The June-2016 edition of Arihant Spectrum

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The June-2016 edition of Arihant Spectrum

© All Rights Reserved

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FROM

THE EDITOR'S DESK

DAY, THE MOST

OVERWHELMING KEY

TO A CHILD'S

SUCCESS IS THE

POSITIVE

INVOLVEMENT OF

PARENTS."

JANE D. HULL

The role of Parents is very important in a may also learn from many different sources e.g., from teachers at

school, from TV programs, from their parents at home etc.

child’s education, especially for an IIT It is said that children learn the first and the most from their

aspirant. IIT JEE is the test of both parents. I agree with this belief. Children spend most of their time

Intelligence and emotional quotient. That’s with their parents and they are always watching what they did and

how they did it. In most of the cases the first idols of a child’s life are

why I consider, parental guidance as important their parents. Even though they don´t realize this.

as a mentor’s role in sharpening your skills. There is another belief that people when became old are going to be

just as their parents were. I can see this in my father, who is

Parents play a very important role in the lives of their gradually adapting to my grandfather every day. Even he has started

children. They have to build a solid foundation for their kids following those things from his father which bothered him earlier.

in order to provide them a successful and rewarding life. The These believes clearly indicate the importance of parents in

foundation of an individual can be broken down into several someone’s life.

different parts, such as morals, religious beliefs, political The moral support that a parent can provide on your failures can’t

standpoints, and education, to name a few. Likewise a child be expected from anybody else. However, sometimes it also

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FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK

happens that parental support often turns out to be an added soon becomes a metal block. Formation of this block is

pressure. We can define this pressure as “the pressure of tough to overpower and creates a great hindrance in their

expectation” or the “pressure of faith” in you. This faith may studies.

inculcate a fear i.e., the fear of not standing up to their 2. Secondly, do not impose too much of restrictions on your

expectations or the fear of failure on the D-day. At such a child. This may direct them towards revolt or non-cordial

juncture it is important not to lose focus on the present relations. These non-cordial relations do not holds good

preparation and self-motivate yourself. Following 5 mantras and create stress, frustration and finally reflect upon the

each for students and parents will help a lot to avoid such academic performance along with mental and social health

situations. of the student. In such a situation instead of scolding and

screaming out in frustration, both sides should discuss

FIVE MANTRAS FOR STUDENTS their differences with open minds.

1. Talk regularly to your parents. Many aspirants find refuge 3. In my opinion parents should recommend but not

from parental pressure by reducing communication with command; after all, one cannot clear IIT JEE until and

them, but instead one must indulge in regular interactions. unless he/she is self-motivated towards the goal. All that

This will help a lot. required is a balance between ‘parental guidance’ and

2. Never lied to them about anything. Even tell them you’re ‘parental pressure’.

below par performances and try to accept your failures as 4. While I say that parents should avoid unnecessary

your motivation and inspiration. One of my student’s was interference, it is also important for them to maintain

in the habit of sticking all his failures around his study regular touch with their ward, keep records of all tests and

table. According to him these failures always motivate him ask for explanations for each performance. It is widely

to do better. Today he is a successful Engineer in Armed accepted that most parents cannot directly help in the

Forces. studies of their ward but their moral support is very

3. Try to listen them carefully and at the same time you may important. At an age when the child is most vulnerable to

put your views also but in assertive manner only. get misled, parental support is the only thing that can keep

4. There is the possibility that the views of your parents things on the right track.

and you may not match. In such a case the acceptability at 5. Try to develop an ignorance factor as well for your ward.

both the ends is necessary e.g., I cannot impose my opinion Mix this wisely with your check or restrictions in

about chemistry on my son. He may have a different controlling your ward. Such a mixing always creates

perception about this subject according to his strength or positive impact of your actions on your ward’s mind.

weaknesses. So as a parent it’s my duty to listen and

understand his perception about this subject too.

Remember!

5. Most of your views may contradict with your parents.

No relation can be as strong as a ‘parent-child’ relation. It’s

This may be due to generation gap or anything else. Try to only your parents and teachers who selflessly wish for your

be open with your parents. Discuss your problems openly best. Understand their motive of constantly pushing you to

to seek their guidance and support. study, enquiring about your status in school and coaching,

imposing ‘restrictions’ upon you or any other action on their

FIVE MANTRAS FOR PARENTS part which supposedly ‘irritates’ you. Develop a mutual

1. The support of parents can create wonders for anybody. It understanding with them which will help you not just in

is really important for parents not to make their child clearing IIT JEE but also in your future ventures.

realise that IIT JEE is the end of the world. Such a realisation Further, always keep following great lines of ANNE FRANK

creates a mental pressure in student’s mind, which very in your mind

“Parents can only give good advice or show the right path, but the final

forming of a person’s character lies in their own hands”

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ENTER IN THE NEW ERA OF LEARNING

THROUGH

MASTER

THE NCERT

AN OBJECTIVE APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND NCERT

WITH MCQs ON EVERY LINE AND PARA TO

CONQUER EXAMS LIKE NEET & JEE

JEE MAIN 2016

PAPER I (Online)

FULLY SOLVED

INSTRUCTIONS

G

There are three parts in the question paper.

G

Each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.

G

Candidates will be awarded marks as stated above for correct response of each question. one-fourth

marks will be deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total

score will be made, if no response is indicated for an item in the answer sheet.

G

There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question

will be treated as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per

instructions.

on the body? (Graphs are schematic and not drawn

• In Physics paper, 17 questions were asked from class XII and 13 to scale)

questions from class XI. Most of the questions were asked from v

all chapters but more weightage given to Current Electricity. v

• According to topicwise distribution, the number of questions were

(a) (b)

asked from class XI-Unit, Dimensions and Vectors (1), Kinematics a a

(1), Laws of Motion (1), Work, Power and Energy (1), Centre of

Mass, Impulse Momentum (1), Simple Harmonic Motion (1), Solids t t

and Fluids (3) Waves (1) and Heat and Thermodynamics (2).

• As per topicwise distribution in class XII-Optics (3), Current a v

Electricity (4), Electrostatics (1), Magnetics (1), Alternating Current

(1), Atoms (3), Nuclei (2) and Semiconductor (2). (c) (d)

• As per difficulty level, around 44% of questions can be considered a

v

to easy overall, 42% of questions are relatively moderate and

t t

14% questions are to be tough by Arihant Team.

3. A rocket is fired vertically from the earth with an

1. In the following I refers to current and other acceleration of 2g, where g is the gravitational

symbols have their usual meanings. Choose the acceleration. On an inclined plane inside the

option that corresponds to the dimensions of rocket, making an angle q with the horizontal, a point

electrical conductivity. object of mass m is kept. The minimum coefficient of

friction m min between the mass and the inclined

(a) [ML-3 T -3 I 2 ] (b) [M-1 L3 T 3 I]

surface such that the mass does not move is

(c) [M-1 L-3 T 3 I 2 ] (d) [M-1 L-3 T 3 I]

(a) tan q (b) 2 tan q (c) 3 tan q (d) tan2 q

2. Which of the following option correctly describes

the variation of the speed v and acceleration a of a

4. A car of weight W is on an inclined road that rises by

point mass falling vertically in a viscous medium 100 m over a distance of 1 km and applies a constant

frictional force W/20 on the car.

14

While moving uphill on the road at a speed of 10 displacement - A / 2 and they are moving towards

ms -1 , the car needs power P. If it needs power P/2 each other. If they cross each other at time t, then t is

while moving downhill at speed v, then value of v is (a) T/6 (b) 5T/6 (c) T/3 (d) T/4

(a) 20 ms -1 (b) 15 ms -1 (c) 10 ms -1 (d) 5 ms -1 11. Two engines pass each other moving in opposite

5. A cubical block of side 30 cm is a=30 cm directions with uniform speed of 30 m/s. One of

moving with velocity 2 ms -1 on a them is blowing a whistle of frequency 540 Hz.

smooth horizontal surface. The O Calculate the frequency heard by driver of second

surface has a bump at a point O engine before they pass each other. Speed of sound

as shown in figure. The angular velocity (in rad/s) of is 330 m/s

the block immediately after it hits the bump, is (a) 450 Hz (b) 540 Hz (c) 648 Hz (d) 270 Hz

(a) 5.0 (b) 6.7 (c) 9.4 (d) 13.3 12. The potential (in volts) of a charge distribution is

6. Figure shows elliptical path c given by V (z) = 30 - 5z2 for |z| £ 1 m

abcd of a planet around the V (z) = 35 - 10|z| for |z| ³ 1m.

sun S such that the area of d b

V (z) does not depend on x and y. If this potential is

S

triangle cSa is 1/4 the area of generated by a constant change per unit volume

the ellipse. (See figure) With a r0 (in units of e0 ) which is spread over a certain

db as the semimajor axis and region, then choose the correct statement.

ca as the semiminor axis. If t1 is the time taken for (a) r 0 = 10 e0 for| z| £ 1 m and r 0 = 0 elsewhere

planet to go over path abc and t2 for path taken over (b) r 0 = 20 e0 in the entire region

cda, then (c) r 0 = 40 e0 in the entire region

(d) r 0 = 20 e0 for| z| £ 1 m and r 0 = 0 elsewhere

(a) t 1 = t 2 (b) t 1 = 2 t 2 (c) t 1 = 3 t 2 (d) t 1 = 4 t 2

7. Consider a water jar of radius R that 13. Three capacitors each of 4 mF are to be connected in

R such a way that the effective capacitance is 6 mF.

has water filled up to height H and is

kept on a stand of height h (see H This can be done by connecting them

figure). Through a hole of radius 2r (a) all in series

(b) two in series and one in parallel

r (r << R) at its bottom, the water

(c) all in parallel

leaks out and the stream of water (d) two in parallel and one in series

h R

coming down towards the ground

has a shape like a funnel as shown in 14. In the circuit shown, the R

r

cross-section of water stream when it hits the resistance. If for r = fR, the heat

ground is x. Then generation in r is maximum,

1/ 2

æ H ö æ H ö then the value of f is

(a) x = r ç ÷ (b) x = r ç ÷

è H + hø è H + hø (a) 1/4 (b) 1/2 (c) 3/4 (d) 1

æ H ö

1/ 4

æ H ö

2

15. A magnetic dipole is acted upon by two magnetic

(c) x = r ç ÷ (d) x = r ç ÷

è H + hø è H + hø fields which are inclined to each other at an angle of

75°. One of the fields has a magnitude of 15 mT.

8. 200 g water is heated from 40°C to 60°C. Ignoring The dipole attains stable equilibrium at an angle of

the slight expansion of water, the change in its 30° with this field. The magnitude of the other field

internal energy is close to (Given, specific heat of (in mT) is close to

water = 4184 J/kg/K) (a) 11 (b) 36 (c) 1 (d) 1060

(a) 8.4 kJ (b) 4.2 kJ (c) 16.7 kJ (d) 167. 4 kJ 16. A 50 W resistance is connected to a battery of 5 V. A

9. The ratio of workdone by an ideal monoatomic gas galvanometer of resistance 100 W is to be used as an

to the heat supplied to it in an isobaric process is ammeter to measure current through the resistance,

(a) 3/5 (b) 2/3 (c) 3/2 (d) 2/5 for this a resistance rs is connected to the

galvanometer. Which of the following connections

10. Two particles are performing simple harmonic should be employed if the measured current is

motion in a straight line about the same equilibrium within 1% of the current without the ammeter in the

point. The amplitude and time-period for both circuit?

particles are same and equal to A and T, (a) rs = 0.5 W in parallel with the galvanometer

respectively. At time t = 0, one particle has (b) rs = 0.5 W in series with the galvanometer

displacement A while the other one has (c) rs = 1 W in series with galvanometer

(d) rs = 1 W in parallel with galvanometer

15

17. A series L-R circuit is connected to a voltage source When the separation between the slits is varied, the

with V (t) = V0 sin Wt . After very large time, current interference pattern disappears for a particular

distance d0 between the slits. If the angular

æ Lö

I(t) behaves as çt0 >> ÷ resolution of the eye is 1°/60, the value of d0 is close

è Rø

to

I(t) (a) 1 mm (b) 2 mm

(c) 4 mm (d) 3 mm

(a)

t=t0

t

21. When photons of wavelength l1 are incident on an

isolated sphere, the corresponding stopping

potential is found to be V. When photons of

I(t) wavelength l2 are used, the corresponding stopping

potential was thrice that of the above value. If light

(b)

t0

t of wavelength l3 is used, then find the stopping

potential for this case

hc é 1 1 1ù hc é 1 1 1ù

(a) - - (b) + -

I(t) e êë l 3 l 2 l1 úû e êë l 3 l 2 l1 úû

hc é 1 1 3 ù hc é 1 1 1ù

(c) + - (d) + -

(c) e êë l 3 2 l 2 2 l1 úû e êë l 3 2 l 2 l1 úû

t

t=t0 22. A hydrogen atom makes a transition from n = 2 to

n = 1 and emits a photon. This photon strikes a

I(t)

doubly ionised lithium atom (z = 3) in excited state

and completely removes the orbiting electron. The

(d) least quantum number for the excited state of the

t ion for the process is

t=t0

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

18. Microwave oven acts on the principle of 23. The truth table given in figure represents

(a) transferring electrons from lower to higher energy levels in

water molecule A B Y

(b) giving rotational energy to water molecules 0 0 0

(c) giving vibrational energy to water molecules 0 1 1

(d) giving translational energy to water molecules 1 0 1

19. A convex lens, of 1 1 1

focal length 30 cm, a

(a) AND Gate (b) OR Gate (c) NAND Gate (d) NOR Gate

concave lens of focal

length 120 cm and a 24. An audio signal consists of two distinct sounds:

plane mirror are |Focal length| |Focal length| one a human speech signal in the frequency band

arranged as shown =30 cm =120 cm of 200 Hz to 2700 Hz while the other is a high

60 cm 20 cm frequency music signal in the frequency band of

in the figure. For an 70 cm

object kept at a 10200 Hz to 15200 Hz. The ratio of the AM signal

distance of 60 cm from the convex lens, the final bandwidth required to send both the signals

image, formed by the combination, is a real image, together to the AM signal bandwidth required to

at a distance of send just the human speech is

(a) 60 cm from the convex lens (a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 2

(b) 60 cm from the concave lens 25. A simple pendulum made of a bob of mass m and a

(c) 70 cm from the convex lens metallic wire of negligible mass has time period 2s

(d) 70 cm from the concave lens at T = 0°C. If the temperature of the wire is increased

20. In Young’s double slit experiment, the distance and the corresponding change in its time-period is

between slits and the screen is 1.0 m and plotted against its temperature, the resulting graph

monochromatic light of 600 nm is being used. A is a line of slope S. If the coefficient of linear

person standing near the slits is looking at the expansion of metal is a, then the value of S is

fringe pattern. a 1

(a) a (b) (c) 2 a (d)

2 a

16

26. A uniformly tapering conical wire is made from a The focal length of the convex lens is f1 and that of

material of Young’s modulus Y and has a normal, mirror is f2 . Then, taking index correction to be

unextended length L. The radii, at the upper and negligibly small, f1 and f2 are close to

lower ends of this conical wire, have values R and (a) f1 = 12.7 cm, f2 = 7.8 cm

3R, respectively. The upper end of the wire is fixed (b) f1 = 7. 8 cm, f2 = 12.7 cm

to a rigid support and a mass M is suspended from (c) f1 = 7.8 cm, f2 = 25.4 cm

its lower end. The equilibrium extended length, of (d) f1 = 15.6 cm, f2 = 25.4 cm

this wire, would equal

(a) L æç1 +

2 Mg ö

(b) L æç1 +

1 Mg ö 29. An experiment is performed to determine the I - V

÷ ÷

è 9 pYR 2 ø è 3 pYR 2 ø characteristics of a Zener diode, which has a

(c) L æç1 +

1 Mg ö

(d) L æç1 +

2 Mg ö protective resistance of R = 100 W and a maximum

÷ ÷

è 9 pYR 2 ø è 3 pYR 2 ø power of dissipation rating of 1 W. The minimum

voltage range of the DC source in the circuit is

27. To know the resistance G of a galvanometer by half

deflection method, a battery of emf VE and (a) 0 - 5 V (b) 0 - 8 V

resistance R is used to deflect the galvanometer by (c) 0 - 12 V (d) 0 - 24 V

an angle q. If a shunt of resistance S is needed to get 30. An unknown transistor needs to be identified as a

half deflection then G, R and S are related by the n-p-n or p-n-p type. A multimeter, with positive and

equation negative terminals, is used to measure resistance

(a) 2S ( R + G ) = RG (b) S ( R + G ) = RG between different terminals of transistor. If terminal

(c) 2S = G (d) 2G = S 2 is the base of the transistor, then which of the

28. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, a following is correct for a p-n-p transistor?

student records the following data (a) positive terminal 2, negative terminal 1, resistance high

(b) positive terminal 1, negative terminal 2, resistance high

Object pin Convex lens Convex mirror Image pin (c) positive terminal 3, negative terminal 2, resistance high

22.2 cm 32.2 cm 45.8 cm 71.2 cm (d) positive terminal 2, negative terminal 3, resistance low

1. (c) Electrical conductivity denoted by ( s ) and related to 2. (d) Consider figure and respective gravitational and drag

current density J and electric field E forces working on point mass.

J = sE …(i)

J

s= …(ii) F=mg F= – kx

E

Putting respective dimensions of J and E.

Gravitational Drag

[I1 L-2 ]

s = 1 1 -3 -1 force force

[M L T I ] F = mg downward gravitational force

\ s = [M-1L-3T 3 I 2 ] F ¢ = - kv upward drag force

Alternative Method \ Resulting force on the point mass

Electrical conductivity denoted by s, derived from inverse of FR = F + F ¢ = mg + ( - kv )

resistivity r. FR = mg - kv

1

\ s= mg > kv

r

Gravitational force will dominate. Due to viscous force of

1 medium, body will not fall freely but with less gravitational

1 R× A l acceleration a

s= = =

r l R× A a<g

l× I lI I I (q ) I ( I t ) \ a = g - av

\ s= = = = = dv

V × A Vl2 Vl w × l w× l = g - av

dt

Putting respective dimensions v dv t

=

[I(IT)] ò0 g - av = ò0 dt

[ML2T -2 ] [L ]

g - av ö

log æç ÷ = - at

= [M-1 L-3 T 3 I 2 ] è v ø

v = v 0 (1 - e - at )

17

Acceleration of a point mass, 5. (c) According to law of conservation of angular momentum,

dv we have

a= = v 0 a . e - at = a0 . e - at

dt Total angular momentum = Z-axis momentum + ^ momentum

3. (a) Force acting on a point object of mass m at rest, on an \ L = Lz + L^

inclined plane with an angle q L = Lz [\ LT = 0]

(i) W = mg , acting vertically downward. Path of block

(ii) N, normal force on point object after collision

(iii) f s , static frictional force, opposing the impacting motion. 30 cm

v = 2m/s

30 cm

Bumb

Linear momentum = Angular momentum

N fs B a 2 3v

mv . = ma 2w, w = = 5 rad/s

2 3 4a

6.

θ

sin

θ

g

m

mg cos θ

a A that the radius vector drawn from the Sun to a planet

mg sweeps out equal areas in equal interval of time.

Rocket All planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits and sun

situated of at focus. Orbital motion of planets follow Kepler’s law

a=2g

(i) law of orbits (ii) law of area (iii) law of periods

In equilibrium resulting force is zero.

According to Kepler’s second law, we have

mg sin q = f s …(i) DA

mg cos q = N …(ii) = constant

Dt

If rocket (system) moving with a = 2 g , all components will be Consider the given points

affected equally A

a Area of sadc =

Þ m . sin q = f s …(iii) 4

2

Minor axis

a c

m . cos q = N …(iv)

2

Dividing Eq. (iii) by Eq. (iv), we get Major axis

d focus b

f S

tan q = s = mmin

N s

4. (b) When a car moves uphill, an additional force is required to

work against gravitation. Consider figure in uphill move. a

W

Given W, fk = , v = 10 m/s A 3A

20 B Þ Area of sabc = A - =

4 4

Case I When a car is moving

DA 3A A

upwards, Using Þ = , t 1 = 3t 2

Dt 4t 1 4t 2

00

≅ r

05 Ca

100 m

10

gravitation + Frictional power Wsin θ 7. (c) Since, tank is open, then water will fall from opening as

10

W A

= W sin q × 10 + × 10 O 1000 m R

20

1 W 3W

= W × × 10 + = H

10 2 2

Case II When a car is moving downwards 2r

B

W

Given, W , fk = , P, v = ?

20 fk h

Þ PT = 0 + fk × v

00

r

Ca

P 100 m

\ = fk × v

10

2x

Wsin θ

≅

2 v1 A1 = v 2 A 2

05

10

3W

\ pX 2 2 g ( H + h) = pr 2 2 gH

2 = W .v

O A X2 2 gH

2 20 1000 m =

3 v¢ r2 2 g ( H + h)

= Þ v = 15 m/s

4 20 H

X =r 4

H+ h

18

8. (c) If heat supplied to water by surrounding DQ and DU It should be a sheet lying in x-y plane of thickness Z = 2 m

change in internal energy

40°C 60°C

200 g 200 g

\ DU = msDT = 02

. ´ 416

. ´ 20 = 167

. kJ s r(2 ) r

For| Z| ³ 1 m E = = = = 10 Þ r = 10e0

9. (d) KEY CONCEPT The molecules of a monoatomic gas 2 e0 2 e0 e0

has three translation degree of freedom plus increasing 13. (a) In parallel connection of capacitors over all capacitance

area. greater than highest value capacitor in connection.

DW = pDV = nRDT In series connection of capacitor over all (resulting)

5

\ DQ = nC p DT = nRDT capacitance less than lowest value capacitor present in circuit.

2 Obviously there will be mixed combination to obtain resulting

DW 2 6 mF from 4 mF capacitor.

=

DQ 5 4 μF 4 μF

where, W : work done

6 μF

p : pressure

⇒ ⇒

V : volume

n : number of moles

R : universal constant. 4 μF 4 μF CR=2 μF

T : temperature

C R = 2mF

C p : specific heat of constant pressure

Electric work (W )

10. (a) P1 14. (a) Electric power ( P ) =

time (t )

P1 P2 R

π/3 π/3 R

O

r

A

2 P2

Position of particles P1 and W V ´ I´t

P2 at time t = 0

P2 at time t when crossing to P= =

each other t t

V2

p T \ P = VI = I R =

2

\ t = = R

3w 6

Electric power or heat P = I 2R, depends on current I more value

11. (c) KEY CONCEPT When a sources and observer raced of current, more value of power in a resistance provided

away or move toward each other, then pitch of sound resistance is low i.e. allow to flow more current.

changes same phenomena exist in light case, known as

\ Value of r must be small

Doppler effect. r

High pitch Source and observer moving towards each other. r = fR, =f

R

Low pitch Source and observer moving away from each other. 1 (= r )

r : R = 1 : 4 or f =

30 m/s 30 m/s 4 (= R )

Engine-I Engine-II

15. (a) A magnetic dipole B2

Given, consists of two unlike poles of

æv + vö æ 330 + 30 ö equal strength and separated Dipole

\ n = n0 ç s ÷ = 540 ç ÷

èvs - vø è 330 - 30 ø by a small distance. Magnetic

dipole moment is the product 45º

= 648 Hz of strength of either pole ( m) 30º

DQ and magnetic length (2 l) of

12. (a) Volume charge density given by r = C / m3 B = 15mT

DV the magnet. In equilibrium

where, DQ : microscopically charge condition dipole will be stationary.

