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2014-2015

This booklet is prepared by Hirad Aalipanah, Iman Maghsoudi.

With special thanks to Morteza Saghafian, Mahdi Etesami Fard,

Davood Vakili, Erfan Salavati.

Copyright
Young

c Scholars Club 2014-2015. All rights reserved.

Ministry of education, Islamic Republic of Iran.

www.ysc.ac.ir - www.igo-official.ir

The first Iranian Geometry Olympiad was held simultaneously in Tehran and Is-

fahan on September 4th, 2014 with over 300 participants. This competition had two

levels, junior and senior which each level had 5 problems. The contestants solved

problems in 4 hours and 30 minutes.

In the end, the highest ranked participants in each level awarded with gold ruler,

silver ruler or bronze ruler respectively.

This booklet have the problems of this competition plus other geometry problems

used in other Iranian mathematical competition since summer of 2014 till spring of

2015.

This year the second Iranian Geometry Olympiad will be held in Tehran on Septem-

ber 3th, 2015. We tend to provide online presence for those who are interested from

other countries. Those who wish to participate can contact Mr. Salavati for more

information at erfan.salavati@gmail.com

Problems

Problems 4

we have ∠A = 90◦ , ∠C = 30◦ . Denot by C the circle passing through A which is

tangent to BC at the midpoint.Assume that C intersects AC and the circumcircle of

ABC at N and M respectively. Prove that M N ⊥BC.

BC, AC and AB at D, E and F respectively. Denote the perpendicular foots from

F , E to BC by K, L respectively. Let the second intersection of these perpendiculars

S

with the incircle be M , N respectively. Show that S4BM D

4CN D

= DK

DL

drawn an inscribed 93-gon. Denote the first one by A1 A2 ...A93 and the second by

B1 B2 ...B93 . It is known that Ai Ai+1 k Bi Bi+1 for 1 6 i 6 93 (A93 = A1 , B93 = B1 ).

Ai Ai+1

Show that B i Bi+1

is a constant number independent of i.

∠A + 90◦ . The point D on the continuation of BC is given such that AC = AD. A

point E in the side of BC in which A doesnt lie is chosen such that

1

∠EBC = ∠A, ∠EDC = ∠A

2

Prove that ∠CED = ∠ABC.

the circumcircle of 4ABC (this arc does not contain A) such that ∠BAX = ∠CAY .

Let M denotes the midpoint of the chord AX . Show that BM + CM > AY

Problems 5

∠B = ∠D = 60◦ . Consider the line whice is drawn from M , the midpoint of AD,

parallel to CD. Assume this line intersects BC at P . A point X lies on CD such

that BX = CX. Prove that AB = BP ⇔ ∠M XB = 60◦

The circle with diameter BC intersects AB, AC at E, F respectively. Let M be the

midpoint of BC and P the intersection point of AM and EF . X is a point on the arc

EF and Y the second intersection point of XP with circle mentioned above. Show

that ∠XAY = ∠XY M .

acute-angled triangle ABC (AC > AB) at A intersects the continuation of BC at P .

We denote by O the circumcenter of ABC. X is a point OP such that ∠AXP = 90◦ .

Two points E, F respectively on AB, AC at the same side of OP are chosen such

that

∠EXP = ∠ACX, ∠F XO = ∠ABX

If K, L denote the intersection points of EF with the circumcircle of 4ABC, show

that OP is tangent to the circumcircle of 4KLX.

of triangle ABC and have the same distance to the midpoint. The pependiculars

fromP , Q tp BC intesects AC, AB at E, F respectively. LEt M be the intersection

point of P F and EQ. If H1 and H2 denote the orthocenter of 4BF P and 4CEQ

recpectively, show that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .

at D.In circumcircle of 4ABC, T is midpoint of arc BAC and BI intersect this circle

at M . If M D intersects AT at N , prove that: BM k CN .

Solutions

Solutions 11

we have ∠A = 90◦ , ∠C = 30◦ . Denot by C the circle passing through A which is

tangent to BC at the midpoint.Assume that C intersects AC and the circumcircle of

ABC at N and M respectively. Prove that M N ⊥BC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

Let K midpoint of side BC. Therefore:

AK = KC ⇒ ∠KAC = ∠N KC = 30◦

A, K, N, M lie on circle (C). Therefore:

Therefore 4AKM is equilateral.( because of ∠AM K = 60◦ ). So ∠AKM = 60◦ . We

know that ∠AKB = 60◦ , so we have ∠M KC = 60◦ . On the other hand:

Solutions 12

BC, AC and AB at D, E and F respectively. Denote the perpendicular foots from

F , E to BC by K, L respectively. Let the second intersection of these perpendiculars

S

with the incircle be M , N respectively. Show that S4BM D

4CN D

= DK

DL

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

Let I be the incenter of 4ABC. We know that

)

∠BF K = 90◦ − ∠B 1

◦ 1 ⇒ ∠DF M = ∠B

∠BF D = 90 − 2 ∠B 2

But ∠DF M = ∠M DK. Therefore

1

∠M DK = ∠B

2

MK r

Hense 4M DK and 4BID are similar (same angles) and DK

= BD

. In the same

way we have N

DL

L r

= CD . Therefore

M K · BD N L · CD area of 4BM D M K · BD DK

r= = ⇒ = =

DK DL area of 4CN D N L · CD DL

Solutions 13

drawn an inscribed 93-gon. Denote the first one by A1 A2 ...A93 and the second by

B1 B2 ...B93 . It is known that Ai Ai+1 k Bi Bi+1 for 1 6 i 6 93 (A93 = A1 , B93 = B1 ).

Ai Ai+1

Show that B i Bi+1

is a constant number independent of i.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

We draw a 93-gon similar with the second 93-gon in the circumcircle of the first

93-gon (so the sides of the second 93-gon would be multiplying by a constant number

c). Now we have two 93-gons witch are inscribed in the same circle and apply the

problem’s conditions. We name this 93-gons A1 A2 ...A93 and C1 C2 ...C93 .

