space, i.e.
W1 U - W 2 U
W2
=
W2
=
W2
-1 Alternative Method (on the basis of energy)
4pr 2R 5 Total energy of system is U = U + + U - + U + -
U 15e0 Here, U + = Self-potential energy of positively charged balls
= - 1= -1
W2 q2 q2
=
8pe0R 8pe 0 ea
4pr 2R 5 8pe0R 1 U - = Self-potential energy of negatively charged balls
= ´ -1=
15e0 æ pR 3r ö
4
2
5
ç ÷ (- q ) 2 q2
è3 ø = =
8pe 0 ea 8pe 0 ea
Problem No. 3.110 and U + - = Mutual potential energy of both balls
q (- q ) -q2
Dielectric System of a Capacitance = =
4 pe 0 eb 4 pe 0 eb
Find the capacitance of a system of two identical metal
Total energy of system, U = U + + U - + U + -
balls of radius a, if the distance between their centres is
equal to b, with b >> a. The system is located dielectric q2 é 1 1 1ù
= + -
with permittivity e. 4 pe 0 eb êë 2a 2a b úû
Sol. q2
Step I A system of two identical metal balls of radius a, if the distance
But in the case of capacitor, U =
2C
between their centres is equal to b, with b >> a, i.e both
q2 q2 é 1 1 1ù
spheres behaves as isolated balls as shown in figure. = + -
+q –q
2C 4 p e 0 e êë 2a 2a b úû
E=E1+E2
After solving, we get
O1 P O2 2pe 0 2pe 0 e
C= =
1 1
- æb -aö
r ç ÷
b a b è ab ø
q
Net capacitance, C = But, b >> a, b - a » b
f+ - f-
\ Net capacitance of a system of two identical metal balls,
Step II Here, electric field due to positively charged ball,
q C = 2pe 0 ea
E1 =
4pe0er 2

50 JUNE 2016 PHYSICS SPECTRUM


CHAPTERWISE TOPICWISE
SOLVED PAPERS SERIES
HIGHLY USEFUL FOR JEE MAIN, ADVANCED &
OTHER ENGINEERING ENTRANCES

HIGHLY USEFUL FOR NEET &


OTHER MEDICAL ENTRANCES

A MUST RESOURCE FOR ENGINEERING


& MEDICAL ASPIRANTS WITH ALL PRECISELY
SOLVED QUESTIONS OF LAST 10 YEARS
NEET 2016 (PHASE II)

PRACTICE PAPER
INSTRUCTIONS
G
This test consists of 45 questions and each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.
G
Candidates will be awarded marks as stated above for correct response of each question. 1/4 mark will be
deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will be made
if no response is indicated for an item in the answer sheet.
G
There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will
be treated as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instruction.

1. The dimensional formula of self-inductance is (a) NB = 2 w(1 - x /d ), NA = wx /d


-2 -2 2 -1 -2 (b) NB = w(1 - x /d ), NA = wx /d
(a) [MLT A ] (b) [ML T A ]
(c) NB = 2 w(1 - x /d ), NA = 2 wx /d
(c) [ML2T -2A -2 ] (d) [ML2T -2A -1 ] æ xö
(d) NB = wx /d , NA = w ç1 - ÷
2. A circular coil is in y-z plane with centre at origin. The è dø
coil is carrying a constant current. Assuming direction 4. Two bodies of masses m and 4m are placed at a
of magnetic field at X = - 25 cm to be positive direction distance r, the gravitational potential at a point on the
of magnetic field, which of the following graphs shows line joining them where the gravitational field is
variation of magnetic field along X-axis? zero, is
4 Gm 6 Gm 9 Gm
B B (a) - (b) - (c) - (d) zero
r r r
5. 90% of a radioactive sample is left undecayed after
(a) X (b) X times t has elapsed. What percentage of the initial
O O sample will decay in a total time 2t?
(a) 20% (b) 19% (c) 40% (d) 38%
B B
6. In the circuit shown in figure, the maximum output
voltage V0 is
+

(c) X (d) X V D1 D2
O O
10 V 2 kΩ
t + V0 –
O T/2 T
3. A rod of weight w supported by two parallel knife 2kΩ 2kΩ
edges A and B is in equilibrium in a horizontal position. –
The knives are at a distance d from each other. The
centre of mass of the rod is at a distance x from A. The 5
(a) 0 V (b) 5 V (c) 10 V (d) V
normal reactions at A and B are 2

52
7. The ratio of intensities between two coherent sound 14. 10 -3 W of 5000 Å light is directed on a photoelectric
sources is 4 : 1. The difference of loudness in decibel cell. If the current in the cell is 0.16 mA, the percentage
(dB) between maximum and minimum intensities, of incident photons which produce photoelectrons is
when they interfere in space is (a) 40% (b) 0.04% (c) 20% (d) 10%
(a) 10 log 2 (b) 20 log 3
(c) 10 log 3 (d) 20 log 2 15. The given figure shows wavefront P passing through
two systems A and B and emerging as Q and then as R.
8. A particle moves with simple harmonic motion in a The systems A and B could respectively, be
straight line. In first ts, after starting from rest it travels
a distance a, and in next t s, it travels 2a, in same R
direction, then
(a) amplitude of motion is 4a
(b) time period of oscillation is 6t
P A Q B
(c) amplitude of motion is 3a
(d) time period of oscillation is 8t
(a) a prism and a convergent lens
9. A coil of resistance is 15 W and inductance is 0.6 H, is (b) a convergent lens and a prism
connected to a steady 120V power source. At what rate (c) a divergent lens and a prism
will the current in the coil rise at the instant the coil is (d) a convergent lens and a divergent lens
connected to the power source and at the instant the
current reaches 80% of its maximum value? 16. A solid cylinder of mass M, radius M k
(a) 200 A/s and 40 A/s R is attached to a horizontal R
(b) 220 A/s and 45 A/s massless spring of spring constant
(c) 180 A/s and 35 A/s k, so that it can roll without slipping along a horizontal
(d) 250 A/s and 50 A/s surface. If the cylinder is slightly displaced and
released, the time period of the SHM it executes, is
10. The following logic circuit represents
M 2M
X (a) 2 p (b) 2 p
A k k
O M 3M
Y (c) 2 p (d) 2 p
2k 2k
(a) NAND gate with output O = X + Y
17. A string of length 0.4 m and mass 10 -2 kg is rigidly
(b) NOR gate with output O = X + Y
clamped at the ends. The tension in the string is 1.6 N.
(c) NAND gate with output O = XY Identical wave pulses are produced at one end at equal
(d) NOR gate with output O = X . Y interval of time Dt. The minimum value of Dt which
11. Steam at 100°C is passed into 1.1 kg of water contained allows constructive interference between successive
in a calorimeter of water equivalent to 0.02 kg at 15°C pulses is
till the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents (a) 0.10 s (b) 0.20 s (c) 0.05 s (d) 0.40 s
rises to 80°C. The mass of the steam condensed in kg is 18. A concave lens of glass, refractive index 1.5 has both
(a) 0.130 (b) 0.065 (c) 0.260 (d) 0.135 surfaces of same radius of curvature R. On immersion
12. A 50 g bullet moving with a velocity of 10 ms -1 gets in a medium of refractive index 1.75, it will behave as a
embedded into a 950 g stationary body. The loss KE of (a) convergent lens of focal length 3.5R
the system will be (b) convergent lens of focal length 3R
(a) 95% (b) 100% (c) 5% (d) 50% (c) divergent lens of focal length 3.5R
13. A particle which is constrained to move along the (d) divergent lens of focal length 3R
x-axis, is subjected to a force in the same direction 19. An element with atomic number Z = 11 emits K a X-ray
which varies with the distance x of the particle from the of wavelength l. The atomic number of element which
origin as F(x) = - kx + ax3 . Here, k and a are positive emits K a X-ray of wavelength 4l is
constants. For x ³ 0, the functional form of the (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 11 (d) 44
potential energy U(x) of the particle is 20. Figure shows a circuit in D1 R1
U(x) U(x) which three identical
diodes are used. Each diode
(a) x (b) x
has forward resistance of 20
W and infinite backward
D2 D3 R2
resistance. Resistors
U(x) U(x) R1 = R2 = R3 = 50 W. Battery + –
voltage is 6 V. The current 6V R3
(c) x (d) x
through R3 is
(a) 50 mA (b) 100 mA (c) 60 mA (d) 25 mA

53
21. The graph as shown in y 27. A car is fitted with a convex side-view mirror of focal
figure alongside length 20 cm. A second car 2.8 m behind the first car is
describes the motion of overtaking the first car at a relative speed of 15 m/s.
a ball rebounding from The speed of the image of the second car as seen in the
a horizontal surface mirror of the first one is
being released from a t 1 1
t1 t2 t3 (a) m/s (b) m/s (c) 10 m/s (d) 15 m/s
point above the 10 15
surface. Assume that the ball collides each time with
the floor inelastically. The quantity represented on the
28. The threshold frequency for certain metal is 3.3 ´ 1014
Hz. If light of frequency 8.2 ´ 1014 Hz is incident on the
Y-axis is the ball’s (take upward direction as positive)
metal, the cut-off voltage of the photoelectric current
(a) displacement (b) velocity
will be
(c) acceleration (d) momentum
(a) 4.9 V (b) 3.0 V (c) 2.0 V (d) 5.4 V
22. Given, F = (xy2 ) $i + (x2 y) $j N. The work done by F when
a particle is taken along the semicircular path OAB, 29. Diameter of a plano-convex lens is 6 cm and thickness
where the coordinates of B are (4, 0) is at the centre is 3 mm. If the speed of light in the
y material of the lens is 2 ´ 108 m/s, find the focal length
A of the lens.
(a) 15 cm (b) 20 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 10 cm
x 30. A unit vector along the incident ray of light is $i. The
O B
unit vector for the corresponding refracted ray of light
65 75 73 is r$ × n$ , a unit vector normal to the boundary of the
(a) J (b) J (c) J (d) zero
3 2 4 medium and directed towards the incident medium. If
m is the refractive index of the medium, the Snell’s law
23. In the given figure, blocks A and B move with velocities
(second law) of refraction is
v1 and v2 along horizontal direction. Find the ratio of
(a) $i ´ n$ = m(n$ + r)
$ (b) $i × n$ = m( r$ × n$ )
v1 / v2 .
$ $ $ $
(c) i ´ n = m( r ´ n ) (d) $i ´ n$ = m( r$ + n$ )