DV : microscopically volume Þ B1 sin 30° = B2 sin 45°

é 10Z V /m | Z| £ 1 m B . sin 30° B1

E=ê B2 = 1 = = 10.60 mT » 11 mT

sin 45° 2

ë10 Z V / m | Z| ³ 1 m

19

16. (d) An ammeter is made by connecting a low resistance rs in Image formed by convex lens on the other side of lens.

parallel to galvanometer G. rs known as shunt. Then, from Case II Here, u = + 40, f = - 120

circuit 1 1 1

- = ; v = + 60 cm

\ 2 g . G = (2 - 2 g ) rs v + 40 - 120

æ 2g ö f=+30

rs = ç ÷G

è2 - 2g ø

V 5

Current through battery wire 2 = = = 01

. A 40 I2

g 50

100% = 01 . A

Case III Reflection from mirror

1% = 0.001 A = 2 g

Here, G = 100 W given

æ 0.001 ö

\ rs = ç ÷ 100 @ 1 W

. - 0.001ø

è 01

I2

50 Ω i ig i 10 cm 10 cm

i – ig

Case IV Again refraction from concave lens

rs 1 1 1

- = ; v = - 30

v 40 - 120

5V 30

17. (b) In RL circuit, current will log with voltage by a phase f and I4 I3

is given by, I( f ) = I0 sin ( wt - f)

But it will follow the same path of voltage with decrease in

amplitude depends upon value of R.

V(t ) V0 sin ( wt )

I= = Case V Again refraction from convex lens

R R 1 1 1

I0 . R sin wt - = , v = + 75 cm

I= = I0 sin wt v - 50 30

R

and graph will be sinusoidal.

I 75 I4

50

I(t)

f

fv

i.e. 75 cm from convex lens.

18. (c) Microwave oven acts on the principle of giving vibrational 20. (b) Consider figure and data. The separation between any

energy to water molecules because of microwaves lie in two consecutive bright and dark fringes is called fringe width

range of vibrating energy of water molecules. Dl

b, given by b =

19. (d) Consider the figure according to question, d

Convex Concave P

lens lens

S1 x

S

Object d

Light O

f=30 f=120 source S2 D=100 cm

20

60 70

Rays are comming from object firstly interacting of with convex

lens which has the property of conversion light ray using lens Angular fringe width of interference pattern

formula for finding location of image after interacting with b l

q= =

convex lens. D d

Case I Here, u = - 60 , f = + 30 1°

If q = , then value of d 0 is

1 1 1 60

- = , v = + 60 cm

v - 60 30 l 1° p

= =

f=+30 d 0 60 180 ´ 60

180 ´ 60 ù

I1 d 0 = lé

0 êë p úû

60 60

= 2 ´ 10 -3 m = 2mm

20

21. (c) KEY CONCEPT Stopping potential is the minimum 26. (b) Consider tapering wire fixed with support and a mass M is

negative potential given to the anode in a photocell for suspended to its other end.

which the photoelectric current becmes zero. On suspending mass M then, will be stress and strain on the

hc wire, given by

for l1 Þ eV = - f0 …(i)

l1 Normal stress

Y =

hc Longitudnal strain

for l 2 Þ 3 eV = - f0 …(ii)

l2 F

hc FL Mg

for l 3 Þ eV ¢ = - f0 …(iii) = A = = P

l3 DL A . DL pR 2. dL

L dx x

Using above equations, we get

As the different cross sectional area exist.

hc æ 1 1 3ö

V¢ = ç + - ÷ So, different stress will also exist. r

e è l 3 2 l 2 l1 ø

r - R 3R - R

\ =

22. (c) Consider energy of proton of hydrogen atom. x L

Proton, energy = 13.6 - 3.4 = 102. eV. Þ r = R 1+ é 2R ù

êë 3R

Z2 L úû

. eV > 13.6 2 where, Z = proton

Then, 102

n Mg . dx

dL = 2

9

pR 2 é1 +

Quantum number n2 > 13.6 2 R1 ù

102. êë L úû

n > 3.5 or n @ 4 Mg L dx MgL

g p R 2 ò0 æ

DL = =

So, minimum value of n = 4 2R ö

2

3pR 2Y

23. (b) Table has two inputs and one output. Then, respective ç1 + ÷

è L ø

Boolean equations are given as

\ Increase in length

A × B - AND gate

L ¢ = L + DL = L é1 +

1 Mg ù

A + B - OR gate êë 3 3pR 2Y úû

A × B = A + B - NAND gate 27. (b) Case I When S is not in circuit, then current through the

A + B = A × B - NOR gate circuit

OR gate equation is fit for given table. R i1

24. (c) Bandwidth is difference between high frequency to lower G

frequency components.

Thus, bandwidth of human speech = 2700 - 200 = 2500 HZ

Bandwidth for both signals, = 15200 Hz - 200 Hz = 15000 Hz

15000 VE

Ratio of both the signals to the human speech = =6

2500 VE

i1 = …(i)

25. (d) Case I When temperature 0°C, time period = 2 s R +G

l0 Case II When S is in circuit , then current

t 0 = 2 = 2p …(i)

g

R i i1 /2

G

t

Time S=α

period i1

–

2

Temperature (T) VE

Þ i = …(ii)

l R +

GS

t = 2p …(ii)

g G+S

l0 (1 + a T ) G = æç i - 1 ö÷ S

i1 i

t = 2p or

g 2 è 2ø

t = 2 (1 + a T )1/ 2 = 2 + a T i 1 (G + S ) = 2 i S

T0 Substituting i 1 and i from Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii), we get

\ 2 = 2p

g S ( R + G ) = RG

Subtract Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get 28. (b) Consider and visualise complete system

t - t 0 = aT f1: convex lens

Dt = aT f2: convex mirror

21

Convex Convex 29. (c) KEY CONCEPT Zener diode is based on reverse

lens mirror breakdown (Zener) region, a very small change in voltage

across the Zener diode produces a very large change in

Current through the circuit but the voltage across the

O P I Zener remains constant.

+I Forward

R=100 Ω biased

0 cm 22.2 cm 32.2 cm 45.8 71.2 100 i

Vz

Case I Object V s convex lens –V +V

Vz V–100i=Vz

Here, u = - 10 cm

v = 39 cm

uv 390 Reverse

\ f1 = = = 7.8 cm V biased

u -v 49 –I

PZener = ( V - 100i ) i = 1

O I = Vi - 100i 2 = 1 = 100i 2 - vi + 1 = 0

i must be real Zener has no capacity to store energy in electro

magnetic field.

10 cm 39 cm

V 2 - 4(100) ³ 0

Case II Image v s convex mirror V ³ 20

R = 25.4 30. (a) A transistor has two junctions J1 and J 2.

R

f2 = 1 Junctions have low resistance when forward biased and high

2

when reserved biased.

= 12.7 cm

When terminal 2 positive and terminal 1 negative, then

resistance of J1 will be high.

J1 J2

P I Emitter Collector

1 p n p 3

25.4

Base

2

Continued from Page 12 12. (b) Electric potential inside a charged conducting spherical

shell remains constant throughout the shell. This potential is

9. (c) Let E A = Electric field at M due to charge placed at A. same as the potential at the surface of the conducting shell.

E B = Electric field at M due to charge placed at B. When charge on the outer surface of shell increases by Dq,

EC = Electric field at M due to charge placed at C. increases in potential will be same throughout the shell. While

As seen from the figure,| E B| = | EC|, So that the net electric considering potential difference VA - VB , this change will be

field at M, Enet = E A in the direction of vector 2. cancelled out and it remains as DV. Thus, VA - VB = DV

q throughout, in the variation of charge with time.

10. (c) In the expression of Gauss’s law, ò E × dS = enclosed

e0 13. (c) According to Gauss’s law,

Qenc

q enc = net charge within the Gaussian surface ò E.dS = e0

and E = electric field associated with all the charges inside

and outside the Gaussian surface. where, Qenc = enclosed charge

Therefore in the given situation electric field is associated with At any point over the spherical Gaussian surface, net electric

all the charges q 1 , q 2, - q 3 and q 4 and present around the field is the vector sum of electric field due to charges + q 1, - q 1

Gaussian surface f. and q 2.

11. (d) A point situated at a distance 2 a from the smaller sphere 14. (d) According to Gauss’s theorem in electrostatics,

q

may be located at P or Q.

ò E × dS = e0

. Here, E is due to all the charges q 1, q 2, q 3, q 4

At point P, if resultant electric potential is zero, then

KQ1 - KQ 2 P Q -2 and q 5. As q is charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface,

= Þ 1 = 1 =

2a 5a P2 Q 2 5 therefore, q = q 2 + q 4 .

Potential at internal point of a spherical shell is constant. 15. (c) Under electrostatic condition, all points lying on the

Therefore, we cannot have the location of the point at Q which is conductor are at same potential. Therefore, potential at A is

inside the larger spherical shell. equal to the potential at B. Hence, option (c) is correct.

22

FORMULAE AT A GL ANCE

• Quantization of charge, q = ± ne where, n is integral multiple of • For a charged conducting sphere/shell of radius R and total

charge and e is charge of an electron. charge Q, the electric field is given by

Q

• Coulomb’s law, force of attraction/repulsion of charges, (i) E = 0 and r < R (ii) E = , for r = R

4 πε 0 R 2

K|q1||q 2| ⎡ 1 9⎤

F= ⎢Q K = 4 πε = 9 × 10 ⎥ (iii) E =

Q

, for r > R

r2 ⎣ 0 ⎦ 4 πε 0 r 2

F

• Electric field, E = lim , where q 0 is a small positive test charge • Electric dipole moment, p = q(2 a )

q 0 → 0q

ε (i) At a point distant r from the centre of a dipole along its

• Relative permittivity of the given medium ( ε r ) = 1 2 pr

ε0 axial line is given by E = ⋅

4 πε 0 ( r 2 − a 2 )2

where, ε 0 = absolute electric permittivity of the given medium.

1 qq (ii) At a point distant r from the centre of a dipole along its

• In a dielectric medium, F = ⋅ 1 2 1 p

4 πε 0 K r 2 equatorial line is given by E = − ⋅

4 πε 0 ( r 2 + a 2 )3 / 2

where, K is called dielectric constant.

• The total positive or negative charge on an object of mass m having • At a point distant r from the centre of a short dipole along a line

inclined at an angle θ with the dipole axis,

mass number A and atomic number Z, 1 p

mN E= ⋅ 3 3 cos 2 θ + 1

q= ×Z 4 πε 0 r

A

1

where, N = 6.02 × 10 is Avogadro number.

23

• E subtends at an angle β from r such that tan β = tan θ.

2

• When a charge q is placed at the centre of line joining two equal

• Electric field due to a solid sphere of volume charge density ρ and

charges Q, the system of the three charges will be in equilibrium, if

radius R.

Q

q=− . 1 q

4 (i) E = ⋅ , for r > R (Outside the sphere)

4 πε 0 r 2

Δq

• Linear charge density ( λ ) = , where Δl is change in length. 1 qr

Δl (ii) E = ⋅ , for r < R (Inside the sphere)

Δq 4 πε 0 R 3

• Surface charge density ( σ) = , where ΔS is change in surface area. 1 q 4

ΔS (iii) E = ⋅ , for r = R (at the surface) where, q = πR 3ρ.

Δq 4 πε 0 R 2 3

• Volume charge density (ρ ) = , where ΔV is change in volume.

ΔV • Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field, τ = p × E = pE sin θ.

• Electric field at a distance r from a point charge q is given by

• Workdone for rotating the dipole, W = pE(cos θ 2 − cos θ1 ).

1 q

E= ⋅ .

4 πε 0 r 2 • Potential energy of a dipole, U = − pE cos θ

• If q1 and q 2 are two like point charges, separated by a distance r, a s

neutral point between them is obtained at a point distant r1 from q1 unit vector normal to area element ds.

r 1

such that r1 = . • Gauss’ law, φ E = ∫ E ⋅ ds = [Qenclosed ]

⎡ q2 ⎤ s ε0

⎢1 + ⎥

⎣ q1 ⎦

• If an infinite number of charges each equal to q are placed along

• Electric field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire is X-axis at x = 1, 2, 3, 4 … and so on, then the electric field at the

λ point x = 0 due to this set of charges is given by E =

q

given by, E = . .

2 πε 0 r 3 πε 0

• Electric field due to a charged cylinder, we have • If in the above setup, the consecutive charges have opposite

q

(i) For a conducting charged cylinder of linear charge density λ sign, then the electric field at the point x = 0, is given by E = .

5πε 0

and radius R, the electric field is given by

λ • The electric field due to a semi-circular arc of radius a, having a

E= , for r > R λ

2 πε 0 r uniform charge per unit length equal to λ, is given by E = .

λ 2 πε 0 a

E= , for r = R and E = 0, for r < R

2 πε 0 R • Electric field between two infinite plane parallel sheets of charge

σ

λr of surface charge density + σ and− σ is given by E = .

(ii) For a non-conducting charged cylinder, for r ≤ R, E = ε0

2 πε 0 R 2

λ • Electric field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet is

and E = for r > R

2 πε 0 r σ

given by E = .

2 ε0

EXAM SPECTRUM

NEET

NATIONAL ELIGIBILITY CUM ENTRANCE TEST

INSTRUCTIONS

G

This test consists of 45 questions and each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.

G

Candidates will be awarded marks as stated above for correct response of each question. 1/4 mark will be

deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will be made if

no response is indicated for an item in the answer sheet.

G

There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will

be treated as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instruction.

EXAM CRUX 2. To get output 1 for the following circuit, the correct

choice for the input is

• In physics paper, 45 questions were asked from class XII and 26 A

questions from class XI. Most of the questions were asked from all B Y

chapters but more weightage given to Heat and Thermodynamics. C

• According to topicwise distribution, the number of questions were (a) A = 1, B = 0, C = 0 (b) A = 1, B = 1, C = 0

asked from class XI- Kinematics (2), Laws of Motion (2), Work, (c) A = 1, B = 0, C = 1 (d) A = 0, B = 1, C = 0

Power and Energy (1), Rotation (3), Gravitation (3), Centre of Mass,

Impulse and Momentum (2), Solids and fluids (2), Waves (4) and 3. A potentiometer wire is 100 cm long and a constant

Heat and Thermodynamics (7). potential difference is maintained across it. Two cells

are connected in series first to support one another and

• As per topicwise distribution in class XII-Optics (4), Electrostatics

then in opposite direction. The balance points are

(3), Magnetics (4), Electromagnetic induction and AC (3), Modern

obtained at 50 cm and 10 cm from the positive end of

Physics (5).

the wire in the two cases. The ratio of emf is

• As per difficulty level, around 48% of questions can be considered (a) 5 : 4 (b) 3 : 4 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 5 : 1

to be easy overall, 42% of questions are relatively moderate and

10% questions are to be tough by Arihant Team. 4. When a metallic surface is illuminated with radiation

of wavelength l, the stopping potential is V. If the

same surface is illuminated with radiation of

1. A capacitor of 2 mF is 1 2 wavelength 2l, the stopping potential is V/4. The

charged as shown in threshold wavelength for the metallic surface is

S 5

the figure. When the (a) 5l (b) l (c) 3l (d) 4l

switch S is turned to 2

V

position 2, the 2μF

8μF 5. Two non-mixing liquids of densities r and nr(n > 1) are

percentage of its put in a container. The height of each liquid is h. A solid

stored energy cylinder of length L and density d is put in this container.

dissipated is The cylinder floats with its axis vertical and length pL (p

(a) 20% (b) 75% < 1) in the denser liquid. The density d is equal to

(c) 80% (d) 0% (a) {2 + ( n + 1) p} r (b) {2 + ( n - 1) p} r

(c) {1 + ( n - 1) p} r (d) {1 + ( n + 1) p} r

24

6. Out of the following options which one can be used to 15. The magnetic susceptibility is negative for

produce a propagating electromagnetic wave? (a) paramagnetic material only

(a) A stationary charge (b) ferromagnetic material only

(b) A chargeless particle (c) paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials

(c) An accelerating charge (d) diamagnetic material only

(d) A charge moving at constant velocity 16. A siren emitting a sound of frequency 800 Hz moves

7. The charge following through a resistance R varies away from an observer towards a cliff at a speed of

with time t as Q = at - bt 2 , where a and b are positive 15 ms -1 . Then, the frequency of sound that the

constants. The total heat produced in R is observer hears in the echo reflected from the cliff is

(a)

a 3R

(b)

a 3R

(c)

a 3R

(d)

a 3R (Take, velocity of sound in air = 330 ms -1 )

3b 2b b 6b (a) 800 Hz (b) 838 Hz (c) 885 Hz (d) 765 Hz

8. At what height from the surface of earth the gravitation 17. A body of mass 1 kg begins to move under the action of

potential and the value of g are -5.4 ´ 107 Jkg -2 and a time dependent force F = (2t $i + 3t 2 $j) N, where $i and $j

6.0 ms -2 respectively? Take the radius of earth as are unit vectors along X and Y-axes. What power will

6400 km. be developed by the force at the time (t )?

(a) 1600 km (b)1400 km (c) 2000 km (d) 2600 km (a) (2 t 2 + 4 t 4 ) W (b) (2 t 3 + 3 t 4 ) W

(c) (2 t 3 + 3 t 5 ) W (d) (2 t + 3 t 3 ) W

9. Coefficient of linear expansion of brass and steel rods

are a1 and a2 . Lengths of brass and steel rods are l1 and 18. From a disc of radius R and mass M, a circular hole of

l2 respectively. If (l2 - l1 ) is maintained same at all diameter R, whose rim passes through the centre is cut.

temperatures, which one of the following relations What is the moment of inertia of the remaining part of

hold good? the disc about a perpendicular axis passing through

(a) a1l22 = a2l12 (b) a12l2 = a22l1 the centre ?

(c) a1l1 = a2l2 (d) a1l2 = a2l1 (a) 13 MR 2/32 (b) 11 MR 2/32 (c) 9 MR 2/32 (d) 15 MR 2/32

10. The intensity at the maximum in a Young’s double slit 19. In a diffraction pattern due to a single slit of width a,

experiment is I0 . Distance between two slits is d = 5l, the first minimum is observed at an angle 30° when

where l is the wavelength of light used in the light of wavelength 5000 Å is incident on the slit. The

experiment. What will be the intensity in front of one of first secondary maximum is observed at an angle of

(a) sin-1 æç ö÷ (b) sin-1 æç ö÷ (c) sin-1 æç ö÷ (d) sin-1 æç ö÷

the slits on the screen placed at a distance D = 10 d? 2 1 3 1

I 3 I è 3ø è2 ø è 4ø è 4ø

(a) 0 (b) I0 (c) 0 (d) I0

4 4 2 20. A square loop ABCD carrying a current i is placed near

11. Given the value of Rydberg constant is 107 m -1 , the and coplanar with a long straight conductor XY

wave number of the last line of the Balmer series in carrying a current I, the net force on the loop will be

hydrogen spectrum will be B C

(a) 0.5 ´ 10 7 m -1 (b) 0. 25 ´ 10 7 m -1 Y

(c) 2.5 ´ 10 7 m -1 (d) 0.025 ´ 10 4 m -1

I

12. The ratio of escape velocity at earth (v e ) to the escape i L

density are twice as that of earth is X A D

(a) 1 : 2 2 (b) 1: 4 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1: 2

L/2 L

13. A long solenoid has 1000 turns. When a current of 4 A

flows through it, the magnetic flux linked with each m 0Ii 2m 0IiL m 0IiL 2m 0Ii

(a) (b) (c) (d)

turn of the solenoid is 4 ´ 10 -3 Wb. The self-inductance 2p 3p 2p 3p

of the solenoid is 21. A black body is at a temperature of 5760 K. The energy

(a) 3 H (b) 2 H (c) 1 H (d) 4 H of radiation emitted by the body at wavelength 250 nm

14. A car is negotiating a curved road of radius R. The road is U1 , at wavelength 500 nm is U2 and that at 1000 nm is

is banked at angle q. The coefficient of friction between U3 . Wien's constant, b = 2.88 ´ 106 nmK. Which of the

the tyres of the car and the road is m s . The maximum following is correct?

safe velocity on this road is (a) U 3 = 0 (b) U1 > U 2 (c) U 2 > U1 (d) U1 = 0

æ m + tan q ö

(a) gR ç s

g æ m s + tan q ö 22. An air column, closed at one end and open at the other,

÷ (b) ç ÷

è 1 - m s tan q ø R è 1 - m s tan q ø resonates with a tuning fork when the smallest length

of the column is 50 cm. The next larger length of the

g æ m s + tan q ö æ m + tan q ö column resonating with the same tuning fork is

(c) ç ÷ (d) gR 2 ç s ÷

R 2 è 1 - m s tan q ø è 1 - m s tan q ø (a) 100 cm (b) 150 cm (c) 200 cm (d) 66.7cm

25

23. The molecules of a given mass of a gas have rms 30. Match the corresponding entries of Column I with

velocity of 200 ms -1 at 27°C and 10 . ´ 105 Nm-2 Column II. [Where m is the magnification produced by

pressure. When the temperature and pressure of the the mirror]

gas are respectively, 127°C and 0.05 ´ 105 Nm-2 , the

rms velocity of its molecules in ms -1 is Column I Column II

400 100 2 100 m= -2 a. Convex mirror

(a) (b) (c) (d) 100 2 A.

3 3 3

B. 1 b. Concave mirror

24. Consider the junction diode as ideal. The value of m=-

2

current flowing through AB is

1 kΩ C. m=+2 c. Real image

A B

+4 V –6V D. 1 d. Virtual image

m=+

2

(a) 10 -2 A (b) 10 -1 A

(c) 10 -3 A (d) 0 A (a) A® a and c; B® a and d; C® a and b; D® c and d

(b) A® a and d; B® b and c; C® b and d; D® b and c

25. If the magnitude of sum of two vectors is equal to the

(c) A® c and d; B® b and d; C® b and c; D® a and d

magnitude of difference of the two vectors, the angle

(d) A® b and c; B® b and c; C® b and d; D® a and d

between these vectors is

(a) 90° (b) 45° 31. If the velocity of a particle is v = At + Bt 2 , where A and

(c) 180° (d) 0° B are constants, then the distance travelled by it

26. An astronomical telescope has objective and eyepiece between 1 s and 2 s is

3 7

of focal lengths 40 cm and 4 cm respectively. To view (a) 3 A + 7 B (b) A+ B

2 3

an object 200 cm away from the objective, the lenses

A B 3

must be separated by a distance (c) + (d) A + 4B

2 3 2

(a) 46.0 cm (b) 50.0 cm

(c) 54.0 cm (d) 37.3 cm 32. A disc and a sphere of same radius but different masses

roll off on two inclined planes of the same altitude and

27. An n-p-n transistor is connected in common emitter

length. Which one of the two objects gets to the bottom

configuration in a given amplifier. A load resistance of

of the plane first?