_ _

We know that A1 A2 k C1 C2 . Therefore A1 C1 =A2 C2 but they lie on the opposite

_ _

side of each other. In fact, Ai Ci =Ai+1 Ci+1 and they lie on the opposite side of each

_ _ _ _

other for all 1 6 i 6 93 (A94 C94 =A1 C1 ). Therefore A1 C1 and A1 C1 lie on the opposite

_ ◦ ◦

side of each other. So A1 C1 = 0 or 180 . This means that the 93-gons are coincident

or reflections of each other across the center. So Ai Ai+1 = Ci Ci+1 for 1 6 i 6 93.

Ai Ai+1

Therefore, B i Bi+1

= c.

Solutions 14

∠A + 90◦ . The point D on the continuation of BC is given such that AC = AD. A

point E in the side of BC in which A doesnt lie is chosen such that

1

∠EBC = ∠A, ∠EDC = ∠A

2

Prove that ∠CED = ∠ABC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

Suppose M is the midpoint of CD. Hense AM is the perpendicular bisector of

CD. AM intersects DE and BE at P, Q respectively. Therefore, P C = P D. We

have

∠EBA + ∠CAB = ∠A + ∠B + ∠A = 180◦ − ∠C + ∠A = 90◦

Hense AC ⊥ BE. Thus in 4ABQ, BC, AC are altitudes. This means C is the

orthocenter of this triangle and

1 1

∠CQE = ∠CQB = ∠A = ∠A + ∠A = ∠P DC + ∠P CD = ∠CP E

2 2

Hense CP QE is cyclic. Therefore

Solutions 15

the circumcircle of 4ABC (this arc does not contain A) such that ∠BAX = ∠CAY .

Let M denotes the midpoint of the chord AX . Show that

BM + CM > AY

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

O is the circumcenter of 4ABC, so OM ⊥ AX. We draw a perpendicular line

from B to OM . This line intersects with the circumcircle at Z. Since OM ⊥ BZ,

OM is the perpendicular bisector of BZ. This means M Z = M B. By using triangle

inequality we have

BM + M C = ZM + M C > CZ

But BZ k AX, thus

_ _ _ _ _

AZ = BX = CY ⇒ ZAC = Y CA ⇒ CZ = AY

Solutions 16

∠B = ∠D = 60◦ . Consider the line whice is drawn from M , the midpoint of AD,

parallel to CD. Assume this line intersects BC at P . A point X lies on CD such

that BX = CX. Prove that:

AB = BP ⇔ ∠M XB = 60◦

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

Suppose X 0 is a point such that 4M BX 0 is equilateral.(X 0 and X lie on the same

side of M B) It’s enough to show that:

AB = BP ⇔ X 0 ≡ X

AB = BP therefore 4ABP is equilateral. We know that ∠ABP = ∠M BX 0 = 60◦ ,

Therefore ∠ABM = ∠P BX 0 . On the other hand AB = BP, BM = BX 0 therefore

4BAM and 4BP X 0 are equal.

Solutions 17

X 0 such that be parallel with CD and this line intersects AD in D0 , then quadri-

lateral M P X 0 D0 is isosceles trapezoid. Therefore P X 0 = M D0 . In the other hand

P X 0 = AM = M D ( becauese 4BAM and 4BP X 0 are equal.) According to the

statements we can say M D0 = M D. In other words, D0 ≡ D and X 0 lie on CD.

Therefore both of X and X 0 lie on intersection of DC and perpendicular bisector of

M B, so X 0 ≡ X.

Let P 0 such that 4M P 0 X be equilateral.(P 0 and X be on the same side of AB) It’s

enough to show that P 0 ≡ P .

Draw the line passing through P 0 such that be parallel with CD. Suppose that this

line intersects AD in M 0 .

DM 0 = P 0 X = AM = DM . So we can say M 0 ≡ M ⇒ P 0 ≡ P .

Solutions 18

The circle with diameter BC intersects AB, AC at E, F respectively. Let M be the

midpoint of BC and P the intersection point of AM and EF . X is a point on the arc

EF and Y the second intersection point of XP with circle mentioned above. Show

that ∠XAY = ∠XY M .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

Suppose point K is intersection AM and circumcircle of 4AEF . M F tangent to

circumcircle of 4AEF at F .

( because of ∠M F C = ∠M CF = ∠AEF ). Therefore M F 2 = M K.M A . In the

other hand, M Y = M F so M Y 2 = M K.M A. It means

∠M Y K = ∠Y AM (1)

Solutions 19

acute-angled triangle ABC (AC > AB) at A intersects the continuation of BC at P .

We denote by O the circumcenter of ABC. X is a point OP such that ∠AXP = 90◦ .

Two points E, F respectively on AB, AC at the same side of OP are chosen such

that

∠EXP = ∠ACX, ∠F XO = ∠ABX

If K, L denote the intersection points of EF with the circumcircle of 4ABC, show

that OP is tangent to the circumcircle of 4KLX.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

same circle. We have to prove ∠AM X = ∠ACX. In other hand, ∠ACX = ∠N XP

so we have to prove ∠ACX = ∠N M X.

∠AM X = ∠ACX. similarly we can say AN BX is cyclic. Now it’s enough to show

that ∠AM X = ∠N M X. In other words, we have to show that A, N , M lie on same

line. we know that AN BX is cyclic therefore:

∠N AM = ∠N AE + ∠A + ∠F AM = ∠EXB + ∠A + ∠CXF

Solutions 20

of triangle ABC and have the same distance to the midpoint. The pependiculars

fromP , Q tp BC intesects AC, AB at E, F respectively. LEt M be the intersection

point of P F and EQ. If H1 and H2 denote the orthocenter of 4BF P and 4CEQ

recpectively, show that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

solution.