31. Two cylinders A and B fitted with pistons contains


equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K. The
θ1 θ2 piston of A is free to move, while that of B is held fixed.
A v1 v2
The same amount of heat is given to the gas in each
cylinder. If the rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30
sin q1 sin q 2 cos q 2 cos q1 K, then the rise in temperature of the gas in B is
(a) (b) (c) (d)
sin q 2 sin q1 cos q1 cos q 2 (a) 30 K (b) 18 K (c) 50 K (d) 42 K
24. Three simple harmonic motions in the same direction 32. A cyclic process ABCA as shown in p-V diagram in
having the same amplitude and same period are figure is performed with a constant mass of an ideal
superimposed. If each differ in phase from the next by gas. Which of the following graphs in figure represents
45°, then the corresponding process on a p-V diagram?
(a) the resultant amplitude is (1 + 2 ) a Y
(b) the phase of the resultant motion relative to the first is 90° p C
(c) the energy associated with the resulting motion is ( 3 + 2 2 ) B
times the energy associated with any single motion
(d) the resulting motion is not simple harmonic
A
25. If body of mass m = 3.613 kg is moving along. The
O V X
x-axis with a speed of 5 m/s. The magnitude of its
momentum is retarded as p p
A A
(a)17.565 kg-m/s (b) 17.56 kg-m/s
(c) 17.57 kg-m/s (d) 17.6 kg-m/s (a) (b) B
26. Two particles, each of mass m and charge q are
attached to the two ends of a light rigid rod of length C B C
2R. The rod is rotated at constant angular speed about a V
p V
perpendicular axis passing through its centre. The B p
A
ratio of the magnitudes of the magnetic moment of the A
system and its angular momentum about the centre of (c) (d)
the radius is
C
q q 2q q
(a) (b) (c) (d) B C
2m m m pm V
V

54
33. The radius of the Bohr’s orbit in the ground state of 40. If one million tiny droplets of water of the same radius
hydrogen atom is 0.5 Å. The radius of the orbit of the coalesce into one larger drop, the ratio of the surface
electron in the third excited state of He+ will be energy of the larger drop to the total surface energy of
(a) 8 Å (b) 4 Å (c) 0.5 Å (d) 0.25 Å all the droplets will be
(a) 1 : 10 (b) 1 : 10 2 (c) 1 : 10 4 (d) 1 : 10 6
34. Silver has a work function of 4.7 eV. When ultraviolet
41. The circuit of figure consists of a 50 V battery a 20W
light of wavelength 100 nm is incident upon it, a
resistance a low resistance 25mH inductors and a key.
potential of 7.7 V is required to stop the photoelectrons
Steady state current in the circuit is
when light of wavelength 200 nm is incident upon
silver. What will be the potential required to stop
K
photoelectrons? Ammeter
(Given, hc = 12375 eV Å) +
50V
(a) 0.5 V (b) 1.5 V (c) 2.35 V (d) 3.85 V –
35. A moving coil galvanometer of resistance 100 W is used
R
as an ammeter using a resistance 01 . W. The maximum
deflection current in the galvanometer is 100 mA. Find
the minimum current in the circuit so that the ammeter (a) 2.5 A (b) 3.5 A (c) 6 A (d) 4 A
shows maximum deflection. 42. A nucleus with mass number 220 initially at rest emits
(a) 100.1 mA (b) 1000.1 mA an a-particle. If the nuclear energy of the reaction is
(c) 10.01 mA (d) 1.01 mA 5.5 MeV. Calculate the KE of the a-particle.
36. In Young’s double slit experiment, the two slits acts as (a) 4.4 MeV (b) 5.4 MeV
coherent sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength (c) 5.6 MeV (d) 6.5 MeV
l. In another experiment with the same set up; the two 43. The current-voltage relation of diode is given by
slits are of equal amplitude A but are incoherent. The I = (e1000 V / T - 1)mA, where the applied voltage V is in
ratio of the intensity of light at the mid-point of the volts and the temperature T is in degree kelvin. If a
screen in the first case to that in the second case is student makes an error measuring ±0.01 V while
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 measuring the current of 5 mA at 300K, what will be
(c) 4 : 1 (d) 1 : 1 the error in the value of current in mA?
37. A non-zero external force acts on a system of particles. (a) 0.5 mA (b) 0.05 mA
The velocity and the acceleration of the centre of mass (c) 0.2 mA (d) 0.02 mA
are found to be v0 and a0 at an instant t. It is possible, if 44. The relative density of the material of a body is the
(a) v 0 = 0, a0 = 0 ratio of its weight in air and the loss of its weight in
(b) v 0 = 0, a0 > 0 water. By using a spring balance, the weight of the
(c) v 0 ¹ 0, a0 = 0 body in air is measured to be 5.00 ± 0.05 N. The weight
(d) v 0 ¹ 0, a0 ¹ 0 of the body in water is measured to be (4.00 ± 0.05) N,.
38. The coefficient of volume expansion of a liquid is Then, the maximum possible percentage error in
49 ´ 10 -5 K -1 . Calculate the fractional change in its relative density is
density when the temperature is raised by 30°C. (a) 11% (b) 10% (c) 9% (d) 7%
(a) 7.5 ´ 10 -2 (b) 3.0 ´ 10 -2 45. A copper container of mass 0.30 kg contains 0.45 kg of
. ´ 10 -2
(c) 15 . ´ 10 -2
(d) 11 water. Container and water are initially at room
temperature 20°C. A 1 kg block of metal is heated to
39. A wooden cube floating in water supports a mass
100°C and placed in the water in the calorimeter. The
m = 0.2 kg on its top. When the mass is removed, the
final temperature of the system is 40°C. Find the
cube rise by 2 cm. The side of the cube is (density of
specific heat of the metal.
water = 103 kg/m3 )
(a) 0.161 kcal/kg°C (b) 0.159 kcal/kg°C
(a) 6 cm (b) 12 cm
(c) 0.171 kcal/kg°C (d) 0.181 kcal/kg°C
(c) 8 cm (d) 10 cm

Answers
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (b)
11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (a)
21. (a) 22. (d) 23. (c) 24. (c) 25. (d) 26. (a) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (c) 30. (c)
31. (d) 32. (a) 33. (b) 34. (b) 35. (a) 36. (b) 37. (d) 38. (c) 39. (d) 40. (b)
41. (a) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (a) 45. (b)

55
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE
OPTIONS CORRECT
TYPE PROBLEMS ON
KINEMATICS
A collection of chapterwise best problems of their types

1. The motion of a body is given by the equation 4. A graph of x versus t is shown in the given
dv(t)
= 6.0 - 3v(t), where v(t) is speed in ms -1 and t in figure. Choose the correct alternatives from the
dt given below.
second. If body was at rest at t = 0, then x
(a) the terminal speed is 2.0 ms -1
(b) the speed varies with time as v(t ) = 2(1 - e -3 t ) ms -1 A B
C
(c) the speed is 1.0 ms -1 when the acceleration is half the initial E
value
(d) the magnitude of the initial acceleration is 6.0 ms -1
2. An elevator ascends with an upward acceleration of t
2.0 ms -2 . At the instant, its upward speed is D
2.5 ms -1, loose bolt is dropped from the ceiling of (a) The particle was released from rest at t = 0
the elevator with speed 3.0 ms -1 from the floor. If (b) At B, the acceleration a > 0
g = 10 ms -2 , then (c) At C, the velocity and the acceleration vanish
(a) the time of flight of the bolt from the ceiling to floor of the (d) The speed at D exceeds that at E
elevator is 0.11 s
(b) the displacement of the bolt during the free fall relative to the
5. The motion of a body falling from rest in a resisting
dv
elevator shaft is 0.75 m medium is described by the equation = A - Bv,
(c) the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall relative dt
to the elevator shaft is 1.38 m where A and B are constants. Then,
(d) the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall relative (a) initial acceleration of the body is A
to the elevator shaft is 2.52 m (b) the velocity at which acceleration becomes zero is A/B
3. A particle of mass m moves on the X-axis as follows: A
(c) the velocity at any time t is (1 - e Bt )
B
It starts from rest at t = 0 from the point x = 0 and (d) All of the above are wrong
comes to rest at t = 1 at the point x = 1. No other
information (0 < t < 1). If a denotes the instantaneous 6. A spring with one end attached to a mass and the
acceleration of the particle, then other to a rigid support is stretched and released
(a) magnitude of acceleration, when just released is maximum.
(a) a cannot remain positive for all t in the interval 0 £ t £ 1.
(b) magnitude of acceleration, when at equilibrium position is
(b) | a| cannot exceed 2 at any points in its path.
maximum.
(c) | a| must be ³ 4 at some point or points in its path. (c) speed is maximum when mass is at equilibrium position.
(d) a must change sign during the motion but no other (d) magnitude of displacement is always maximum whenever
Assertion can be made with the information given. speed is minimum.

