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Iran’s Geometry Problems

Problems and Solutions from Contests

2014-2015
This booklet is prepared by Hirad Aalipanah, Iman Maghsoudi.
With special thanks to Morteza Saghafian, Mahdi Etesami Fard,
Davood Vakili, Erfan Salavati.
Copyright Young
c Scholars Club 2014-2015. All rights reserved.
Ministry of education, Islamic Republic of Iran.
www.ysc.ac.ir - www.igo-official.ir
The first Iranian Geometry Olympiad was held simultaneously in Tehran and Is-
fahan on September 4th, 2014 with over 300 participants. This competition had two
levels, junior and senior which each level had 5 problems. The contestants solved
problems in 4 hours and 30 minutes.
In the end, the highest ranked participants in each level awarded with gold ruler,
silver ruler or bronze ruler respectively.
This booklet have the problems of this competition plus other geometry problems
used in other Iranian mathematical competition since summer of 2014 till spring of
2015.
This year the second Iranian Geometry Olympiad will be held in Tehran on Septem-
ber 3th, 2015. We tend to provide online presence for those who are interested from
other countries. Those who wish to participate can contact Mr. Salavati for more
information at erfan.salavati@gmail.com

Iranian Geometry Olympiads website: www.igo-official.ir


Problems
Problems 4

1.(Geometry Olympiad(Junior and Senior level)) In a right triangle ABC


we have ∠A = 90◦ , ∠C = 30◦ . Denot by C the circle passing through A which is
tangent to BC at the midpoint.Assume that C intersects AC and the circumcircle of
ABC at N and M respectively. Prove that M N ⊥BC.

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

2.(Geometry Olympiad(Junior Level)) The inscribed circle of 4ABC touches


BC, AC and AB at D, E and F respectively. Denote the perpendicular foots from
F , E to BC by K, L respectively. Let the second intersection of these perpendiculars
S
with the incircle be M , N respectively. Show that S4BM D
4CN D
= DK
DL

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

3.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) Each of Mahdi and Morteza has


drawn an inscribed 93-gon. Denote the first one by A1 A2 ...A93 and the second by
B1 B2 ...B93 . It is known that Ai Ai+1 k Bi Bi+1 for 1 6 i 6 93 (A93 = A1 , B93 = B1 ).
Ai Ai+1
Show that B i Bi+1
is a constant number independent of i.

Proposed by Morteza Saghafian

4.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) In a triangle ABC we have ∠C =


∠A + 90◦ . The point D on the continuation of BC is given such that AC = AD. A
point E in the side of BC in which A doesnt lie is chosen such that
1
∠EBC = ∠A, ∠EDC = ∠A
2
Prove that ∠CED = ∠ABC.

Proposed by Morteza Saghafian

5.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) Two points X, Y lie on the arc BC of


the circumcircle of 4ABC (this arc does not contain A) such that ∠BAX = ∠CAY .
Let M denotes the midpoint of the chord AX . Show that BM + CM > AY

Proposed by Mahan Tajrobekar


Problems 5

6.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) In a quadrilateral ABCD we have


∠B = ∠D = 60◦ . Consider the line whice is drawn from M , the midpoint of AD,
parallel to CD. Assume this line intersects BC at P . A point X lies on CD such
that BX = CX. Prove that AB = BP ⇔ ∠M XB = 60◦

Proposed by Davood Vakili

7.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) An acute-angled triangle ABC is given.


The circle with diameter BC intersects AB, AC at E, F respectively. Let M be the
midpoint of BC and P the intersection point of AM and EF . X is a point on the arc
EF and Y the second intersection point of XP with circle mentioned above. Show
that ∠XAY = ∠XY M .

Proposed by Ali Zooelm

8.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) The tangent line to circumcircle of the


acute-angled triangle ABC (AC > AB) at A intersects the continuation of BC at P .
We denote by O the circumcenter of ABC. X is a point OP such that ∠AXP = 90◦ .
Two points E, F respectively on AB, AC at the same side of OP are chosen such
that
∠EXP = ∠ACX, ∠F XO = ∠ABX
If K, L denote the intersection points of EF with the circumcircle of 4ABC, show
that OP is tangent to the circumcircle of 4KLX.

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

9.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) Two points P , Q lie on the side BC


of triangle ABC and have the same distance to the midpoint. The pependiculars
fromP , Q tp BC intesects AC, AB at E, F respectively. LEt M be the intersection
point of P F and EQ. If H1 and H2 denote the orthocenter of 4BF P and 4CEQ
recpectively, show that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

10.(IGO Short list)Suppose that I is incenter of 4ABC and CI inresects AB


at D.In circumcircle of 4ABC, T is midpoint of arc BAC and BI intersect this circle
at M . If M D intersects AT at N , prove that: BM k CN .

Proposed by Ali Zooelm


Solutions
Solutions 11

1.(Geometry Olympiad(Junior and Senior Level)) In a right triangle ABC


we have ∠A = 90◦ , ∠C = 30◦ . Denot by C the circle passing through A which is
tangent to BC at the midpoint.Assume that C intersects AC and the circumcircle of
ABC at N and M respectively. Prove that M N ⊥BC.

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
Let K midpoint of side BC. Therefore:

AK = KC ⇒ ∠KAC = ∠N KC = 30◦

∠AN K = ∠N KC + ∠ACB = 60◦


A, K, N, M lie on circle (C). Therefore:

∠KAN = ∠KM N = 30◦ , ∠AM K = 60◦

We know that K is the circumcenter of 4ABC. So we can say KM = KC = AK.


Therefore 4AKM is equilateral.( because of ∠AM K = 60◦ ). So ∠AKM = 60◦ . We
know that ∠AKB = 60◦ , so we have ∠M KC = 60◦ . On the other hand:

∠KM N = 30◦ ⇒ M N ⊥BC


Solutions 12

2.(Geometry Olympiad(Junior Level)) The inscribed circle of 4ABC touches


BC, AC and AB at D, E and F respectively. Denote the perpendicular foots from
F , E to BC by K, L respectively. Let the second intersection of these perpendiculars
S
with the incircle be M , N respectively. Show that S4BM D
4CN D
= DK
DL

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
Let I be the incenter of 4ABC. We know that
)
∠BF K = 90◦ − ∠B 1
◦ 1 ⇒ ∠DF M = ∠B
∠BF D = 90 − 2 ∠B 2
But ∠DF M = ∠M DK. Therefore
1
∠M DK = ∠B
2
MK r
Hense 4M DK and 4BID are similar (same angles) and DK
= BD
. In the same
way we have N
DL
L r
= CD . Therefore

M K · BD N L · CD area of 4BM D M K · BD DK
r= = ⇒ = =
DK DL area of 4CN D N L · CD DL
Solutions 13

3.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) Each of Mahdi and Morteza has


drawn an inscribed 93-gon. Denote the first one by A1 A2 ...A93 and the second by
B1 B2 ...B93 . It is known that Ai Ai+1 k Bi Bi+1 for 1 6 i 6 93 (A93 = A1 , B93 = B1 ).
Ai Ai+1
Show that B i Bi+1
is a constant number independent of i.

Proposed by Morteza Saghafian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
We draw a 93-gon similar with the second 93-gon in the circumcircle of the first
93-gon (so the sides of the second 93-gon would be multiplying by a constant number
c). Now we have two 93-gons witch are inscribed in the same circle and apply the
problem’s conditions. We name this 93-gons A1 A2 ...A93 and C1 C2 ...C93 .
_ _
We know that A1 A2 k C1 C2 . Therefore A1 C1 =A2 C2 but they lie on the opposite
_ _
side of each other. In fact, Ai Ci =Ai+1 Ci+1 and they lie on the opposite side of each
_ _ _ _
other for all 1 6 i 6 93 (A94 C94 =A1 C1 ). Therefore A1 C1 and A1 C1 lie on the opposite
_ ◦ ◦
side of each other. So A1 C1 = 0 or 180 . This means that the 93-gons are coincident
or reflections of each other across the center. So Ai Ai+1 = Ci Ci+1 for 1 6 i 6 93.
Ai Ai+1
Therefore, B i Bi+1
= c.
Solutions 14

4.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) In a triangle ABC we have ∠C =


∠A + 90◦ . The point D on the continuation of BC is given such that AC = AD. A
point E in the side of BC in which A doesnt lie is chosen such that
1
∠EBC = ∠A, ∠EDC = ∠A
2
Prove that ∠CED = ∠ABC.