First we show that if we move P and Q, the line AM doesn’t move. To show that

sin ∠A1

we calculate sin ∠A2

. By the law of sines in 4AF M and 4AEM we have

= · (3)

sin ∠A2 sin ∠E1 EM

BP

)

sin ∠F1 = PF

· sin ∠B sin ∠F1 sin ∠B EQ

CQ ⇒ = · (4)

sin ∠E1 = EQ

· sin ∠C sin ∠E1 sin ∠C F P

= · · (5)

sin ∠A2 sin ∠C F P EM

FM FQ EQ F Q + EP

= , =

FP F Q + EP EM EP

with putting this into (5) we have

Solutions 21

= · (6)

sin ∠A2 sin ∠C EP

FQ

tan ∠B = BQ

FQ tan ∠B

tan ∠C = EP ⇒ =

CP EP tan ∠C

BQ = CP

sin ∠A1 sin ∠B tan ∠B

= ·

sin ∠A2 sin ∠C tan ∠C

wich is constant.

now we show that H1 H2 s are parallel. consider α the angle between H1 H2 and

BC. Hense we have

H2 P − H1 Q

tan α = (7)

QP

H1 and H2 are the orthometers of 4BF P and 4CQE respectively. Thus we have

BQ · QP

QF · H1 Q = BQ · QP ⇒ H1 Q =

FQ

CP · P Q

EP · H2 P = CP · P Q ⇒ H2 P =

EP

but CP = BQ. Thus

P Q · BQ · (F Q − EP )

H2 P − H1 Q =

EP · F Q

by putting this in (7) :

BQ · (F Q − EP ) BQ BQ CP BQ

tan α = = − = −

EP · F Q EP FQ EP FQ

Solutions 22

Soppuse θ is the angle between AM and BC. we have to show

tan α · tan θ = 1

BX sin ∠A1 sin ∠C BX tan ∠B

= · ⇒ =

CX sin ∠A2 sin ∠B CX tan ∠C

let D be the foot of the altitude drawn from A. We have

AD

BX tan ∠B BD CD

= = AD

= ⇒ BD = CX

CX tan ∠C CD

BD

AD AD AD 1 1

tan θ = = = = CD BD

=

DX CD − CX CD − BD AD

− AD

cot ∠B − cot ∠C

this equality and (8) implies that AM ⊥ H1 H2 .

Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Elementary)

1. We have four wooden triangles with sides 3, 4, 5 centimeters. How many convex

polygons can we make by all of these triangles?(Just draw the polygons without any

proof)

A convex polygon is a polygon which all of it’s angles are less than 180◦ and there

isn’t any hole in it. For example:

2. Let ABC be a triangle with ∠A = 60◦ . The points M, N, K lie on BC, AC, AB

respectively such that BK = KM = M N = N C. If AN = 2AK, find the values of

∠B and ∠C.

∠BAD = 30◦ .

1

4. In rectangle ABCD, the points M, N, P, Q lie on AB, BC, CD, DA respectively

such that the area of triangles AQM, BM N, CN P, DP Q are equal. Prove that the

quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

5. Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 other circles?

2

Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Medium)

1. In the figure below, the points P, A, B lie on a circle. The point Q lies inside the

circle such that ∠P AQ = 90◦ and P Q = BQ. Prove that the value of ∠AQB−∠P QA

is equal to the arc AB.

and E are midpoints of AB and AC respectively. Suppose that F be the reflection of

H with respect to ED. Prove that the line BF passes through circumcenter of ABC.

3. In triangle ABC, the points M, N, K are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respec-

tively. Let ωB and ωC be two semicircles with diameter AC and AB respectively,

outside the triangle. Suppose that M K and M N intersect ωC and ωB at X and Y

respectively. Let the tangents at X and Y to ωC and ωB respectively, intersect at Z.

prove that AZ⊥BC.

3

4. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let

P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-

tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

5. a) Do there exist 5 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 circles?

b) Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 circles?

4

Problems of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Advanced)

The point X lies on ω2 . Let point Y be a point on ω1 such that ∠XBY = 90◦ . Let

X 0 be the second point of intersection of the line O1 X and ω2 and K be the second

point of intersection of X 0 Y and ω2 . Prove that X is the midpoint of arc AK.

P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P

intersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

3. Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let l1 and l2 be two lines passing

through H and perpendicular to each other. l1 intersects BC and extension of AB

at D and Z respectively, and l2 intersects BC and extension of AC at E and X re-

spectively. Let Y be a point such that Y D k AC and Y E k AB. Prove that X, Y, Z

are collinear.

4. In triangle ABC, we draw the circle with center A and radius AB. This circle

intersects AC at two points. Also we draw the circle with center A and radius AC and

this circle intersects AB at two points. Denote these four points by A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 .

Find the points B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 and C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 similarly. Suppose that these 12

points lie on two circles. Prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles.

point such that C 0 A1 ⊥ A1 C2 and C 0 B2 ⊥ B2 C1 . Points A0 and B 0 are defined simi-

larly. Prove that lines AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 concur.

5

Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Elementary)

1. We have four wooden triangles with sides 3, 4, 5 centimeters. How many convex

polygons can we make by all of these triangles?(Just draw the polygons without any

proof)

A convex polygon is a polygon which all of it’s angles are less than 180◦ and there

isn’t any hole in it. For example:

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

6

7

2. Let ABC be a triangle with ∠A = 60◦ . The points M, N, K lie on BC, AC, AB

respectively such that BK = KM = M N = N C. If AN = 2AK, find the values of

∠B and ∠C.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose the point P be the midpoint of AN . Therefore AK = AP = AN and

so we can say 4AP K is the equilateral triangle. So ∠AN K = ∠KP2

A

= 30◦ Let

∠ACB = ∠N M C = α. Therfore ∠ABC = ∠KM B = 120◦ − α. So ∠KM N = 60◦ .

Therefore 4KM N is the equilateral triangle. Now we know that ∠M N A = 90◦ .