56
7. The displacement (x) of a particle depends on time (t) 13. A ball is projected from point A with a velocity
as x = at 2 - bt 3 . 10 m/s perpendicular to the plane as given. The
2a
(a) The particle will come to rest after time . range of the ball on plane is
3b
a u=10 m/s
(b) The particle will return to its starting point after time .
b
a
(c) No net force will act on the particle at t = .
3b
A
(d) The initial velocity of the particle was zero but its initial
acceleration was not zero.
8. Suppose a and v denote the acceleration and 30°
velocity, respectively of a body in one-dimensional
motion, then 40 20 13 13
(a) m (b) m (c) m (d) m
(a) speed must increase when a > 0 3 13 20 40
(b) speed will increase when v > 0 and a > 0 14. A block of mass m moving with speed u on smooth
(c) speed must decrease when a < 0 horizontal surface towards stationary wedge of same
(d) speed will decrease when v < 0 and a > 0 mass initially as given all surfaces are smooth, then
9. A particle is projected vertically upwards in vacuum
with a speed (v).
(a) The time taken to rise to half its maximum height is half the
time taken to reach its maximum height. m u m
(b) The time taken to rise to three-fourth of its maximum height
is half the time taken to reach its maximum height.
(c) When it rises to half its maximum height, its speed becomes (a) horizontal momentum of system is conserved.
v/ 2 . (b) final speed of block is zero and wedge is u towards right.
(d) When it rises to half its maximum height, its speed becomes (c) at maximum height from ground block will be moving with
v/2. speed u/2.
(d) maximum height attained by block is u 2 / 4g .
10. A particle is moving with a uniform acceleration
along a straight line AB. Its speed at A and B are 2 15. A tennis ball is hit from a height h = 1 m above the
ms -1 and 14 ms -1, respectively. Then, ground at an angle q = 45° towards a wall that is at a
(a) its speed at mid-point of AB is 10 ms . -1 horizontal distance D = 15 m. The ball hits the wall
(b) its speed at a point P such that AP : PB = 1 : 5 is 4 ms -1. after 1.50 s. The height from ground where it will hit
(c) the time to go from A to mid-point of AP is double of that to the wall is
go from mid-point to B. (a) 5 m (b) 4.75 m (c) 6 m (d) 4 m
(d) None of the above
16. The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are
11. Variation of y-coordinate of two projectiles with given by x(t) = a cos (pt) and y(t) = b sin (pt) where
time is given in figure. If initial speed of both is a, b (< a) and p are positive constants of appropriate
same, then dimensions. Then,
y (a) the path of the particle is an ellipse.
(b) the velocity and acceleration of the particle are normal to
each other at t = p /2 p.
(c) the acceleration of the particle is always directed towards a
focus.
(d) the distance travelled by the particle in time interval t = 0 to
t t = p /2 p is a.
O
2 1 17. A ball is bouncing elastically with a speed 1m/s
(a) horizontal speed of 1 is less than 2 between the walls of a railway compartment of size
(b) horizontal speed of 1 is greater than 2 10 m in a direction perpendicular to walls. The train
(c) horizontal range of 1 is greater than 2 is moving at a constant velocity of 10 m/s parallel to
(d) Both has same horizontal range
the direction of motion of the ball. As seen from the
12. A particle is projected with a velocity 20 m/s, so that ground
it just clears two walls of equal height 10 m, which (a) the direction of motion of the ball changes every 10 s
are same at a distance 20 m from each other. The (b) speed of ball changes every 10 s
(c) average speed of ball over any 20 s interval is fixed
time of passing between the walls is
(d) the acceleration of ball is the same as from the train
(a) 2 s (b) 2 10 s (c) 10 2 s (d) 1 / 2 s

57
18. The figure shows the velocity (v) of a particle moving 23. A ball is rolled off the edge of a horizontal table at a
on a straight line plotted against time (t). speed of 4 m/s. It hits the ground after 0.4 s. Which
v (ms–1) statement given below is true?
(a) It hits the ground at a horizontal distance 1.6 m from the
10
edge of the table.
5 (b) The speed with which it hits the ground is 4.0 m/s.
0 t (s) (c) Height of the table is 0.8 m.
5 10 15 (d) It hits the ground at an angle of 60° to the horizontal.
–5
24. Given two vectors A = 3i$ + 4$j and B = $i + $j. q is the
–10
angle between A and B. Which of the following
(a) The particle has zero displacement. statement(s) is/are correct?
(b) The particle has never turned around. æ $i + $j ö
(a) | A| cos q çç ÷ is the component of A along B.
÷
(c) The particle has constant acceleration.
è 2 ø
(d) The average speed in the interval 0 to 5 s is the same as the
average speed in the interval 5 to 10 s. æ $i - $j ö
(b) | A| sin q çç ÷ is the component of A perpendicular to B.
÷
19. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant è 2 ø
magnitude which is always perpendicular to the æ $i - $j ö
(c) | A| cos q çç ÷ is the component of A along B.
÷
velocity of the particle. The motion of the particle è 2 ø
takes place in a plane. It follows that
æ $i + $j ö
(a) velocity is constant (b) acceleration is constant (d) | A| sin q çç ÷ is the component of A perpendicular to B.
÷
(c) kinetic energy is constant (d) it moves in a circular path è 2 ø
20. Two particles are projected from the same point with 25. If v1 + v2 is perpendicular to v1- v2 , then
the same speed, at different angles q1 and q2 to the (a) v 1 is perpendicular to v 2
horizontal. They have the same horizontal range. (b)| v 1| = | v 2|
Their times of flights are t1 and t2 , respectively. (c) v 1 is a null vector
t1 (d) The angle between v 1 and v 2 can have any value
(a) q1 + q 2 = 90° (b) = tan q1
t2
26. The figure shows the velocity (v) of a particle plotted
t1 t t2
(c) = tan q 2 (d) 1 = against time (t).
t2 sin q1 sin q 2
v (ms–1)
21. The ring R in the arrangement shown can slide B
10
along a smooth, fixed, horizontal rod XY. It is
attached to the block B by a light string. The block is
D C
released from rest, with the string horizontal. 0 t (s)
T 2T
R
X Y
–10 A
B

(a) The displacement of the particle in time 2T is zero.


(a) One point in the string will have only vertical direction. (b) The initial and final speeds of the particle are the same.
(b) R and B will always have momentum of the same magnitude. (c) The acceleration of the particle remains constant
(c) When the string becomes vertical, the speeds of R and B will throughout the motion.
be inversely proportional to their masses. (d) The particle changes its direction of motion at same point
(d) R will lose contact with the rod at some point.
22. Two particles are projec- 4 m/s 27. A particle is projected from a point P with a velocity
ted with speed 4 m/s and v at an angle q with the horizontal. At a certain point
3 m/s Q, it moves at right angles to its initial direction.
3 m/s simultaneously
53º Then,
from the same point as
37º (a) velocity of particle at Q is v sin q.
shown in the figure.
Then, (b) velocity of particle at Q is v cot q.
ævö
(a) their relative velocity is along vertical direction. (c) time of flight from P to Q is ç ÷ cosec q.
(b) their relative acceleration is non-zero and it is along the èg ø
vertical direction. ævö
(d) time of flight from P to Q is ç ÷ sec q.
(c) they will hit the surface simultaneously. èg ø
(d) their relative velocity is constant and has magnitude
1.4 m/s.

58
28. The trajectory of a projectile in vertical plane is
y = ax - bx2 , where a and b are constants and x and y (a) 2 h / g (b) 8h / g
are respectively horizontal and vertical distances of 2
u + 2 gh u 2h
the projectile from the point of projection. The (c) (d) +
g g g
maximum height attained by the particle and the
angle of projection from the horizontal are 30. A particle starts from origin at t = 0 with a velocity
b2 a2 5$i m/s and moves in X - Y plane under action of a
(a) , tan-1 ( b ) (b) , tan-1 (2 b )
4b b force which produces a constant acceleration of
a2 2 a2 (3$i + 2$j) m/s2. At the instant, its X-coordinate is 84 m,
(c) , tan-1 ( a ) (d) , tan-1 ( a )
4b b the speed of the particle at this time is
29. A ball is thrown upwards with a speed u from a (a) 16 ms -1
height h above the ground. The time taken by the (b) 26 ms -1
ball to hit the ground is (c) 20 ms -1
(d) 6 ms -1