Proposed by Morteza Saghafian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
Suppose M is the midpoint of CD. Hense AM is the perpendicular bisector of
CD. AM intersects DE and BE at P, Q respectively. Therefore, P C = P D. We
have
∠EBA + ∠CAB = ∠A + ∠B + ∠A = 180◦ − ∠C + ∠A = 90◦
Hense AC ⊥ BE. Thus in 4ABQ, BC, AC are altitudes. This means C is the
orthocenter of this triangle and
1 1
∠CQE = ∠CQB = ∠A = ∠A + ∠A = ∠P DC + ∠P CD = ∠CP E
2 2
Hense CP QE is cyclic. Therefore

∠CED = ∠CEP = ∠CQP = ∠CQA = ∠CBA = ∠B.


Solutions 15

5.(Geometry Olympiad (Junior Level)) Two points X, Y lie on the arc BC of


the circumcircle of 4ABC (this arc does not contain A) such that ∠BAX = ∠CAY .
Let M denotes the midpoint of the chord AX . Show that

BM + CM > AY

Proposed by Mahan Tajrobekar

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
O is the circumcenter of 4ABC, so OM ⊥ AX. We draw a perpendicular line
from B to OM . This line intersects with the circumcircle at Z. Since OM ⊥ BZ,
OM is the perpendicular bisector of BZ. This means M Z = M B. By using triangle
inequality we have
BM + M C = ZM + M C > CZ
But BZ k AX, thus
_ _ _ _ _
AZ = BX = CY ⇒ ZAC = Y CA ⇒ CZ = AY

Hense BM + CM > AY.


Solutions 16

6.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) In a quadrilateral ABCD we have


∠B = ∠D = 60◦ . Consider the line whice is drawn from M , the midpoint of AD,
parallel to CD. Assume this line intersects BC at P . A point X lies on CD such
that BX = CX. Prove that:

AB = BP ⇔ ∠M XB = 60◦

Proposed by Davood Vakili

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
Suppose X 0 is a point such that 4M BX 0 is equilateral.(X 0 and X lie on the same
side of M B) It’s enough to show that:

AB = BP ⇔ X 0 ≡ X

We want to prove that if AB = BP then ∠M XB = 60◦ .


AB = BP therefore 4ABP is equilateral. We know that ∠ABP = ∠M BX 0 = 60◦ ,
Therefore ∠ABM = ∠P BX 0 . On the other hand AB = BP, BM = BX 0 therefore
4BAM and 4BP X 0 are equal.

∠X 0 P M = 360◦ − ∠M P B − ∠BP X 0 = 360◦ − ∠DCB − ∠BAM 0 = 120◦


Solutions 17

M P k DC, so we can say ∠P M D = 120◦ . If we draw the line passing through


X 0 such that be parallel with CD and this line intersects AD in D0 , then quadri-
lateral M P X 0 D0 is isosceles trapezoid. Therefore P X 0 = M D0 . In the other hand
P X 0 = AM = M D ( becauese 4BAM and 4BP X 0 are equal.) According to the
statements we can say M D0 = M D. In other words, D0 ≡ D and X 0 lie on CD.
Therefore both of X and X 0 lie on intersection of DC and perpendicular bisector of
M B, so X 0 ≡ X.

Now we prove if ∠M XB = 60◦ then AB = BP .


Let P 0 such that 4M P 0 X be equilateral.(P 0 and X be on the same side of AB) It’s
enough to show that P 0 ≡ P .

Draw the line passing through P 0 such that be parallel with CD. Suppose that this
line intersects AD in M 0 .

∠XP 0 M 0 = 360◦ − ∠M 0 P 0 B − ∠BP 0 X = 360◦ − ∠DCA − ∠BAM = 120◦

Also ∠P 0 M 0 D = 120◦ . Therefore quadrilateral XP 0 M 0 D is isosceles trapezoid and


DM 0 = P 0 X = AM = DM . So we can say M 0 ≡ M ⇒ P 0 ≡ P .
Solutions 18

7.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) An acute-angled triangle ABC is given.


The circle with diameter BC intersects AB, AC at E, F respectively. Let M be the
midpoint of BC and P the intersection point of AM and EF . X is a point on the arc
EF and Y the second intersection point of XP with circle mentioned above. Show
that ∠XAY = ∠XY M .

Proposed by Ali Zooelm

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.
Suppose point K is intersection AM and circumcircle of 4AEF . M F tangent to
circumcircle of 4AEF at F .
( because of ∠M F C = ∠M CF = ∠AEF ). Therefore M F 2 = M K.M A . In the
other hand, M Y = M F so M Y 2 = M K.M A. It means

∠M Y K = ∠Y AM (1)

Also AP.P K = P E.P F = P X.P Y therefore AXKY is(...??) .Therefore

∠XAY = ∠XY K (2)

According to equation 1 and 2 we can say ∠XAY = ∠XY M .


Solutions 19

8.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) The tangent line to circumcircle of the


acute-angled triangle ABC (AC > AB) at A intersects the continuation of BC at P .
We denote by O the circumcenter of ABC. X is a point OP such that ∠AXP = 90◦ .
Two points E, F respectively on AB, AC at the same side of OP are chosen such
that
∠EXP = ∠ACX, ∠F XO = ∠ABX
If K, L denote the intersection points of EF with the circumcircle of 4ABC, show
that OP is tangent to the circumcircle of 4KLX.

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.

Let M and N on continuation of XF and XE such that M, L, X, N, K lie on


same circle. We have to prove ∠AM X = ∠ACX. In other hand, ∠ACX = ∠N XP
so we have to prove ∠ACX = ∠N M X.

We know that XF.F M = F L.F K = AF.F C. Therefore AM CX is cyclic and


∠AM X = ∠ACX. similarly we can say AN BX is cyclic. Now it’s enough to show
that ∠AM X = ∠N M X. In other words, we have to show that A, N , M lie on same
line. we know that AN BX is cyclic therefore:

∠N AM = ∠N AE + ∠A + ∠F AM = ∠EXB + ∠A + ∠CXF

= ∠A + 180◦ − ∠BXC + ∠ABX + ∠ACX

= ∠A + 180◦ − ∠BXC + ∠BXC − ∠A = 180◦


Solutions 20

9.(Geometry Olympiad(Senior level)) Two points P , Q lie on the side BC


of triangle ABC and have the same distance to the midpoint. The pependiculars
fromP , Q tp BC intesects AC, AB at E, F respectively. LEt M be the intersection
point of P F and EQ. If H1 and H2 denote the orthocenter of 4BF P and 4CEQ
recpectively, show that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .

Proposed by Mahdi Etesami Fard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
solution.

First we show that if we move P and Q, the line AM doesn’t move. To show that
sin ∠A1
we calculate sin ∠A2
. By the law of sines in 4AF M and 4AEM we have

sin ∠A1 sin ∠F1 F M


= · (3)
sin ∠A2 sin ∠E1 EM

also, for 4F BP and 4CEQ we have

BP
)
sin ∠F1 = PF
· sin ∠B sin ∠F1 sin ∠B EQ
CQ ⇒ = · (4)
sin ∠E1 = EQ
· sin ∠C sin ∠E1 sin ∠C F P

from (3) and (4) we have

sin ∠A1 sin ∠B EQ F M


= · · (5)
sin ∠A2 sin ∠C F P EM

4F M Q and 4EM P are similar, thus


FM FQ EQ F Q + EP
= , =
FP F Q + EP EM EP
with putting this into (5) we have
Solutions 21

sin ∠A1 sin ∠B F Q


= · (6)
sin ∠A2 sin ∠C EP

on the other hand


FQ

tan ∠B = BQ 
 FQ tan ∠B
tan ∠C = EP ⇒ =
CP  EP tan ∠C
BQ = CP

if we put this in (6) we have


sin ∠A1 sin ∠B tan ∠B
= ·
sin ∠A2 sin ∠C tan ∠C
wich is constant.
now we show that H1 H2 s are parallel. consider α the angle between H1 H2 and
BC. Hense we have

H2 P − H1 Q
tan α = (7)
QP

H1 and H2 are the orthometers of 4BF P and 4CQE respectively. Thus we have
BQ · QP
QF · H1 Q = BQ · QP ⇒ H1 Q =
FQ
CP · P Q
EP · H2 P = CP · P Q ⇒ H2 P =
EP
but CP = BQ. Thus
P Q · BQ · (F Q − EP )
H2 P − H1 Q =
EP · F Q
by putting this in (7) :
BQ · (F Q − EP ) BQ BQ CP BQ
tan α = = − = −
EP · F Q EP FQ EP FQ

⇒ tan α = cot ∠B − cot ∠C (8)


Solutions 22

hense tan α is constant, thus H1 H2 s are parallel.