800 W is connected in the collector circuit and the

(a) Sphere (b) Both reach at the same time

voltage drop across it is 0.8 V. If the current

(c) Depends on their masses (d) Disc

amplification factor is 0.96 and the input resistance of

the circuits is 192 W, the voltage gain and the power 33. Two identical charged spheres suspended from a

gain of the amplifier will respectively be common point by two massless strings of lengths l, are

(a) 3.69, 3.84 (b) 4, 4 initially at a distance d (d < < l) apart because of their

(c) 4, 3.69 (d) 4, 3.84 mutual repulsion. The charges begin to leak from both

the spheres at a constant rate. As a result, the spheres

28. A gas is compressed isothermally to half its initial

approach each other with a velocity v. Then, v varies as

volume. The same gas is compressed separately

a function of the distance x between the spheres as

through an adiabatic process until its volume is again

(a) v µ x (b) v µ x -1/ 2

reduced to half. Then,

(c) v µ x -1 (d) v µ x1/ 2

(a) compressing the gas through adiabatic process will require

more work to be done 34. A particle moves so that its position vector is given by

(b) compressing the gas isothermally or adiabatically will r = cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ , where w is a constant.

require the same amount of work Which of the following is true?

(c) which of the case (whether compression through isothermal (a) Velocity and acceleration both are parallel to r.

or through adiabatic process) requires more work will (b) Velocity is perpendicular to r and acceleration is directed

depend upon the atomicity of the gas towards to origin

(d) compressing the gas isothermally will require more work to (c) Velocity is perpendicular to r and acceleration is directed

be done away from the origin

29. A long straight wire of radius a carries a steady current (d) Velocity and acceleration both are perpendicular to r.

I. The current is uniformly distributed over its 35. A piece of ice falls from a height h so that it melts

cross-section. The ratio of the magnetic fields B and B¢ completely. Only one quarter of the heat produced is

a absorbed by the ice and all energy of ice gets converted

at radial distances and 2a respectively, from the axis

2 into heat during its fall. The value of h is [Latent heat of

of the wire is ice is 3.4 ´ 105 J/kg and g = 10 N/kg]

1 1 (a) 544 km (b) 136 km

(a) (b) 1 (c) 4 (d)

2 4 (c) 68 km (d) 34 km

26

36. A uniform circular disc of radius 50 cm at rest is free to 41. An electron of mass m and a photon have same energy

turn about an axis which is perpendicular to its plane E.The ratio of de-Broglie wavelengths associated with

and passes through its centre. It is subjected to a them is

1 1 1

torque which produces a constant angular 1

(a) æç

E ö2 1 æ2 m ö 2 1 æ E ö2

acceleration of 2.0 rad/s. Its net acceleration in ms -2 at ÷ (b) c(2 mE )2 (c) ç ÷ (d) ç ÷

è2 m ø cè E ø c è2 m ø

the end of 2.0 s is a approximately

(a) 7.0 (b) 6.0 (c) 3.0 (d) 8.0 (c being velocity of light)

37. What is the minimum velocity with which a body of 42. When an a-particle of mass m moving with velocity v

mass m must enter a vertical loop of radius R so that it bombards on a heavy nucleus of charge Ze, its distance

can complete the loop? of closest approach from the nucleus depends on m as

1 1 1

(a) 2 gR (b) 3gR (c) 5gR (d) gR (a) (b) (c) m (d)

m m2 m

38. A small signal voltage V (t ) = V0 sin wt is applied across

43. A refrigerator works between 4°C and 30°C. It is

an ideal capacitor C

required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in

(a) over a full cycle the capacitor C does not consume any

order to keep the temperature of the refrigerated space

energy from the voltage source

constant. The power required is

(b) current I(t) is in phase with voltage V(t)

(c) current I(t) Ieads voltage V(t) by 180° (Take, 1 cal = 4 . 2 joule)

(d) current I(t), lags voltage V(t) by 90° (a) 23.65 W (b) 236.5 W (c) 2365 W (d) 2.365 W

39. A uniform rope of length L and mass m1 hangs 44. A particle of mass 10 g moves along a circle of radius

vertically from a rigid support. A block of mass m2 is 6.4 cm with a constant tangential acceleration. What is

attached to the free end of the rope. A transverse pulse the magnitude of this acceleration, if the kinetic

of wavelength l1 is produced at the lower end of the energy of the particle becomes equal to 8 ´ 10 -4 J by the

rope. The wavelength of the pulse when it reaches the end of the second revolution after the beginning of the

top of the rope is l2 . The ratio l2 / l1 is motion?

m1 + m2 m2 m1 + m2 m1 (a) 0.15 m/s 2 . m/s 2

(b) 018 (c) 0.2 m/s 2 (d) 0.1 m/s 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

m2 m1 m1 m2 45. The angle of incidence for a ray of light at a refracting

surface of a prism is 45°. The angle of prism is 60°. If

40. An inductor 20 mH, a capacitor 50 mF and a resistor the ray suffers minimum deviation through the prism,

40 W are connected in series across a source of emf the angle of minimum deviation and refractive index of

V = 10 sin340 t. The power loss in AC circuit is the material of the prism respectively, are

(a) 0.67 W (b) 0.76 W (c) 0.89 W (d) 0.51 W 1 1

(a) 30°; 2 (b) 45°; 2 (c) 30°; (d) 45°;

2 2

1. (c) Consider the given figure, 2. (c) Consider the given figure,

When the switch S is connected to point 1, then initial energy A

1 B Y

stored in the capacitor can be given as = (2 mF ) ´ V 2. C

2

1 2 The resultant Boolean expression of the above logic circuit will be

S Y = ( A + B) × C

Now, let us try with inputs A, B and C given in the options and let

V 2μF see, which one of them will give output 1 at Y.

8μF If A = 0, B = 0, C = 0

Þ Y = ( 0 + 0) 0 Þ Y = 0

If A = 1, B = 1, C = 0

When the switch S is connected to point 2, energy dissipated on Þ Y = (1 + 1) 0 Þ Y = 10 Þ Y = 0

connection across 8 mF will be

If A = 1, B = 0, C = 1

1 æ C1C 2 ö 2 1 2 mF ´ 8 mF Þ Y = (1 + 0 ) 1 Þ Y = 1 . 1 Þ Y = 1

= ç ÷.V = ´ ´ V2

2 è C1 + C 2 ø 2 10 mF

If A = 0, B = 1, C = 0

1

= ´ (1.6 mF ) ´ V 2 Þ Y = ( 0 + 1). 0 Þ Y = 10 Þ Y = 0

2

So, we have seen that among the given options, only option (c) is

1.6

Therefore, % loss of energy = ´ 100 = 80%. the correct choice, i.e.,

2

Output Y = 1 only when inputs A = 1, B = 0 and C = 1.

27

3. (c) Key Concept As emf of the cell is directly proportional to 7. (d) Given, charge Q = at - bt 2 …(i)

the balancing length, i.e. dq

We know that current, I =

E µl …(i) dt

Now, in the first case, cells are connected in series to support one So, Eq. (i) can be written as

another, i.e. d

I = ( at - bt 2 ) Þ I = a - 2 bt …(ii)

Net emf = E1 + E 2 dt

From Eq. (i), E1 + E 2 = 50 cm (given) …(ii) For maximum value of t, till the current exist is given by

Again cells are connected in series in opposite direction i.e, Þ a - 2 bt = 0

a

Net emf = E1 - E 2 \ t= …(iii)

2b

From Eq. (i), E1 - E 2 = 10 …(iii)

The total heat produced ( H ) can be given as

From Eqs. (ii) and (iii), t a / 2b é a ù

E1 + E 2 50 E1 5 + 1 6 3 H = ò I 2 R dt = ò ( a - 2 bt )2 R . dt êQ t = 2 b ú

= Þ = = = 0 0

ë û

E1 - E 2 10 E2 5 - 1 4 2 a / 2b

=ò ( a 2 + 4 b2t 2 - 4 abt ) Rdt

4. (c) Key Concept Emission of free electrons from a metal 0

a / 2b

surface by falling light, which has energy greater than the é t 3 4 abt 2 ù

work-function of the metal) is called photoelectric emission. H = ê a 2t + 4 b2 - ú R

ë 3 2 û0

The electrons so emitted is called photoelectrons.

a 3R

In Ist case, when a metallic surface is illuminated with radiation of Solving above equation, we get H =

wavelength l, the stopping potential is V. 6b

So, photoelectric equation can be written as 8. (d) Gravitational potential at some height h from the surface of

GM

eV =

hc hc

- …(i) the earth is given by V=- …(i)

l l0 R+h

And acceleration due to gravity at some height h from the earth’s

In IInd case, when the same surface is illuminated with radiation of GM

V surface can be given as g ¢ = …(ii)

wavelength 2 l, the stopping potential is . So, photoelectric ( R + h )2

4

equation can be written as From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

eV hc hc 4 hc 4 hc | V| GM ( R + h )2 | V|

= - Þ eV = - …(ii) = ´ Þ =R+h …(iii)

4 2l l0 2l l0 g ¢ ( R + h) GM g¢

hc hc 4 hc 4 hc Radius of earth, R = 6400 km

Þ - = -

l l0 2l l0 Substitute these values in Eq. (iii), we get

1 1 2 4 5.4 ´ 10 7

Þ - = - Þ l0 = 3l = R + h Þ 9 ´ 10 6 = R + h

l l0 l l0 6.0

Þ h = ( 9 - 6.4 ) ´ 10 6 = 2 .6 ´ 10 6 m Þ h = 2600 km

5. (c) According to question, the situation can be drawn as

following. 9. (c) According to question,

A Coefficient of linear expression of brass = a1

Coefficient of linear expression of steel = a 2

(1– ρ)L d ρ

Length of brass and steel rods are l1 and l2 respectively.

ρL As given difference increases in length ( l¢2 - l1¢ ) is same for all

temperature.

So, l2¢ - l1¢ = l2 - l1

Applying Archimedies’ principle

Þ l2 (1 + a 2 Dt ) - l1 (1 + a1 Dt ) = l2 - l1 Þ l2 a 2 = l1 a1

Weight of cylinder = (Upthrust)1 + (Upthrust) 2

10. (c) Key Concept According to law of Malus, when a beam of

i.e. ALdg = (1 - p) LArg + ( pLA) nrg

completely plane polarised light is passed through analyser,

Þ d = (1 - p) r + pnr = r - pr + n pr the intensity (I) of the transmitted light varies directly as the

= r + ( n - 1) pr = r [1 + ( n - 1) r ] square of angle q between the transmission direction of

polariser and analyser. i.e. I = I0 cos2 q

6. (c) A particle is known that an electric charge at rest has electric where, I0 is the maximum intensity of transmitted light.

field in the region around it, but no magnetic field. A moving Screen

charge produces both the electric and magnetic fields. If a charge

is moving with a constant velocity, the electric and magnetic fields S1 2.5d

will not change with time. Hence, no EM wave will be produced. 5d

But if the charge is moving with a non-zero acceleration, both the S2 O

electric and magnetic field will change with space and time, it 50λ

then produces EM wave. This shows that accelerated charge

emits electromagnetic waves. In the above figure, S 1 and S 2 are the two different slits.

Given, distance between slits S 1 and S 2, d = 5 l

28

Distance between screen and slits, D = 10 d = 50l 14. (a) According to question, a car is negotiating a curved road of

Here, l is the wavelength of light used in the experiment. radius R. The road is banked at angle q and the coefficient of

According to question, the intensity at maximum in this Young’s friction between the tyres of car and the road is m s . So, this given

double slit experiment is I0. situation can be drawn as shown in figure below.

Ncosθ

Þ Imax = I0

d

d ´ θ

Q Path difference =

dYn

= 2 =d =l [Q d = 5l ]

Nsinθ

D 10 d 20 4 Fl cosθ

θ

fl

A path difference of l corresponds to phase difference 2p

fl sinθ

So, for path difference l / 4, phase difference θ

2p l p mg

f= ´ = = 90 °

l 4 2

Considering the case of vertical equilibrium,

f

As we know, I = I0 cos 2 N cos q = mg + fl sin q

2

2 Þ mg = N cos q - fl sin q …(i)

90 ° æ 1 ö I0

Þ I = I0 cos 2 Þ I = I0 ´ ç ÷ Þ I= Considering the case of horizontal equilibrium,

2 è 2ø 2

mv 2

11. (b) Key Concept According to Bohr’s theory, the wavelength of N sin q + fl cos q = …(ii)

R

the radiation emitted by H-atom is given by

Divide Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

1 é 1 1ù

= R H ê 2 - 2 ú where R H is Rydberg’s constant. v 2 sin q + m s cos q

l n

ë 1 n2 û

= [Q fl µm s ]

Rg cos q - m s sin q

-1

Given, Rydberg constant, R = 10 m 7

æ sin q + m s cos q ö æ tan q + m s ö

Q For last line in Balmer series, n 2 = ¥, n1 = 2 . Þ v = Rg ç ÷ Þ v = Rg ç ÷

è cos q - m s sin q ø è 1 - m s tan q ø

As we know that

1 æ 1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 15. (d) As we know the relation between the magnetic permeability

= R ç 2 - 2 ÷ Þ = 10 7 ç 2 - ÷ and susceptibility of material, i.e.

l è n1 n 2 ø l è2 ¥ø

m r = 1 + cm …(i)

1 10 7 Q Diamagnetic substances, m r < 1

Þ v= = = 0 . 25 ´ 10 7 m -1

l 4 So, according to Eq. (i), the magnetic susceptibility ( c m ) of

12. (a) Key Concept Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with diamagnetic substance will be negative.

which a body must be projected from the surface of the Earth, While in the case of para and ferromagnetic substances,

so that it escapes the gravitational field of the Earth and never diamagnetic susceptibility is positive.

return on its own. It is given by v e = 2gR

16. (b) According to question, situation can be drawn as follows.

where, g is acceleration due to gravity and R is radius of Earth.

Since, the escape velocity of earth can be given as

8

ve = 2 gR = R pGr [Q r = density of earth] Cliff

3 15 m/s

Source

8

Þ ve = R pGr …(i) Observer

3

As it is given that the radius and mean density of planet are twice Frequency of sound that the observer hear in the echo reflected

as that of earth. So, escape velocity at planet will be from the cliff is given by

8 æ v ö

vp = 2 R pG2 r …(ii) f¢ = ç ÷

3 è v - vS ø

Divide Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

where, f = original frequency of source

8

R pGr v = velocity of sound

ve 3 ve 1

= Þ = v s = velocity of source

vp 8 vp 2 2

2R pG2 r æ 330 ö

3 So, f¢ = ç ÷ 800 = 838 Hz

è 330 - 15ø

13. (c) Given, number of turns of solenoid, N = 1000

Current, I = 4 A 17. (c) According to question, a body of mass 1 kg begins to move

under the action of time dependent force,

Magnetic flux, f B = 4 ´ 10 -3 Wb

F = (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j ) N

Q Self-inductance of solenoid is given by

where, $i and $j are unit vectors along X and Y-axis.

f .N

L= B …(i) F

I Q F = ma Þ a =

Substitute the given values in Eq. (i), we get m

4 ´ 10 -3 ´ 1000 (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j )

L= = 1H Þ a = [Q m = 1kg ]

4 1

29

Þ a = (2 t i$ + 3 t 2 $j ) m / s 2 In the case of XY and arm CD, the direction of currents are in the

dv opposite direction. So, there exist a force of repulsion which will

Q Acceleration, a = Þ dv = a dt …(i) be experienced by CD as

dt

m 0 IiL

Integrating both sides, we get FCD =

æ 3L ö

2p ç ÷

ò dv = ò a dt = ò (2 t i$ + 3t

2$

j ) dt è2 ø

m IiL é 1 1 ù

Q Power developed by the force at the time t wil be given as Floop = FBA - FCD = 0 ê -

2 p ë ( L / 2 ) ( 3 L / 2 ) úû

P = F × v = (2 t $i + 3 t 2 $j ) × (t 2 $i + t 3 $j ) = (2 t × t 2 + 3 t 2 × t 3 )

2 m 0 iI

P = (2 t 3 + 3 t 5 ) W Floop =

3p

18. (a) Considering the information given in the question, let us draw 21. (c) Given, temperature, T1 = 5760 K

the figure

I Since, it is given that energy of radiation emitted by the body at

If the above figure is considered, then wavelength 250 nm is U1 , at wavelength 500 nm is U 2 and that at

moment of inertia of disc will be given as 1000 nm is U 3.

I = Iremain + I( R / 2) R R/2

Q According to Wien’s law, we get

Þ Iremain = I - I( R / 2) l mT = b

Putting the values, we get where, b = Wien’s constant = 2.88 ´ 10 6 nmK

éM æ Rö

2 ù b 2 .88 ´ 10 6 nmK

ê ç ÷ 2ú Þ lm = Þ lm = Þ l m = 500 nm

MR 2 ê 4 è2 ø M æ Rö ú T 5760 K

= - + ç ÷

2 ê 2 4 è2 ø ú Q l m = wavelength corresponding to maximum energy, so,

ê ú

êë úû U 2 > U1.

MR 2 é MR 2 MR 2 ù MR 2 é MR 2 + 2 MR 2 ù 22. (b) The smallest length of the air column is associated with

= -ê + ú= -ê ú fundamental mode of vibration of the air column as shown in the

2 ë 32 16 û 2 ë 32 û diagram.

MR 2

3 MR 16 MR - 3 MR

2 2 2

= - =

2 32 32

13 MR 2

Iremain =

32

L

19. (c) As the first minimum is observed at an angle of 30° in a

diffraction pattern due to a single slit of width a.

λ

Lmin= —

2

i.e. n = 1, q = 30 °

Q According to Bragg’s law of diffraction,

a sin q = nl l

Q Lmin =

Þ a sin 30 ° = (1) l [Q n = 1] 4

é 1ù l

Þ a =2l êQ sin 30 ° = 2 ú …(i) Þ 50 cm = Þ l = 200 cm

ë û 4

For Ist secondary maxima, The next higher length of the air column is

3l 3l l l l + 2 l 3l 3

Þ a sin q1 = Þ sin q1 = …(ii) L= + = = = ´ 200 = 150 cm

2 2a 4 2 4 4 4

Substitute value of a from Eq. (i) to Eq. (ii), we get 23. (a) It is given that

3l 3 vrms = 200 ms -1, T1 = 300 K, p1 = 10 5 N/m 2

sin q1 = Þ sin q1 =

4l 4

T2 = 400 K, p2 = 0.05 ´ 10 5 N/m 2

æ 3ö

Þ q1 = sin -1 ç ÷

è 4ø As, rms velocity of gas molecules,

é 3 RT ù

20. (d) Consider the given figure, Q vrms µ T êQ vrms = ú

ë m û

From the above figure, it can be seen that the direction of currents

in a long straight conductor XY and For two different cases,

B C

arm AB of a square loop ABCD are in Y ( vrms )1 T

the same direction. Þ = 1

( vrms )2 T2

I i L

So, there exist a force of attraction

200 300 3

between the two, which will be Þ = =

experienced by FBA as X ( vrms )2 400 4

A D

m IiL L/2 L 2 400

FBA = 0 Þ ( vrms )2 = ´ 200 = ms -1

æLö 3 3

2p ç ÷

è2 ø

30

24. (a) Let us assume that current through the diode is I. 28. (a) The solution of this question can be understood by plotting a

From the given condition, p-V graph for the compression of a gas isothermally and

adiabatically simultaneously to half of its initial volume. i.e.

V - VB 4 - ( -6 ) 10

Q I= A = = = 10 -2 A

R 1 kW 1 ´ 10 3

Adiabatic curve

25. (a) Suppose two vectors are P and Q.

Isothermal curve

It is given that p

|P + Q | = |P - Q |

Let angle between P and Q is f.

\ P 2 + Q 2 + 2 PQ cos f = P 2 + Q 2 - 2 PQ cos f V/2 V

Volume V

Þ 4 PQ cos f = 0

Since, the isothermal curve is less steeper than the adiabatic

Þ cos f = 0 [Q P, Q ¹ 0 ] curve. So, area under the p-V curve for adiabatic process has

p more magnitude than isothermal curve. Hence, work done in

Þ f = = 90 °

2 adiabatic process will be more than in isothermal process.

26. (c) According to question, 29. (b) Key Concept Ampere’s circuital law states that the line

Focal length of objective lens ( f0 ) = + 40 cm integral of B around any closed path or circuit is equal to m 0

times the total current crossing the area bounded by the closed

Focal length of eyepiece lens ( fe ) = 4 cm

path provided the electric field inside the loop remains

Object distance for objective lens (u 0 ) = - 200 cm constant.

Applying lens formula for objective lens

Note

Objective lens Eyepiece lens (i) At every point of the closed path, i.e. B || dl

(ii) Magnetic field has the same magnetic B at all places on

4 cm

the closed path.

a

Consider two amperian loops of radius

200 cm v

2

a/2

and 2 a as shown in the diagram. Applying

Ampere’s circuital law for these loops we get

1 1 1

- = ò B . dL = m 0Ienclosed 2a

v u f For the smaller loop,

1 1 1

Þ - = 2

v -200 40 a I æaö 1 m I

Þ B ´ 2p = m 0 ´ 2 ´ p ç ÷ = m 0I ´ = 0

1 1 1 5-1 4 2 pa è2 ø 4 4

Þ = - = =

v 40 200 200 200 m I a

Þ B I = 0 ,at distance from the axis of the wire.

Þ v = 50 cm 4pa 2

Image will be form at first focus of eyepiece lens. Similarly, for bigger amperian loop.

So, for normal adjustment distance between objective and B ¢ ´ 2 p (2 a ) = m 0 I

eyepiece lenses (length of tube) will be

[total current enclosed by Amperian loop is 2]

v + fe Þ 50 + 4 Þ 54 cm

m I

Þ B¢ = 0 ,

27. (d) Given, resistance across load, RL = 800 W 4pa

Voltage drop across load, VL = 0.8 V at distance 2 a from the axis of the wire.

Input resistance of circuit, Ri = 192 W B m I 4pa

So, ratio of = 0 ´ =1

V 0.8 8 B ¢ 4pa m 0 I

Collector current is given by IC = L = = = 1 mA

RL 800 8000

30. (d) A concave mirror forms real and virtual images, whose

Output current magnification can be negative or positive depending upon the

Q Current amplification =

Input current position of the object.