Answers with Explanation


dv 1
1. (b,c,d) Given, = 6 - 3v …(i) or t = s = 0707
. s = 07
. s
dt 2
dv Displacement of the bolt,
or = dt
6 - 3v 1
= - 2.5 ´ 071
. + . )2
´ 10 ´ ( 071
Integrating it, we have 2
é -1 log ( 6 - 3v )ù = t + k = - 1.775 + 2.521 = 0746
. = 075. m
…(ii)
êë 3 úû u2
Distance covered = 2 ´ + displacement
At t = 0, v = 0 2g
-1 (2.5)2
\ k= log 6 =2 ´ + 075
. = ( 0.63 + 075
. ) = 138
. m
3 2 ´ 10
Putting this value in Eq. (ii), we have
-1 1 3. (a,c,d) The body is at rest initially and again comes to rest at
log ( 6 - 3v ) = t - log 6 t = 1 s at position x = 1.
3 3
Thus, firstly acceleration will be positive then negative.
6 - 3v ö
or log æç ÷ = - 3 t Thus, a have to change the direction so that body may finally
è 6 ø
come to rest in the interval 0 £ t £ 1. If we plot v - t graph.
6 - 3v
or = e -3 t The total displacement = 1 m = area under ( v - t ) graph.
6
v
v
or 1 - = e -3 t B C D
2
or v = 2(1 - e -3 t ) vmax
When t = 0, v = 2(1 - e -3 t )
Initially, v = 0, From Eq. (i) acceleration,
A t (s)
dv 1/2 1
a0 = = 6 - 3 ´ 0 = 6 ms -2
dt 1 2 ´s
a0 6 Now, vmax - t = s Þ vmax =
When a = = = 3, then from Eq. (i) 2 t
2 2 2 ´1
3 = 6 - 3v or vmax = = 2 m/s
1
or 3v = 6 -3 = 3
The maximum velocity = 2 m/s
or v = 1ms -1
Now, just see the ( v - t ) graph
2. (b,c) Velocity of bolt relative to elevator During AB a > 4 m/s 2
For ABC ,
= 2.5 - 2.5 = 0 During BE a < - 4 m/s 2
Acceleration of bolt relative to elevator, During AC a = 4 m/s 2
a = 10 - ( - 2 ) = 12 ms -2 [Q g = 10 m/s 2 ] For ACE,
During CE a = - 4 m/s 2
1
Using the relation s = ut + at 2, During AD a < 4 m/s 2
2 For ADF,
1 During DE a > - 4 m/s 2
We have 3.0 = 0 ´ t + ´ 12t 2
2 Thus, a ³ 4 at some point or points in its path.

59
4. (a,c,d) From graph, when t = 0, the particle is released from The particle will come to rest, if v = 0. From Eq. (i),
rest at A, hence, v = 0. 2a
0 = 2 at - 3 bt 2 or t =
At B, the graph is parallel to time-axis, hence velocity is 3b
constant there. Thus, acceleration a is zero.
The particle when returns to its starting point, then x = 0.
At C, the graph changes slope, where velocity and
a
acceleration vanish. Now, 0 = a t 2 - b t 3 or t =
Average velocity for motion between A and D is negative b
because the value of x is decreasing with time t . The slope of Force on particle is zero when a = 0. From Eq. (ii),
graph (which represents speed) is more at D than at E. a
0 = 2 a t 2 - 6 b t 3 or t =
Therefore, speed at D is more than that at E. b
dv When t = 0, from Eq. (i) v = 0 and from Eq. (ii) a ¹ 0, has
5. (a,b,c) Given, acceleration, = A - Bv .
vt a = 2 a.
(a) When t = 0, v = 0, therefore, initial acceleration, 8. (b,d) If the initial velocity is negative (i.e. v < 0) and a is
æ dv ö = A positive, i.e., ( a > 0) then speed will decrease. The speed will
ç ÷
è dt øt = 0 increase when v and a are both positive.
dv
= 0. v2
(b) When acceleration is zero, then 9. (b,c) Maximum height reached, s m = .
dt 2g
Hence, A - Bv = 0 or v = A/B v
dv • Time taken to reach the maximum height, Tm = .
(c) = dt g
A - Bv Height s reached in time t is
Integrating it within the limits of motion, i.e. as time 1
s = ut - gt 2
changes from 0 to t , velocity changes 0 to v, we have 2
v
log ( A - Bv )ù T v
-é e = [t ]0t If t = =
êë B úû 2 2g
0
2
Þ loge ( A - Bv ) - loge A = - Bt v ´v 1 æ v ö v2 v 2 3v 2 3
Then, s= - g ç ÷ = - = = s m.
A - Bv A 2g 2 è2 g ø 2g 8g 8g 4
or = e - Bt Þ v = (1 - e - Bt )
A B Speed at height s is v 2 = u 2 - 2 g s
6. (a,c) Maximum restoring force set up in the spring when sm v2
stretched by distance r is F = - kr and the potential energy of When s= =
2 4g
1
stretched spring = kx 2. As F µ r and this force is directed v2 v2
2 Then v ¢2 = v 2 - 2 g ´ =
towards equilibrium position, hence if mass is left free, it will 4g 2
execute damped SHM due to gravity pull. v
Velocity of a particle, v ¢ =
• Magnitude of acceleration in the mass attached to one end 2
of spring when just released is
10. (a,c) Here, u = 2 ms -1, v = 14 ms -1
F kr
a= = = (maximum)
m m A C B
• At equilibrium position, r = 0 Distance between A and B = s
k Then, acceleration
\ a= ´0=0
m v 2 - u 2 14 2 - 2 2 194 97
= = = =
• At equilibrium position, the whole potential energy of the 2s 2s 2s s
stretched spring is converted into whole kinetic energy of the s
mass. Hence, speed of mass is maximum at equilibrium The speed at mid-point C, v 2 = u 2 + 2 a
2
position.
2 97 s
• In damped SHM, the speed of mass is minimum at the =2 + 2 ´ ´ = 101
s 2
extreme position, where displacement is maximum.
or v = 101 = 10 ms -1
• But the magnitude of displacement is not always maximum
whenever speed is minimum. 1 1
As per question, AP = [ AB] = s
7. (a,b,d) Given, 6 6
s 97 s
x = at 2 - b t 3 When s = , then v 2 = 2 2 + 2 ´ ´
6 s 6
Velocity of a particle, 97 -1
dx or v = 3 +2 ´ = 36.3 ms
v = = 2 at - 3 bt 2 …(i) 3
dt \ v = 36.3 = 6 ms -1
dv
\ Acceleration ( a ) = = 2 a - 6 bt …(ii) Since velocity at mid-point C is 10 ms -1.
dt

60
\ Taking motion from A to C, we have So, conservation of linear momentum, we get
10 - 2 8 mu = mv1 - mv 2 …(i)
10 = 2 + a ´ t 1 or t1 = = .
a a and conservation of kinetic energy,
Taking motion from C to B, we have, mu 2 1 1
14 - 10 4 = mv12 + mv 22 …(ii)
14 = 10 + 1 ´ t 2 or t2 = = 2 2 2
a a Solving Eq. (ii) and (i), we get
t1 t
Therefore, = 2 or t 2 = 1 v1 = u, v 2 = 0
t2 2
Q From beginning to maximum height, we get
11. (b,c) As, we know projectile motion of the particle, mu = m (2 v ) Þ v =
u
Slope at t = 0 gives initial vertical speed. 2
So, æç ö÷ < æç ö÷
dy dy So, conservation of mechanical energy upto maximum height,
è dt ø1 at t = 0 è dt ø 2 at t = 0 we get
2
mu 2 = m æç ö÷ ´ 2 + mgh
u × sin q1< u × sin q 2 1 1 u
q1 < q 2 [angle of projection] 2 2 è2 ø
So, cos q1 > cos q 2 u2
or h=
u cos q1 > u cos q 2 4g
\ From graph, we can see that, T1 > T2 15. (b) Distance travelled by particle along Y-axis
So, u cos q1T1 > u cos q 2T2 1 2
s y = ut + at
R1 > R 2 2 u/√2 u

12. (a) Velocity at point P is v sx = u x t


u 45º
v P2 = u 2 - 2 gh or 15 = ´ (15
. )
P θ Q 2 u/√2
or v P2 = 400 - 2 ´ 10 ´ 10 20 m/s
10 m \ u = 10 2 m/s 1m
or v P2 = 200 Þ v P = 10 2 m/s 1 2
Þ sy = u y t -gt
For projectile P to Q, we get 20 m 2
v 2 sin (2 q) 2
´ 10 ´ æç ö÷
R = 20 m = P 1 15
s y = 10 ´ 15
. -
g 2 è 10 ø
or sin (2 q) = 1 Þ q = 45° 15 ´ 15 æ 15 ö = 15
= 15 - = 15 ç ÷
2 v P . sin q 2 ´ 10 2 ´ 1/ 2 2 ´ 10 è 20 ø 4
TPQ = = =2s
g 10 15
Hence, h = 1+ = 475
. m
2 ´ 10 4
13. (a) Time of flight of a particle, T = s
5 3 16. (a,b,c) Distance travelled by a particle along X-axis,
Range along inclined plane, u = 10 m/s x = a cos pt
1 10
R = u xT + ax T 2 x
90º Þ cos pt = …(i)
2 a
2
1 æ 2 ´ 10 ö 5m
and Y-axis, y = b sin pt
= 0´T + . 5. ç ÷ /s 2
º

è 5 3 ø
30

2 5√3 m/s 2 y
g Þ sin pt = …(ii)
40 30° b
= m
3 Squaring and adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
14. (a,b,c,d) Taking block and wedge as a system, we can analyze x2 y2
2
+ 2 =1
that there is no horizontal force acting on a system. So, a b
horizontal momentum is conserved. Therefore, path of the particle is an ellipse. Hence, option (a) is
correct. From the given equations, we can find
dx
= v x = - ap sin pt Y
v dt
2 t=t
v Hmax d x
u
2
= ax = - ap2 cos pt r
dt X
(i) (ii) O
dy
= v y = bp cos pt and
dt
v1 2
d y
= ay = - bp2 sin pt
dt 2
v2
p
(iii)
At time t = p /2 p or pt = ,
2