Therefore α = 45◦ . So we have ∠C = 45◦ and ∠B = 75◦ .

8

3. In the figure below, we know that AB = CD and BC = 2AD. Prove that

∠BAD = 30◦ .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Let two points E and F on BC and AB respectively such that DF ⊥BC and

DE⊥AB. We can say DF = DC 2

= AB

2

.(because of ∠BCD = 30◦ and ∠DF C = 90◦ )

Also we know that DF = BE, therfore DE is the perpendicular bisector of AB. So

BD = AD.

2

= BD, so we

◦ ◦

can say D ≡ H and ∠BDC = 90 . Therefore ∠ABD = ∠BAD = 30 .

9

Solution 2.

Suppose that P is the point such that triangle DCP is Equilateral. We know that

P C⊥BC and P C = CD = AB, therfore quadrilateral ABCP is Rectangular.

Therfore AD = BD.

2

= BD, so we

◦ ◦

can say D ≡ H and ∠BDC = 90 . Therefore ∠ABD = ∠BAD = 30 .

10

4. In rectangle ABCD, the points M, N, P, Q lie on AB, BC, CD, DA respectively

such that the area of triangles AQM, BM N, CN P, DP Q are equal. Prove that the

quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Let AB = CD = a, AD = BC = b and AM = x, AQ = z, P C = y, N C = t. If

x 6= y, we can assume that x > y. We know that:

According to inequality 1, 2:

it’s a contradiction. Therfore x = y, so z = t Now we can say two triangles AM Q

and CP N are congruent. Therefore M Q = N P and similarly M N = P Q. So the

quadrilateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Comment.

If quadrilateral ABCD be the parallelogram, similarly we can show that quadri-

lateral M N P Q is parallelogram.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

11

5. Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 other circles?

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

In the picture below, we have 6 points in the plane such that for every point there

exists exactly 3 other points on a circle with radius 1 centimeter.

12

Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Medium)

1. In the figure below, the points P, A, B lie on a circle. The point Q lies inside the

circle such that ∠P AQ = 90◦ and P Q = BQ. Prove that the value of ∠AQB−∠P QA

is equal to the arc AB.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Let point M be the midpoint of P B. So we can say ∠P M Q = 90◦ and we know

that ∠P AQ = 90◦ , therefore quadrilateral P AM Q is cyclic. Therefore:

∠AP M = ∠AQM

So we can say that the subtract ∠AQB from ∠P QA is equal to arc AB.

13

Solution 2.

Let the point K be the reflection of P to AQ. We have to show:

and P Q = KQ = BQ, therefore the point Q is the circumcenter of triangle P KB.

We know that:

Therefore the subtract ∠AQB from ∠P QA is equal to arc AB.

14

2. In acute-angled triangle ABC, BH is the altitude of the vertex B. The points D

and E are midpoints of AB and AC respectively. Suppose that F be the reflection of

H with respect to ED. Prove that the line BF passes through circumcenter of ABC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

The circumcenter of 4ABC denote by O. We know that ∠OBA = 90◦ − ∠C,

therfore we have to show that ∠F BA = 90◦ − ∠C. We know that AD = BD = DH,

also DH = DF .

⇒ ∠F BA = 90◦ − ∠C

15

Solution 2.

The circumcenter of 4ABC denote by O. We know that quadrilateral ADOE is

cyclic. Also we know that AD = HD = DB, therefore:

16

3. In triangle ABC, the points M, N, K are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respec-

tively. Let ωB and ωC be two semicircles with diameter AC and AB respectively,

outside the triangle. Suppose that M K and M N intersect ωC and ωB at X and Y

respectively. Let the tangents at X and Y to ωC and ωB respectively, intersect at Z.

prove that AZ⊥BC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Let point H on BC such that AH⊥BC. Therefore quadrilaterals AXBH and

AY CH are cyclic. We know that KM and M N are parallel to AC and AB respec-

tively. So we can say ∠AKX = ∠AN Y = ∠A, therefore ∠ABX = ∠ACY = ∠A 2

and

∠XAB = ∠Y AC = 90◦ − ∠A 2

. So X, A, Y are collinear.

∠A ∠A

∠AHX = ∠ABX = , ∠AHY = ∠ACY = ⇒ ∠XHY = ∠XM Y = ∠A

2 2

◦

90 , therefore quadrilateral M XZY is cyclic. So we can say ZXHM Y is cyclic. ther-

fore quadrilateral HXZY is cyclic.

17

∠A

In the other hand: ∠ZY X = ∠ACY = 2

∠A ∠A

∠ZHX = ∠ZY X = , ∠AHX = ⇒ ∠ZHX = ∠AHX

2 2

So the points Z, A, H are collinear, therefore AZ⊥BC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 2.

Let point H on BC such that AH⊥BC. We know that KM and M N are parallel

to AC and AB respectively. So we can say ∠AKX = ∠AN Y = ∠A, therefore

∠ABX = ∠ACY = ∠A 2

and ∠XAB = ∠Y AC = 90◦ − ∠A

2

. So X, A, Y are collinear.

∠A

⇒ ∠ZXY = ∠ZY X = ⇒ ZX = ZY

2

So the point Z lie on the radical axis of two these semicirculars. Also we know that

the line AH is the radical axis of two these semicirculars. Therefore the points Z, A, H

are collinear, therefore AZ⊥BC.

18

4. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let

P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-

tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Suppose that M and N be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. We know

that quadrilateral BM N C is cyclic. Also ∠BP C = 120◦ > 90◦ , so we can say

the point P is in the circumcircle of quadrilateral BM N C. Therefore: ∠M P N >

∠M BN = 30◦

In the other hand, quadrilaterals KM OP and N OP L are cyclic. Therefore:

19

Solution 2.

Suppose that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therfore KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 . Assume that R is the

radius of a circumcircle 4ABC. Let BK = x and LC = y and AB = AC = BC = a.