Soppuse θ is the angle between AM and BC. we have to show

tan α · tan θ = 1

let AM intersects with BC at X. We have


BX sin ∠A1 sin ∠C BX tan ∠B
= · ⇒ =
CX sin ∠A2 sin ∠B CX tan ∠C
let D be the foot of the altitude drawn from A. We have
AD
BX tan ∠B BD CD
= = AD
= ⇒ BD = CX
CX tan ∠C CD
BD

AD AD AD 1 1
tan θ = = = = CD BD
=
DX CD − CX CD − BD AD
− AD
cot ∠B − cot ∠C
this equality and (8) implies that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .
Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Elementary)

1. We have four wooden triangles with sides 3, 4, 5 centimeters. How many convex
polygons can we make by all of these triangles?(Just draw the polygons without any
proof)
A convex polygon is a polygon which all of it’s angles are less than 180◦ and there
isn’t any hole in it. For example:

This polygon isn’t convex This polygon is convex

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

2. Let ABC be a triangle with ∠A = 60◦ . The points M, N, K lie on BC, AC, AB
respectively such that BK = KM = M N = N C. If AN = 2AK, find the values of
∠B and ∠C.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

3. In the figure below, we know that AB = CD and BC = 2AD. Prove that


∠BAD = 30◦ .

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

1
4. In rectangle ABCD, the points M, N, P, Q lie on AB, BC, CD, DA respectively
such that the area of triangles AQM, BM N, CN P, DP Q are equal. Prove that the
quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

5. Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 other circles?

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

2
Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Medium)

1. In the figure below, the points P, A, B lie on a circle. The point Q lies inside the
circle such that ∠P AQ = 90◦ and P Q = BQ. Prove that the value of ∠AQB−∠P QA
is equal to the arc AB.

P roposed by Davood V akili

2. In acute-angled triangle ABC, BH is the altitude of the vertex B. The points D


and E are midpoints of AB and AC respectively. Suppose that F be the reflection of
H with respect to ED. Prove that the line BF passes through circumcenter of ABC.

P roposed by Davood V akili

3. In triangle ABC, the points M, N, K are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respec-
tively. Let ωB and ωC be two semicircles with diameter AC and AB respectively,
outside the triangle. Suppose that M K and M N intersect ωC and ωB at X and Y
respectively. Let the tangents at X and Y to ωC and ωB respectively, intersect at Z.
prove that AZ⊥BC.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

3
4. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let
P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-
tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

5. a) Do there exist 5 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 circles?
b) Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 circles?

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

4
Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Advanced)

1. Two circles ω1 and ω2 (with centers O1 and O2 respectively) intersect at A and B.


The point X lies on ω2 . Let point Y be a point on ω1 such that ∠XBY = 90◦ . Let
X 0 be the second point of intersection of the line O1 X and ω2 and K be the second
point of intersection of X 0 Y and ω2 . Prove that X is the midpoint of arc AK.

P roposed by Davood V akili

2. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let


P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P
intersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

3. Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let l1 and l2 be two lines passing
through H and perpendicular to each other. l1 intersects BC and extension of AB
at D and Z respectively, and l2 intersects BC and extension of AC at E and X re-
spectively. Let Y be a point such that Y D k AC and Y E k AB. Prove that X, Y, Z
are collinear.

P roposed by Ali Golmakani

4. In triangle ABC, we draw the circle with center A and radius AB. This circle
intersects AC at two points. Also we draw the circle with center A and radius AC and
this circle intersects AB at two points. Denote these four points by A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 .
Find the points B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 and C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 similarly. Suppose that these 12
points lie on two circles. Prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

5. Rectangles ABA1 B2 , BCB1 C2 , CAC1 A2 lie otside triangle ABC. Let C 0 be a


point such that C 0 A1 ⊥ A1 C2 and C 0 B2 ⊥ B2 C1 . Points A0 and B 0 are defined simi-
larly. Prove that lines AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 concur.

P roposed by Alexey Zaslavsky (Russia)

5
Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Elementary)

1. We have four wooden triangles with sides 3, 4, 5 centimeters. How many convex
polygons can we make by all of these triangles?(Just draw the polygons without any
proof)
A convex polygon is a polygon which all of it’s angles are less than 180◦ and there
isn’t any hole in it. For example:

This polygon isn’t convex This polygon is convex

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

6
7
2. Let ABC be a triangle with ∠A = 60◦ . The points M, N, K lie on BC, AC, AB
respectively such that BK = KM = M N = N C. If AN = 2AK, find the values of
∠B and ∠C.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.
Suppose the point P be the midpoint of AN . Therefore AK = AP = AN and
so we can say 4AP K is the equilateral triangle. So ∠AN K = ∠KP2
A
= 30◦ Let
∠ACB = ∠N M C = α. Therfore ∠ABC = ∠KM B = 120◦ − α. So ∠KM N = 60◦ .
Therefore 4KM N is the equilateral triangle. Now we know that ∠M N A = 90◦ .
Therefore α = 45◦ . So we have ∠C = 45◦ and ∠B = 75◦ .

8
3. In the figure below, we know that AB = CD and BC = 2AD. Prove that
∠BAD = 30◦ .

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.
Let two points E and F on BC and AB respectively such that DF ⊥BC and
DE⊥AB. We can say DF = DC 2
= AB
2
.(because of ∠BCD = 30◦ and ∠DF C = 90◦ )
Also we know that DF = BE, therfore DE is the perpendicular bisector of AB. So
BD = AD.

Let H be a point on CD such that BH⊥CD. therefore BH = BC


2
= BD, so we
◦ ◦
can say D ≡ H and ∠BDC = 90 . Therefore ∠ABD = ∠BAD = 30 .

9
Solution 2.
Suppose that P is the point such that triangle DCP is Equilateral. We know that
P C⊥BC and P C = CD = AB, therfore quadrilateral ABCP is Rectangular.

⇒ ∠AP D = ∠AP C − ∠DP C = 90◦ − 60◦ = 30◦

In other hand, DP = DC and AP = BC. So 4ADP and 4BDC are congruent.


Therfore AD = BD.

Let the point H on CD such that BH⊥CD. therefore BH = BC


2
= BD, so we
◦ ◦
can say D ≡ H and ∠BDC = 90 . Therefore ∠ABD = ∠BAD = 30 .

10
4. In rectangle ABCD, the points M, N, P, Q lie on AB, BC, CD, DA respectively
such that the area of triangles AQM, BM N, CN P, DP Q are equal. Prove that the
quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

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Solution.
Let AB = CD = a, AD = BC = b and AM = x, AQ = z, P C = y, N C = t. If
x 6= y, we can assume that x > y. We know that:

y<x ⇒ a−x<a−y (1)

SAQM = SCN P ⇒ zx = yt ⇒ z<t ⇒ b−t<b−z (2)


According to inequality 1, 2:

(a − x)(b − t) < (a − y)(b − z) ⇒ SBM N < SDP Q


it’s a contradiction. Therfore x = y, so z = t Now we can say two triangles AM Q
and CP N are congruent. Therefore M Q = N P and similarly M N = P Q. So the
quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

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Comment.
If quadrilateral ABCD be the parallelogram, similarly we can show that quadri-
lateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

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11
5. Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 other circles?

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

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Solution.
In the picture below, we have 6 points in the plane such that for every point there
exists exactly 3 other points on a circle with radius 1 centimeter.

12
Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Medium)

1. In the figure below, the points P, A, B lie on a circle. The point Q lies inside the
circle such that ∠P AQ = 90◦ and P Q = BQ. Prove that the value of ∠AQB−∠P QA
is equal to the arc AB.

P roposed by Davood V akili

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Solution 1.
Let point M be the midpoint of P B. So we can say ∠P M Q = 90◦ and we know
that ∠P AQ = 90◦ , therefore quadrilateral P AM Q is cyclic. Therefore:

∠AP M = ∠AQM

In the other hand:

∠AQB − ∠AQP = ∠P QM + ∠AQM − ∠AQP = 2∠AQM

So we can say that the subtract ∠AQB from ∠P QA is equal to arc AB.