61
p 21. (a,c) There are no horizontal forces acting on the R plus
• ax and v y becomes zero (because cos = 0.)
2 B system. Hence, its centre of mass will move down vertically
Only v x and ay are left and horizontal momentum will be conserved.
or we can say that velocity
22. (a,d) So, velocity of first particle
is along negative X-axis and acceleration along Y-axis.
= ( 3 cos 37° $i + 3 sin 37° $j ) =
12 $
i + $j
9
• Hence, at t = p /2 p, velocity and acceleration of the particle. 5 5
Hence, at t = p /2 p velocity and acceleration of the particle Velocity of second particle,
are normal to each other. So, option (b) is also correct.
= ( 4 cos 53° $i + 4 sin 53° $j ) =
12 $ 16 $
i + j
At t = t , position of the particle 5 5
r(t ) = x $i + y$j = a cos pt $i + b sin pt $j So, relative horizontal velocity is zero. So, their relative
Y velocity is vertical only. Since, both particles are moving
t=2π/p under gravity, so their relative acceleration is zero.
Their relative velocity = æç
vy 16 9 ö 7
b - ÷ = = 14 . m/s
a è5 5ø 5
X
O ax
23. (a,c) Vertical component of velocity of ball at point P
Þ v v = 0 + gt = 10 ´ 0.4 = 4 m/s
t=0 Horizontal component of velocity = Initial velocity
and acceleration of the particle is Þ v H = 4 m/s
a (t ) = ax $i + ay $j = - p2 [a cos pt $i + b sin pt $j ]
= - p2 [ x $i + y$j ]
4 m/s

= - p2 r (t ) P
vH
θ
• Therefore, acceleration of the particle is always directed
towards origin. v
Hence, option (c) is also correct. vv
• At t = 0, particle is at ( a, 0) and t = p /2 p particle is at ( 0, b ). So, the speed with which it hits the ground
Therefore, the distance covered is one-fourth of the elliptical v = v H2 + v v2 = 4 2 m/s
path not a.
vv 4
Hence, option (d) is wrong. and tan q = = =1 Þ q = 45°
vH 4
17. (b,c,d) Since, the ball is moving with a very small speed in the
It means that ball hits the ground at an angle of 45° to the
moving train, the direction of motion of the ball is the same as
horizontal.
that of the train. The direction of motion of ball does not
1 1
change with respect to observer on ground. Height of the table, h = gt 2 = ´ 10 ´ ( 0.4)2 = 0.8 m
2 2
The speed of the ball as observed by observer on ground
Horizontal distance travelled by the ball from the edge of
before collision with side of train is (10 + 1) = 11 m/s and after
table h = ut = 4 ´ 0.4 = 16
. m
elastic collision is (10 - 1) = 9 m/s.
Since, the collision of the ball with side of train is perfectly 24. (a,b) Component of A along B is | A| cos q B$ for q being the
elastic, the total momentum and kinetic energy are angle between the vectors.
conserved, so average speed of the ball over any 20 s $i + $j
interval is constant as observed by observer on ground. • Also, B$ = . So, choice (a) is correct.
2
Since, train is moving with constant velocity, it is an inertial
frame, so acceleration of ball is same as from the train. • The vector ( $i - $j ) is perpendicular to the vector ( $i + $j ).
æ $i - $j ö
18. (c,d) The displacement is the area with which the velocity-time • So, other resolved component is| A| sin q çç ÷.
÷
graph encloses with time-axis for a given interval of time. è 2 ø
Since, the area of velocity-time graph for time 0 to 5 s is the
25. (b,d) If two vectors are normal to each other, then their dot
same as area of the velocity-time graph for 5 s to 10 s, hence
product is zero.
average speed in these intervals is same.
(v 1 + v 2 ) × (v 1 - v 2 ) = 0
19. (c,d) In the given condition, the particle undergoes uniform Þ v 12 - v 22 = 0
circular motion and for uniform circular motion, the velocity
and acceleration vector changes continuously but kinetic Þ v 12 = v 22
energy is constant for every point. Þ v 1 = v 2 or| v 1| = | v 2|
20. (a,b,d) Projectiles with the same initial speed have the same 26. (a,b,c,d) Displacement = Velocity × Time
horizontal range for complimentary angles of projection.
• In time 0 to 2, the displacement.
Here, q1 = 90 - q 2. = - Area of DOAB + Area of DOAD + Area of DDBC = 0

62
Since, OA = BC , so initial and final speeds are the same. 29. (c) Time taken to reach the highest point from the height h is
The slope of velocity-time graph represents acceleration. Here, obtained from v = u + at
the velocity-time graphs AB is a straight line inclined to u
Þ 0 = u - gt or t = .
time-axis, hence, has equal acceleration throughout. The g
particle changes its direction of motion after time T.
Height attained above h is obtained from
27. (b,c) At initial point ( P ), v x = v cos q and v y = v sin q. Þ v 2 = u 2 - 2 as
At second point Q, where particle moves at right angle to its u2
direction, let its velocity be v ¢. or 0 - u 2 = 2( - g ) s or s =
cos q 2g
Then, v x¢ = v sin q and v x = v cos q Þ v ¢ = v cot q
sin q u2
Total height = + h
v y - v y¢ 2g
Since, v y¢ = gt or t =
g Time taken to hit the ground is obtained from
v sin q - v ¢cos q v sin q - v cos q × cos q 1 u2 1
\ t = = s = ut + at 2 or + h = 0 + gt 2
g g 2 2g 2
v sin q v v u 2 + 2 gh
= (1 - cot q) = = cosec q \ Total time taken (t ) =
g g sin q g g
28. (c) As, we know that equation of a projectile motion of a 30. (b) The position of the particle is given by
at = 5$i t + ( 3$i + 2 $j ) t 2
particle, 1 2 1
r(t ) = v 0 t +
y = ax - bx 2 2 2
. t 2 ) $i + t 2 $j
= ( 5t + 15
For height of y to be maximum, we get
dy \ x(t ) = 5 t + 1.5 t 2
= 0 or ( a - 2 bx ) = 0
dx and . t2
y(t ) = 10
a Given, x(t ) = 84 m
or x= .
2b Then, 5 t + 1.5 t 2 = 84
2
a2
ymax = a æç ö÷ - b æç ö÷ = Þ t = 6s
a a
Therefore,
è2 b ø è2 b ø 4b At t = 6s, y = 1.0 ( 6)2 = 36 m
æ dy ö = a = tan q Now, the velocity, v =
dr
= ( 5 + 3 t ) $i + 2t $j
and ç ÷
è dx ø x = 0 dt
where, q = angle of projection. At t = 6 s, v = 23$i + 12 $j
\ q = tan-1 ( a ) \ Speed = | v| = 23 2 + 12 2
@ 26 ms -1

DETAILED SOLUTIONS
NCERT EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
FOR CLASS XIth & XIIth

F259 `150 F251 `150 F280 `175 F281 `150 F279 `175 F282 `175

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NIKOLA TESLA’’.

WERNER HEISENBERG NIKOLA TESLA


‘‘Natural science does not simply describe and explain ‘‘Let the future tell the truth and evaluate each one
nature; it is part of the interplay between nature and according to his work and accomplishments. The
ourselves.’’ present is theirs; the future, for which I have really
worked, is mine.’’
LIFE HISTORY
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901-1 February 1976) was a German LIFE HISTORY
theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856-7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor,
published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist and futurist best known for
of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this his contributions to the design of the modern Alternating Current (AC)
matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. In electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical
1927, he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas
philosophy and for which he is best known. Heisenberg was awarded the Edison in New York City. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers,
Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 ‘‘for the creation of mechanics’’. He also setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices.
made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of His work in the formative years of electric power development was involved in
turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays and a corporate alternating current/direct current. Tesla went on to pursue his
subatomic and he was instrumental in planning the first West German ideas of wireless lighting and electricity distribution in his high-voltage,
nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research in Munich, in 1957. high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs and
made early (1893) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless
CONTRIBUTIONS communication with his devices.
• Werner Heisenberg Atomic Theory This provides a clear concept for
the wave nature of electron and also brought across the concept of CONTRIBUTIONS
orbital or the three dimensional spaces. • Alternating Current Tesla responded by demonstrating that AC was
• The Uncertainty Principle It’s a formulation explaining that when perfectly safe by famously shooting current through his own body to
wavelengths of light are shone through a particle (this is done in order to produce light.
be able to observe a particles measurable/observable quantities; energy, • Light Tesla developed and used fluorescent bulbs in his lab some 40 years
momentum, positions and angular momentum). before industry invented them.
• Werner’s Coordination Theory A coordination compound is one • X-rays and Radio • Electric Motor • Laser and Robotics