IC If object is placed between focus and pole the image obtained will

= = 0.96 be virtual and its magnification will be positive. In all other cases

IB

concave mirror forms real images whose magnification will be

1 mA negative. A convex mirror always forms a virtual image whose

Þ IB =

0.96 magnification will always be positive.

VL V 0.8 ´ 0.96 31. (b) Velocity of the particle is given as

Q Voltage gain, AV = = L = = 4 Þ AV = 4

Vin IB Ri 10 -3 ´ 192 v = At + Bt 2

2

IC2 RL æI ö R 800 where, A and B are constants.

and power gain, AP = = ç C ÷ . L = ( 0.96 )2 ´

IB2 Ri è IB ø Ri 192 dx é dx ù

Þ = At + Bt 2 êQ v = dt ú

dt ë û

AP = 3.84

Þ dx = ( At + Bt 2 ) dt

31

Integrating both sides, we get Therefore, Eq. (i) can be rewritten as

x2 2

Kq 2

òx dx = ò ( At + Bt ) dt 2 x /2

1 1 =

x 2 mg x2

Þ

2

Dx = x 2 - x1 = A ò t dt + B ò t 2dt

2 l2 -

1 1 4

ét 2 ù ét 3 ù

2 2

Kq 2 x

= Aê ú +Bê ú Þ = or q 2 µ x 3

2 x 2 mg 2l

ë û1 ë 3 û1

A 2 B Þ q µ x 3/ 2

= (2 - 12 ) + (2 3 - 13 )

2 3 dq d ( x 3 / 2 ) dx

Þ µ .

\ Distance travelled between 1 s and 2 s is dt dx dt

A B 3 A 7B dq

Dx = ´ ( 3 ) + (7 ) = + Þ µ x .v

1/ 2

2 3 2 3 dt

32. (a) Key Concept Acceleration of an object rolling down an 1

Þ v µ 1 / 2 or v µ x -1 / 2

g sin q x

inclined plane is given by a =

1 + I / mr 2 34. (b) Position vector of the particle is given by

where, q = angle of inclination of the inclined plane r = cos wt x$ + sin wt y$

m = mass of the object where, w is a constant.

I = moment of inertia about the axis through centre of mass Velocity of the particle is

dr d

For disc,

I

=

1 / 2 mr 2

=

1 v= = (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )

2 dt dt

mr mr 2 2

= ( - sin wt ) wx$ + (cos wt ) wy$

I 2 / 5mr 2 2

For solid sphere, 2

= = = - w(sin wt x$ - cos wt y$ )

mr mr 2 5

Acceleration of the particles

I 2 / 3 mr 2 2

For hollow sphere, = = dv d

mr 2 mr 2 3 a = = [ - wsin wt x$ + wcos wt y$ ]

dt dt

g sin q 2

\ a disc = = g sin q = 0.66 g sin q = - w2 cos wt x$ - w2 sin wt y$

1 3

1+ = - w2 (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )

2

g sin q 5 Þ a = - w2 r = w2 ( -r )

a solid sphere = = g sin q = 0.71 g sin q

2 7 Assuming the particle as P, then its position vector is directed as

1+

5 shown in the diagram.

g sin q 3 Y

ahollow sphere = = g sin q = 0.6 g sin q

2 5

1+

3 P

Clearly, a solid sphere > a disc > a hollow sphere r

Type of sphere is not mentioned in the question. Therefore, we will

assume the given sphere as solid sphere. X

O

\ a solid sphere = a hollow sphere > a disc

Therefore, acceleration is directed towards -r that is towards O

33. (b) According to question, two identical charged spheres (origin).

suspended from a common point by two massless strings of Now, we have

length l.

v × r = - w(sin wt x$ - cos wt y$ ) × (cos wt x$ + sin wt y$ )

l2

= - w( 0 ) = 0 [Q x$ ^ y$ ]

A q Þ v^r

F q

B Thus, velocity is perpendicular to r.

x/2

θ 35. (b) According to question as conservation of energy, energy

x

C mg gained by the ice during its fall from height h is given by

E = mgh

Q In DABC

As given, only one quarter of its energy is absorbed by the ice.

F F

tan q = or = tan q …(i) mgh

mg mg So, = mL f

4

Since, the charge begins to leak from both the spheres at a mL f ´ 4 L f ´ 4 3.4 ´ 10 5 ´ 4

constant rate. As a result, the spheres approach each other with Þ h= = = = 13.6 ´ 10 4

mg g 10

velocity v.

= 13600 m = 136 km

32

36. (d) According to given question, a uniform circular disc of radius 38. (a) For an AC circuit containing capacitor only, the phase

50 cm at rest is free to turn about an axis having perpendicular to p

difference between current and voltage will be (i.e. 90°).

its plane and passes through its centre. This situation can be 2

shown by the figure given below: p

In this case current is ahead of voltage by .

2

P = VI cos f

(f = phase difference between voltage and current)

P = VI cos 90 ° = 0

39. (a) According to question, we have

\ Angular acceleration, a = 2 rad s -2 [given] Wavelength of transverse pulse,

Angular speed, w = at = 4 rad s -1 v

l= …(i)

Q Centripetal acceleration, ac = w2 r = ( 4 )2 ´ 0.5 = 16 ´ 0.5 f

ac = 8 m/s 2 (v = velocity of the wave, f = frequency of the wave)

T

a t = a r = 2 ´ 0.5 Þ a t = 1 m/s 2 v= …(ii)

m

Therefore, the net acceleration at the end of 2.0 s is given by

(T = tension in the spring, m = mass per unit length of the rope)

a = ac2 + a t2

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

a = ( 8 )2 + (1)2 = 65 Þ a » 8 m/s 2 1 T

l= Þl µ T

37. (c) According to question, we have f m

l2 T m1 + m 2

= 2 =

R TC l1 T1 m2

TB

B 40. (d) Given,

Inductance, L = 20 mH

v0 Capacitance, C = 50 mF

A

Resistance, R = 40 W

mg emf, V = 10 sin 340 t

Let the tension at point A be TA . So, from Newton’s second law Q Power loss in AC circuit will be given as

2

mvC2 éE ù

TA - mg = Pav = IV2 R = ê V ú . R

R ë Z û

1 é ù

Energy at point A, = mv 02 …(i)

2 2

ê ú

æ 10 ö ê 1 ú

1 =ç ÷ . 40 ê 2ú

Energy at point C is mvC2 + mg ´ 2 R …(ii) è 2ø

2 ê 2 æ 1 ö ú

ê 40 + çè 340 ´ 20 ´ 10 -

3

÷ ú

Applying Newton’s second law at point C, ë 340 ´ 50 ´ 10 -6 ø û

mvC2 100 1

TC + mg = = ´ 40 ´

R 2 1600 + ( 6.8 - 58.8 )2

2000

To complete the loop, TC ³ 0 = » 0.46 W » 0.51 W

1600 + 2704

mvC2

So, mg =

R 41. (d) Key Concept de-Broglie’s wavelength for an electron will

be given as

Þ vC = gR …(iii) h

le = …(i)

From Eqs. (i) and (ii) by conservation of energy, P

1 1 where, h = Planck’s constant

mv 02 = mvC2 + 2 mgR

2 2 p = Linear momentum of electron

1 1 p2

Þ mv 02 = mgR + 2 mgR ´ 2 [Q vC = gR ] As kinetic energy of electron, E =

2 2 2m

Þ v 02 = gR + 4 gR Since, it is given that electron has mass m.

Þ v 0 = 5gR Þ p = 2 mE …(ii)

33

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

44. (d) Given, mass of particle, m = 0.01 kg

h

le = …(iii) Radius of circle along which particle is moving, r = 6.4 cm.

2 mE

Energy of a photon can be given as Q Kinetic energy of particle, KE = 8 ´ 10 -4 J

E = hn 1

Þ mv 2 = 8 ´ 10 -4 J

hc hc 2

Þ E= Þ lp = …(iv)

lp E 16 ´ 10 -4

Þ v2 = = 16 ´ 10 -2 …(i)

Hence, l p = de-Broglie’s wavelength of photon. 0.01

Now, divide Eq. (iii) by Eq. (iv), we get As it is given that KE of particle is equal to 8 ´ 10 -4 J by the end of

le h E second revolution after the beginning of motion of particle. It

= . means, its initial velocity (u ) is 0 m/s at this moment.

lp 2 mE hc

Q By Newton’s third equation of motion,

lc 1 E

Þ = . v2 = u 2 + 2 a t s Þ v2 = 2 a t s

lp c 2 m

Þ v 2 = 2 a ts [Q s = 4p r]

42. (d) When an a-particle of mass m moving with velocity v

bombards on a heavy nucleus of charge Ze, then there will be no [Q particle covers 2 revolutions]

loss of energy as in this case, initial kinetic energy of a-particle = v2 16 ´ 10 -2

potential energy of a-particle at closest approach. Þ at = =

8pr 8 ´ 3.14 ´ 6.4 ´ 10 -2

1 2 Ze 2 1 [Q from Eq. (i), v 2 = 16 ´ 10 -2 ]

Þ mv 2 = Þ r0 µ

2 4pe 0 r0 m

\ a t = 0.1 m/s 2

from the nucleus. 45. (a) Key Concept Refractive of the material of the prism (m)

which is given by

43. (b) Given, temperature of source,

æ A + dm ö

T = 30 °C = 30 + 273 sin ç ÷

è 2 ø

m=

T1 = 303 K A

sin

Temperature of sink, 2

T2 = 4 °C = 4 + 273 where A is angle of prism and dm is minimum angle of

deviation.

T2 = 277 K A

As, we know that

60°

Q1 T1

= 45° 30° 45°

Q 2 T2 30° 30°

P Q R S

Q 2 + W T1

Þ = [Q W = Q1 - Q 2 ]

Q2 T2

B C

where, Q 2 is the amount of heat drawn from the sink (at T2 ), W is Consider a ray of light PQ incident an the surface AB and moves

work done on working substance, Q1 is amount of heat rejected to along RS, after passing through the prism ABC.

source (at room temperature T1 ). It is given that the incident ray suffers minimum deviation.

Þ WT2 + T2 Q 2 = T1Q 2 Therefore, the ray inside the prism must be parallel to the base BC

of the prism.

Þ WT2 = T1 Q 2 - T2 Q 2

From the geometry of the prism and the ray diagram, it is clear

Þ WT2 = Q 2 (T1 - T2 )

that

æT ö

Þ W = Q 2 çç 1 - 1÷÷ Angle of incidence, i = 45°

è 2

T ø Angle of refraction, r = r ¢ = 30 °

æ 303 ö Angle of emergence, e = 45°

Þ W = 600 ´ 4.2 ´ ç - 1÷

è 277 ø Therefore, minimum deviation suffered by the ray is

æ 26 ö dmin = i + e - ( r + r ¢ ) = 90 ° - 60 ° = 30 °

W = 600 ´ 4. 2 ´ ç ÷

è 277 ø

A = 60 °

W = 236.5 joule æ 60 ° + 30 ° ö

sin ç ÷

Work done W è 2 ø sin 45°

Power = = \ m= =

Time t 60 ° sin 30 °

sin

236.5 2

=

1 1/ 2 2

= = = 2

= 236.5 W 1/2 2

34

EXPLICATION Shitiz Upreti

DRONE TECHNOLOGY

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone is an aircraft

without a human pilot on board. Its flight is either controlled autonomously by computers

in the vehicle, or under the remote control of navigator, or pilot (in the military UAVs called

Manufacturing Process More advanced drone combat system officer) on the ground or in another vehicle.

are made from large, old anti-ship missiles,

which had their war heads removed. Obsolete Antenna wi-fi

jet and propeller powered aircraft have also been A 2.4 GHz monitoring

5.0 GHz video Lithium polymer

modified into remote controlled drones, but such battery rechargeable

modifications are costly. Four propellers

Four propellers

Principle The design of the flying drone Working Process The launching of a

consists of the quad rotor with four target drone, used as a weapon carrier

propelling wings. Out of the four motors, to attack on a required target is controlled

the left and right induce pull action, while of in commanding centre. It is monitored

the front and back induce push action. Electric by commanding officers called Combat

The brain of the robot is a microcontroller engine System Officers in the operating room.

board that has been designed for auto- brushless Electric These pilot sensor operators in the

piloting drones. The microcontroller is Ultra light engine operating room send commands to

combined with an inertial measurement unit. carbon brushless satellite (to fly the drone via satellite link).

C Speaker

This unit consists of a 3 axis gyro, 3 axis (8 W) structure Satellite will receive command and

accelerometer and a barometric pressure then it further sends to aircraft. The heat

Landing gears Laser micro-

gauge. An RC transmitter is used to navigate detectors present in the aircraft detects

B projector

the robot. Functionalities of the robot Adjustable support

warm and heat of living bodies. After

can be enhanced further by fitting a GPS chip on an axis stabilized finding and identifying, it automatically

for gauging latitude and longitude and a SONAR Infrared camera fixes and tracks the ground targets.

D full HD 1080

system for gauging the altitude.

Key Applications

Technical Characteristics Automatic pollination of field of crops Weather and climatic mapping

A. Wireless antenna and audio/video transmission. Search and rescue operations Forest monitoring

B. Laser microprojector for augmented reality. Traffic monitoring Geological surveying

C. Speaker of communications. Exploring hazardous sites Instant environmental

D. Infrared camera with artificial vision and image recognition. Military surveillance Impact assessment

AIIMS CAPSULE

MOTION

IN A PLANE

Chapterwise Collection of Best Assertion-Reason

Problems for Medical Entrances

Directions for Questions 1-15 These questions consist of two statements each printed as Assertion and Reason.

While answering these questions you are required to choose any one of the following five responses.

(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.

(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.

(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.

(d) If the Assertion and Reason both are false.

(e) If Assertion is false but Reason is true.

1. Assertion The maximum horizontal range of projectile 7. Assertion When range of a projectile is maximum, its

is proportional to square of velocity. angle of projection may be 45° or 135°.

Reason The maximum horizontal range of projectile is Reason Whether θ is 45° or 135°, the value of range

equal to maximum height attained by projectile. remains the same, only the sign changes.

2. Assertion A body of mass 1 kg making 1 rps in a circle 8. Assertion During a turn, the value of centripetal force

of radius 1 m. Centrifugal force acting on it is 4 π2 N. should be less than the limiting frictional force.

mv2 Reason The centripetal force is provided by the

Reason Centrifugal force is given by F = .

r frictional force between the tyres and the road.

3. Assertion A coin is placed on phonogram turn table. 9. Assertion When a vehicle takes a turn on the road, it

The motor is started, coin moves along the moving travels along a nearly circular path.

table. Reason In circular motion, velocity of vehicle remains

Reason The rotating table is providing necessary same.

centripetal force to the coin. 10. Assertion As the frictional force increases, the safe

4. Assertion Two similar trains are moving along the velocity limit for taking a turn on an unbanked road

equatorial line with the same speed but in opposite also increases.

direction. They will exert equal pressure on the rails. Reason Banking of roads will increase the value of

Reason In uniform circular motion, the magnitude of limiting velocity.

acceleration remains constant but the direction 11. Assertion A particle is projected with speed u at an

continuously changes. angle θ with the horizontal. At any time, during motion,

5. Assertion When a body is dropped or thrown speed of particle is v at an angle α with the vertical,

horizontally from the same height, it would reach the then v sin α is always constant throughout the motion.

ground at the same time. Reason In case of projectile motion, magnitude of

Reason Horizontal velocity has no effect on the radial acceleration at top most point is maximum.

vertical direction. 12. Assertion Improper banking of roads causes wear and

6. Assertion When the velocity of projection of a body is tear of tyres.

made n times, its time of flight becomes n times. Reason The necessary centripetal force is provided by

Reason Range of projectile does not depend on the the force of friction between the tyres and the road.

initial velocity of a body.

38

13. Assertion In order to hit a target, a man should point his Reason At the highest point, velocity of projectile will

rifle in the same direction as target. be in horizontal direction only.

Reason The horizontal range of the bullet is dependent 15. Assertion In circular motion, the centripetal and

on the angle of projectile with horizontal direction. centrifugal force acting in opposite direction balance

each other.

14. Assertion In projectile motion, the angle between the

instantaneous velocity and acceleration at the highest Reason Centrifugal and centripetal forces don’t act at

point is 180°. the same time.

1. (c) Horizontal range of a projectile 8. (a) The body is able to move in a circular path due to

u 2 sin 2θ centripetal force. The centripetal force in case of vehicle is

R = provided by frictional force. Thus, if the value of frictional force

g

μmg is less than the centripetal force, then it is not possible for

u2

∴ Rmax = when θ = 45°. a vehicle to take turn and the body would over turn.

g Thus, condition for safe turning of vehicle is, μmg ≥ mv 2 / r.

As Rmax ∝ u 2 9. (c) In circular motion, the frictional force acting towards the

u 2 sin2 θ u2 centre of the horizontal circular path provides the centripetal

Height, H = ⇒ Hmax = when θ = 90°.

2g 2g force and avoid overturning of vehicle. Due to the change in

direction of motion, velocity changes in circular motion.

R

It is clear that Hmax = max . 10. (b) On an unbanked road, friction provides the necessary

2

centripetal force mv 2 / r = μmg.

2. (a) Centrifugal force acting on a body is given by Therefore, v = μrg

mv 2 m( rω )2

F = = = mrω 2 = mr(2 πv )2 = 4 π 2 mrv 2 Thus, with increase in friction, safe velocity limit also

r r increases.

Here, m = 1 kg, v = 1 rps, r = 1 m When the road is banked with angle of θ, then its limiting velocity

∴ F = 4 π 2 × 1 × 12 = 4 π 2N rg (tanθ + μ)

is given by v =

3. (d) Within a certain speed of the turn table, the frictional force 1 − μ tan θ

between the coin and the turn table supplies the necessary

centripetal force required for circular motion. On further increase Thus, limiting velocity increases with banking of road.

of speed, the frictional force cannot supply the necessary 11. (b) Assertion (A) v sinα = horizontal component of velocity.

centripetal force. Therefore, the coin flies off tangentially.

= constant

4. (e) Due to Earth’s axial rotation, the speed of the trains relative to

Earth will be different and hence, the centripetal forces on them Reason (R) Radial acceleration of a particle, ar = g 2 − at 2

will be different. Thus, their effective weights mg − mv 2 / r and At highest point, a t = 0

mg + mv 2 / r will be different. So, they exert different pressure on

the rails. Thus, ar is maximum.

12. (a) When roads are properly banked, force of friction between

5. (a) Both bodies will take same time to reach the Earth because

tyres and road provides partially the necessary centripetal

vertical downward component of velocity for both the bodies will force. This cause wear and tear of tyres.

be zero and time of descent, t = 2 h / g . Horizontal velocity has

no effect on the vertical direction. 13. (e) The man should point his rifle at a point higher than the

target, since the bullet suffers a vertically downward deflection

6. (c) As, time taken by a projectile, T ∝ u and R ∝ u 2. ⎛ S = 1 gt 2 ⎞ due to gravity.

⎜ ⎟

When velocity of projection of a body is made n times, then its of ⎝ 2 ⎠

flight becomes n times and range becomes n2 times.

14. (e) At the highest point, vertical component of velocity

u 2 sin 2θ

7. (a) Range, R = becomes zero, so there will be only horizontal velocity and it is

g perpendicular to the acceleration due to gravity.

When θ = 45°, Rmax =

u2

sin 90° =

u2 15. (d) While moving along a circle, the body has a constant

g g tendency to regain its natural straight line path. This tendency

gives rise to a force called centrifugal force. The centrifugal

u2 −u2

When θ = 135°, Rmax = sin 270° = force does not act on the body in motion is centripetal force.

g g The centrifugal force acts on the source of centripetal force to

So, negative sign shows opposite direction. display it radially outward from the centre of the path.

39

ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND

CAPACITANCE

• Electrostatic potential difference between two

• For a charged conducting sphere/shell having total

charge Q and radius R, the potential at a point distant r

from the centre of the sphere/shell is

Q

CONCEP

your Revi

V

points B and A in an electrostatic field is the (i) V = , for r > R

amount of work done in carrying unit positive test 4 πε 0 r r<R

charge from A to B (against the electrostatic 1 Q

(ii) V = ⋅ , for r = R r >R

force of the field) along any path between two 4 πε 0 r

points, i.e. VB − VA = WAB / q 0 = − ∫ E ⋅dl Q

(iii) V = , for r ≤ R r=R r

• SI unit of potential is volt, where 1V = 1 J / 1 C. Its 4 πε 0 R

dimensional formula is [ML2 T −3 A −1 ]. • For a charged non-conducting (dielectric) sphere of

XEROG

Xerography is widely used to make photocopies of printe

• Electric potential is a state function and does not radius R, the charge Q is uniformly distributed over the

electrostatics and optics. The one idea that makes the pro

depend on the path followed. entire volume.

material to form an image. A photo conductor is a materi

Q Q

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT (i) V = , for r > R (ii) V = , for r = R reasonably good conductor wen exposed to light.

4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0 As figure 1 illustrates the steps in the Xerographic proces

CHARGE

Q thin film of the photoconductive material (usually

Potential due to a point charge Q, at a distance r is (iii) V = , for r ≤ R selenium), and the photoconductive surface is given a

1 Q 4 πε 0 R

given by V = ⋅ positive electrostatic charge in the dark as shown in fig

4 πε 0 r • For a charged non-conducting (dielectric) sphere of (a).The page to be copied is then projected onto the

(i) At the centre of the line joining two equal and radius R, the charge Q is uniformly distributed over the charged surface fig. (b). The photoconducting surface

opposite charges, V = 0 but E ≠ 0. entire volume becomes conducting only in areas where light strikes, the

(ii) At the centre of the line joining two equal and Q Q the light produces charge carrier in the photoconductor

(i) V = , for r > R (ii) V = , for r = R

like charges, E = 0 but V ≠ 0. 4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0 R that neutralize the positively charged surface. The charge

(iii) If four identical charges q each are placed at remain on those areas of the photoconductor not exposed

Q ⎡ 3 R2 − r 2 ⎤ to light, however, leaving a hidden image of the object in

the four vertices of a square, then the net (iii) V = , for r < R

electric field at the centre of the square is zero 4 πε 0 ⎢⎣ 2 R 3 ⎥⎦ the form of a positive distribution of surface charge.

(iv) At the centre of the sphere V Next, a negatively charged powder called a toner is dusted

2q

but V = i.e. r = 0 r<R

onto the photoconducting surface (fig. (c)).The charged

π ε 0r powder adheres only to the areas that contain the positive

3Q 3

V= = Vs charged image. At this point, the image becomes visible. I

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO SYSTEM 8 πε 0 R 2 r>R is then transferred to the surface of a sheet of positively

OF CHARGES charged paper. Finally, the toner is ‘‘fixed’’ to the surface o

⎡ Q ⎤

⎢Vs = 4 πε R ⎥

If a number of charges q 1 , q 2 , q 3 ,... are present in r=R r the paper by heat (fig. (d)), resulting in a permanent copy

space, then the electric potential at any point will be ⎣ 0 ⎦ of the original.