According to law of cosines in triangle AKL, we have:

KB.KA = OK 2 − R2 ⇒ OK 2 = R2 + x(a + x)

√

We know that KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 and a = R 3, therfore:

⇒ R2 ≤ xy (1)

KL is tangent to circumcircle of 4ABC at P . So we have:

According to inequality 2, 3 we can say: xy < KP.LP (4)

20

We know that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therefore KOL is acute-triangle. Suppose that H is

orthocenter of 4KOL. So the point H lies on OP and we can say HP ≤ OP .

T HP and OP L are similar. So we have:

KP OP

= ⇒ KP.LP = HP.OP ≤ OP 2 = R2

HP LP

But according to inequality 5, we have R2 < KP.LP and it’s a contradiction.

Therfore ∠KOL > 90◦ .

21

5. a) Do there exist 5 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 circles?

b) Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that every circle passes through centers

of exactly 3 circles?

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

a)Solution.

There aren’t such 5 circles. Suppose that these circles exists, therefore their centers

are 5 points that each point has same distance from 3 other points and has diffrent

distance from the remaining point. We draw an arrow from each point to it’s diffrent

distance point.

- lemma 1. We don’t have two points such Oi , Oj that each one is the diffrent

distance point of the other one.

proof. If we have such thing then Oi and Oj both have same distance to the

remaining points, therefore both of them are circumcenter of the remaining points,

which is wrong.

- lemma 2. We don’t have 4 points such Oi , Oj , Ok , Ol that Oi , Oj put their arrow

in Ok and OK puts it’s arrow in Ol .

proof. If we name the remaining point Om then the distances of Oi from Oj , Ol ,

Om are equal and the distances of Oj from Oi , Ol , Om are equal. Therefore each of

Ol , Om is the diffrent distance point of another which is wrong (according to lemma

1).

so each point sends an arrow and recives an arrow. Because of lemma 1 we don’t

have 3 or 4 points cycles. Therefore we only have one 5 points cycle. So each pair of

these 5 points should have equal distance. which is impossible.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

b)Solution.

in the picture below, we have 6 points in the plane such that for every point there

exists exactly 3 other points on a circle with radius 1 centimeter.

22

Solutions of 2nd Iranian Geometry Olympiad 2015 (Advanced)

The point X lies on ω2 . Let point Y be a point on ω1 such that ∠XBY = 90◦ . Let

X 0 be the second point of intersection of the line O1 X and ω2 and K be the second

point of intersection of X 0 Y and ω2 . Prove that X is the midpoint of arc AK.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that the point Z be the intersection of BX and circle ω1 . We know that

∠Y BZ = 90◦ , therefore the points Y, O1 , Z are collinear.

Therefore the point X lies on the midpoint of arc AK.

23

2. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with circumcircle ω and circumcenter O. Let

P be the point on the arc BC( the arc which A doesn’t lie ). Tangent to ω at P in-

tersects extensions of AB and AC at K and L respectively. Show that ∠KOL > 90◦ .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Suppose that M and N be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. We know

that quadrilateral BM N C is cyclic. Also ∠BP C = 120◦ > 90◦ , so we can say

the point P is in the circumcircle of quadrilateral BM N C. Therefore: ∠M P N >

∠M BN = 30◦

In the other hand, quadrilaterals KM OP and N OP L are cyclic. Therefore:

24

Solution 2.

Suppose that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therfore KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 . Assume that R is the

radius of a circumcircle 4ABC. Let BK = x and LC = y and AB = AC = BC = a.

According to law of cosines in triangle AKL, we have:

KB.KA = OK 2 − R2 ⇒ OK 2 = R2 + x(a + x)

√

We know that KL2 ≤ OK 2 + OL2 and a = R 3, therfore:

⇒ R2 ≤ xy (1)

KL is tangent to circumcircle of 4ABC at P . So we have:

According to inequality 2, 3 we can say: xy < KP.LP (4)

25

We know that ∠KOL ≤ 90◦ , therefore KOL is acute-triangle. Suppose that H is

orthocenter of 4KOL. So the point H lies on OP and we can say HP ≤ OP .

T HP and OP L are similar. So we have:

KP OP

= ⇒ KP.LP = HP.OP ≤ OP 2 = R2

HP LP

But according to inequality 5, we have R2 < KP.LP and it’s a contradiction.

Therfore ∠KOL > 90◦ .

26

3. Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. Let l1 and l2 be two lines passing

through H and perpendicular to each other. l1 intersects BC and extension of AB

at D and Z respectively, and l2 intersects BC and extension of AC at E and X re-

spectively. Let Y be a point such that Y D k AC and Y E k AB. Prove that X, Y, Z

are collinear.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that HZ intersects AC at P and HX intersects AB at Q. According to

Menelaus’s theorem in two triangles AQX and AP Z we can say:

CX AB QE BZ AC P D

. . =1 (1) and . . =1 (2)

AC BQ EX AB P C DZ

In the other hand, H is the orthocenter of 4ABC. So BH⊥AC and we know that

∠DHE = 90◦ , therefore ∠HXA = ∠BHZ = α. Similarly we can say ∠HZA =

∠CHX = θ.

27

According to law of sines in 4HP C, 4HCX and 4HP X:

= , = , =

PC HP CX HX HX sin(90 − α)

PC tan(α)

⇒ =

CX tan(θ)

Similarly, according to law of sines in 4HBQ, 4HBZ and 4HQZ, we can show:

BZ tan(α) BZ PC PC CX

⇒ = ⇒ = ⇒ = (3)

BQ tan(θ) BQ CX BZ BQ

XE PD

= (4)

EQ ZD

Suppose that the line which passes through E and parallel to AB, intersects ZX at

Y1 and the line which passes through D and parallel to AC, intersects ZX at Y2 .

According to Thales’s theorem we can say:

Y1 X XE Y2 X PD

= , =

ZY1 EQ ZY2 ZD

28

4. In triangle ABC, we draw the circle with center A and radius AB. This circle

intersects AC at two points. Also we draw the circle with center A and radius AC and

this circle intersects AB at two points. Denote these four points by A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 .