which contains a central metal atom or ion surrounded by a number of • Wireless Communications and Limitless Free Energy.
oppositely charged ions or neutral molecules. AWARDS AND HONOURS
• Matrix Mechanics It is one of the first and most used formulations of • The Nikola Tesla Award.
quantum mechanics, discovered by Heisenberg in 1925. • Tesla Motors, an American electric car manufacture.
AWARDS AND HONOURS • Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Croatian affiliate of the Swedish
• Honorary doctorates from the University of Bruxelles, the telecommunications equipment manufacturer.
Technological University of Karlsruhe and the University of Budapest. • Nikola Tesla Day in Croatia, 10 July and Nikola Tesla annual electric
• Order of Merit of Bavaria and Romano Guardini Prize. vehicle rally in Croatia.
• Tesla, an SI-derived unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic
• Grand Cross for Federal Service with Star.
inductivity).
• Knight of the Order of Merit (Civil Class).
• Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport and Nikola Tesla Museum Archive in
• Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1955.
Belgrade.
• 1932-Nobel Prize in Physics ‘‘for the creation of Quantum Mechanics, • TPP Nikola Tesla, the largest power plant in Serbia.
the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the • 128 streets in Croatia had been named after Nikola Tesla as of November
allotropic forms of hydrogen’’.
2008, making him the eighth most common person eponym of streets in
• 1933-Max-Planck-Medaille of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. the country.
1. A box of mass M is suspended by a cord of length l The collision between the two satellites are perfectly
and shot of mass m is fired into it. The shot gets inelastic. If combined mass hit the Earth’s surface,
embedded in it and the box recoils through an arc, then find at what angle, it will be horizontal.
the length of whose cord is k. Find the velocity of the æ2 3 ö æ2 2 ö
(a) q = cos -1 çç ÷÷ (b) q = cos -1 çç ÷÷
shot. è 19 ø è 19 ø
æ M + mö g æM ö g æ2 3 ö æ2 2 ö
(a) v 0 = ç ÷× k (b) v 0 = ç ÷ × k (c) q = sin-1 çç ÷÷ (d) q = sin-1 çç ÷÷
è m ø l è mø l è 19 ø è 19 ø
æ M - mö g æ mö 2g
(c) v 0 = ç
è m ø
÷×k (d) v 0 = ç ÷ × k
èM ø
4. An air bubble starts rising from the bottom of the
l l
lake. Its diameter is 3.6 mm at the bottom and 4 mm
2. A conical cup of height b, at the surface. The depth of the lake is 250 cm and
semi-vertical angle a rests open α the temperature at the surface is 40°C. What is the
dy
end down on a flat surface as temperature (T1 ) at the bottom of the lake?
b
shown below. The cup is filled
H
[Given, atmospheric pressure = 76 cm of Hg and
to height H with liquid of y g = 980 cm/s2 ]
density r. What is the upward (a) T1 = 9.80°C (b) T1 = 12.45°C
lifting force on the cup? (c) T1 = 10.35°C (d) T1 = 10.48°C
æ H2 ö æ 2 H3 ö
(a) F = prg çç bH 2 - ÷ (b) F = prg çç bH - ÷ tan2 a 5. A short magnet makes 40 oscillations per minute
è 4 ÷ø è 3 ÷ø when used in a vibration magnetometer at a place
æ H3 ö where Earth’s horizontal components of magnetic
(c) F = prg çç bH 2 + ÷ tan2a
è 3 ÷ø field is 25 mT. Another short magnet of the magnetic
æ H2 ö moment is 1.6 Am2 is placed North-South and 20 cm
(d) F = prg çç b - ÷ sin2 a
è 4 ÷ø East of the oscillation magnet. Find the new
frequency of oscillation if the magnet has its North
3. A satellite of mass 2m is in a circular orbit of radius pole towards North.
2R around the Earth. By mistake, another satellite is (a) n2 = 17.9 osc/min (b) n2 = 15.0 osc/min
put in the same orbit and having opposite sense of (c) n2 = 12.8 osc/min (d) n2 = 14.8 osc/min
rotation.

Answers with Explanation


O
1. (a) Let, OA be the initial position of the cord From DOCB, (CB)2 = (OB)2 - (OC )2 = l2 - (OC )2 …(i)
with box at A. Let, the box swing along the and from DACB, (CB)2 = ( AB)2 - (CA )2 = k 2 - (CA )2 …(ii)
curve AB, after being short by the bullet. \ From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
lC B
k 2 - (CA )2 = l2 - (OC )2 = l2 - ( l - CA )2
Now clearly, rise in the height of the bullet N k2
box system = AC. Þ k 2 - (CA )2 = l 2 - [l2 + (CA )2 - 2 l × CA ] Þ CA =
A 2l
[where C is the foot of the perpendicular
from B on OA]. If v be the velocity of the (bullet + box) system just after impact,
then from law of conservation of energy, we get

72
Kinetic energy at A = Potential energy at B p2 GM ( 3m)
2 \ Total energy of a satellite = -
1 ækö 6m R
Þ ( M + m) . v 2 = ( M + m) . g . ç ÷
2 è2 lø Hence, by conservation of energy
gk 2 g p2 3 GMm - 17 GMm 19 GM
Þ v =
2
Þv = k× …(iii) - = Þ p= m
l l 6m R 12 r 2 R
Now, if v 0 be the initial velocity of bullet, then from principle of By conservation of angular momentum, we have
conservation of linear momentum, we have R p cos q = 3mv (2 R )
g æ 19 GM ö æ 1 GM ö
mv 0 = ( M + m) k [from Eq. (iii)] Þ R çç m ÷ cos q = 3m çç ÷÷ (2 R )
l è2 R ÷ø è 3 2R ø
æ M + mö g 2 2 2 2
or v0 = ç ÷k Þ cos q = ´ =
è m ø l 2 19 19
2. (b) The conical cup can be imagined to be -1 æ 2 2 ö
Þ q = cos çç ÷÷
consisted of a large number of differential è 19 ø
rings as shown in the figure. The projected r
area in the horizontal plane is 2 p rdr. 4. (c) At the bottom of the lake,
4 3 4
Pressure of the differential ring shown in the
dr
Volume of the bubble, V1 = pr1 = p ( 018 . )3 cm3
figure is p = r × g ( H - y) 3 3
The vertical force on the projected area, we Pressure on the bubble, p1 = [Atmospheric pressure +
get Pressure due to a column of 250 cm of water]
dF = rg ( H - y) × (2 pr. dr ) = [76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980 + 250 ´ 1 ´ 980]
But, r = ( b - y) tan a Þ dr = - dy tan a p1 = (76 ´ 13.6 + 250) ´ 980 dyne/cm2
Therefore, total lifting force, i.e. T1 = ?
0 At the surface of the lake,
F = òH rg ( H - y) . [2 p ( b - y) tan a] . ( - dy tan a)
4 4
Volume of the bubble, V2 = pr23 = p ( 0.2 )3 cm3
0
= - 2 prg tan2 a ò ( h - y) ( b - y) dy 3 3
H
Pressure on the bubble, p2 = (76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980) dyne/cm2
æ H 3ö
T2 = (273 + 40) = 313 K
Þ F = prg çç bH 2 - ÷ tan2 a
è 3 ÷ø 4
(76 ´ 13.6 + 250) ´ 980 ´ p ( 018 . )3
pV pV 3
3. (b) Speed of each satellite before collision, θ
Now, 1 1 = 2 2 =
T1 T2 T1
GM
we get u = R 4
2R (76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980) ´ p ( 02 . )3
= 3
Let v be the velocity of combined after 2R 313
collision, then by conservation of momentum
1283 ´ ( 018
. )3 1033.6 ´ ( 0.2 )3
2 mu - mu = 3v = =
u 1 GM T1 313
Þ v = = 1283 ´ ( 018
. )3 ´ 313
3 3 2R T1 = = 283.35 K
\ Total mechanical energy just after collision 1033.6 ´ ( 0.2 )3
1 Gm ( 3m) -17 GMm \ T1 = (283.35 - 273)°C = 10.35°C
= ( 3 m) v 2 - =
2 2R 12 R Now, temperature (T1 ) at the bottom of the lake.
Let r be the minimum radius vector, then by conservation of 5. (a) Magnetic induction due to the short magnet at the centre
angular momentum.
2 Rv of oscillating magnet will be
3mv ¢r = 3mv (2 R ) or v ¢ = m M 10 -7 ´ 16 .
r B1 = 0 ´ 3 = = 2 ´ 10 -5 T = 20 mT
By conservation of energy, we have 4p d 8 ´ 10 -3
1 GM ( 3m) - 17 GMm I
( 3 m) v 2 - = × Then, T1 = 2 p
2 r 12 R MBH
2
1 é 2 R GM ù 3 GMm - 17 GMm 1 4p 2I
Þ ( 3 m) ê ú - = × \ T12 = 2
= …(i)
2 ë 3r 2 R û r 12 R n1 MBH
Þ 17 r 2 - 36 Rr + 4R 2 = 0. 1 4p 2I
Similarly, T2 = 2 =
2
…(ii)
2R n2 M ( BH - BI )
Þ r = 2 R,
17 Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get
2R
As r = < R, the combined mass hit the Earth’s surface. n22 ( BH - BI ) (25 - 20) 1
17 = = =
n12 BH 25 5
Now, let the angular momentum of the combined mass when
it hits the Earth = p \ New frequency of oscillation, if the magnet has its North
pole towards North,
p2 p2
\ Its kinetic energy (KE) = = n
n2 = 1 =
40
= 17.9 osc/min
2 ( 3 m) 6 m
5 5