V = V1 + V2 + V3 + ... ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

The steps for producing a document on a laser printer are

1 ⎡ q1 q2 ⎤ 1 n ⎛ qi ⎞ similar to those used in a photocopy machine in that par

= + + .... ⎥ = Σ ⎜ ⎟ • The electric energy of a system of charges is the work The difference between the two techniques lies in the way

⎢

4 πε 0 ⎣ r1 r2 ⎦ 4 πε 0 i = 1 ⎝ ri ⎠ that has been done in bringing those charges from laser printer, the command to print the letter O, for instan

infinity to near each other to form the system. rotating mirror inside the printer causes the beam of the

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO AN • For a system of two point charges q 1 and q 2 separated interlaced pattern (fig. e). Electrical signals generated by

ELECTRIC DIPOLE by a distance r, the potential energy is given by that traces out the letter O in the form of positive charges

• The electric potential at a point situated at a 1 q1q2 the transfer to paper is accomplished as in a photocopy m

distance r from the mid-point of a short electric U= ⋅

4 πε 0 r

dipole of dipole moment p and inclined at an

angle θ from the axial line of dipole is given by • If two charges are like charges, then force between SPECIAL CASE

them is repulsive. Work is being done against this • When θ = 90 ° , then U = 0, i.e. potential energy of a

1 p cos θ 1 p ⋅ r$

V= ⋅ = ⋅ repulsive force while bringing the charges to their dipole is zero.

4 πε 0 r2 4 πε 0 r 2 present positions and hence electric potential energy • When θ = 0 °, then U = − pE, i.e. potential energy is

• At a point situated on the axial line of electric of the system will be positive. minimum and stable equilibrium.

dipole of θ = 0 ° or π and hence potential • If two charges are unlike one, force between them is • If θ = 180 °, then U = − pE, i.e. potential energy is

1 q attractive and work is being done by the attractive maximum and unstable equilibrium.

difference, V = ± . Here, positive sign is

4π ε0 r 2 force. Consequently, potential energy of the system

CONDUCTORS

taken for θ = 0 ° and negative sign is taken for will be negative.

• For a system of n point charges, the total electrical Those materials through which electricity can pass

θ = π. through easily because they contains a large number of

potential energy of the system is given by

• Electric potential at any point situated on the free electrons, e.g. metals like copper, silver, etc.

equatorial line of an electrical dipole (θ = 90 ° ) is 1⎡ 1 n n q .q ⎤

i j INSULATORS

zero, i.e. V = 0. U= ⎢ ⋅ Σ Σ ⎥

2 ⎢ 4 πε 0 i = 1 j = 1 rij ⎥ Those materials through which electricity cannot pass

• Electric potential due to an electric dipole, in ⎣ i ≠ j ⎦ through easily because they do not contain free

general is inversely proportional to square of the Here the factor 1/2 has been incorporated on account electrons, e.g. rubber, ebonite, mica, etc.

distance of the point from mid-point of a dipole, of the fact that in the summation each term has been When a conductor is placed in an electric field, it exhibits

i.e. V ∝1 / r 2 counted twice ij and ji in the above expression. the following properties

• Work done for rotating an electric dipole of dipole (i) Net electric field inside the conductor is zero.

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO SOME moment p in a uniform electric field E from

COMMON CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS (ii) Electric charge always resides on the outer surface

orientation θ 1 to orientation θ 2 is given by the conductor, the electric field is perpendicular

• Potential at a point distant r from an infinitely U = − p ⋅ E = − pE (cos θ 2 − cos θ 1 )

long wire having linear charge density, λ (normal) to the surface at every point.

• If initially the dipole is perpendicular to the field. E, (iii) Net electric charge in the interior of the conductor

i.e. V = ( λ / 2 π ε 0 ) ⋅ ln r Q 1 = 90 ° and Q 2 = Q , then U = − pE cosθ. is zero in equilibrium state.

PT MAP POLARISATION

• When a dielectric is placed in an external electric

field, the centres of positive and negative charges

get separated in non-polar dielectrics, so the

CAPACITORS IN SERIES

The equivalent capacitance C s of number of capacitors

connected in series is given by

1 /C s = 1 /C 1 + 1 /C 2 + 1 /C 3

ision

molecules of dielectrics gain of permanent

CAPACITANCE IN PARALLEL

electric dipole moment. This process is called

Tool •

polarisation.

The electric dipole moment developed per unit

volume in a dielectric when placed in an external

•

•

The equivalent capacitance of a number of capacitors

connected in parallel is given by C p = C 1 + C 2 + ...

In a parallel combination of capacitors, the potential

electric field E is called polarisation vector P. For difference across each capacitor is same but the

GRAPHY charge on each capacitor is proportional to its

a linear isotropic dielectrics, P = χ e E. capacitance.

ed materials. It is based on simple concepts from

Where χ e is a constant, known as the electric

ocess unique, however, is the use of photo conductive ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR

susceptibility of the given dielectric, whose value

ial that is a poor conductor of electricity in the dark but a The energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C and

depends on the nature of dielectric and is a

characteristics of the dielectric. charge q with voltage V is given by

ss. First, the surface of a plate or drum is coated with a

EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACE 1 1 Q2 1

U = CV 2 = = QV

• For a given charge distribution, locus of all points 2 2 C 2

or regions for which the electric potential has a ENERGY DENSITY

Lens constant value are called equipotential regions The electrical energy stored per unit volume or energy

such equipotentials can be surfaces, volumes or density in a region with electric field E is given by

ere lines. U = (1 / 2 ) ε 0 E 2

• Lines of force always intersect an equipotential

e perpendicularly. LOSS OF ENERGY ON SHARING CHARGES

d Selenium • No two equipotential surfaces can intersect each If two conductors of capacitances C 1 and C 2 at potentials

coated Negatively V1 and V2 , respectively are connected together, a loss of

(a) Charging drum (b) Imaging (c) Applying other. If they do so, there will be two values of

charged

the drum the document the toner

toner electric potential at the point of intersection, energy takes place which is given by

d 1 C 1C 2

Interlaced pattern which is not possible. ΔU = × (V 1 − V 2 ) 2

of laser lines

• If a charge is moved from one point to the other 2 (C 1 + C 2 )

ely

It over an equipotential surface, work done will be

Laser zero as THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

beam

of WAB = U BA = q (VB − VA ) = 0 [As,VB = VA] One important application of electrical discharge in

y • Work has to be done to move a charge from one gases is the electrostatic precipitator. This device

(d) Transferring the (d) Laser equipotential surface to another. removes particulate matter from combustion

toner to the paper printer drum

e CAPACITOR gases, thereby reducing air pollution. It is

ts (a), (c) and (d) of Figure remain essentially the same. • A device which stores electrostatic energy. It especially useful in coal burning power plants and

y the image is formed on the selenium-coated drum. In a consists of conductors of any shape and size industrial operations that generate large quantities

nce, is sent to a laser from the memory of a computer. A carrying charges of equal magnitudes and of smoke, i.e. to eliminate more than 99% of the

laser to sweep across the selenium-coated drum in an

opposite signs and supported by an insulating ash from smoke as shown in figure. A high potential

bythetheprinter

printerturn

turnthethelaser

laserbeam

beamononand

andoffoffinina pattern

a pattern

s on the selenium. Toner is then applied to the drum, and medium. difference (40 to 100 kV) is maintained between a

machine. • SI unit of capacitance is farad wire running down the centre of a duct and the

1 coulomb 1 C ⎞ walls of the ducts, which are grounded.

(F, where 1 F = 1 farad = = ⎟ Insulator

(iv) Just outside the surface of a conductor, the electric 1 volt 1 V⎠

field is perpendicular (normal) to the surface at CAPACITANCE OF A SPHERICAL Battery

every point.

CONDUCTOR – Clean air out

(v) Electric field lines do not pass through the interior of +

It is proportional to the radius R of the spherical The high negative electric

the conductor. conductor, i.e. C = 4 πε 0 R. potential maintained on

(vi) Electric potential at all points of the conductor,

PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR the central wire creates a

situated inside as well as on its surface, is uniform corona discharge in the

moreover, it has the same value as its surface. It consists of two large parallel conducting plates, Dirty vicinity of the wire

each of area A, and separated by a small distance d. air in

DIELECTRIC MEDIUM ε A

Weight

Dielectrics are insulating materials which transmit Its capacitance is C = 0 .

d Dirt out

electric effect without conducting electricity. Electrostatic precipitator

e.g. Mica, glass, water, etc. SPHERICAL CAPACITOR

It consists of two concentric spherical conducting As the values of the field near the wire become

DIELECTRICS ARE OF TWO TYPES high enough to cause a corona discharge around

shells of inner and outer radii a and b, i.e.

Non-polar dielectrics and dielectrics. 4 πε 0 ab the wire, the air near the wire contains positive

• Non-polar dielectrics, e.g. O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , CH 4 etc. consist C= ions, electrons and such negative ions as O−2 . As

of non-polar molecules in which the centre of positive b−a

most of the charged dirt particles are negative, they

charge exactly coincides with the centre of negative CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR too are drawn to the duct walls by the electric field.

charge and dipole moment of a molecule is zero. It consists of two coaxial conducting cylinders of When the duct is periodically shaken, the particles

• Polar molecules, e.g. H 2O, HCl, NH 3 , alcohol are made inner and outer radii a and b of common length l. break loose and are collected at the bottom. In

of polar molecules in which centre of positive charge i.e. addition to reduce the amounts of harmful gases

does not coincide with centre of negative charge and l l and particular matter in the atmosphere, the

each molecule has some intrinsic electric dipole C = 2 πε 0 = 2 πε 0 electrostatic precipitator recovers valuable metal

moment. log e (b / a ) 2.303 log 10 (b / a )

oxides from the stack.

IRODOV MATE Kamal Upreti

ELECTRIC CAPACITANCE

ENERGY OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD

Problems in General Physics IE Irodov

Problem No. 3.108 f- b-a

æ l l ö

Straight Wire Conductor

i.e. - ò df = ò ç + ÷ dr

è 2 pe0r 2 pe0 ( b - r )ø

f+ a

Two long straight wires with equal cross-sectional radii a After integrating both sides, we get

are located parallel to each other in air. The distance l b - aö

f+ - f- = ln æç ÷

between their axes equals to b. Find the mutual pe0 è a ø

capacitance of the wires per unit length under the q q pe0 q

\ C= = or C =

condition b >> a. f+ - f- l æ b - aö b - aö

ln ç ÷ l ln æç ÷

Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION p e0 è a ø è a ø

Electric capacitance

Charge on positive plate Step III Capacitance per unit length is

=

pe0 æç ö÷

a

Potential difference between positive and

C è lø C pe0 l pe0

negative plates = or = =

l ( b - a) l æ b - aö æ b - aö

l ln l ln ç ÷ ln ç ÷

Step I The capacitance is shown in figure below. a è a ø è a ø

+q

b

–q

As, given that b >> a

C pe0

i.e. »

l ln

b

E1 E=E1+E2 E2 a

r

P Problem No. 3.134

Self-energy of a System

a a A system consists of two thin concentric metal shells of

radii R1 and R2 with corresponding charges q1 and q2 . Find

The net electric field at point P is E = E1 + E 2

the self-energy value W1 and W2 of each shell, the

where, E1 = electric field due to positive plate (cylindrical wire of

l

interaction energy of the shells W12 and the total electric

positive charge) = and E 2 = electric field due to negative energy of the system.

2 pe0 r

plate (cylindrical wire containing negative charge Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION

l

= The self-potential energy of

2 pe0( b - r ) spherical shell is

q

Step II Net electric field at point P, q

W = ò Vdq = ò 4pe0 R dq R1

q1

E = E1 + E 2 0

l l

E= + Þ - df = Edr q2 R2

2 pe0 r 2 pe0( b - r ) i.e. W=

8pe0R

q2

IRODOV MATE

Step I Work done by a thin concentric metal shell of radii R1 with C2

carrying charge q 1, we get h

d

q 12 C1

W1 =

8pe0 R1

Total charge on capacitor is q = sS

Step II Work done by a thin concentric metal shell of radii R 2 with q2

\ Energy stored on capacitor is U i =

carrying charge q 2, we get 2C 0

q 22 Step II In the final state, the system is equivalent to two capacitors in

W2 =

8pe0 R 2 series.

e S e eS

Step III The potential on the surface of first shell due to second C1 = 0 and C 2 = 0

q2 d -h h

shell is f =

4pe0 R 2 where, e is relative permittivity of water.

Step IV Interaction energy of the shells W12, we have Step III Net capacitance after rising the liquid is

C1C 2 e0eS

q1 q 2 C = =

W12 = q 1f = C1 + C 2 h + e(d - h)

4pe0 R 2

Step IV Total energy of system remains constant.

Total electric energy of the system, \ Energy of a system ( E ) = Electrical potential energy

i.e. W = W1 + W 2 + W12 + Gravitational potential energy = Constant

q2 h

q 12 q 22 q1 q 2 E= + mg = Constant

= + + 2C 2

8pe0 R1 8pe0 R 2 4pe0 R 2

q 2 ì h + e(d - h)ü r Sgh2

= í ý+ = Constant

1 é q 12 q2 q q ù 2 î e0eS þ 2

= ê + 2 + 1 2ú

4pe 0 ë 2 R1 2 R 2 R2 û dE q2

\ = (1 - e) + rSgh = 0

dh 2 e0eS

Problem No 3.144 q2

or rSgh = ( e - 1)

Parallel Plate Capacitor 2 e0eS

( sS )2

A parallel plate capacitor is located horizontally, so that rSgh = ( e - 1) [Q q = sS ]

2 e0eS

one of its plates is submerged into liquid while the other is

over its surface as shown in figure. The permittivity of the Þ Maximum height of the liquid in the capacitor rises after its

liquid is equal to e, its density is equal to r. To what height s 2( e - 1)

plates get a charge of surface density s, we get h = .

will the level of the liquid in the capacitor rise after its 2 e0 ger

plates get a charge of surface density s?

Problem No. 3.135

Uniformly Charged Sphere

A charge q is distributed uniformly over the volume of a

.

ball of radius R. Assuming the permittivity to be equal to

Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION unity, find

If capacitor is charged upto surface charge density s and then (a) the electrostatic self-energy of the ball.

disconnected from battery. The charge of capacitor will remain (b) the ratio of the energy W1 stored in the ball to the

constant during whole process. When liquid rises, capacitance energy W2 pervading the surrounding space.

of the capacitor changes.

Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION The energy stored

q2 1

But U = 0 per unit volume in an electric field is given by U = e 0e E 2.

2C 2

From this relation, energy stored in capacitor changes without Step I Let at some instant electric charge q is

changing charge on the plates of capacitance. When the liquid

assembled upto radius r. Now, we dr

rises between gap, gravitational potential energy increases but

bring dq charge from infinity and put it

energy stored in capacitor decreases. At an instant, total

on this sphere to increase the radius r

energy remains constant.

from r to ( r + dr ).

Step I The capacitance of capacitor before rising the liquid is 4

e0 S Here, q = pr 3r

C0 = 3

d dq = 4pr 2rdr

IRODOV MATE

Step II The electric potential on the surface of sphere of radius r is And electric field due to negatively charged ball,

R q

q q E2 =

f= , i.e. U = ò fdq = ò ´ 4prr 2 dr

4pe0 r 4 pe r 4pe0e ( b - r )2

0 0

U= r

e0 2 q q

i.e. E= +

4pe0er 2 4pe0e( b - r )2

q 3q 2

Here, r= and U =

4 20pe0R \ Net electric flux in a system, - df = Edr

pR 3

3 Integrating both sides, we get

q f- b - aì q q ü

Step III The electric field outside the sphere is given by E = - ò df = ò í 2

+ 2ý

dr

4pe0r 2 f+ a 4 pe er 4 pe e( b - r )

î 0 0 þ

Here, q =

4

pR 3r, the energy stored outside the sphere is q é2 2 ù

f+ - f- = -

3 4pe0e êë a b úû

¥ ¥

æ ö

2 q 4pe0e 2 pe0e

1 1 q C = = =

W2 = ò 2

e0 E 2dV = e0

2 ò çè 4pe r 2 ÷ø × 4pr 2dr f+ - f- é2 - 2 ù b-a

r=R R 0 êë a b úû ab

¥ 2 ¥

1 q 2

r dr q é - 1ù

2

q2 But b >> a, b - a » b

=

2 4pe0 ò r 4

=

ê ú

8pe0 ë r û R

=

8pe 0R i.e. C =

2 pe0

Þ C = 2 pe0 ea

R

b / ab

Step IV As we know, total energy stored inside the ball, U = W1 + W 2.

Net capacitance of a system of two identical metal balls,

The ratio of the energy W1 stored in the ball to the energy W 2 C = 2 pe0ea.

pervading the surrounding space, i.e.

W1 U - W 2 U

W2

=

W2

=

W2

-1 Alternative Method (on the basis of energy)

4pr 2R 5 Total energy of system is U = U + + U - + U + -

U 15e0 Here, U + = Self-potential energy of positively charged balls

= - 1= -1

W2 q2 q2

=

8pe0R 8pe 0 ea

4pr 2R 5 8pe0R 1 U - = Self-potential energy of negatively charged balls

= ´ -1=

15e0 æ pR 3r ö

4

2

5

ç ÷ (- q ) 2 q2

è3 ø = =

8pe 0 ea 8pe 0 ea

Problem No. 3.110 and U + - = Mutual potential energy of both balls

q (- q ) -q2

Dielectric System of a Capacitance = =

4 pe 0 eb 4 pe 0 eb

Find the capacitance of a system of two identical metal

Total energy of system, U = U + + U - + U + -

balls of radius a, if the distance between their centres is

equal to b, with b >> a. The system is located dielectric q2 é 1 1 1ù

= + -

with permittivity e. 4 pe 0 eb êë 2a 2a b úû

Sol. q2

Step I A system of two identical metal balls of radius a, if the distance

But in the case of capacitor, U =

2C

between their centres is equal to b, with b >> a, i.e both

q2 q2 é 1 1 1ù

spheres behaves as isolated balls as shown in figure. = + -

+q –q

2C 4 p e 0 e êë 2a 2a b úû

E=E1+E2

After solving, we get

O1 P O2 2pe 0 2pe 0 e

C= =

1 1

- æb -aö

r ç ÷

b a b è ab ø

q

Net capacitance, C = But, b >> a, b - a » b

f+ - f-

\ Net capacitance of a system of two identical metal balls,

Step II Here, electric field due to positively charged ball,

q C = 2pe 0 ea

E1 =

4pe0er 2

CHAPTERWISE TOPICWISE

SOLVED PAPERS SERIES

HIGHLY USEFUL FOR JEE MAIN, ADVANCED &

OTHER ENGINEERING ENTRANCES

OTHER MEDICAL ENTRANCES

& MEDICAL ASPIRANTS WITH ALL PRECISELY

SOLVED QUESTIONS OF LAST 10 YEARS

NEET 2016 (PHASE II)

PRACTICE PAPER

INSTRUCTIONS

G

This test consists of 45 questions and each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.

G

Candidates will be awarded marks as stated above for correct response of each question. 1/4 mark will be

deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will be made

if no response is indicated for an item in the answer sheet.

G

There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will

be treated as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instruction.

-2 -2 2 -1 -2 (b) NB = w(1 - x /d ), NA = wx /d

(a) [MLT A ] (b) [ML T A ]

(c) NB = 2 w(1 - x /d ), NA = 2 wx /d

(c) [ML2T -2A -2 ] (d) [ML2T -2A -1 ] æ xö

(d) NB = wx /d , NA = w ç1 - ÷

2. A circular coil is in y-z plane with centre at origin. The è dø

coil is carrying a constant current. Assuming direction 4. Two bodies of masses m and 4m are placed at a

of magnetic field at X = - 25 cm to be positive direction distance r, the gravitational potential at a point on the

of magnetic field, which of the following graphs shows line joining them where the gravitational field is

variation of magnetic field along X-axis? zero, is

4 Gm 6 Gm 9 Gm

B B (a) - (b) - (c) - (d) zero

r r r

5. 90% of a radioactive sample is left undecayed after

(a) X (b) X times t has elapsed. What percentage of the initial

O O sample will decay in a total time 2t?

(a) 20% (b) 19% (c) 40% (d) 38%

B B

6. In the circuit shown in figure, the maximum output

voltage V0 is

+

(c) X (d) X V D1 D2

O O

10 V 2 kΩ

t + V0 –

O T/2 T

3. A rod of weight w supported by two parallel knife 2kΩ 2kΩ

edges A and B is in equilibrium in a horizontal position. –

The knives are at a distance d from each other. The

centre of mass of the rod is at a distance x from A. The 5

(a) 0 V (b) 5 V (c) 10 V (d) V

normal reactions at A and B are 2

52

7. The ratio of intensities between two coherent sound 14. 10 -3 W of 5000 Å light is directed on a photoelectric

sources is 4 : 1. The difference of loudness in decibel cell. If the current in the cell is 0.16 mA, the percentage

(dB) between maximum and minimum intensities, of incident photons which produce photoelectrons is

when they interfere in space is (a) 40% (b) 0.04% (c) 20% (d) 10%

(a) 10 log 2 (b) 20 log 3

(c) 10 log 3 (d) 20 log 2 15. The given figure shows wavefront P passing through

two systems A and B and emerging as Q and then as R.

8. A particle moves with simple harmonic motion in a The systems A and B could respectively, be

straight line. In first ts, after starting from rest it travels

a distance a, and in next t s, it travels 2a, in same R

direction, then

(a) amplitude of motion is 4a

(b) time period of oscillation is 6t

P A Q B

(c) amplitude of motion is 3a

(d) time period of oscillation is 8t

(a) a prism and a convergent lens

9. A coil of resistance is 15 W and inductance is 0.6 H, is (b) a convergent lens and a prism

connected to a steady 120V power source. At what rate (c) a divergent lens and a prism

will the current in the coil rise at the instant the coil is (d) a convergent lens and a divergent lens

connected to the power source and at the instant the

current reaches 80% of its maximum value? 16. A solid cylinder of mass M, radius M k

(a) 200 A/s and 40 A/s R is attached to a horizontal R

(b) 220 A/s and 45 A/s massless spring of spring constant

(c) 180 A/s and 35 A/s k, so that it can roll without slipping along a horizontal

(d) 250 A/s and 50 A/s surface. If the cylinder is slightly displaced and

released, the time period of the SHM it executes, is

10. The following logic circuit represents

M 2M

X (a) 2 p (b) 2 p

A k k

O M 3M

Y (c) 2 p (d) 2 p

2k 2k

(a) NAND gate with output O = X + Y

17. A string of length 0.4 m and mass 10 -2 kg is rigidly

(b) NOR gate with output O = X + Y

clamped at the ends. The tension in the string is 1.6 N.