Find the points B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 and C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 similarly. Suppose that these 12

points lie on two circles. Prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 1.

Suppose that triangle ABC isn’t isosceles and a > b > c. In this case, there

are four points (from these 12 points) on each side of 4ABC. Suppose that these

12 points lie on two circles ω1 and ω2 . Therefore each one of the circles ω1 and ω2

intersects each side of 4ABC exactly at two points. Suppose that P (A, ω1 ), P (A, ω2 )

are power of the point A with respect to circles ω1 , ω2 respectively. Now we know

that:

P (A, ω1 ).P (A, ω2 ) = b.b.(a − c).(a + c) = c.c.(a − b)(a + b)

⇒ b2 (a2 − c2 ) = c2 (a2 − b2 ) ⇒ a2 (b2 − c2 ) = 0 ⇒ b=c

But we know that b > c and it’s a contradiction. Therefore the triangle ABC is

isosceles.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution 2.

Suppose that triangle ABC isn’t isosceles. In this case, there are four points

(from these 12 points) on each side of 4ABC. Suppose that these 12 points lie on

two circles ω1 and ω2 . Therefore each one of the circles ω1 and ω2 intersects each side

of 4ABC exactly at two points (and each one of the circles ω1 and ω2 doesn’t pass

through A, B, C). We know that the intersections of ω1 and the sides of 4ABC is

even number. Also the intersections of ω2 and the sides of 4ABC is even number.

But Among the these 12 points, just 3 points lie on the sides of 4ABC and this is

odd number. So it’s a contradiction. Therefore the triangle ABC is isosceles.

29

5. Rectangles ABA1 B2 , BCB1 C2 , CAC1 A2 lie otside triangle ABC. Let C 0 be a

point such that C 0 A1 ⊥ A1 C2 and C 0 B2 ⊥ B2 C1 . Points A0 and B 0 are defined simi-

larly. Prove that lines AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 concur.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that lA is the line which passes through A and perpendicular to B2 C1 .

Let lB and lC similarly. Suppose that CB1 = BC2 = x and BA1 = AB2 = y and

AC1 = CA2 = z. According to angles equality, we can say:

= , = , =

sin(∠A2 ) z sin(∠B2 ) y sin(∠C2 ) x

that lA , lB , lC pass through the point P . We know that 4P BC and 4A0 C2 B1 are

equal. ( because of BP k A0 C2 , CP k A0 B1 , BC k B1 C2 and BC = B1 C2 ). So we

have:

30

Suppose that P A0 , P B 0 , P C 0 intersects BC, AC, AB at D, E, F respectively and:

P D = m , P E = n , P F = t. According to before figure, we have:

sin(∠A1 ) n y sin(∠B1 ) t x sin(∠C1 ) m z

= = , = = , = =

sin(∠A2 ) t z sin(∠B2 ) m y sin(∠C2 ) n x

kyz

If n = ky, then: t = kz , m = x

.

Now draw the line from A0 such that be parallel to BC. The intersection of this

line and extension AB and AC denote by B3 and C3 respectively. Let the point A00

be the intersection of AA0 and BC. According to Thales’s theorem, we have:

BA00 B3 A0

=

CA00 C3 A0

31

Let ∠B3 P A0 = α and ∠C3 P A0 = θ. We know that the quadrilaterals P F B3 A0

and P EC3 A0 are cyclic. Therefore ∠B3 F A0 = α and ∠C3 EA0 = θ.

B3 A0 tan(α)

0

=

C3 A tan(θ)

= = = cos(∠B) − tan(α).sin(∠B)

x cos(α) cos(α)

t

cos(∠B) − x

⇒ tan(α) =

sin(∠B)

n

cos(∠C) − x B3 A0 BA00 x.cos(∠B) − t sin(∠C)

tan(θ) = ⇒ 0

= 00

= .

sin(∠C) C3 A CA x.cos(∠C) − n sin(∠B)

32

According to Ceva’s theorem in 4ABC, we have to that:

. . . . . =1

x.cos(∠C) − n sin(∠B) z.cos(∠A) − t sin(∠C) y.cos(∠B) − m sin(∠A)

⇐⇒ . . =1

x.cos(∠C) − n z.cos(∠A) − t y.cos(∠B) − m

kyz

n = ky , t = kz , m=

x

⇐⇒ . . =1

x.cos(∠C) − ky x.cos(∠A) − kx x.cos(∠B) − kz

33

1

1. Ali wants to move from point A to point B. He cannot walk inside the

black areas but he is free to move in any direction inside the white areas (not

only the grid lines but the whole plane). Help Ali to find the shortest path

between A and B. Only draw the path and write its length.

point on AC and Y be a point on the circle ω, such that CX = CY = AB.

(The points A and Y lie on different sides of the line BC). The line XY inter-

sects ω for the second time in point P . Show that P B = P C.

a parallelogram on each two consecutive sides. Show that among these 4 new

points, there is only one point inside the quadrilateral ABCD.

2

of BC intersects the line AC in K and the perpendicular bisector of BK inter-

sects the line AB in L. If the line CL be the internal bisector of angle C, find

all possible values for angles B and C.

∠ADC = 135◦ and ∠ADB−∠ABD = 2∠DAB = 4∠CBD. If BC = 2CD

prove that AB = BC + AD.

3

1. In trapezoid ABCD with AB k CD, ω1 and ω2 are two circles with di-

ameters AD and BC, respectively. Let X and Y be two arbitrary points on ω1

and ω2 , respectively. Show that the length of segment XY is not more than

half of the perimeter of ABCD.

C1 at A intersects C2 in P and the line P B intersects C1 for the second time

in Q (suppose that Q is outside C2 ). The tangent to C2 from Q intersects C1

and C2 in C and D, respectively (The points A and D lie on different sides of

the line P Q). Show that AD is bisector of the angle CAP .