13
Solution 2.
Let the point K be the reflection of P to AQ. We have to show:

2∠AP B = ∠AQB − ∠AQP

Now we know that AQ is the perpendicular bisector of P K. So ∠AQP = ∠AQK


and P Q = KQ = BQ, therefore the point Q is the circumcenter of triangle P KB.
We know that:

2∠AP B = ∠KQB = ∠AQB − ∠AQK = ∠AQB − ∠AQP


Therefore the subtract ∠AQB from ∠P QA is equal to arc AB.

14
2. In acute-angled triangle ABC, BH is the altitude of the vertex B. The points D
and E are midpoints of AB and AC respectively. Suppose that F be the reflection of
H with respect to ED. Prove that the line BF passes through circumcenter of ABC.

P roposed by Davood V akili

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Solution 1.
The circumcenter of 4ABC denote by O. We know that ∠OBA = 90◦ − ∠C,
therfore we have to show that ∠F BA = 90◦ − ∠C. We know that AD = BD = DH,
also DH = DF .

Therfore quadrilateral AHF B is cyclic (with circumcenter D)

⇒ ∠F BA = ∠F HE = 90◦ − ∠DEH , DE k BC ⇒ ∠DEH = ∠C

⇒ ∠F BA = 90◦ − ∠C

15
Solution 2.
The circumcenter of 4ABC denote by O. We know that quadrilateral ADOE is
cyclic. Also we know that AD = HD = DB, therefore:

∠A = ∠DHA = 180◦ − ∠DHE = 180◦ − ∠DF E ⇒ ADF E : cyclic

So we can say ADF OE is cyclic, therefore quadrilateral DF OE is cyclic.

∠C = ∠DEA = ∠DEF = ∠DOF

In the other hand: ∠C = ∠DOB so ∠DOF = ∠DOB, therefore B, F, O are collinear.

16
3. In triangle ABC, the points M, N, K are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respec-
tively. Let ωB and ωC be two semicircles with diameter AC and AB respectively,
outside the triangle. Suppose that M K and M N intersect ωC and ωB at X and Y
respectively. Let the tangents at X and Y to ωC and ωB respectively, intersect at Z.
prove that AZ⊥BC.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard


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Solution 1.
Let point H on BC such that AH⊥BC. Therefore quadrilaterals AXBH and
AY CH are cyclic. We know that KM and M N are parallel to AC and AB respec-
tively. So we can say ∠AKX = ∠AN Y = ∠A, therefore ∠ABX = ∠ACY = ∠A 2
and
∠XAB = ∠Y AC = 90◦ − ∠A 2
. So X, A, Y are collinear.

∠A ∠A
∠AHX = ∠ABX = , ∠AHY = ∠ACY = ⇒ ∠XHY = ∠XM Y = ∠A
2 2

Therefore quadrilateral XHM Y is cyclic. Also we know that ∠M XZ = ∠M Y Z =



90 , therefore quadrilateral M XZY is cyclic. So we can say ZXHM Y is cyclic. ther-
fore quadrilateral HXZY is cyclic.

17
∠A
In the other hand: ∠ZY X = ∠ACY = 2

∠A ∠A
∠ZHX = ∠ZY X = , ∠AHX = ⇒ ∠ZHX = ∠AHX
2 2
So the points Z, A, H are collinear, therefore AZ⊥BC.

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Solution 2.
Let point H on BC such that AH⊥BC. We know that KM and M N are parallel
to AC and AB respectively. So we can say ∠AKX = ∠AN Y = ∠A, therefore
∠ABX = ∠ACY = ∠A 2
and ∠XAB = ∠Y AC = 90◦ − ∠A
2
. So X, A, Y are collinear.
∠A
⇒ ∠ZXY = ∠ZY X = ⇒ ZX = ZY
2
So the point Z lie on the radical axis of two these semicirculars. Also we know that
the line AH is the radical axis of two these semicirculars. Therefore the points Z, A, H
are collinear, therefore AZ⊥BC.

18
4. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let
P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-
tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

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Solution 1.
Suppose that M and N be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. We know
that quadrilateral BM N C is cyclic. Also ∠BP C = 120◦ > 90◦ , so we can say
the point P is in the circumcircle of quadrilateral BM N C. Therefore: ∠M P N >
∠M BN = 30◦
In the other hand, quadrilaterals KM OP and N OP L are cyclic. Therefore:

∠M KO = ∠M P O , ∠N LO = ∠N P O ⇒ ∠AKO + ∠ALO = ∠M P N > 30◦

⇒ ∠KOL = ∠A + ∠AKO + ∠ALO > 90◦

19
Solution 2.
Suppose that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therfore KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 . Assume that R is the
radius of a circumcircle 4ABC. Let BK = x and LC = y and AB = AC = BC = a.
According to law of cosines in triangle AKL, we have:

KL2 = AK 2 + AL2 − AK.AL.cos(∠A) ⇒ KL2 = (a + x)2 + (a + y)2 − (a + x)(a + y)

In the other hand:

KB.KA = OK 2 − R2 ⇒ OK 2 = R2 + x(a + x)

LC.LA = OL2 − R2 ⇒OL2 = R2 + y(a + y)



We know that KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 and a = R 3, therfore:

(a + x)2 + (a + y)2 − (a + x)(a + y) ≤ 2R2 + x(a + x) + y(a + y)

⇒ R2 ≤ xy (1)
KL is tangent to circumcircle of 4ABC at P . So we have:

KP 2 = KB.KA = x(a + x) > x2 ⇒ KP > x (2)

LP 2 = LC.LA = y(a + y) > y 2 ⇒ LP > y (3)


According to inequality 2, 3 we can say: xy < KP.LP (4)

Now According to inequality 1, 4 we have: R2 < KP.LP (5)

20
We know that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therefore KOL is acute-triangle. Suppose that H is
orthocenter of 4KOL. So the point H lies on OP and we can say HP ≤ OP .

In other hand, ∠HKP = ∠P OL and ∠KHP = ∠OLP , therefore two triangles


T HP and OP L are similar. So we have:
KP OP
= ⇒ KP.LP = HP.OP ≤ OP 2 = R2
HP LP
But according to inequality 5, we have R2 < KP.LP and it’s a contradiction.
Therfore ∠KOL > 90◦ .

21
5. a) Do there exist 5 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 circles?
b) Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers
of exactly 3 circles?

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

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a)Solution.
There aren’t such 5 circles. Suppose that these circles exists, therefore their centers
are 5 points that each point has same distance from 3 other points and has diffrent
distance from the remaining point. We draw an arrow from each point to it’s diffrent
distance point.
- lemma 1. We don’t have two points such Oi , Oj that each one is the diffrent
distance point of the other one.
proof. If we have such thing then Oi and Oj both have same distance to the
remaining points, therefore both of them are circumcenter of the remaining points,
which is wrong.
- lemma 2. We don’t have 4 points such Oi , Oj , Ok , Ol that Oi , Oj put their arrow
in Ok and OK puts it’s arrow in Ol .
proof. If we name the remaining point Om then the distances of Oi from Oj , Ol ,
Om are equal and the distances of Oj from Oi , Ol , Om are equal. Therefore each of
Ol , Om is the diffrent distance point of another which is wrong (according to lemma
1).
so each point sends an arrow and recives an arrow. Because of lemma 1 we don’t
have 3 or 4 points cycles. Therefore we only have one 5 points cycle. So each pair of
these 5 points should have equal distance. which is impossible.

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b)Solution.
in the picture below, we have 6 points in the plane such that for every point there
exists exactly 3 other points on a circle with radius 1 centimeter.

22
Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Advanced)

1. Two circles ω1 and ω2 (with centers O1 and O2 respectively) intersect at A and B.


The point X lies on ω2 . Let point Y be a point on ω1 such that ∠XBY = 90◦ . Let
X 0 be the second point of intersection of the line O1 X and ω2 and K be the second
point of intersection of X 0 Y and ω2 . Prove that X is the midpoint of arc AK.

P roposed by Davood V akili

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Solution.
Suppose that the point Z be the intersection of BX and circle ω1 . We know that
∠Y BZ = 90◦ , therefore the points Y, O1 , Z are collinear.

∠O1 Y A = ∠ABX = ∠AX 0 X ⇒ Y AX 0 O1 : cyclic

In the other hand, we know that AO1 = Y O1 so ∠AX 0 X = ∠Y X 0 O1 = ∠XX 0 K.