(c) NAND gate with output O = XY Identical wave pulses are produced at one end at equal

(d) NOR gate with output O = X . Y interval of time Dt. The minimum value of Dt which

11. Steam at 100°C is passed into 1.1 kg of water contained allows constructive interference between successive

in a calorimeter of water equivalent to 0.02 kg at 15°C pulses is

till the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents (a) 0.10 s (b) 0.20 s (c) 0.05 s (d) 0.40 s

rises to 80°C. The mass of the steam condensed in kg is 18. A concave lens of glass, refractive index 1.5 has both

(a) 0.130 (b) 0.065 (c) 0.260 (d) 0.135 surfaces of same radius of curvature R. On immersion

12. A 50 g bullet moving with a velocity of 10 ms -1 gets in a medium of refractive index 1.75, it will behave as a

embedded into a 950 g stationary body. The loss KE of (a) convergent lens of focal length 3.5R

the system will be (b) convergent lens of focal length 3R

(a) 95% (b) 100% (c) 5% (d) 50% (c) divergent lens of focal length 3.5R

13. A particle which is constrained to move along the (d) divergent lens of focal length 3R

x-axis, is subjected to a force in the same direction 19. An element with atomic number Z = 11 emits K a X-ray

which varies with the distance x of the particle from the of wavelength l. The atomic number of element which

origin as F(x) = - kx + ax3 . Here, k and a are positive emits K a X-ray of wavelength 4l is

constants. For x ³ 0, the functional form of the (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 11 (d) 44

potential energy U(x) of the particle is 20. Figure shows a circuit in D1 R1

U(x) U(x) which three identical

diodes are used. Each diode

(a) x (b) x

has forward resistance of 20

W and infinite backward

D2 D3 R2

resistance. Resistors

U(x) U(x) R1 = R2 = R3 = 50 W. Battery + –

voltage is 6 V. The current 6V R3

(c) x (d) x

through R3 is

(a) 50 mA (b) 100 mA (c) 60 mA (d) 25 mA

53

21. The graph as shown in y 27. A car is fitted with a convex side-view mirror of focal

figure alongside length 20 cm. A second car 2.8 m behind the first car is

describes the motion of overtaking the first car at a relative speed of 15 m/s.

a ball rebounding from The speed of the image of the second car as seen in the

a horizontal surface mirror of the first one is

being released from a t 1 1

t1 t2 t3 (a) m/s (b) m/s (c) 10 m/s (d) 15 m/s

point above the 10 15

surface. Assume that the ball collides each time with

the floor inelastically. The quantity represented on the

28. The threshold frequency for certain metal is 3.3 ´ 1014

Hz. If light of frequency 8.2 ´ 1014 Hz is incident on the

Y-axis is the ball’s (take upward direction as positive)

metal, the cut-off voltage of the photoelectric current

(a) displacement (b) velocity

will be

(c) acceleration (d) momentum

(a) 4.9 V (b) 3.0 V (c) 2.0 V (d) 5.4 V

22. Given, F = (xy2 ) $i + (x2 y) $j N. The work done by F when

a particle is taken along the semicircular path OAB, 29. Diameter of a plano-convex lens is 6 cm and thickness

where the coordinates of B are (4, 0) is at the centre is 3 mm. If the speed of light in the

y material of the lens is 2 ´ 108 m/s, find the focal length

A of the lens.

(a) 15 cm (b) 20 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 10 cm

x 30. A unit vector along the incident ray of light is $i. The

O B

unit vector for the corresponding refracted ray of light

65 75 73 is r$ × n$ , a unit vector normal to the boundary of the

(a) J (b) J (c) J (d) zero

3 2 4 medium and directed towards the incident medium. If

m is the refractive index of the medium, the Snell’s law

23. In the given figure, blocks A and B move with velocities

(second law) of refraction is

v1 and v2 along horizontal direction. Find the ratio of

(a) $i ´ n$ = m(n$ + r)

$ (b) $i × n$ = m( r$ × n$ )

v1 / v2 .

$ $ $ $

(c) i ´ n = m( r ´ n ) (d) $i ´ n$ = m( r$ + n$ )

equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K. The

θ1 θ2 piston of A is free to move, while that of B is held fixed.

A v1 v2

The same amount of heat is given to the gas in each

cylinder. If the rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30

sin q1 sin q 2 cos q 2 cos q1 K, then the rise in temperature of the gas in B is

(a) (b) (c) (d)

sin q 2 sin q1 cos q1 cos q 2 (a) 30 K (b) 18 K (c) 50 K (d) 42 K

24. Three simple harmonic motions in the same direction 32. A cyclic process ABCA as shown in p-V diagram in

having the same amplitude and same period are figure is performed with a constant mass of an ideal

superimposed. If each differ in phase from the next by gas. Which of the following graphs in figure represents

45°, then the corresponding process on a p-V diagram?

(a) the resultant amplitude is (1 + 2 ) a Y

(b) the phase of the resultant motion relative to the first is 90° p C

(c) the energy associated with the resulting motion is ( 3 + 2 2 ) B

times the energy associated with any single motion

(d) the resulting motion is not simple harmonic

A

25. If body of mass m = 3.613 kg is moving along. The

O V X

x-axis with a speed of 5 m/s. The magnitude of its

momentum is retarded as p p

A A

(a)17.565 kg-m/s (b) 17.56 kg-m/s

(c) 17.57 kg-m/s (d) 17.6 kg-m/s (a) (b) B

26. Two particles, each of mass m and charge q are

attached to the two ends of a light rigid rod of length C B C

2R. The rod is rotated at constant angular speed about a V

p V

perpendicular axis passing through its centre. The B p

A

ratio of the magnitudes of the magnetic moment of the A

system and its angular momentum about the centre of (c) (d)

the radius is

C

q q 2q q

(a) (b) (c) (d) B C

2m m m pm V

V

54

33. The radius of the Bohr’s orbit in the ground state of 40. If one million tiny droplets of water of the same radius

hydrogen atom is 0.5 Å. The radius of the orbit of the coalesce into one larger drop, the ratio of the surface

electron in the third excited state of He+ will be energy of the larger drop to the total surface energy of

(a) 8 Å (b) 4 Å (c) 0.5 Å (d) 0.25 Å all the droplets will be

(a) 1 : 10 (b) 1 : 10 2 (c) 1 : 10 4 (d) 1 : 10 6

34. Silver has a work function of 4.7 eV. When ultraviolet

41. The circuit of figure consists of a 50 V battery a 20W

light of wavelength 100 nm is incident upon it, a

resistance a low resistance 25mH inductors and a key.

potential of 7.7 V is required to stop the photoelectrons

Steady state current in the circuit is

when light of wavelength 200 nm is incident upon

silver. What will be the potential required to stop

K

photoelectrons? Ammeter

(Given, hc = 12375 eV Å) +

50V

(a) 0.5 V (b) 1.5 V (c) 2.35 V (d) 3.85 V –

35. A moving coil galvanometer of resistance 100 W is used

R

as an ammeter using a resistance 01 . W. The maximum

deflection current in the galvanometer is 100 mA. Find

the minimum current in the circuit so that the ammeter (a) 2.5 A (b) 3.5 A (c) 6 A (d) 4 A

shows maximum deflection. 42. A nucleus with mass number 220 initially at rest emits

(a) 100.1 mA (b) 1000.1 mA an a-particle. If the nuclear energy of the reaction is

(c) 10.01 mA (d) 1.01 mA 5.5 MeV. Calculate the KE of the a-particle.

36. In Young’s double slit experiment, the two slits acts as (a) 4.4 MeV (b) 5.4 MeV

coherent sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength (c) 5.6 MeV (d) 6.5 MeV

l. In another experiment with the same set up; the two 43. The current-voltage relation of diode is given by

slits are of equal amplitude A but are incoherent. The I = (e1000 V / T - 1)mA, where the applied voltage V is in

ratio of the intensity of light at the mid-point of the volts and the temperature T is in degree kelvin. If a

screen in the first case to that in the second case is student makes an error measuring ±0.01 V while

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 measuring the current of 5 mA at 300K, what will be

(c) 4 : 1 (d) 1 : 1 the error in the value of current in mA?

37. A non-zero external force acts on a system of particles. (a) 0.5 mA (b) 0.05 mA

The velocity and the acceleration of the centre of mass (c) 0.2 mA (d) 0.02 mA

are found to be v0 and a0 at an instant t. It is possible, if 44. The relative density of the material of a body is the

(a) v 0 = 0, a0 = 0 ratio of its weight in air and the loss of its weight in

(b) v 0 = 0, a0 > 0 water. By using a spring balance, the weight of the

(c) v 0 ¹ 0, a0 = 0 body in air is measured to be 5.00 ± 0.05 N. The weight

(d) v 0 ¹ 0, a0 ¹ 0 of the body in water is measured to be (4.00 ± 0.05) N,.

38. The coefficient of volume expansion of a liquid is Then, the maximum possible percentage error in

49 ´ 10 -5 K -1 . Calculate the fractional change in its relative density is

density when the temperature is raised by 30°C. (a) 11% (b) 10% (c) 9% (d) 7%

(a) 7.5 ´ 10 -2 (b) 3.0 ´ 10 -2 45. A copper container of mass 0.30 kg contains 0.45 kg of

. ´ 10 -2

(c) 15 . ´ 10 -2

(d) 11 water. Container and water are initially at room

temperature 20°C. A 1 kg block of metal is heated to

39. A wooden cube floating in water supports a mass

100°C and placed in the water in the calorimeter. The

m = 0.2 kg on its top. When the mass is removed, the

final temperature of the system is 40°C. Find the

cube rise by 2 cm. The side of the cube is (density of

specific heat of the metal.

water = 103 kg/m3 )

(a) 0.161 kcal/kg°C (b) 0.159 kcal/kg°C

(a) 6 cm (b) 12 cm

(c) 0.171 kcal/kg°C (d) 0.181 kcal/kg°C

(c) 8 cm (d) 10 cm

Answers

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (b)

11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (a)

21. (a) 22. (d) 23. (c) 24. (c) 25. (d) 26. (a) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (c) 30. (c)

31. (d) 32. (a) 33. (b) 34. (b) 35. (a) 36. (b) 37. (d) 38. (c) 39. (d) 40. (b)

41. (a) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (a) 45. (b)

55

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE

OPTIONS CORRECT

TYPE PROBLEMS ON

KINEMATICS

A collection of chapterwise best problems of their types

1. The motion of a body is given by the equation 4. A graph of x versus t is shown in the given

dv(t)

= 6.0 - 3v(t), where v(t) is speed in ms -1 and t in figure. Choose the correct alternatives from the

dt given below.

second. If body was at rest at t = 0, then x

(a) the terminal speed is 2.0 ms -1

(b) the speed varies with time as v(t ) = 2(1 - e -3 t ) ms -1 A B

C

(c) the speed is 1.0 ms -1 when the acceleration is half the initial E

value

(d) the magnitude of the initial acceleration is 6.0 ms -1

2. An elevator ascends with an upward acceleration of t

2.0 ms -2 . At the instant, its upward speed is D

2.5 ms -1, loose bolt is dropped from the ceiling of (a) The particle was released from rest at t = 0

the elevator with speed 3.0 ms -1 from the floor. If (b) At B, the acceleration a > 0

g = 10 ms -2 , then (c) At C, the velocity and the acceleration vanish

(a) the time of flight of the bolt from the ceiling to floor of the (d) The speed at D exceeds that at E

elevator is 0.11 s

(b) the displacement of the bolt during the free fall relative to the

5. The motion of a body falling from rest in a resisting

dv

elevator shaft is 0.75 m medium is described by the equation = A - Bv,

(c) the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall relative dt

to the elevator shaft is 1.38 m where A and B are constants. Then,

(d) the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall relative (a) initial acceleration of the body is A

to the elevator shaft is 2.52 m (b) the velocity at which acceleration becomes zero is A/B

3. A particle of mass m moves on the X-axis as follows: A

(c) the velocity at any time t is (1 - e Bt )

B

It starts from rest at t = 0 from the point x = 0 and (d) All of the above are wrong

comes to rest at t = 1 at the point x = 1. No other

information (0 < t < 1). If a denotes the instantaneous 6. A spring with one end attached to a mass and the

acceleration of the particle, then other to a rigid support is stretched and released

(a) magnitude of acceleration, when just released is maximum.

(a) a cannot remain positive for all t in the interval 0 £ t £ 1.

(b) magnitude of acceleration, when at equilibrium position is

(b) | a| cannot exceed 2 at any points in its path.

maximum.

(c) | a| must be ³ 4 at some point or points in its path. (c) speed is maximum when mass is at equilibrium position.

(d) a must change sign during the motion but no other (d) magnitude of displacement is always maximum whenever

Assertion can be made with the information given. speed is minimum.

56

7. The displacement (x) of a particle depends on time (t) 13. A ball is projected from point A with a velocity

as x = at 2 - bt 3 . 10 m/s perpendicular to the plane as given. The

2a

(a) The particle will come to rest after time . range of the ball on plane is

3b

a u=10 m/s

(b) The particle will return to its starting point after time .

b

a

(c) No net force will act on the particle at t = .

3b

A

(d) The initial velocity of the particle was zero but its initial

acceleration was not zero.

8. Suppose a and v denote the acceleration and 30°

velocity, respectively of a body in one-dimensional

motion, then 40 20 13 13

(a) m (b) m (c) m (d) m

(a) speed must increase when a > 0 3 13 20 40

(b) speed will increase when v > 0 and a > 0 14. A block of mass m moving with speed u on smooth

(c) speed must decrease when a < 0 horizontal surface towards stationary wedge of same

(d) speed will decrease when v < 0 and a > 0 mass initially as given all surfaces are smooth, then

9. A particle is projected vertically upwards in vacuum

with a speed (v).

(a) The time taken to rise to half its maximum height is half the

time taken to reach its maximum height. m u m

(b) The time taken to rise to three-fourth of its maximum height

is half the time taken to reach its maximum height.

(c) When it rises to half its maximum height, its speed becomes (a) horizontal momentum of system is conserved.

v/ 2 . (b) final speed of block is zero and wedge is u towards right.

(d) When it rises to half its maximum height, its speed becomes (c) at maximum height from ground block will be moving with

v/2. speed u/2.

(d) maximum height attained by block is u 2 / 4g .

10. A particle is moving with a uniform acceleration

along a straight line AB. Its speed at A and B are 2 15. A tennis ball is hit from a height h = 1 m above the

ms -1 and 14 ms -1, respectively. Then, ground at an angle q = 45° towards a wall that is at a

(a) its speed at mid-point of AB is 10 ms . -1 horizontal distance D = 15 m. The ball hits the wall

(b) its speed at a point P such that AP : PB = 1 : 5 is 4 ms -1. after 1.50 s. The height from ground where it will hit

(c) the time to go from A to mid-point of AP is double of that to the wall is

go from mid-point to B. (a) 5 m (b) 4.75 m (c) 6 m (d) 4 m

(d) None of the above

16. The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are

11. Variation of y-coordinate of two projectiles with given by x(t) = a cos (pt) and y(t) = b sin (pt) where

time is given in figure. If initial speed of both is a, b (< a) and p are positive constants of appropriate

same, then dimensions. Then,

y (a) the path of the particle is an ellipse.

(b) the velocity and acceleration of the particle are normal to

each other at t = p /2 p.

(c) the acceleration of the particle is always directed towards a

focus.

(d) the distance travelled by the particle in time interval t = 0 to

t t = p /2 p is a.

O

2 1 17. A ball is bouncing elastically with a speed 1m/s

(a) horizontal speed of 1 is less than 2 between the walls of a railway compartment of size

(b) horizontal speed of 1 is greater than 2 10 m in a direction perpendicular to walls. The train

(c) horizontal range of 1 is greater than 2 is moving at a constant velocity of 10 m/s parallel to

(d) Both has same horizontal range

the direction of motion of the ball. As seen from the

12. A particle is projected with a velocity 20 m/s, so that ground

it just clears two walls of equal height 10 m, which (a) the direction of motion of the ball changes every 10 s

are same at a distance 20 m from each other. The (b) speed of ball changes every 10 s

(c) average speed of ball over any 20 s interval is fixed

time of passing between the walls is

(d) the acceleration of ball is the same as from the train

(a) 2 s (b) 2 10 s (c) 10 2 s (d) 1 / 2 s

57

18. The figure shows the velocity (v) of a particle moving 23. A ball is rolled off the edge of a horizontal table at a

on a straight line plotted against time (t). speed of 4 m/s. It hits the ground after 0.4 s. Which

v (ms–1) statement given below is true?

(a) It hits the ground at a horizontal distance 1.6 m from the

10

edge of the table.

5 (b) The speed with which it hits the ground is 4.0 m/s.

0 t (s) (c) Height of the table is 0.8 m.

5 10 15 (d) It hits the ground at an angle of 60° to the horizontal.

–5

24. Given two vectors A = 3i$ + 4$j and B = $i + $j. q is the

–10

angle between A and B. Which of the following

(a) The particle has zero displacement. statement(s) is/are correct?

(b) The particle has never turned around. æ $i + $j ö

(a) | A| cos q çç ÷ is the component of A along B.

÷

(c) The particle has constant acceleration.

è 2 ø

(d) The average speed in the interval 0 to 5 s is the same as the

average speed in the interval 5 to 10 s. æ $i - $j ö

(b) | A| sin q çç ÷ is the component of A perpendicular to B.

÷

19. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant è 2 ø

magnitude which is always perpendicular to the æ $i - $j ö

(c) | A| cos q çç ÷ is the component of A along B.

÷

velocity of the particle. The motion of the particle è 2 ø

takes place in a plane. It follows that

æ $i + $j ö

(a) velocity is constant (b) acceleration is constant (d) | A| sin q çç ÷ is the component of A perpendicular to B.

÷

(c) kinetic energy is constant (d) it moves in a circular path è 2 ø

20. Two particles are projected from the same point with 25. If v1 + v2 is perpendicular to v1- v2 , then

the same speed, at different angles q1 and q2 to the (a) v 1 is perpendicular to v 2

horizontal. They have the same horizontal range. (b)| v 1| = | v 2|

Their times of flights are t1 and t2 , respectively. (c) v 1 is a null vector

t1 (d) The angle between v 1 and v 2 can have any value

(a) q1 + q 2 = 90° (b) = tan q1

t2

26. The figure shows the velocity (v) of a particle plotted

t1 t t2

(c) = tan q 2 (d) 1 = against time (t).

t2 sin q1 sin q 2

v (ms–1)

21. The ring R in the arrangement shown can slide B

10

along a smooth, fixed, horizontal rod XY. It is

attached to the block B by a light string. The block is

D C

released from rest, with the string horizontal. 0 t (s)

T 2T

R

X Y

–10 A

B

(a) One point in the string will have only vertical direction. (b) The initial and final speeds of the particle are the same.

(b) R and B will always have momentum of the same magnitude. (c) The acceleration of the particle remains constant

(c) When the string becomes vertical, the speeds of R and B will throughout the motion.

be inversely proportional to their masses. (d) The particle changes its direction of motion at same point

(d) R will lose contact with the rod at some point.

22. Two particles are projec- 4 m/s 27. A particle is projected from a point P with a velocity

ted with speed 4 m/s and v at an angle q with the horizontal. At a certain point

3 m/s Q, it moves at right angles to its initial direction.

3 m/s simultaneously

53º Then,

from the same point as

37º (a) velocity of particle at Q is v sin q.

shown in the figure.

Then, (b) velocity of particle at Q is v cot q.

ævö

(a) their relative velocity is along vertical direction. (c) time of flight from P to Q is ç ÷ cosec q.

(b) their relative acceleration is non-zero and it is along the èg ø

vertical direction. ævö

(d) time of flight from P to Q is ç ÷ sec q.

(c) they will hit the surface simultaneously. èg ø

(d) their relative velocity is constant and has magnitude

1.4 m/s.

58

28. The trajectory of a projectile in vertical plane is

y = ax - bx2 , where a and b are constants and x and y (a) 2 h / g (b) 8h / g

are respectively horizontal and vertical distances of 2

u + 2 gh u 2h

the projectile from the point of projection. The (c) (d) +

g g g

maximum height attained by the particle and the

angle of projection from the horizontal are 30. A particle starts from origin at t = 0 with a velocity

b2 a2 5$i m/s and moves in X - Y plane under action of a

(a) , tan-1 ( b ) (b) , tan-1 (2 b )

4b b force which produces a constant acceleration of

a2 2 a2 (3$i + 2$j) m/s2. At the instant, its X-coordinate is 84 m,

(c) , tan-1 ( a ) (d) , tan-1 ( a )

4b b the speed of the particle at this time is

29. A ball is thrown upwards with a speed u from a (a) 16 ms -1

height h above the ground. The time taken by the (b) 26 ms -1

ball to hit the ground is (c) 20 ms -1

(d) 6 ms -1

dv 1

1. (b,c,d) Given, = 6 - 3v …(i) or t = s = 0707

. s = 07

. s

dt 2

dv Displacement of the bolt,

or = dt

6 - 3v 1

= - 2.5 ´ 071

. + . )2

´ 10 ´ ( 071

Integrating it, we have 2

é -1 log ( 6 - 3v )ù = t + k = - 1.775 + 2.521 = 0746

. = 075. m

…(ii)

êë 3 úû u2

Distance covered = 2 ´ + displacement

At t = 0, v = 0 2g

-1 (2.5)2

\ k= log 6 =2 ´ + 075

. = ( 0.63 + 075

. ) = 138

. m

3 2 ´ 10

Putting this value in Eq. (ii), we have

-1 1 3. (a,c,d) The body is at rest initially and again comes to rest at

log ( 6 - 3v ) = t - log 6 t = 1 s at position x = 1.

3 3

Thus, firstly acceleration will be positive then negative.

6 - 3v ö

or log æç ÷ = - 3 t Thus, a have to change the direction so that body may finally

è 6 ø

come to rest in the interval 0 £ t £ 1. If we plot v - t graph.

6 - 3v

or = e -3 t The total displacement = 1 m = area under ( v - t ) graph.

6

v

v

or 1 - = e -3 t B C D

2

or v = 2(1 - e -3 t ) vmax

When t = 0, v = 2(1 - e -3 t )

Initially, v = 0, From Eq. (i) acceleration,

A t (s)

dv 1/2 1

a0 = = 6 - 3 ´ 0 = 6 ms -2

dt 1 2 ´s

a0 6 Now, vmax - t = s Þ vmax =

When a = = = 3, then from Eq. (i) 2 t

2 2 2 ´1

3 = 6 - 3v or vmax = = 2 m/s

1

or 3v = 6 -3 = 3

The maximum velocity = 2 m/s

or v = 1ms -1

Now, just see the ( v - t ) graph

2. (b,c) Velocity of bolt relative to elevator During AB a > 4 m/s 2

For ABC ,

= 2.5 - 2.5 = 0 During BE a < - 4 m/s 2

Acceleration of bolt relative to elevator, During AC a = 4 m/s 2

a = 10 - ( - 2 ) = 12 ms -2 [Q g = 10 m/s 2 ] For ACE,

During CE a = - 4 m/s 2

1

Using the relation s = ut + at 2, During AD a < 4 m/s 2

2 For ADF,

1 During DE a > - 4 m/s 2

We have 3.0 = 0 ´ t + ´ 12t 2

2 Thus, a ³ 4 at some point or points in its path.

59

4. (a,c,d) From graph, when t = 0, the particle is released from The particle will come to rest, if v = 0. From Eq. (i),

rest at A, hence, v = 0. 2a

0 = 2 at - 3 bt 2 or t =

At B, the graph is parallel to time-axis, hence velocity is 3b

constant there. Thus, acceleration a is zero.