3. Find all positive integers N such that there exists a triangle which can

be dissected into N similar quadrilaterals.

gent to ω at point A intersects the line BC in point P . Suppose that M is the

midpoint of (the smaller) arc AB, and P M intersects ω for the second time in

Q. Tangent to ω at point Q intersects AC in K. Prove that ∠P KC = 90◦ .

ω at A intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D.

Suppose that the internal bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 at E and F ,

respectively, and the external bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 in X and

Y , respectively. Prove that the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the

circumcircle of triangle BEF .

4

intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that

the segment CD intersects ω and ω 0 in E and F , respectively (assume that E

is between F and C). The perpendicular to AC from E intersects ω 0 in point

P and perpendicular to AD from F intersects ω in point Q (The points A, P

and Q lie on the same side of the line CD). Prove that the points A, P and Q

are collinear.

midpoint of AC. Suppose that X is a point such that ∠AXB = ∠DXM = 90◦

(assume that X and C lie on opposite sides of the line BM ). Show that

∠XM B = 2∠M BC.

lateral ABCD. Suppose that I1 and I2 are the incenters of triangles P AB and

P DC, respectively. Let O be the circumcenter of P AB, and H the orthocenter

of P DC. Show that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent

together if and only if the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent

together.

E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let P be the intersection point

of diagonals AC and BD. Suppose that ω1 is a circle passing through D and

tangent to AC at P . Also suppose that ω2 is a circle passing through C and

tangent to BD at P . Let X be the intersection point of ω1 and AD, and Y

be the intersection point of ω2 and BC. Suppose that the circles ω1 and ω2

intersect each other in Q for the second time. Prove that the perpendicular

from P to the line EF passes through the circumcenter of triangle XQY .

of the triangles Xi Yj Zk are similar for 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2?

5

1. Ali wants to move from point A to point B. He cannot walk inside the

black areas but he is free to move in any direction inside the white areas (not

only the grid lines but the whole plane). Help Ali to find the shortest path

between A and B. Only draw the path and write its length.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

p p p √

32 + 3 2 + 32 + 4 2 + 1 + 22 + 2 2 + 1 = 7 + 5 2

6

2.Let ω be the circumcircle of triangle ABC with AC > AB. Let X be a point

on AC and Y be a point on the circle ω, such that CX = CY = AB. (The

points A and Y lie on different sides of the line BC). The line XY intersects ω

for the second time in point P . Show that P B = P C.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

We know that CX = CY therefore:

_ _ _

∠Y XC = ∠XY C ⇒AP + CY =P C

_ _ _ _ _

Also we have AB = CY therefore AP + CY =AP + AB=P B, so P B = P C.

7

a parallelogram on each two consecutive sides. Show that among these 4 new

points, there is only one point inside the quadrilateral ABCD.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

It’s clear that the ray from B parallel to AD passes through the quadrilateral

if and only if ∠DAB + ∠ABC > 180◦ .

We have to find a parallelogram such that both of it’s rays pass thorough

ABCD. Among A, B and C, D there is exactly one set with sum of angles

greater than 180◦ . Also among A, D and B, D there is exactly one set with sum

of angles greater than 180◦ . These two good sets have a vertex in common, say

A. So both of the rays from B parallel to AD, and from D parallel to AB, are

inside the quadlirateral.

8

BC intersects the line AC in K and the perpendicular bisector of BK intersects

the line AB in L. If the line CL be the internal bisector of angle C, find all

possible values for angles B and C.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

We have three cases:

Case i. AC > AB. We know that:

∠BKA α

BK = CK ⇒ ∠KBC = ∠KCB = = 45◦ −

2 2

Let T be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the

internal bisector of angle C, so LT = LA also we have LB = LK therefore two

triangles BT L and KAL are congruent.

α

⇒ ∠LBT = ∠LKA ⇒ 45◦ + = 90◦ − 2α ⇒ α = 18◦

2

Therefore ∠B = 45◦ + α

2 = 54◦ and ∠C = 36◦

9

Let T be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the

internal bisector of angle C, so LT = LA also we have LB = LK therefore two

triangles BT L and KAL are equal.

Case iii. AC = AB. In this case, K ≡ A and L is the midpoint of AB. Let T

be a point on BC such that LT ⊥BC. We know that the line CL is the internal

bisector of angle C, so LT = LA = LB which is impossible.

10

∠ADC = 135◦ and ∠ADB−∠ABD = 2∠DAB = 4∠CBD. If BC = 2CD

prove that AB = BC + AD.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that ∠CBD = α, so ∠DAB = 2α, therefore:

∠ADB − ∠ABD = 4α , ∠ADB + ∠ABD = 180◦ − 2α

⇒ ∠ADB = 90◦ + α , ∠ABD = 90◦ − 3α ⇒ ∠DAB + ∠CBA = 90◦

Let P be intersection point of AD and BC. So we have ∠AP

√

B = 90◦ . On the

other hand we know that ∠P DC = 45◦ , therefore P D = 22 CD = BC

2

We know that two triangles DP B and QP B are congruent. So ∠CBD =

∠CBQ = α, therefore ∠ABQ = 90◦ − α. On the other hand ∠DAB = 2α, so

the triangle ABQ is isosceles.

⇒ AB = AQ ⇒ AB = DQ + AD = BC + AD

.

11

1. In trapezoid ABCD with AB k CD, ω1 and ω2 are two circles with di-

ameters AD and BC, respectively. Let X and Y be two arbitrary points on ω1

and ω2 , respectively. Show that the length of segment XY is not more than

half of the perimeter of ABCD.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

First solution.

Let O1 and O2 be the centers of circles ω1 and ω2 , respectively. It’s clear that

O1 and O2 are the midpoints of AD and BC, respectively.

AD BC AB + CD

XO1 = , Y O2 = , O 1 O2 =

2 2 2

AB + BC + CD + DA

⇒ XY ≤ XO1 + O1 O2 + Y O2 =

2

12

Second solution.