73
EXTRA DOSE

EXEMPLAR
I I
S MPL F ED I
EXTRACT OF EXTRAORDINARY EXEMPLAR PROBLEM

MOTION IN A PLANE
Single Option Correct Type 5. Following are four different relations about
displacement, velocity and acceleration for the
1. Which one of the following statements is true?
motion of a particle in general. Choose the incorrect
(a) A scalar quantity is the one that is conserved in a process.
one(s).
(b) A scalar quantity is the one that can never take negative
1
values. (a) v av = [v (t 1 ) + v (t 2 )]
(c) A scalar quantity is the one that does not vary from one point 2
to another in space. r(t ) - r(t 1 )
(b) v av = 2
(d) A scalar quantity has the same value for observers with (t 2 - t 1 )
different orientations of the axes. 1
(c) r = [{ v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )} . (t 2 - t 1 )]
2. The component of a vector r along X-axis will have 2
maximum value if v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )
(d) a av =
(t 2 - t 1 )
(a) r is along positive Y-axis
(b) r is along positive X-axis 6. A particle slides Y
(c) r makes an angle of 45° with the X-axis down a frictionless A
P
(d) r is along negative Y-axis parabolic (y = x 2 )
3. In a two-dimensional motion, instantaneous speed track ( A - B - C) v0 θ
v0 is a positive constant. Then, which of the starting from rest at C
following are necessarily true? point A in the given x
–x2 –x1 B –x0
(a) The average velocity is not zero at any time figure. Point B is at (x=0)
(b) Average acceleration must always vanish the vertex of
(c) Displacements in equal time intervals are equal parabola and point C is at a height less than that of
(d) Equal path lengths are traversed in equal intervals point A. After C, the particle moves freely in air as a
projectile. If the particle reaches at the highest point
Multiple Option Correct Type at P, then
4. Two particles are projected in air with speed v0 at (a) kinetic energy at point P = kinetic energy at point B
the angles q1 and q2 (both acute) to the horizontal (b) height at point P > height at point A
(c) total energy at point P = total energy at point A
respectively. If the height reached by the first
(d) time of travel from A to B > time of travel from B to P
particle is greater than that of the second, then tick
the right choices. 7. For two vectors A and B, | A + B| =| A - B| is always
true when
(a) Angle of projection q1 > q 2
(a)| A| = |B| ¹ 0
(b) Time of flight T1 > T2
(b) A ^ B
(c) Horizontal range R1 > R 2
(c)| A | = |B| ¹ 0 and A and B are parallel or anti-parallel
(d) Total energy U1 > U 2
(d) When either| A| or|B| is zero

74
Very Short Answer Type 13. |A| = 2 and|B| = 4, then match the relations in Column I
8. A cyclist starts from centre O of a circular park of with the angle q between A and B in Column II.
radius 1 km along the path OPRQO as shown in Column I Column II
the below figure. If he maintains constant speed of (a) |A ´ B| = 0 (i) q = 30 °
10 ms -1, what is his acceleration at point R in (b) |A ´ B| = 8 (ii) q = 45 °
magnitude and direction? (c) |A ´ B| = 4 (iii) q = 90 °
(d) |A ´ B| = 4 2 (iv) q = 0°
Q
R
Long Answer Type
14. A cricket fielder can throw the cricket ball with a
P speed v0 . If he throws the ball while running with a
O
speed u, at an angle q to the horizontal. Find
(a) the effective angle to the horizontal at which the ball is
projected in air as seen by a spectator.
(b) what will be the time of flight?
9. A, B and C are three non-collinear, non-coplanar (c) what is the distance (horizontal range) from the point of
vectors. What can you say about the direction of projection at which the ball will land?
A ´ (B ´ C)? (d) q at which he should throw the ball that would maximize the
horizontal range as found in (c).
Short Answer Type (e) how does q for maximum range change if u > v 0, u = v 0,
u = v 0?
10. A flighter plane is flying horizontally at an altitude (f) how does q in (e) compare with that for u = 0 (i.e., 45°)?
of 1.5 km with speed 720 km/h. At what angle of 15. A hill is 500 m high. Supplies are to be sent across the
sight (with respect to horizontal) when the target is hill using a cannon that can hurl packets at a speed
seen, should the pilot drop the bomb in order to of 125 m/s over the hill. The cannon is located at a
attack the target? distance of 800 m from the foot of hill and can be
11. If | A| = 2 and |B| = 4, then match the relations in moved on the ground at a speed of 2 m/s, so that its
Column I with the angle q between A and B in distance from the hill can be adjusted. What is the
Column II. shortest time in which a packet can reach on the
Column I Column II ground across the hill? (Take, g = 10 m / s2 )
(a) A ×B = 0 (i) q = 0° 16. A man wants to reach from A to the opposite corner of
(b) A ×B = 8 (ii) q = 90° the square C. The sides of the square are 100 m. A
(c) A ×B = 4 (iii) q = 180° central square of 50 m ´ 50 m is filled with sand.
(d) A ×B = -8 (iv) q = 60° Outside this square, he can walk at a speed 1 m/s. In
the central square, he can walk only at a speed of v
12. (a) Earth can be thought of as a sphere of 6400 m/s (v < 1). What is the smallest value of v for which
km. Any object or a person is performing he can reach faster via a straight path through the
circular motion around the axis of Earth due sand then any path in the square outside the sand?
to Earth’s rotation (period 1 day). What is the
D C
acceleration of object on the surface of the
Earth (at equator) towards its centre? What is Q
latitude q? How does these accelerations
compare with g = 9.8 m/s2 ?
(b) Earth also moves in a circular orbit around the
50 mm
Sun once every year with an orbital radius of P R
. ´ 1011m. What is the acceleration of Earth
15
(or any object on the surface of the Earth)
towards the centre of the Sun? How does this A B
100 mm
acceleration compare with g = 9.8 m/s2 ?

Quantum computers use spin of an electron to store information known as


quantum bit . This enables quantum computers to perform complex calculations
faster than the classical computers.

75
Answers with Explanation
Q
1. (d) A scalar quantity has the same value for observers with 8. Centripetal acceleration, R
different orientations of the axes. v2 10 2
ac = =
2. (b) If r makes an angle q with X-axis, then component of r 10000
O
P
r along X-axis = rcos q. . m/s 2 along RO.
= 01
It will be maximum, if cos q = max = 1 or q = 0 °,
9. (B ´ C ) will act perpendicular to the plane containing B and C
i.e. r is along positive X-axis.
and is directed as given by right-hand rule. A ´ (B ´ C ) will lie
3. (d) In two-dimensional motion, if instantaneous speed is a in the plane of B and C and is perpendicular to vector A.
positive constant, then the equal path lengths are traversed in
10. When the flighter plane is at A moving with the horizontal
equal intervals of time. speed u(= 720 km/h = 200 m/s) observes the target at C. Let,
4. (a, b) Height of a projected particle, ÐCAB = q. He releases a bomb at A with horizontal velocity
v 02 sin2 q 200 m/s and it hits the target on A u B
h= i.e. h µ sin2 q ground after time t .
2g θ
Taking horizontal motion of
h1 sin2 q1 flighter plane from A to B, 1500 m
\ = >1
h2 sin2 q 2 where B is vertically above the
target, we have C
So, sin2 q1> sin2 q 2 or q1 > q 2.
AB = ut = 200 ´ t
2 v 0 sin q …(i)
Time of flight, T = or T µ sin q
g Taking vertical downward motion of bomb from A to C, we have
T1 sin q1 1
\ = > 1 or T1 > T2 BC = ´ 9.8 t 2 = 4.9 t 2
T2 sin q 2 2
u 2 sin 2 q 1500
Horizontal range, R = or R µ sin 2 q or 1500 = 4.9 t 2 or t = = 17.49 s
g 4.9
\ AB = (200 ´ 17.49) m
R1 sin 2 q1
\ = £ 1 or R1 £ R 2. BC 1500
R 2 sin 2 q 2 tan q = = = 0.4287
AB 200 ´ 17.49
Total energy of each particle will be equal to kinetic energy of
q = tan-1 ( 0. 4287 ) Þ q = 23°12 ¢
each particle at the time of its projection.
5. (b, d) For the motion of a particle, if acceleration is not 11. Given,| A| = 2 and|B| = 4
uniform, then the relations. (a) A × B = 0 or AB × cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or 0 = 8 cos q or
1
v av = [v (t 1 ) + v (t 2 )] is incorrect. cos q = 0 or q = 90°. It matches with option (ii).
2 (b) A × B = 8 or AB × cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = 1 or q = 0°.
r(t ) - r(t 1 ) It matches with option (i).
v av = 2 is correct.
(t 2 - t 1 ) (c) A × B = 4 or AB.cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = 1 / 2
1 or q = 60°. It matches with option (iv).
r= [{ v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )} . (t 2 - t 1 )] is incorrect.
2 (d) A × B = - 8 or 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = - 1 or q = 180°.
v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 ) It matches with option (iii).
a av = is correct.
(t 2 - t 1 ) 12. (a) Here, R = 6400 km = 6.4 ´ 106 m, T = 24 ´ 60 ´ 60 s
6. (c, d) Since y = x , 2
Y Acceleration of object on the surface of the earth,
the motion is in A
P R.4p 2 ( 6.4 ´ 10 6 ) ´ 4 ´ (22 / 7 )2
two-dimension as a c = Rw 2 = 2
= = 0.034 m/s 2
shown in the figure. T (24 ´ 60 ´ 60)2
Velocity at point B is v0 θ At latitude q = 0°, the value of R remains the same, hence, no
greater than at point P. change in the value of ac = 0.034 m/s 2
C
In the given motion of
X ac 0.034 1
a particle, the law of –x2 –x1 B –x0 Now, = = which is much smaller than 1.
conservation of energy (x=0) g 9.8 288
is obeyed. Therefore, total energy at point P = total energy at (b) Here, R = 1.5 ´ 1011 m
point A. As a vertical distance AB > AP, time of travel from A . ´ 10 7 s
T = 365 ´ 24 ´ 60 ´ 60 s = 315
to B is greater than that from B to P.
Acceleration of earth, a c = R 4p 2
7. (b, d) When A is perpendicular to B, then . ´ 1011 ) ´ 4 ´ ( 3142
(15 . )2
| A + B| = A 2 + B2 + 2 AB cos 90° = A 2 + B2 = = 5.97 ´ 10 -3 m/s 2
. ´ 10 7 )2
( 315
| A - B| = A 2 + B2 - 2 AB cos 90° = A 2 + B2 ac 5.97 ´ 10 -3 1
= =
When| A| = 0 or|B| = 0, g 9.8 1642
then| A + B| = | A - B|