The particle when returns to its starting point, then x = 0.

At C, the graph changes slope, where velocity and

a

acceleration vanish. Now, 0 = a t 2 - b t 3 or t =

Average velocity for motion between A and D is negative b

because the value of x is decreasing with time t . The slope of Force on particle is zero when a = 0. From Eq. (ii),

graph (which represents speed) is more at D than at E. a

0 = 2 a t 2 - 6 b t 3 or t =

Therefore, speed at D is more than that at E. b

dv When t = 0, from Eq. (i) v = 0 and from Eq. (ii) a ¹ 0, has

5. (a,b,c) Given, acceleration, = A - Bv .

vt a = 2 a.

(a) When t = 0, v = 0, therefore, initial acceleration, 8. (b,d) If the initial velocity is negative (i.e. v < 0) and a is

æ dv ö = A positive, i.e., ( a > 0) then speed will decrease. The speed will

ç ÷

è dt øt = 0 increase when v and a are both positive.

dv

= 0. v2

(b) When acceleration is zero, then 9. (b,c) Maximum height reached, s m = .

dt 2g

Hence, A - Bv = 0 or v = A/B v

dv • Time taken to reach the maximum height, Tm = .

(c) = dt g

A - Bv Height s reached in time t is

Integrating it within the limits of motion, i.e. as time 1

s = ut - gt 2

changes from 0 to t , velocity changes 0 to v, we have 2

v

log ( A - Bv )ù T v

-é e = [t ]0t If t = =

êë B úû 2 2g

0

2

Þ loge ( A - Bv ) - loge A = - Bt v ´v 1 æ v ö v2 v 2 3v 2 3

Then, s= - g ç ÷ = - = = s m.

A - Bv A 2g 2 è2 g ø 2g 8g 8g 4

or = e - Bt Þ v = (1 - e - Bt )

A B Speed at height s is v 2 = u 2 - 2 g s

6. (a,c) Maximum restoring force set up in the spring when sm v2

stretched by distance r is F = - kr and the potential energy of When s= =

2 4g

1

stretched spring = kx 2. As F µ r and this force is directed v2 v2

2 Then v ¢2 = v 2 - 2 g ´ =

towards equilibrium position, hence if mass is left free, it will 4g 2

execute damped SHM due to gravity pull. v

Velocity of a particle, v ¢ =

• Magnitude of acceleration in the mass attached to one end 2

of spring when just released is

10. (a,c) Here, u = 2 ms -1, v = 14 ms -1

F kr

a= = = (maximum)

m m A C B

• At equilibrium position, r = 0 Distance between A and B = s

k Then, acceleration

\ a= ´0=0

m v 2 - u 2 14 2 - 2 2 194 97

= = = =

• At equilibrium position, the whole potential energy of the 2s 2s 2s s

stretched spring is converted into whole kinetic energy of the s

mass. Hence, speed of mass is maximum at equilibrium The speed at mid-point C, v 2 = u 2 + 2 a

2

position.

2 97 s

• In damped SHM, the speed of mass is minimum at the =2 + 2 ´ ´ = 101

s 2

extreme position, where displacement is maximum.

or v = 101 = 10 ms -1

• But the magnitude of displacement is not always maximum

whenever speed is minimum. 1 1

As per question, AP = [ AB] = s

7. (a,b,d) Given, 6 6

s 97 s

x = at 2 - b t 3 When s = , then v 2 = 2 2 + 2 ´ ´

6 s 6

Velocity of a particle, 97 -1

dx or v = 3 +2 ´ = 36.3 ms

v = = 2 at - 3 bt 2 …(i) 3

dt \ v = 36.3 = 6 ms -1

dv

\ Acceleration ( a ) = = 2 a - 6 bt …(ii) Since velocity at mid-point C is 10 ms -1.

dt

60

\ Taking motion from A to C, we have So, conservation of linear momentum, we get

10 - 2 8 mu = mv1 - mv 2 …(i)

10 = 2 + a ´ t 1 or t1 = = .

a a and conservation of kinetic energy,

Taking motion from C to B, we have, mu 2 1 1

14 - 10 4 = mv12 + mv 22 …(ii)

14 = 10 + 1 ´ t 2 or t2 = = 2 2 2

a a Solving Eq. (ii) and (i), we get

t1 t

Therefore, = 2 or t 2 = 1 v1 = u, v 2 = 0

t2 2

Q From beginning to maximum height, we get

11. (b,c) As, we know projectile motion of the particle, mu = m (2 v ) Þ v =

u

Slope at t = 0 gives initial vertical speed. 2

So, æç ö÷ < æç ö÷

dy dy So, conservation of mechanical energy upto maximum height,

è dt ø1 at t = 0 è dt ø 2 at t = 0 we get

2

mu 2 = m æç ö÷ ´ 2 + mgh

u × sin q1< u × sin q 2 1 1 u

q1 < q 2 [angle of projection] 2 2 è2 ø

So, cos q1 > cos q 2 u2

or h=

u cos q1 > u cos q 2 4g

\ From graph, we can see that, T1 > T2 15. (b) Distance travelled by particle along Y-axis

So, u cos q1T1 > u cos q 2T2 1 2

s y = ut + at

R1 > R 2 2 u/√2 u

u 45º

v P2 = u 2 - 2 gh or 15 = ´ (15

. )

P θ Q 2 u/√2

or v P2 = 400 - 2 ´ 10 ´ 10 20 m/s

10 m \ u = 10 2 m/s 1m

or v P2 = 200 Þ v P = 10 2 m/s 1 2

Þ sy = u y t -gt

For projectile P to Q, we get 20 m 2

v 2 sin (2 q) 2

´ 10 ´ æç ö÷

R = 20 m = P 1 15

s y = 10 ´ 15

. -

g 2 è 10 ø

or sin (2 q) = 1 Þ q = 45° 15 ´ 15 æ 15 ö = 15

= 15 - = 15 ç ÷

2 v P . sin q 2 ´ 10 2 ´ 1/ 2 2 ´ 10 è 20 ø 4

TPQ = = =2s

g 10 15

Hence, h = 1+ = 475

. m

2 ´ 10 4

13. (a) Time of flight of a particle, T = s

5 3 16. (a,b,c) Distance travelled by a particle along X-axis,

Range along inclined plane, u = 10 m/s x = a cos pt

1 10

R = u xT + ax T 2 x

90º Þ cos pt = …(i)

2 a

2

1 æ 2 ´ 10 ö 5m

and Y-axis, y = b sin pt

= 0´T + . 5. ç ÷ /s 2

º

è 5 3 ø

30

2 5√3 m/s 2 y

g Þ sin pt = …(ii)

40 30° b

= m

3 Squaring and adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

14. (a,b,c,d) Taking block and wedge as a system, we can analyze x2 y2

2

+ 2 =1

that there is no horizontal force acting on a system. So, a b

horizontal momentum is conserved. Therefore, path of the particle is an ellipse. Hence, option (a) is

correct. From the given equations, we can find

dx

= v x = - ap sin pt Y

v dt

2 t=t

v Hmax d x

u

2

= ax = - ap2 cos pt r

dt X

(i) (ii) O

dy

= v y = bp cos pt and

dt

v1 2

d y

= ay = - bp2 sin pt

dt 2

v2

p

(iii)

At time t = p /2 p or pt = ,

2

61

p 21. (a,c) There are no horizontal forces acting on the R plus

• ax and v y becomes zero (because cos = 0.)

2 B system. Hence, its centre of mass will move down vertically

Only v x and ay are left and horizontal momentum will be conserved.

or we can say that velocity

22. (a,d) So, velocity of first particle

is along negative X-axis and acceleration along Y-axis.

= ( 3 cos 37° $i + 3 sin 37° $j ) =

12 $

i + $j

9

• Hence, at t = p /2 p, velocity and acceleration of the particle. 5 5

Hence, at t = p /2 p velocity and acceleration of the particle Velocity of second particle,

are normal to each other. So, option (b) is also correct.

= ( 4 cos 53° $i + 4 sin 53° $j ) =

12 $ 16 $

i + j

At t = t , position of the particle 5 5

r(t ) = x $i + y$j = a cos pt $i + b sin pt $j So, relative horizontal velocity is zero. So, their relative

Y velocity is vertical only. Since, both particles are moving

t=2π/p under gravity, so their relative acceleration is zero.

Their relative velocity = æç

vy 16 9 ö 7

b - ÷ = = 14 . m/s

a è5 5ø 5

X

O ax

23. (a,c) Vertical component of velocity of ball at point P

Þ v v = 0 + gt = 10 ´ 0.4 = 4 m/s

t=0 Horizontal component of velocity = Initial velocity

and acceleration of the particle is Þ v H = 4 m/s

a (t ) = ax $i + ay $j = - p2 [a cos pt $i + b sin pt $j ]

= - p2 [ x $i + y$j ]

4 m/s

= - p2 r (t ) P

vH

θ

• Therefore, acceleration of the particle is always directed

towards origin. v

Hence, option (c) is also correct. vv

• At t = 0, particle is at ( a, 0) and t = p /2 p particle is at ( 0, b ). So, the speed with which it hits the ground

Therefore, the distance covered is one-fourth of the elliptical v = v H2 + v v2 = 4 2 m/s

path not a.

vv 4

Hence, option (d) is wrong. and tan q = = =1 Þ q = 45°

vH 4

17. (b,c,d) Since, the ball is moving with a very small speed in the

It means that ball hits the ground at an angle of 45° to the

moving train, the direction of motion of the ball is the same as

horizontal.

that of the train. The direction of motion of ball does not

1 1

change with respect to observer on ground. Height of the table, h = gt 2 = ´ 10 ´ ( 0.4)2 = 0.8 m

2 2

The speed of the ball as observed by observer on ground

Horizontal distance travelled by the ball from the edge of

before collision with side of train is (10 + 1) = 11 m/s and after

table h = ut = 4 ´ 0.4 = 16

. m

elastic collision is (10 - 1) = 9 m/s.

Since, the collision of the ball with side of train is perfectly 24. (a,b) Component of A along B is | A| cos q B$ for q being the

elastic, the total momentum and kinetic energy are angle between the vectors.

conserved, so average speed of the ball over any 20 s $i + $j

interval is constant as observed by observer on ground. • Also, B$ = . So, choice (a) is correct.

2

Since, train is moving with constant velocity, it is an inertial

frame, so acceleration of ball is same as from the train. • The vector ( $i - $j ) is perpendicular to the vector ( $i + $j ).

æ $i - $j ö

18. (c,d) The displacement is the area with which the velocity-time • So, other resolved component is| A| sin q çç ÷.

÷

graph encloses with time-axis for a given interval of time. è 2 ø

Since, the area of velocity-time graph for time 0 to 5 s is the

25. (b,d) If two vectors are normal to each other, then their dot

same as area of the velocity-time graph for 5 s to 10 s, hence

product is zero.

average speed in these intervals is same.

(v 1 + v 2 ) × (v 1 - v 2 ) = 0

19. (c,d) In the given condition, the particle undergoes uniform Þ v 12 - v 22 = 0

circular motion and for uniform circular motion, the velocity

and acceleration vector changes continuously but kinetic Þ v 12 = v 22

energy is constant for every point. Þ v 1 = v 2 or| v 1| = | v 2|

20. (a,b,d) Projectiles with the same initial speed have the same 26. (a,b,c,d) Displacement = Velocity × Time

horizontal range for complimentary angles of projection.

• In time 0 to 2, the displacement.

Here, q1 = 90 - q 2. = - Area of DOAB + Area of DOAD + Area of DDBC = 0

62

Since, OA = BC , so initial and final speeds are the same. 29. (c) Time taken to reach the highest point from the height h is

The slope of velocity-time graph represents acceleration. Here, obtained from v = u + at

the velocity-time graphs AB is a straight line inclined to u

Þ 0 = u - gt or t = .

time-axis, hence, has equal acceleration throughout. The g

particle changes its direction of motion after time T.

Height attained above h is obtained from

27. (b,c) At initial point ( P ), v x = v cos q and v y = v sin q. Þ v 2 = u 2 - 2 as

At second point Q, where particle moves at right angle to its u2

direction, let its velocity be v ¢. or 0 - u 2 = 2( - g ) s or s =

cos q 2g

Then, v x¢ = v sin q and v x = v cos q Þ v ¢ = v cot q

sin q u2

Total height = + h

v y - v y¢ 2g

Since, v y¢ = gt or t =

g Time taken to hit the ground is obtained from

v sin q - v ¢cos q v sin q - v cos q × cos q 1 u2 1

\ t = = s = ut + at 2 or + h = 0 + gt 2

g g 2 2g 2

v sin q v v u 2 + 2 gh

= (1 - cot q) = = cosec q \ Total time taken (t ) =

g g sin q g g

28. (c) As, we know that equation of a projectile motion of a 30. (b) The position of the particle is given by

at = 5$i t + ( 3$i + 2 $j ) t 2

particle, 1 2 1

r(t ) = v 0 t +

y = ax - bx 2 2 2

. t 2 ) $i + t 2 $j

= ( 5t + 15

For height of y to be maximum, we get

dy \ x(t ) = 5 t + 1.5 t 2

= 0 or ( a - 2 bx ) = 0

dx and . t2

y(t ) = 10

a Given, x(t ) = 84 m

or x= .

2b Then, 5 t + 1.5 t 2 = 84

2

a2

ymax = a æç ö÷ - b æç ö÷ = Þ t = 6s

a a

Therefore,

è2 b ø è2 b ø 4b At t = 6s, y = 1.0 ( 6)2 = 36 m

æ dy ö = a = tan q Now, the velocity, v =

dr

= ( 5 + 3 t ) $i + 2t $j

and ç ÷

è dx ø x = 0 dt

where, q = angle of projection. At t = 6 s, v = 23$i + 12 $j

\ q = tan-1 ( a ) \ Speed = | v| = 23 2 + 12 2

@ 26 ms -1

DETAILED SOLUTIONS

NCERT EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS

FOR CLASS XIth & XIIth

F259 `150 F251 `150 F280 `175 F281 `150 F279 `175 F282 `175

ENGINEERING &MEDICAL ENTRANCES

63

PERSONALITIES

SPECTRUM ‘‘PERSONALITIES COLUMN IS AN EFFORT

TO INTRODUCE GREAT PHYSICIANS,

WHOSE CONTRIBUTION IN PHYSICS IS

UNFORGETTABLE. IN THIS ISSUE, WE WILL

INTRODUCE WERNER HEISENBERG AND

NIKOLA TESLA’’.

‘‘Natural science does not simply describe and explain ‘‘Let the future tell the truth and evaluate each one

nature; it is part of the interplay between nature and according to his work and accomplishments. The

ourselves.’’ present is theirs; the future, for which I have really

worked, is mine.’’

LIFE HISTORY

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901-1 February 1976) was a German LIFE HISTORY

theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856-7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor,

published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist and futurist best known for

of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this his contributions to the design of the modern Alternating Current (AC)

matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. In electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical

1927, he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas

philosophy and for which he is best known. Heisenberg was awarded the Edison in New York City. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers,

Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 ‘‘for the creation of mechanics’’. He also setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices.

made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of His work in the formative years of electric power development was involved in

turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays and a corporate alternating current/direct current. Tesla went on to pursue his

subatomic and he was instrumental in planning the first West German ideas of wireless lighting and electricity distribution in his high-voltage,

nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research in Munich, in 1957. high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs and

made early (1893) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless

CONTRIBUTIONS communication with his devices.

• Werner Heisenberg Atomic Theory This provides a clear concept for

the wave nature of electron and also brought across the concept of CONTRIBUTIONS

orbital or the three dimensional spaces. • Alternating Current Tesla responded by demonstrating that AC was

• The Uncertainty Principle It’s a formulation explaining that when perfectly safe by famously shooting current through his own body to

wavelengths of light are shone through a particle (this is done in order to produce light.

be able to observe a particles measurable/observable quantities; energy, • Light Tesla developed and used fluorescent bulbs in his lab some 40 years

momentum, positions and angular momentum). before industry invented them.

• Werner’s Coordination Theory A coordination compound is one • X-rays and Radio • Electric Motor • Laser and Robotics

which contains a central metal atom or ion surrounded by a number of • Wireless Communications and Limitless Free Energy.

oppositely charged ions or neutral molecules. AWARDS AND HONOURS

• Matrix Mechanics It is one of the first and most used formulations of • The Nikola Tesla Award.

quantum mechanics, discovered by Heisenberg in 1925. • Tesla Motors, an American electric car manufacture.

AWARDS AND HONOURS • Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Croatian affiliate of the Swedish

• Honorary doctorates from the University of Bruxelles, the telecommunications equipment manufacturer.

Technological University of Karlsruhe and the University of Budapest. • Nikola Tesla Day in Croatia, 10 July and Nikola Tesla annual electric

• Order of Merit of Bavaria and Romano Guardini Prize. vehicle rally in Croatia.

• Tesla, an SI-derived unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic

• Grand Cross for Federal Service with Star.

inductivity).

• Knight of the Order of Merit (Civil Class).

• Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport and Nikola Tesla Museum Archive in

• Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1955.

Belgrade.

• 1932-Nobel Prize in Physics ‘‘for the creation of Quantum Mechanics, • TPP Nikola Tesla, the largest power plant in Serbia.

the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the • 128 streets in Croatia had been named after Nikola Tesla as of November

allotropic forms of hydrogen’’.

2008, making him the eighth most common person eponym of streets in

• 1933-Max-Planck-Medaille of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. the country.

1. A box of mass M is suspended by a cord of length l The collision between the two satellites are perfectly

and shot of mass m is fired into it. The shot gets inelastic. If combined mass hit the Earth’s surface,

embedded in it and the box recoils through an arc, then find at what angle, it will be horizontal.

the length of whose cord is k. Find the velocity of the æ2 3 ö æ2 2 ö

(a) q = cos -1 çç ÷÷ (b) q = cos -1 çç ÷÷

shot. è 19 ø è 19 ø

æ M + mö g æM ö g æ2 3 ö æ2 2 ö

(a) v 0 = ç ÷× k (b) v 0 = ç ÷ × k (c) q = sin-1 çç ÷÷ (d) q = sin-1 çç ÷÷

è m ø l è mø l è 19 ø è 19 ø

æ M - mö g æ mö 2g

(c) v 0 = ç

è m ø

÷×k (d) v 0 = ç ÷ × k

èM ø

4. An air bubble starts rising from the bottom of the

l l

lake. Its diameter is 3.6 mm at the bottom and 4 mm

2. A conical cup of height b, at the surface. The depth of the lake is 250 cm and

semi-vertical angle a rests open α the temperature at the surface is 40°C. What is the

dy

end down on a flat surface as temperature (T1 ) at the bottom of the lake?

b

shown below. The cup is filled

H

[Given, atmospheric pressure = 76 cm of Hg and

to height H with liquid of y g = 980 cm/s2 ]

density r. What is the upward (a) T1 = 9.80°C (b) T1 = 12.45°C

lifting force on the cup? (c) T1 = 10.35°C (d) T1 = 10.48°C

æ H2 ö æ 2 H3 ö

(a) F = prg çç bH 2 - ÷ (b) F = prg çç bH - ÷ tan2 a 5. A short magnet makes 40 oscillations per minute

è 4 ÷ø è 3 ÷ø when used in a vibration magnetometer at a place

æ H3 ö where Earth’s horizontal components of magnetic

(c) F = prg çç bH 2 + ÷ tan2a

è 3 ÷ø field is 25 mT. Another short magnet of the magnetic

æ H2 ö moment is 1.6 Am2 is placed North-South and 20 cm

(d) F = prg çç b - ÷ sin2 a

è 4 ÷ø East of the oscillation magnet. Find the new

frequency of oscillation if the magnet has its North

3. A satellite of mass 2m is in a circular orbit of radius pole towards North.

2R around the Earth. By mistake, another satellite is (a) n2 = 17.9 osc/min (b) n2 = 15.0 osc/min

put in the same orbit and having opposite sense of (c) n2 = 12.8 osc/min (d) n2 = 14.8 osc/min

rotation.

O

1. (a) Let, OA be the initial position of the cord From DOCB, (CB)2 = (OB)2 - (OC )2 = l2 - (OC )2 …(i)

with box at A. Let, the box swing along the and from DACB, (CB)2 = ( AB)2 - (CA )2 = k 2 - (CA )2 …(ii)

curve AB, after being short by the bullet. \ From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

lC B

k 2 - (CA )2 = l2 - (OC )2 = l2 - ( l - CA )2

Now clearly, rise in the height of the bullet N k2

box system = AC. Þ k 2 - (CA )2 = l 2 - [l2 + (CA )2 - 2 l × CA ] Þ CA =

A 2l

[where C is the foot of the perpendicular

from B on OA]. If v be the velocity of the (bullet + box) system just after impact,

then from law of conservation of energy, we get

72

Kinetic energy at A = Potential energy at B p2 GM ( 3m)

2 \ Total energy of a satellite = -

1 ækö 6m R

Þ ( M + m) . v 2 = ( M + m) . g . ç ÷

2 è2 lø Hence, by conservation of energy

gk 2 g p2 3 GMm - 17 GMm 19 GM

Þ v =

2

Þv = k× …(iii) - = Þ p= m

l l 6m R 12 r 2 R

Now, if v 0 be the initial velocity of bullet, then from principle of By conservation of angular momentum, we have

conservation of linear momentum, we have R p cos q = 3mv (2 R )

g æ 19 GM ö æ 1 GM ö

mv 0 = ( M + m) k [from Eq. (iii)] Þ R çç m ÷ cos q = 3m çç ÷÷ (2 R )

l è2 R ÷ø è 3 2R ø

æ M + mö g 2 2 2 2

or v0 = ç ÷k Þ cos q = ´ =

è m ø l 2 19 19

2. (b) The conical cup can be imagined to be -1 æ 2 2 ö

Þ q = cos çç ÷÷

consisted of a large number of differential è 19 ø

rings as shown in the figure. The projected r

area in the horizontal plane is 2 p rdr. 4. (c) At the bottom of the lake,

4 3 4

Pressure of the differential ring shown in the

dr

Volume of the bubble, V1 = pr1 = p ( 018 . )3 cm3

figure is p = r × g ( H - y) 3 3

The vertical force on the projected area, we Pressure on the bubble, p1 = [Atmospheric pressure +

get Pressure due to a column of 250 cm of water]

dF = rg ( H - y) × (2 pr. dr ) = [76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980 + 250 ´ 1 ´ 980]

But, r = ( b - y) tan a Þ dr = - dy tan a p1 = (76 ´ 13.6 + 250) ´ 980 dyne/cm2

Therefore, total lifting force, i.e. T1 = ?