Therefore the point X lies on the midpoint of arc AK.

23
2. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let
P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-
tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

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Solution 1.
Suppose that M and N be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. We know
that quadrilateral BM N C is cyclic. Also ∠BP C = 120◦ > 90◦ , so we can say
the point P is in the circumcircle of quadrilateral BM N C. Therefore: ∠M P N >
∠M BN = 30◦
In the other hand, quadrilaterals KM OP and N OP L are cyclic. Therefore:

∠M KO = ∠M P O , ∠N LO = ∠N P O ⇒ ∠AKO + ∠ALO = ∠M P N > 30◦

⇒ ∠KOL = ∠A + ∠AKO + ∠ALO > 90◦

24
Solution 2.
Suppose that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therfore KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 . Assume that R is the
radius of a circumcircle 4ABC. Let BK = x and LC = y and AB = AC = BC = a.
According to law of cosines in triangle AKL, we have:

KL2 = AK 2 + AL2 − AK.AL.cos(∠A) ⇒ KL2 = (a + x)2 + (a + y)2 − (a + x)(a + y)

In the other hand:

KB.KA = OK 2 − R2 ⇒ OK 2 = R2 + x(a + x)

LC.LA = OL2 − R2 ⇒OL2 = R2 + y(a + y)



We know that KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 and a = R 3, therfore:

(a + x)2 + (a + y)2 − (a + x)(a + y) ≤ 2R2 + x(a + x) + y(a + y)

⇒ R2 ≤ xy (1)
KL is tangent to circumcircle of 4ABC at P . So we have:

KP 2 = KB.KA = x(a + x) > x2 ⇒ KP > x (2)

LP 2 = LC.LA = y(a + y) > y 2 ⇒ LP > y (3)


According to inequality 2, 3 we can say: xy < KP.LP (4)

Now According to inequality 1, 4 we have: R2 < KP.LP (5)

25
We know that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therefore KOL is acute-triangle. Suppose that H is
orthocenter of 4KOL. So the point H lies on OP and we can say HP ≤ OP .

In other hand, ∠HKP = ∠P OL and ∠KHP = ∠OLP , therefore two triangles


T HP and OP L are similar. So we have:
KP OP
= ⇒ KP.LP = HP.OP ≤ OP 2 = R2
HP LP
But according to inequality 5, we have R2 < KP.LP and it’s a contradiction.
Therfore ∠KOL > 90◦ .

26
3. Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let l1 and l2 be two lines passing
through H and perpendicular to each other. l1 intersects BC and extension of AB
at D and Z respectively, and l2 intersects BC and extension of AC at E and X re-
spectively. Let Y be a point such that Y D k AC and Y E k AB. Prove that X, Y, Z
are collinear.

P roposed by Ali Golmakani


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Solution.
Suppose that HZ intersects AC at P and HX intersects AB at Q. According to
Menelaus’s theorem in two triangles AQX and AP Z we can say:
CX AB QE BZ AC P D
. . =1 (1) and . . =1 (2)
AC BQ EX AB P C DZ

In the other hand, H is the orthocenter of 4ABC. So BH⊥AC and we know that
∠DHE = 90◦ , therefore ∠HXA = ∠BHZ = α. Similarly we can say ∠HZA =
∠CHX = θ.

27
According to law of sines in 4HP C, 4HCX and 4HP X:

sin(90 − θ) sin(∠HCP ) sin(θ) sin(∠HCX) HP sin(α)


= , = , =
PC HP CX HX HX sin(90 − α)

PC tan(α)
⇒ =
CX tan(θ)
Similarly, according to law of sines in 4HBQ, 4HBZ and 4HQZ, we can show:

BZ tan(α) BZ PC PC CX
⇒ = ⇒ = ⇒ = (3)
BQ tan(θ) BQ CX BZ BQ

According to equality 1, 2 and 3, we can say:


XE PD
= (4)
EQ ZD

Suppose that the line which passes through E and parallel to AB, intersects ZX at
Y1 and the line which passes through D and parallel to AC, intersects ZX at Y2 .
According to Thales’s theorem we can say:
Y1 X XE Y2 X PD
= , =
ZY1 EQ ZY2 ZD

According to equality 4, we show that Y1 ≡ Y2 , therefore the point Y lies on ZX.

28
4. In triangle ABC, we draw the circle with center A and radius AB. This circle
intersects AC at two points. Also we draw the circle with center A and radius AC and
this circle intersects AB at two points. Denote these four points by A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 .
Find the points B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 and C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 similarly. Suppose that these 12
points lie on two circles. Prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

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Solution 1.
Suppose that triangle ABC isn’t isosceles and a > b > c. In this case, there
are four points (from these 12 points) on each side of 4ABC. Suppose that these
12 points lie on two circles ω1 and ω2 . Therefore each one of the circles ω1 and ω2
intersects each side of 4ABC exactly at two points. Suppose that P (A, ω1 ), P (A, ω2 )
are power of the point A with respect to circles ω1 , ω2 respectively. Now we know
that:
P (A, ω1 ).P (A, ω2 ) = b.b.(a − c).(a + c) = c.c.(a − b)(a + b)
⇒ b2 (a2 − c2 ) = c2 (a2 − b2 ) ⇒ a2 (b2 − c2 ) = 0 ⇒ b=c
But we know that b > c and it’s a contradiction. Therefore the triangle ABC is
isosceles.

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Solution 2.
Suppose that triangle ABC isn’t isosceles. In this case, there are four points
(from these 12 points) on each side of 4ABC. Suppose that these 12 points lie on
two circles ω1 and ω2 . Therefore each one of the circles ω1 and ω2 intersects each side
of 4ABC exactly at two points (and each one of the circles ω1 and ω2 doesn’t pass
through A, B, C). We know that the intersections of ω1 and the sides of 4ABC is
even number. Also the intersections of ω2 and the sides of 4ABC is even number.
But Among the these 12 points, just 3 points lie on the sides of 4ABC and this is
odd number. So it’s a contradiction. Therefore the triangle ABC is isosceles.

29
5. Rectangles ABA1 B2 , BCB1 C2 , CAC1 A2 lie otside triangle ABC. Let C 0 be a
point such that C 0 A1 ⊥ A1 C2 and C 0 B2 ⊥ B2 C1 . Points A0 and B 0 are defined simi-
larly. Prove that lines AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 concur.

P roposed by Alexey Zaslavsky (Russia)

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Solution.
Suppose that lA is the line which passes through A and perpendicular to B2 C1 .
Let lB and lC similarly. Suppose that CB1 = BC2 = x and BA1 = AB2 = y and
AC1 = CA2 = z. According to angles equality, we can say:

sin(∠A1 ) y sin(∠B1 ) x sin(∠C1 ) z


= , = , =
sin(∠A2 ) z sin(∠B2 ) y sin(∠C2 ) x

According to sine form of Ceva’s theorem in 4ABC, lA , lB , lC are concur. Suppose


that lA , lB , lC pass through the point P . We know that 4P BC and 4A0 C2 B1 are
equal. ( because of BP k A0 C2 , CP k A0 B1 , BC k B1 C2 and BC = B1 C2 ). So we
have:

P A0 = x , P C 0 = y , P B 0 = z P A0 ⊥BC , P B 0 ⊥AC , P C 0 ⊥AB

30
Suppose that P A0 , P B 0 , P C 0 intersects BC, AC, AB at D, E, F respectively and:
P D = m , P E = n , P F = t. According to before figure, we have:
sin(∠A1 ) n y sin(∠B1 ) t x sin(∠C1 ) m z
= = , = = , = =
sin(∠A2 ) t z sin(∠B2 ) m y sin(∠C2 ) n x
kyz
If n = ky, then: t = kz , m = x
.

Now draw the line from A0 such that be parallel to BC. The intersection of this
line and extension AB and AC denote by B3 and C3 respectively. Let the point A00
be the intersection of AA0 and BC. According to Thales’s theorem, we have:
BA00 B3 A0
=
CA00 C3 A0

31
Let ∠B3 P A0 = α and ∠C3 P A0 = θ. We know that the quadrilaterals P F B3 A0
and P EC3 A0 are cyclic. Therefore ∠B3 F A0 = α and ∠C3 EA0 = θ.