76
13. Here, |A| = 2 and|B| = 4 15. The initial minimum vertical velocity (u y ) required to just cross
(a) | A ´ B| = 0 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 0 and the hill is
q = 0°. It matches with option (iv). u y ³ 2 gh ³ 2 ´ 10 ´ 500 > 100 m/s
(b) | A ´ B| = 8 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 1 and The initial horizontal velocity,
q = 90°. It matches with option (iii).
(c) | A ´ B| = 4 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 1 / 2 and u x = u 2 - u y2 = (125)2 - (100)2 = 75 m/s
q = 30°. It matches with option (i).
Time taken to reach the top of the hill,
1
(d) | A ´ B | = 4 2 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 2h 2 ´ 500
2 t = = = 10 s
and q = 45°. It matches with option (ii). g 10
Horizontal distance y
14. (a) Here, at point O, u x = u + v 0 cos q
covered in 10 s,
u y = v 0 sin q Y
= u x ´ t = 75 ´ 10
u v 0 sin q
tan q = y = = 750 m u A
u x u + v 0 cos q v0
A
So, cannon has to be
é v 0 sin q ù
v0 sin θ

uy 500 m
or q = tan-1 ê ú
moved through a distance
ë u + v 0 cos q û θ X
= ( 800 - 750) m ux B C
x
O
(b) Let T be the time of flight O (u+v0 cos θ) B = 50 m 800 m
of cricket ball from O to B, Time taken to move the cannon through 50 m on the ground
then taking vertical motion of ball from O to B, we have 50
y0 = 0 = = 25 s
2
y = 0, u y = v 0 sin q, ay = - g , t = T
1 Total time taken by packet to reach ground the hill
As, y = y0 + u y t + ay t 2
2 = (25 + 10 + 10) s = 45 s
1 2 v 0 sin q 16. In square ABCD as shown in figure below
\ 0 = 0 + v 0 sin qT + ( - g )T 2 or T =
2 g
AR = 75 2 + 25 2 = 25 10 = RC
(c) Horizontal range, R = (u + v 0 cos q) T
2 v 0 sin q v 0 Total path = ( AR + RC ) = 2 AR = 50 10 m
= (u + v 0 cos q) = [2u sin q + v 0 sin 2 q]
g g 50 10
Time outside the sand, Tout = = 50 10 s
dR 1 m/s
(d) Horizontal range will be maximum, if =0
dq D C
dR v 0
\ = [2u cos q + v 0 cos 2 q ´ 2 ] = 0
dq g Q

or 2u cos q + 2 v 0 [2 cos 2 q - 1] = 0
or 4v 0 cos 2 q + 2u cos q - 2 v 0 = 0
50 mm
- 2u ± 4u 2 + 32 v 02 -u ± u 2 + 8v 02 P R
or cos q = =
8v 0 4v 0
é - u ± u 2 + 8v 2 ù A B
or qmax = cos -1 ê 0
ú 100 mm
êë 4v 0 úû
( AP + QC ) PQ
In sand, Tsand = +
- v0 ± v 02 + 8v 02 - 1+ 3 1 1 v
(e) (i) If u = v 0, then cos q = = =
4v 0 4 2 é æ 25 2 + 25 2 ö æ 50 2 ö ù é 1ù
= êç ÷+ ç ÷ ú = 50 2 ê1 + ú
or cos q = cos 60° or q = 60° ë è 1 ø è v ø û ë vû
(ii) If u < v 0, then 8v 02 + u 2 @ 8 v 02 Since, Tsand < Tout
é - u ± 2 2 v0 ù -1 é 1 u ù
50 2 æç1 + ö÷ < 50 10
-1 1
qmax = cos ê ú = cos ê - \
ë 4v 0 û ë 2 4v 0 úû è vø
é 1 ù p
2 æç1 + ö÷ < 10
If u << v 0, then qmax = cos -1 = 1
êë 2 úû 4 or
è vø
(iii) If u > v 0 and u >> v 0
é- u ± uù æ1 + 1ö 10
qmax = cos -1 ê -1 p or ç ÷< = 5
ú = cos ( 0) = 2 è vø 2
ë 4v 0 û
1
é 0 ± 8v 2 ù or < ( 5 - 1)
(f) If u = 0, qmax = cos -1 ê -1 æ 1 ö = 45° v
0
ú = cos ç ÷
êë 4v 0 úû è2 ø 1
or v < » 0.81 m/s
( 5 - 1)

77
Arjun Sharma

DO YOU
KNOW
• Do you know, how powerful lasers compressed a diamond to • Do you know, the Earth-like planet may exist in a nearby star
simulate the centres of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn? system?
Jupiter and Saturn are the two largest planets in our solar system but yet According to a new research, an Earth-like planet may be lurking in a
inside them is almost a mystery-if their centres are liquid or solid. So, to star system located just 16 light years away. The star, named Gliese
recreate the inside of these massive planets, scientists put a carbon-rich 832 was recently investigated by a team of astronomers, is a red
object, a diamond, under the intense pressure and heat, to form the dwarf and has just half the mass and radius of our Sun. The star is
world’s most powerful laser. They got the diamond to squeeze down orbited by a giant Jupiter-like exoplanet designated Gliese 832b and
fourfold. The pressure increased to 50 million atmospheres-14 times the by a super-Earth mass planet Gliese 832 c. The gas giant, with a
pressure at Earth’s core and the temperature got even hotter than Jupiter’s mass of 0.64 Jupiter masses, is orbiting the star at a distance of 3.53
core. So, scientists explained us to better understand how carbon-rich AU while the other planet is potentially a rocky world, around five times
materials behave under the extreme pressures and temperatures in the core more massive than the Earth, residing very close its host star—about
of massive, gaseous planets and also shed light on how these planets form. 0.16 AU.
• Do you know, physicists made powerful, stellar explosions called • Do you know, the new 17-million-digit number is largest
Supernovas? known prime?
During a supernova, a star explodes, ejecting its guts across space and The largest known prime number has just shot up to 2 57, 885,161 − 1,
leaving only a ghostly halo of gas and dust, called a supernovae remnant, breaking a four-year dry spell in the search for new, ever-larger
behind. Astrophysicists have observed supernovae remnants of all shapes primes. In the University of Central Missouri in Warrensburg made
and sizes but have yet to understand why they are all so different. So, a the find as part of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
team of international physicists used one of the world’s most powerful (GIMPS), a distributed computing project designed to hunt for a
laser facilities, the Vulcan laser facility in the UK, to recreate this particular kind of prime number first identified in the 17th century. All
astronomical event. Three laser beams focused on a carbon-rod as thick prime numbers can only be divided by themselves and 1. The rare
as a human hair and heated it to about 5.4 million degrees Fahrenheit at Mersenne primes all have the form 2 p − 1, where p is itself a prime
which point the rod exploded. In some of the experiments, they placed a number. The new prime, which has over 17 million digits, is only the
small plastic grid (which would resemble a clump of gas or dust in space) 48th Mersenne prime ever found and the 14th discovered by GIMPS.
near the rod that then disturbed the flow of gas from the explosion’s shock
wave. The result, they discovered, was irregular features that might explain
• Do you know, the rare and mysterious facts related to the
the variety of irregularly-shaped supernova remnants. phenomenon of Ball Lightning?
Ball lightning is a floating sphere or disk of lightning up to 10 feet
• Do you know, the facts related to Quantum Computing? across that lasts only seconds. Scientists in China provide the
Quantum computers aren’t just for browsing the internet, checking e-mail, surmounting evidence to support ball lightning’s existence and also
or running standard software. But, they also rely on implementing the took the first spectrum of the rare phenomenon. A spectrum is the
underpinnings of quantum mechanics, a branch of Physics that will rainbow of individual wavelengths of light from a given source and is
manipulate individual particles and solve previously unsolvable problems. used to figure out its chemical make up because different atoms give
This opens up some exciting possibilities, especially in a branch of off different energies of light when excited. In the ball lightning’s
Mathematics known as ‘optimization’. For such a specific branch of Math, spectra, the physicists saw minerals from soil, which supports the
this field addresses some of the most tangible problems in the real world theory that ball lightning forms after a bolt of lightning strikes the
that will provide better options to utilize best route for a UPS truck to make ground. The lightning vaporizes the silicon in the soil, making a
its deliveries and to scheduled flights at an airport to keep things running floating ball of silicon that interacts with oxygen in the air, making
smoothly. it glow.
• Do you know, researchers transferred information in light four • Do you know, an individual blood cell takes about 60 s to
times farther than ever before? make a complete circuit of the body?
In our digital world, if we use quantum computers, then we must learn The human body contains about 5 L of blood in our body
how to transport information in the form of quantum data, or qubits, (atleast more people do) and the average heart pumps about 70 mL
which is encoded inside of subatomic particles, such as ions or photons of blood out with each beat. Also, a healthy heart beats around
(light particles). A team of physicists in Switzerland broke the record for the 70 times a minute. So, if we multiply the amount of blood that the
longest distance anyone had ever teleported, an information-encoded heart can pump by the number of beats in a minute, we actually get
photon, to a piece of matter, a crystal, without losing the information. The about 4.9 L of blood, which is almost our whole body’s worth of
physicists successfully teleported the photon 15.5 miles-4 times longer blood. In just a minute, the heart pumps the entire blood volume
than the previous record, the team had set. around our body.

78 JUNE 2016 PHYSICS SPECTRUM