0 At the surface of the lake,

F = òH rg ( H - y) . [2 p ( b - y) tan a] . ( - dy tan a)

4 4

Volume of the bubble, V2 = pr23 = p ( 0.2 )3 cm3

0

= - 2 prg tan2 a ò ( h - y) ( b - y) dy 3 3

H

Pressure on the bubble, p2 = (76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980) dyne/cm2

æ H 3ö

T2 = (273 + 40) = 313 K

Þ F = prg çç bH 2 - ÷ tan2 a

è 3 ÷ø 4

(76 ´ 13.6 + 250) ´ 980 ´ p ( 018 . )3

pV pV 3

3. (b) Speed of each satellite before collision, θ

Now, 1 1 = 2 2 =

T1 T2 T1

GM

we get u = R 4

2R (76 ´ 13.6 ´ 980) ´ p ( 02 . )3

= 3

Let v be the velocity of combined after 2R 313

collision, then by conservation of momentum

1283 ´ ( 018

. )3 1033.6 ´ ( 0.2 )3

2 mu - mu = 3v = =

u 1 GM T1 313

Þ v = = 1283 ´ ( 018

. )3 ´ 313

3 3 2R T1 = = 283.35 K

\ Total mechanical energy just after collision 1033.6 ´ ( 0.2 )3

1 Gm ( 3m) -17 GMm \ T1 = (283.35 - 273)°C = 10.35°C

= ( 3 m) v 2 - =

2 2R 12 R Now, temperature (T1 ) at the bottom of the lake.

Let r be the minimum radius vector, then by conservation of 5. (a) Magnetic induction due to the short magnet at the centre

angular momentum.

2 Rv of oscillating magnet will be

3mv ¢r = 3mv (2 R ) or v ¢ = m M 10 -7 ´ 16 .

r B1 = 0 ´ 3 = = 2 ´ 10 -5 T = 20 mT

By conservation of energy, we have 4p d 8 ´ 10 -3

1 GM ( 3m) - 17 GMm I

( 3 m) v 2 - = × Then, T1 = 2 p

2 r 12 R MBH

2

1 é 2 R GM ù 3 GMm - 17 GMm 1 4p 2I

Þ ( 3 m) ê ú - = × \ T12 = 2

= …(i)

2 ë 3r 2 R û r 12 R n1 MBH

Þ 17 r 2 - 36 Rr + 4R 2 = 0. 1 4p 2I

Similarly, T2 = 2 =

2

…(ii)

2R n2 M ( BH - BI )

Þ r = 2 R,

17 Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

2R

As r = < R, the combined mass hit the Earth’s surface. n22 ( BH - BI ) (25 - 20) 1

17 = = =

n12 BH 25 5

Now, let the angular momentum of the combined mass when

it hits the Earth = p \ New frequency of oscillation, if the magnet has its North

pole towards North,

p2 p2

\ Its kinetic energy (KE) = = n

n2 = 1 =

40

= 17.9 osc/min

2 ( 3 m) 6 m

5 5

73

EXTRA DOSE

EXEMPLAR

I I

S MPL F ED I

EXTRACT OF EXTRAORDINARY EXEMPLAR PROBLEM

MOTION IN A PLANE

Single Option Correct Type 5. Following are four different relations about

displacement, velocity and acceleration for the

1. Which one of the following statements is true?

motion of a particle in general. Choose the incorrect

(a) A scalar quantity is the one that is conserved in a process.

one(s).

(b) A scalar quantity is the one that can never take negative

1

values. (a) v av = [v (t 1 ) + v (t 2 )]

(c) A scalar quantity is the one that does not vary from one point 2

to another in space. r(t ) - r(t 1 )

(b) v av = 2

(d) A scalar quantity has the same value for observers with (t 2 - t 1 )

different orientations of the axes. 1

(c) r = [{ v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )} . (t 2 - t 1 )]

2. The component of a vector r along X-axis will have 2

maximum value if v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )

(d) a av =

(t 2 - t 1 )

(a) r is along positive Y-axis

(b) r is along positive X-axis 6. A particle slides Y

(c) r makes an angle of 45° with the X-axis down a frictionless A

P

(d) r is along negative Y-axis parabolic (y = x 2 )

3. In a two-dimensional motion, instantaneous speed track ( A - B - C) v0 θ

v0 is a positive constant. Then, which of the starting from rest at C

following are necessarily true? point A in the given x

–x2 –x1 B –x0

(a) The average velocity is not zero at any time figure. Point B is at (x=0)

(b) Average acceleration must always vanish the vertex of

(c) Displacements in equal time intervals are equal parabola and point C is at a height less than that of

(d) Equal path lengths are traversed in equal intervals point A. After C, the particle moves freely in air as a

projectile. If the particle reaches at the highest point

Multiple Option Correct Type at P, then

4. Two particles are projected in air with speed v0 at (a) kinetic energy at point P = kinetic energy at point B

the angles q1 and q2 (both acute) to the horizontal (b) height at point P > height at point A

(c) total energy at point P = total energy at point A

respectively. If the height reached by the first

(d) time of travel from A to B > time of travel from B to P

particle is greater than that of the second, then tick

the right choices. 7. For two vectors A and B, | A + B| =| A - B| is always

true when

(a) Angle of projection q1 > q 2

(a)| A| = |B| ¹ 0

(b) Time of flight T1 > T2

(b) A ^ B

(c) Horizontal range R1 > R 2

(c)| A | = |B| ¹ 0 and A and B are parallel or anti-parallel

(d) Total energy U1 > U 2

(d) When either| A| or|B| is zero

74

Very Short Answer Type 13. |A| = 2 and|B| = 4, then match the relations in Column I

8. A cyclist starts from centre O of a circular park of with the angle q between A and B in Column II.

radius 1 km along the path OPRQO as shown in Column I Column II

the below figure. If he maintains constant speed of (a) |A ´ B| = 0 (i) q = 30 °

10 ms -1, what is his acceleration at point R in (b) |A ´ B| = 8 (ii) q = 45 °

magnitude and direction? (c) |A ´ B| = 4 (iii) q = 90 °

(d) |A ´ B| = 4 2 (iv) q = 0°

Q

R

Long Answer Type

14. A cricket fielder can throw the cricket ball with a

P speed v0 . If he throws the ball while running with a

O

speed u, at an angle q to the horizontal. Find

(a) the effective angle to the horizontal at which the ball is

projected in air as seen by a spectator.

(b) what will be the time of flight?

9. A, B and C are three non-collinear, non-coplanar (c) what is the distance (horizontal range) from the point of

vectors. What can you say about the direction of projection at which the ball will land?

A ´ (B ´ C)? (d) q at which he should throw the ball that would maximize the

horizontal range as found in (c).

Short Answer Type (e) how does q for maximum range change if u > v 0, u = v 0,

u = v 0?

10. A flighter plane is flying horizontally at an altitude (f) how does q in (e) compare with that for u = 0 (i.e., 45°)?

of 1.5 km with speed 720 km/h. At what angle of 15. A hill is 500 m high. Supplies are to be sent across the

sight (with respect to horizontal) when the target is hill using a cannon that can hurl packets at a speed

seen, should the pilot drop the bomb in order to of 125 m/s over the hill. The cannon is located at a

attack the target? distance of 800 m from the foot of hill and can be

11. If | A| = 2 and |B| = 4, then match the relations in moved on the ground at a speed of 2 m/s, so that its

Column I with the angle q between A and B in distance from the hill can be adjusted. What is the

Column II. shortest time in which a packet can reach on the

Column I Column II ground across the hill? (Take, g = 10 m / s2 )

(a) A ×B = 0 (i) q = 0° 16. A man wants to reach from A to the opposite corner of

(b) A ×B = 8 (ii) q = 90° the square C. The sides of the square are 100 m. A

(c) A ×B = 4 (iii) q = 180° central square of 50 m ´ 50 m is filled with sand.

(d) A ×B = -8 (iv) q = 60° Outside this square, he can walk at a speed 1 m/s. In

the central square, he can walk only at a speed of v

12. (a) Earth can be thought of as a sphere of 6400 m/s (v < 1). What is the smallest value of v for which

km. Any object or a person is performing he can reach faster via a straight path through the

circular motion around the axis of Earth due sand then any path in the square outside the sand?

to Earth’s rotation (period 1 day). What is the

D C

acceleration of object on the surface of the

Earth (at equator) towards its centre? What is Q

latitude q? How does these accelerations

compare with g = 9.8 m/s2 ?

(b) Earth also moves in a circular orbit around the

50 mm

Sun once every year with an orbital radius of P R

. ´ 1011m. What is the acceleration of Earth

15

(or any object on the surface of the Earth)

towards the centre of the Sun? How does this A B

100 mm

acceleration compare with g = 9.8 m/s2 ?

quantum bit . This enables quantum computers to perform complex calculations

faster than the classical computers.

75

Answers with Explanation

Q

1. (d) A scalar quantity has the same value for observers with 8. Centripetal acceleration, R

different orientations of the axes. v2 10 2

ac = =

2. (b) If r makes an angle q with X-axis, then component of r 10000

O

P

r along X-axis = rcos q. . m/s 2 along RO.

= 01

It will be maximum, if cos q = max = 1 or q = 0 °,

9. (B ´ C ) will act perpendicular to the plane containing B and C

i.e. r is along positive X-axis.

and is directed as given by right-hand rule. A ´ (B ´ C ) will lie

3. (d) In two-dimensional motion, if instantaneous speed is a in the plane of B and C and is perpendicular to vector A.

positive constant, then the equal path lengths are traversed in

10. When the flighter plane is at A moving with the horizontal

equal intervals of time. speed u(= 720 km/h = 200 m/s) observes the target at C. Let,

4. (a, b) Height of a projected particle, ÐCAB = q. He releases a bomb at A with horizontal velocity

v 02 sin2 q 200 m/s and it hits the target on A u B

h= i.e. h µ sin2 q ground after time t .

2g θ

Taking horizontal motion of

h1 sin2 q1 flighter plane from A to B, 1500 m

\ = >1

h2 sin2 q 2 where B is vertically above the

target, we have C

So, sin2 q1> sin2 q 2 or q1 > q 2.

AB = ut = 200 ´ t

2 v 0 sin q …(i)

Time of flight, T = or T µ sin q

g Taking vertical downward motion of bomb from A to C, we have

T1 sin q1 1

\ = > 1 or T1 > T2 BC = ´ 9.8 t 2 = 4.9 t 2

T2 sin q 2 2

u 2 sin 2 q 1500

Horizontal range, R = or R µ sin 2 q or 1500 = 4.9 t 2 or t = = 17.49 s

g 4.9

\ AB = (200 ´ 17.49) m

R1 sin 2 q1

\ = £ 1 or R1 £ R 2. BC 1500

R 2 sin 2 q 2 tan q = = = 0.4287

AB 200 ´ 17.49

Total energy of each particle will be equal to kinetic energy of

q = tan-1 ( 0. 4287 ) Þ q = 23°12 ¢

each particle at the time of its projection.

5. (b, d) For the motion of a particle, if acceleration is not 11. Given,| A| = 2 and|B| = 4

uniform, then the relations. (a) A × B = 0 or AB × cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or 0 = 8 cos q or

1

v av = [v (t 1 ) + v (t 2 )] is incorrect. cos q = 0 or q = 90°. It matches with option (ii).

2 (b) A × B = 8 or AB × cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = 1 or q = 0°.

r(t ) - r(t 1 ) It matches with option (i).

v av = 2 is correct.

(t 2 - t 1 ) (c) A × B = 4 or AB.cos q = 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = 1 / 2

1 or q = 60°. It matches with option (iv).

r= [{ v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 )} . (t 2 - t 1 )] is incorrect.

2 (d) A × B = - 8 or 2 ´ 4 cos q or cos q = - 1 or q = 180°.

v (t 2 ) - v (t 1 ) It matches with option (iii).

a av = is correct.

(t 2 - t 1 ) 12. (a) Here, R = 6400 km = 6.4 ´ 106 m, T = 24 ´ 60 ´ 60 s

6. (c, d) Since y = x , 2

Y Acceleration of object on the surface of the earth,

the motion is in A

P R.4p 2 ( 6.4 ´ 10 6 ) ´ 4 ´ (22 / 7 )2

two-dimension as a c = Rw 2 = 2

= = 0.034 m/s 2

shown in the figure. T (24 ´ 60 ´ 60)2

Velocity at point B is v0 θ At latitude q = 0°, the value of R remains the same, hence, no

greater than at point P. change in the value of ac = 0.034 m/s 2

C

In the given motion of

X ac 0.034 1

a particle, the law of –x2 –x1 B –x0 Now, = = which is much smaller than 1.

conservation of energy (x=0) g 9.8 288

is obeyed. Therefore, total energy at point P = total energy at (b) Here, R = 1.5 ´ 1011 m

point A. As a vertical distance AB > AP, time of travel from A . ´ 10 7 s

T = 365 ´ 24 ´ 60 ´ 60 s = 315

to B is greater than that from B to P.

Acceleration of earth, a c = R 4p 2

7. (b, d) When A is perpendicular to B, then . ´ 1011 ) ´ 4 ´ ( 3142

(15 . )2

| A + B| = A 2 + B2 + 2 AB cos 90° = A 2 + B2 = = 5.97 ´ 10 -3 m/s 2

. ´ 10 7 )2

( 315

| A - B| = A 2 + B2 - 2 AB cos 90° = A 2 + B2 ac 5.97 ´ 10 -3 1

= =

When| A| = 0 or|B| = 0, g 9.8 1642

then| A + B| = | A - B|

76

13. Here, |A| = 2 and|B| = 4 15. The initial minimum vertical velocity (u y ) required to just cross

(a) | A ´ B| = 0 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 0 and the hill is

q = 0°. It matches with option (iv). u y ³ 2 gh ³ 2 ´ 10 ´ 500 > 100 m/s

(b) | A ´ B| = 8 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 1 and The initial horizontal velocity,

q = 90°. It matches with option (iii).

(c) | A ´ B| = 4 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 1 / 2 and u x = u 2 - u y2 = (125)2 - (100)2 = 75 m/s

q = 30°. It matches with option (i).

Time taken to reach the top of the hill,

1

(d) | A ´ B | = 4 2 = AB sin q = 2 ´ 4 sin q or sin q = 2h 2 ´ 500

2 t = = = 10 s

and q = 45°. It matches with option (ii). g 10

Horizontal distance y

14. (a) Here, at point O, u x = u + v 0 cos q

covered in 10 s,

u y = v 0 sin q Y

= u x ´ t = 75 ´ 10

u v 0 sin q

tan q = y = = 750 m u A

u x u + v 0 cos q v0

A

So, cannon has to be

é v 0 sin q ù

v0 sin θ

uy 500 m

or q = tan-1 ê ú

moved through a distance

ë u + v 0 cos q û θ X

= ( 800 - 750) m ux B C

x

O

(b) Let T be the time of flight O (u+v0 cos θ) B = 50 m 800 m

of cricket ball from O to B, Time taken to move the cannon through 50 m on the ground

then taking vertical motion of ball from O to B, we have 50

y0 = 0 = = 25 s

2

y = 0, u y = v 0 sin q, ay = - g , t = T

1 Total time taken by packet to reach ground the hill

As, y = y0 + u y t + ay t 2

2 = (25 + 10 + 10) s = 45 s

1 2 v 0 sin q 16. In square ABCD as shown in figure below

\ 0 = 0 + v 0 sin qT + ( - g )T 2 or T =

2 g

AR = 75 2 + 25 2 = 25 10 = RC

(c) Horizontal range, R = (u + v 0 cos q) T

2 v 0 sin q v 0 Total path = ( AR + RC ) = 2 AR = 50 10 m

= (u + v 0 cos q) = [2u sin q + v 0 sin 2 q]

g g 50 10

Time outside the sand, Tout = = 50 10 s

dR 1 m/s

(d) Horizontal range will be maximum, if =0

dq D C

dR v 0

\ = [2u cos q + v 0 cos 2 q ´ 2 ] = 0

dq g Q

or 2u cos q + 2 v 0 [2 cos 2 q - 1] = 0

or 4v 0 cos 2 q + 2u cos q - 2 v 0 = 0

50 mm

- 2u ± 4u 2 + 32 v 02 -u ± u 2 + 8v 02 P R

or cos q = =

8v 0 4v 0

é - u ± u 2 + 8v 2 ù A B

or qmax = cos -1 ê 0

ú 100 mm

êë 4v 0 úû

( AP + QC ) PQ

In sand, Tsand = +

- v0 ± v 02 + 8v 02 - 1+ 3 1 1 v

(e) (i) If u = v 0, then cos q = = =

4v 0 4 2 é æ 25 2 + 25 2 ö æ 50 2 ö ù é 1ù

= êç ÷+ ç ÷ ú = 50 2 ê1 + ú

or cos q = cos 60° or q = 60° ë è 1 ø è v ø û ë vû

(ii) If u < v 0, then 8v 02 + u 2 @ 8 v 02 Since, Tsand < Tout

é - u ± 2 2 v0 ù -1 é 1 u ù

50 2 æç1 + ö÷ < 50 10

-1 1

qmax = cos ê ú = cos ê - \

ë 4v 0 û ë 2 4v 0 úû è vø

é 1 ù p

2 æç1 + ö÷ < 10

If u << v 0, then qmax = cos -1 = 1

êë 2 úû 4 or

è vø

(iii) If u > v 0 and u >> v 0

é- u ± uù æ1 + 1ö 10

qmax = cos -1 ê -1 p or ç ÷< = 5

ú = cos ( 0) = 2 è vø 2

ë 4v 0 û

1

é 0 ± 8v 2 ù or < ( 5 - 1)

(f) If u = 0, qmax = cos -1 ê -1 æ 1 ö = 45° v

0

ú = cos ç ÷

êë 4v 0 úû è2 ø 1

or v < » 0.81 m/s

( 5 - 1)

77

Arjun Sharma

DO YOU

KNOW

Do you know, how powerful lasers compressed a diamond to Do you know, the Earth-like planet may exist in a nearby star

simulate the centres of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn? system?

Jupiter and Saturn are the two largest planets in our solar system but yet According to a new research, an Earth-like planet may be lurking in a

inside them is almost a mystery-if their centres are liquid or solid. So, to star system located just 16 light years away. The star, named Gliese

recreate the inside of these massive planets, scientists put a carbon-rich 832 was recently investigated by a team of astronomers, is a red

object, a diamond, under the intense pressure and heat, to form the dwarf and has just half the mass and radius of our Sun. The star is

world’s most powerful laser. They got the diamond to squeeze down orbited by a giant Jupiter-like exoplanet designated Gliese 832b and

fourfold. The pressure increased to 50 million atmospheres-14 times the by a super-Earth mass planet Gliese 832 c. The gas giant, with a

pressure at Earth’s core and the temperature got even hotter than Jupiter’s mass of 0.64 Jupiter masses, is orbiting the star at a distance of 3.53

core. So, scientists explained us to better understand how carbon-rich AU while the other planet is potentially a rocky world, around five times

materials behave under the extreme pressures and temperatures in the core more massive than the Earth, residing very close its host star—about

of massive, gaseous planets and also shed light on how these planets form. 0.16 AU.

Do you know, physicists made powerful, stellar explosions called Do you know, the new 17-million-digit number is largest

Supernovas? known prime?

During a supernova, a star explodes, ejecting its guts across space and The largest known prime number has just shot up to 2 57, 885,161 − 1,

leaving only a ghostly halo of gas and dust, called a supernovae remnant, breaking a four-year dry spell in the search for new, ever-larger

behind. Astrophysicists have observed supernovae remnants of all shapes primes. In the University of Central Missouri in Warrensburg made

and sizes but have yet to understand why they are all so different. So, a the find as part of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search

team of international physicists used one of the world’s most powerful (GIMPS), a distributed computing project designed to hunt for a

laser facilities, the Vulcan laser facility in the UK, to recreate this particular kind of prime number first identified in the 17th century. All

astronomical event. Three laser beams focused on a carbon-rod as thick prime numbers can only be divided by themselves and 1. The rare

as a human hair and heated it to about 5.4 million degrees Fahrenheit at Mersenne primes all have the form 2 p − 1, where p is itself a prime

which point the rod exploded. In some of the experiments, they placed a number. The new prime, which has over 17 million digits, is only the

small plastic grid (which would resemble a clump of gas or dust in space) 48th Mersenne prime ever found and the 14th discovered by GIMPS.

near the rod that then disturbed the flow of gas from the explosion’s shock

wave. The result, they discovered, was irregular features that might explain

Do you know, the rare and mysterious facts related to the

the variety of irregularly-shaped supernova remnants. phenomenon of Ball Lightning?

Ball lightning is a floating sphere or disk of lightning up to 10 feet

Do you know, the facts related to Quantum Computing? across that lasts only seconds. Scientists in China provide the

Quantum computers aren’t just for browsing the internet, checking e-mail, surmounting evidence to support ball lightning’s existence and also

or running standard software. But, they also rely on implementing the took the first spectrum of the rare phenomenon. A spectrum is the

underpinnings of quantum mechanics, a branch of Physics that will rainbow of individual wavelengths of light from a given source and is

manipulate individual particles and solve previously unsolvable problems. used to figure out its chemical make up because different atoms give

This opens up some exciting possibilities, especially in a branch of off different energies of light when excited. In the ball lightning’s

Mathematics known as ‘optimization’. For such a specific branch of Math, spectra, the physicists saw minerals from soil, which supports the

this field addresses some of the most tangible problems in the real world theory that ball lightning forms after a bolt of lightning strikes the

that will provide better options to utilize best route for a UPS truck to make ground. The lightning vaporizes the silicon in the soil, making a

its deliveries and to scheduled flights at an airport to keep things running floating ball of silicon that interacts with oxygen in the air, making

smoothly. it glow.

Do you know, researchers transferred information in light four Do you know, an individual blood cell takes about 60 s to

times farther than ever before? make a complete circuit of the body?

In our digital world, if we use quantum computers, then we must learn The human body contains about 5 L of blood in our body

how to transport information in the form of quantum data, or qubits, (atleast more people do) and the average heart pumps about 70 mL

which is encoded inside of subatomic particles, such as ions or photons of blood out with each beat. Also, a healthy heart beats around

(light particles). A team of physicists in Switzerland broke the record for the 70 times a minute. So, if we multiply the amount of blood that the

longest distance anyone had ever teleported, an information-encoded heart can pump by the number of beats in a minute, we actually get

photon, to a piece of matter, a crystal, without losing the information. The about 4.9 L of blood, which is almost our whole body’s worth of

physicists successfully teleported the photon 15.5 miles-4 times longer blood. In just a minute, the heart pumps the entire blood volume

than the previous record, the team had set. around our body.

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