According to law of sines in 4P B3 A0 and 4P C3 A0 and 4P C3 B3 :

B3 A0 tan(α)
0
=
C3 A tan(θ)

Also according to law of sines in 4P F A0 :

t sin(∠B + α − 90) cos(∠B + α)


= = = cos(∠B) − tan(α).sin(∠B)
x cos(α) cos(α)
t
cos(∠B) − x
⇒ tan(α) =
sin(∠B)

Similarly we can say:


n
cos(∠C) − x B3 A0 BA00 x.cos(∠B) − t sin(∠C)
tan(θ) = ⇒ 0
= 00
= .
sin(∠C) C3 A CA x.cos(∠C) − n sin(∠B)

Similarly, two other fractions can be calculated.

32
According to Ceva’s theorem in 4ABC, we have to that:

x.cos(∠B) − t sin(∠C) z.cos(∠C) − m sin(∠A) y.cos(∠A) − n sin(∠B)


. . . . . =1
x.cos(∠C) − n sin(∠B) z.cos(∠A) − t sin(∠C) y.cos(∠B) − m sin(∠A)

x.cos(∠B) − t z.cos(∠C) − m y.cos(∠A) − n


⇐⇒ . . =1
x.cos(∠C) − n z.cos(∠A) − t y.cos(∠B) − m

In other hand, we know that:


kyz
n = ky , t = kz , m=
x

x.cos(∠B) − kz x.cos(∠C) − ky x.cos(∠A) − kx


⇐⇒ . . =1
x.cos(∠C) − ky x.cos(∠A) − kx x.cos(∠B) − kz

Therfore, we show that AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 are concur.

33
1

Problems of 3rd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Elementary)

1. Ali wants to move from point A to point B. He cannot walk inside the
black areas but he is free to move in any direction inside the white areas (not
only the grid lines but the whole plane). Help Ali to find the shortest path
between A and B. Only draw the path and write its length.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

2. Let ω be the circumcircle of triangle ABC with AC > AB. Let X be a


point on AC and Y be a point on the circle ω, such that CX = CY = AB.
(The points A and Y lie on different sides of the line BC). The line XY inter-
sects ω for the second time in point P . Show that P B = P C.

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

3. Suppose that ABCD is a convex quadrilateral with no parallel sides. Make


a parallelogram on each two consecutive sides. Show that among these 4 new
points, there is only one point inside the quadrilateral ABCD.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian


2

4. In a right-angled triangle ABC (∠A = 90◦ ), the perpendicular bisector


of BC intersects the line AC in K and the perpendicular bisector of BK inter-
sects the line AB in L. If the line CL be the internal bisector of angle C, find
all possible values for angles B and C.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

5. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with these properties: √


∠ADC = 135◦ and ∠ADB−∠ABD = 2∠DAB = 4∠CBD. If BC = 2CD
prove that AB = BC + AD.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard


3

Problems of 3rd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Medium)

1. In trapezoid ABCD with AB k CD, ω1 and ω2 are two circles with di-
ameters AD and BC, respectively. Let X and Y be two arbitrary points on ω1
and ω2 , respectively. Show that the length of segment XY is not more than
half of the perimeter of ABCD.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

2. Let two circles C1 and C2 intersect in points A and B. The tangent to


C1 at A intersects C2 in P and the line P B intersects C1 for the second time
in Q (suppose that Q is outside C2 ). The tangent to C2 from Q intersects C1
and C2 in C and D, respectively (The points A and D lie on different sides of
the line P Q). Show that AD is bisector of the angle CAP .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

3. Find all positive integers N such that there exists a triangle which can
be dissected into N similar quadrilaterals.

P roposed by N ikolai Beluhov (Bulgaria) and M orteza Saghaf ian

4. Let ω be the circumcircle of right-angled triangle ABC (∠A = 90◦ ). Tan-


gent to ω at point A intersects the line BC in point P . Suppose that M is the
midpoint of (the smaller) arc AB, and P M intersects ω for the second time in
Q. Tangent to ω at point Q intersects AC in K. Prove that ∠P KC = 90◦ .

P roposed by Davood V akili

5. Let the circles ω and ω 0 intersect in points A and B. Tangent to circle


ω at A intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D.
Suppose that the internal bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 at E and F ,
respectively, and the external bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 in X and
Y , respectively. Prove that the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the
circumcircle of triangle BEF .

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard


4

Problems of 3rd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Advanced)

1. Let the circles ω and ω 0 intersect in A and B. Tangent to circle ω at A


intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that
the segment CD intersects ω and ω 0 in E and F , respectively (assume that E
is between F and C). The perpendicular to AC from E intersects ω 0 in point
P and perpendicular to AD from F intersects ω in point Q (The points A, P
and Q lie on the same side of the line CD). Prove that the points A, P and Q
are collinear.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

2. In acute-angled triangle ABC, altitude of A meets BC at D, and M is


midpoint of AC. Suppose that X is a point such that ∠AXB = ∠DXM = 90◦
(assume that X and C lie on opposite sides of the line BM ). Show that
∠XM B = 2∠M BC.

P roposed by Davood V akili

3. Let P be the intersection point of sides AD and BC of a convex qualri-


lateral ABCD. Suppose that I1 and I2 are the incenters of triangles P AB and
P DC, respectively. Let O be the circumcenter of P AB, and H the orthocenter
of P DC. Show that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent
together if and only if the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent
together.

P roposed by Hooman F attahimoghaddam

4. In a convex quadrilateral ABCD, the lines AB and CD meet at point


E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let P be the intersection point
of diagonals AC and BD. Suppose that ω1 is a circle passing through D and
tangent to AC at P . Also suppose that ω2 is a circle passing through C and
tangent to BD at P . Let X be the intersection point of ω1 and AD, and Y
be the intersection point of ω2 and BC. Suppose that the circles ω1 and ω2
intersect each other in Q for the second time. Prove that the perpendicular
from P to the line EF passes through the circumcenter of triangle XQY .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

5. Do there exist six points X1 , X2 , Y1 , Y2 , Z1 , Z2 in the plane such that all


of the triangles Xi Yj Zk are similar for 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2?

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian


5

Solutions of 3nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Elementary)

1. Ali wants to move from point A to point B. He cannot walk inside the
black areas but he is free to move in any direction inside the white areas (not
only the grid lines but the whole plane). Help Ali to find the shortest path
between A and B. Only draw the path and write its length.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.

According to Pythagorean theorem, the length of the path AB is equal to:


p p p √
32 + 3 2 + 32 + 4 2 + 1 + 22 + 2 2 + 1 = 7 + 5 2
6

2.Let ω be the circumcircle of triangle ABC with AC > AB. Let X be a point
on AC and Y be a point on the circle ω, such that CX = CY = AB. (The
points A and Y lie on different sides of the line BC). The line XY intersects ω
for the second time in point P . Show that P B = P C.

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
We know that CX = CY therefore:
_ _ _
∠Y XC = ∠XY C ⇒AP + CY =P C
_ _ _ _ _
Also we have AB = CY therefore AP + CY =AP + AB=P B, so P B = P C.
7

3. Suppose that ABCD is a convex quadrilateral with no parallel sides. Make


a parallelogram on each two consecutive sides. Show that among these 4 new
points, there is only one point inside the quadrilateral ABCD.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
It’s clear that the ray from B parallel to AD passes through the quadrilateral
if and only if ∠DAB + ∠ABC > 180◦ .

We have to find a parallelogram such that both of it’s rays pass thorough
ABCD. Among A, B and C, D there is exactly one set with sum of angles
greater than 180◦ . Also among A, D and B, D there is exactly one set with sum
of angles greater than 180◦ . These two good sets have a vertex in common, say
A. So both of the rays from B parallel to AD, and from D parallel to AB, are
inside the quadlirateral.
8

4. In a right-angled triangle ABC (∠A = 90◦ ), the perpendicular bisector of


BC intersects the line AC in K and the perpendicular bisector of BK intersects
the line AB in L. If the line CL be the internal bisector of angle C, find all
possible values for angles B and C.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
We have three cases:
Case i. AC > AB. We know that:

∠LBK = ∠LKB = α ⇒ ∠KLA = 2α ⇒ ∠LKA = 90◦ − 2α


∠BKA α
BK = CK ⇒ ∠KBC = ∠KCB = = 45◦ −
2 2
Let T be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the
internal bisector of angle C, so LT = LA also we have LB = LK therefore two
triangles BT L and KAL are congruent.
α
⇒ ∠LBT = ∠LKA ⇒ 45◦ + = 90◦ − 2α ⇒ α = 18◦
2
Therefore ∠B = 45◦ + α
2 = 54◦ and ∠C = 36◦
9

Case ii. AC < AB. We know that:

∠LBK = ∠LKB = α ⇒ ∠KLA = 2α ⇒ ∠LKA = 90◦ − 2α

Let T be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the
internal bisector of angle C, so LT = LA also we have LB = LK therefore two
triangles BT L and KAL are equal.

⇒ ∠LBT = ∠LKA = 90◦ − 2α ⇒ ∠CBK = ∠BKC = 90◦ − α

On the other hand we have:

BK = CK ⇒ ∠CBK = ∠BKC = 60◦ ⇒ α = 30◦

Therefore ∠B = 90◦ − 2α = 30◦ and ∠C = 60◦

Case iii. AC = AB. In this case, K ≡ A and L is the midpoint of AB. Let T
be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the internal
bisector of angle C, so LT = LA = LB which is impossible.
10

5. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with these properties: √


∠ADC = 135◦ and ∠ADB−∠ABD = 2∠DAB = 4∠CBD. If BC = 2CD
prove that AB = BC + AD.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
Suppose that ∠CBD = α, so ∠DAB = 2α, therefore:
∠ADB − ∠ABD = 4α , ∠ADB + ∠ABD = 180◦ − 2α
⇒ ∠ADB = 90◦ + α , ∠ABD = 90◦ − 3α ⇒ ∠DAB + ∠CBA = 90◦
Let P be intersection point of AD and BC. So we have ∠AP

B = 90◦ . On the
other hand we know that ∠P DC = 45◦ , therefore P D = 22 CD = BC
2

Let the point Q be the reflection of point D in point P , Thus QD = 2P D = BC.


We know that two triangles DP B and QP B are congruent. So ∠CBD =
∠CBQ = α, therefore ∠ABQ = 90◦ − α. On the other hand ∠DAB = 2α, so
the triangle ABQ is isosceles.
⇒ AB = AQ ⇒ AB = DQ + AD = BC + AD
.
11

Solutions of 3nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Medium)

1. In trapezoid ABCD with AB k CD, ω1 and ω2 are two circles with di-
ameters AD and BC, respectively. Let X and Y be two arbitrary points on ω1
and ω2 , respectively. Show that the length of segment XY is not more than
half of the perimeter of ABCD.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
First solution.
Let O1 and O2 be the centers of circles ω1 and ω2 , respectively. It’s clear that
O1 and O2 are the midpoints of AD and BC, respectively.
AD BC AB + CD
XO1 = , Y O2 = , O 1 O2 =
2 2 2
AB + BC + CD + DA
⇒ XY ≤ XO1 + O1 O2 + Y O2 =
2
12

Second solution.
The farthest points of two circles lie on their center line.

And it’s clear in the figure that:


AD AB + CD BC
XO1 = , O1 O2 = , Y O2 =
2 2 2
13

2. Let two circles C1 and C2 intersect in points A and B. The tangent to C1


at A intersects C2 in P and the line P B intersects C1 for the second time in Q
(suppose that Q is outside C2 ). The tangent to C2 from Q intersects C1 and
C2 in C and D, respectively (The points A and D lie on different sides of the
line P Q). Show that AD is bisector of the angle CAP .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
We know that:
∠CAB = ∠CQB , ∠DAB = ∠BDQ
⇒ ∠CAD = ∠CAB + ∠DAB = ∠CQB + ∠BDQ = ∠P BD = ∠P AD
Therefore AD is the bisector of ∠CAP .
14

3. Find all positive integers N such that there exists a triangle which can be
dissected into N similar quadrilaterals.

P roposed by N ikolai Beluhov (Bulgaria) and M orteza Saghaf ian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
For N = 1 it’s clear that this is impossible. Also for N = 2 this dissection is
impossible too, because one of the two quadrilaterals is convex and the other is
concave. For N ≥ 3 we can do this kind of dissection in equilateral triangle.
15

4. Let ω be the circumcircle of right-angled triangle ABC (∠A = 90◦ ). Tangent


to ω at point A intersects the line BC in point P . Suppose that M is the
midpoint of (the smaller) arc AB, and P M intersects ω for the second time in
Q. Tangent to ω at point Q intersects AC in K. Prove that ∠P KC = 90◦ .

P roposed by Davood V akili

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
Suppose that AB < AC. It’s enough to show that P K k AB.
AQ PQ MB PB
4P M A ∼ 4P AQ ⇒ = , 4P M B ∼ 4P CQ ⇒ =
MA PA QC PQ
AC PA
4P BA ∼ 4P AC ⇒ =
BA PB
We know that M A = M B, so according to above three equations we can say
that:
AQ BA
= (1)
QC AC

KA KQ AQ KA AQ 2
4KAQ ∼ 4KQC ⇒ = = ⇒ =( ) (2)
KQ KC QC KC QC
PB PA BA PB BA 2
4P BA ∼ 4P AC ⇒ = = ⇒ =( ) (3)
PA PC AC PC AC
KA PB
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ = ⇒ P K k AB
KC PC
16

The solution is the same in case of AB > AC.


17

5. Let the circles ω and ω 0 intersect in points A and B. Tangent to circle ω at A


intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that
the internal bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 at E and F , respectively, and
the external bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 in X and Y , respectively.
Prove that the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the circumcircle of
triangle BEF .

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
Suppose that P is the intersection point of XE and Y F . We know that:
∠EXA = ∠EAC = ∠EAD = ∠F Y A = α ⇒ P X = P Y
∠ABE = ∠EXA = α , ∠ABF = 180◦ − ∠F Y A = 180◦ − α
⇒ ∠EBF = ∠XP Y = 180◦ − 2α ⇒ P EBF : cyclic
EF ⊥XY ⇒ ∠P EF = ∠AEX = ∠AF Y ⇒ PE = PF
We proved that P E = P F and the quadrilateral P EBF is cyclic. Therefore, P
is the midpoint of arc EF in the circumcircle of triangle BEF . Also we know
that the perpendicular bisector of XY is parallel to EF and passes through P .
So the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle
BEF at P .
18

Solutions of 3nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2016 (Advanced)

1. Let the circles ω and ω 0 intersect in A and B. Tangent to circle ω at A


intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that
CD intersects ω and ω 0 in E and F , respectively (assume that E is between F
and C). The perpendicular to AC from E intersects ω 0 in point P and perpen-
dicular to AD from F intersects ω in point Q (The points A, P and Q lie on
the same side of the line CD). Prove that the points A, P and Q are collinear.

P roposed by M ahdi Etesami F ard

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
We know that:
∠AF C = ∠AED = 180◦ − ∠CAD , ∠AEF = 180◦ − ∠AQD
⇒ ∠AF D = ∠AQD

So the point Q is the reflection of the point F in the line AD. Similarly we can
say the point P is the reflection of the point E in the line AC. Therefore:
∠DAQ = ∠DAF = ∠ACD , ∠CAP = ∠CAE = ∠CDA
⇒ ∠DAQ + ∠CAD + ∠CAP = ∠ACD + ∠CAD + ∠CDA = 180◦
So the points A, P and Q are collinear.
19

2. In acute-angled triangle ABC, altitude of A meets BC at D, and M is


midpoint of AC. Suppose that X is a point such that ∠AXB = ∠DXM =
90◦ (assume that X and C lie on opposite sides of the line BM ). Show that
∠XM B = 2∠M BC.

P roposed by Davood V akili

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
First solution.
Let N be the midpoint of side AB. So M N k BC and ∠M BC = ∠N M B.
Therefore it’s enough to show that the line M N is the bisector of ∠XM B.

∠ADB = ∠AXB = 90◦ ⇒ AXDB : cyclic

⇒ ∠BXD = ∠BAD = 90◦ −∠ABC ⇒ ∠BXM = 180◦ −∠ABC = ∠BN M


⇒ BN XM ; cyclic , AN = N X = BN ⇒ ∠BM N = ∠XM N
20

Second solution.
Let P be the intersection point of XM and BC. Suppose that Q is the point
such that the quadrilateral ADBQ be a rectangle. We know that:

∠DXP = ∠ADP = 90◦ ⇒ ∠ADX = ∠XP D

Also we know that AXDBQ is cyclic, so:

∠ADX = ∠AQX ⇒ ∠AQX = ∠XP D

So Q, X and P are collinear because AQ k BP .

AM = M C and AQ k BP ⇒ QM = M P

Now we know that ∠QBC = 90◦ , thus:

QM = BM = M P ⇒ ∠XM B = 2∠M BC
21

3. In a convex qualrilateral ABCD, let P be the intersection point of AC and


BD. Suppose that I1 and I2 are the incenters of triangles P AB and P DC
respectively. Let O be the circumcenter of P AB, and H the orthocenter of
P DC. Show that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent
together if and only if the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent
together.

P roposed by Hooman F attahimoghaddam

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution.
Suppose that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC is tangent together
at point K. Let Q be the second intersection point of circumcircles of triangles
AKD and BKC. we know that:

∠DHC = ∠DKC = 180◦ − ∠P

∠P + ∠P DK + ∠P CK = ∠DKC ⇒ ∠P DK + ∠P CK = 180◦ − 2∠P


AQKD : cyclic ⇒ ∠AQK = 180◦ − ∠P DK
BQKC : cyclic ⇒ ∠BQK = 180◦ − ∠P CK
⇒ ∠AQB = ∠P DK+∠P CK = 180◦ −2∠P = 180◦ −∠AOB ⇒ AOBQ : cyclic
Also we have ∠AKD = ∠AQD , ∠BKC = ∠BQC and ∠AQB = ∠DKC −∠P .
So ∠CQD = ∠AKB + ∠P = 180◦ − ∠AI1 B + ∠P = 90◦ + ∠P
2 = ∠CI2 D.
22

So the qudrilateral CDQI2 is cyclic. So we have to show that circumcircles of


triangles AOB and DI2 C is tangent together at the point Q. It’s enough to
show that:
∠ABQ + ∠DCQ = ∠AQD
We know that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent to-
gether at the point K, so we have:

∠ABK + ∠DCK = ∠AKD

⇒ (∠ABQ + ∠KBQ) + (∠DCQ − ∠KCQ) = ∠AKD


We know that ∠KBQ = ∠KCQ and ∠AKD = ∠AQD, So:

∠ABQ + ∠DCQ = ∠AQD

Therefore the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent together
at point Q.
On the other side of the problem, Suppose that the circumcircles of triangles
CI2 D and AOB are tangent together at point Q. Let the point K be the second
intersection of circumcircles of triangles AQD and BQC. Similarly we can show
that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent together at the
point K.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Comment.
Also there is another solution using inversion with respect to a circle with
Michel’s point of the quadrilateral as its center.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
23

4. In a convex quadrilateral ABCD, the lines AB and CD meet at point E


and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let P be the intersection point
of diagonals AC and BD. Suppose that ω1 is a circle passing through D and
tangent to AC at P . Also suppose that ω2 is a circle passing through C and
tangent to BD at P . Let X be the intersection point of ω1 and AD, and Y
be the intersection point of ω2 and BC. Suppose that the circles ω1 and ω2
intersect each other in Q for the second time. Prove that the perpendicular
from P to the line EF passes through the circumcenter of triangle XQY .

P roposed by Iman M aghsoudi

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
First solution.

Lemma 1. In the convex quadrilateral ABCD, the lines AB and CD meet


at point E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let point P be the
intersection of AC and BD. Suppose that X and Y be two arbitrary points on
AD and BC, respectively. If BC ∩ P X = U and AD ∩ P Y = V , then the lines
XY , U V and EF are concurrent.
proof.
Let point Z be the intersection of XY and U V . Suppose that P F ∩ U V = L
and P F ∩ CD = K. We know that:

(Z, L, V, U ) = −1 , (E, K, D, C) = −1

If ZF intersects CD in E 0 , so we can say that (E 0 , K, D, C) = −1. Therefore


E ≡ E 0 , so the lines XY , U V and EF are concurrent.
24

Lemma 2. In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD with circumcenter O, the lines


AB and CD meet at point E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . If
point P be the intersection of AC and BD, then P O⊥EF .
proof.
Let ω be the circumcircle of quadrilateral ABCD. Suppose that point R is the
intersection of tangents to circle ω at A and C, and point S is the intersection
of tangents to circle ω at B and D.
According to Pascal’s theorem in Hexagonal AABCCD and ABBCDD, we can
say that points R and S lie on line EF .

We know that polar of the point R with respect to circle ω passes through P .
So polar of the point P with respect to circle ω passes through R. Similarly,
we can say that polar of the point P with respect to circle ω passes through S.
Therefore polar of the point P with respect to circle ω is EF . So P O⊥EF .
25

Suppose that P X intersects BC in point U , and P Y intersects AD in point V .

∠XQP = α ⇒ ∠XDP = ∠XP A = ∠U P C = α

∠Y QP = θ ⇒ ∠Y CP = ∠Y P B = ∠V P D = θ

⇒ ∠XV Y = ∠XQY = ∠XU Y = α + θ ⇒ QV XY U : cyclic

Let point O be the circumcenter of QV XY U . According to lemma 1, we can


say that XY , U V and EF are concurrent at point Z. Now according to lamme
2, we can say that P O⊥EF . So the perpendicular from P to EF passes through
the circumcircle of triangle XQY .
26

Second solution.
Suppose that point O is the circumcenter of triangle XQY . The inversion with
respect to a circle with center P trasnforms the problem into this figure. Suppose
that X 0 is the inversion of point X wrt P . We have to show that the line P O0
is the diameter of circumcircle of triangle E 0 P F 0 . Let O00 be the circumcenter
of triangle X 0 Q0 Y 0 . We know that the points P , O0 and O00 are collinear. So
we have to show that he line P O00 passes through the circumcenter of triangle
E0P F 0.

Suppose that O1 , O2 , O3 and O4 are the centers of circles in the above figure
and K be the intersection point of O1 O3 and O2 O4 . We know that point K
lies on perpendicular bisector of P E 0 and P F 0 , thus K is the circumcenter of
triangle P E 0 F 0 . So we have to show that P , K and O00 are collinear. On the
other hand, we know that the quadrilateral D0 B 0 Y 0 Q0 is isosceles trapezoid. So
the point O00 lies on perpendicular bisector of B 0 D0 . Similarly, the point O00 lies
on perpendicular bisector of A0 C 0 . Therefore, the point O00 is the intersection
of A0 C 0 and B 0 D0 .
27

Suppose that:
A0 C 0 ∩ O1 O2 = M , A0 C 0 ∩ O3 O4 = T
B 0 D0 ∩ O2 O3 = N , B 0 D0 ∩ O1 O4 = L
Let points U and V be on A0 C 0 such that KU ⊥A0 C 0 and O00 V ⊥A0 C 0 . Also let
points R and S be on B 0 D0 such that KR⊥B 0 D0 and O00 S⊥B 0 D0 .

We know that O1 O2 and O3 O4 are perpendicular to A0 C 0 . So O1 O2 k O3 O4


Similarly O2 O3 k O1 O4 , therefore the quadrilateral O1 O2 O3 O4 is a parallelo-
gram. It means that the point K lies on the midpoint of the segments O1 O3
and O2 O4 . So U M = U T . Also we have A0 M = P M and C 0 T = P T

⇒ P V = A0 V − A0 P = (P M + P T ) − 2P M = P T − P M

⇒ TV = PT − PV = PM ⇒ UP = UV
Similarly, we can show that RP = RS, so point K lies on the perpendicular
bisector of P V and P S. It means that K is the citcumcenter of triangle P SV .
Therefore the points P , K and O00 are collinear.
28

5. Do there exist six points X1 , X2 , Y1 , Y2 , Z1 , Z2 in the plane such that all of


the triangles Xi Yj Zk are similar for 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2.

P roposed by M orteza Saghaf ian

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Solution. (by Ilya Bogdanov f rom Russia)
Suppose a triangle XY Z, in such a way that XY = 1, Y Z = t2 , ZX = t3 and
∠Z = ∠X + 2∠Y .

Such a triangle exists, because for the minimum possible value of t, we have
∠Z > ∠X + 2∠Y and for t = 1 we have ∠Z < ∠X + 2∠Y . So there exists a
triangle with the above properties. Now consider the following 6 points, these
points have the properties of the problem.
29

So there exist the points X1 , X2 , Y1 , Y2 , Z1 , Z2 in the plane such that Xi Yj Zk


be the similar triangles for all of 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2