The farthest points of two circles lie on their center line.

AD AB + CD BC

XO1 = , O1 O2 = , Y O2 =

2 2 2

13

at A intersects C2 in P and the line P B intersects C1 for the second time in Q

(suppose that Q is outside C2 ). The tangent to C2 from Q intersects C1 and

C2 in C and D, respectively (The points A and D lie on different sides of the

line P Q). Show that AD is bisector of the angle CAP .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

We know that:

∠CAB = ∠CQB , ∠DAB = ∠BDQ

⇒ ∠CAD = ∠CAB + ∠DAB = ∠CQB + ∠BDQ = ∠P BD = ∠P AD

Therefore AD is the bisector of ∠CAP .

14

3. Find all positive integers N such that there exists a triangle which can be

dissected into N similar quadrilaterals.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

For N = 1 it’s clear that this is impossible. Also for N = 2 this dissection is

impossible too, because one of the two quadrilaterals is convex and the other is

concave. For N ≥ 3 we can do this kind of dissection in equilateral triangle.

15

to ω at point A intersects the line BC in point P . Suppose that M is the

midpoint of (the smaller) arc AB, and P M intersects ω for the second time in

Q. Tangent to ω at point Q intersects AC in K. Prove that ∠P KC = 90◦ .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that AB < AC. It’s enough to show that P K k AB.

AQ PQ MB PB

4P M A ∼ 4P AQ ⇒ = , 4P M B ∼ 4P CQ ⇒ =

MA PA QC PQ

AC PA

4P BA ∼ 4P AC ⇒ =

BA PB

We know that M A = M B, so according to above three equations we can say

that:

AQ BA

= (1)

QC AC

KA KQ AQ KA AQ 2

4KAQ ∼ 4KQC ⇒ = = ⇒ =( ) (2)

KQ KC QC KC QC

PB PA BA PB BA 2

4P BA ∼ 4P AC ⇒ = = ⇒ =( ) (3)

PA PC AC PC AC

KA PB

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ = ⇒ P K k AB

KC PC

16

17

intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that

the internal bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 at E and F , respectively, and

the external bisector of ∠CAD intersects ω and ω 0 in X and Y , respectively.

Prove that the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the circumcircle of

triangle BEF .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that P is the intersection point of XE and Y F . We know that:

∠EXA = ∠EAC = ∠EAD = ∠F Y A = α ⇒ P X = P Y

∠ABE = ∠EXA = α , ∠ABF = 180◦ − ∠F Y A = 180◦ − α

⇒ ∠EBF = ∠XP Y = 180◦ − 2α ⇒ P EBF : cyclic

EF ⊥XY ⇒ ∠P EF = ∠AEX = ∠AF Y ⇒ PE = PF

We proved that P E = P F and the quadrilateral P EBF is cyclic. Therefore, P

is the midpoint of arc EF in the circumcircle of triangle BEF . Also we know

that the perpendicular bisector of XY is parallel to EF and passes through P .

So the perpendicular bisector of XY is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle

BEF at P .

18

intersects ω 0 in C and tangent to circle ω 0 at A intersects ω in D. Suppose that

CD intersects ω and ω 0 in E and F , respectively (assume that E is between F

and C). The perpendicular to AC from E intersects ω 0 in point P and perpen-

dicular to AD from F intersects ω in point Q (The points A, P and Q lie on

the same side of the line CD). Prove that the points A, P and Q are collinear.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

We know that:

∠AF C = ∠AED = 180◦ − ∠CAD , ∠AEF = 180◦ − ∠AQD

⇒ ∠AF D = ∠AQD

So the point Q is the reflection of the point F in the line AD. Similarly we can

say the point P is the reflection of the point E in the line AC. Therefore:

∠DAQ = ∠DAF = ∠ACD , ∠CAP = ∠CAE = ∠CDA

⇒ ∠DAQ + ∠CAD + ∠CAP = ∠ACD + ∠CAD + ∠CDA = 180◦

So the points A, P and Q are collinear.

19

midpoint of AC. Suppose that X is a point such that ∠AXB = ∠DXM =

90◦ (assume that X and C lie on opposite sides of the line BM ). Show that

∠XM B = 2∠M BC.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

First solution.

Let N be the midpoint of side AB. So M N k BC and ∠M BC = ∠N M B.

Therefore it’s enough to show that the line M N is the bisector of ∠XM B.

⇒ BN XM ; cyclic , AN = N X = BN ⇒ ∠BM N = ∠XM N

20

Second solution.

Let P be the intersection point of XM and BC. Suppose that Q is the point

such that the quadrilateral ADBQ be a rectangle. We know that:

AM = M C and AQ k BP ⇒ QM = M P

QM = BM = M P ⇒ ∠XM B = 2∠M BC

21

BD. Suppose that I1 and I2 are the incenters of triangles P AB and P DC

respectively. Let O be the circumcenter of P AB, and H the orthocenter of

P DC. Show that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent

together if and only if the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent

together.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution.

Suppose that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC is tangent together

at point K. Let Q be the second intersection point of circumcircles of triangles

AKD and BKC. we know that:

AQKD : cyclic ⇒ ∠AQK = 180◦ − ∠P DK

BQKC : cyclic ⇒ ∠BQK = 180◦ − ∠P CK

⇒ ∠AQB = ∠P DK+∠P CK = 180◦ −2∠P = 180◦ −∠AOB ⇒ AOBQ : cyclic

Also we have ∠AKD = ∠AQD , ∠BKC = ∠BQC and ∠AQB = ∠DKC −∠P .

So ∠CQD = ∠AKB + ∠P = 180◦ − ∠AI1 B + ∠P = 90◦ + ∠P

2 = ∠CI2 D.

22

triangles AOB and DI2 C is tangent together at the point Q. It’s enough to

show that:

∠ABQ + ∠DCQ = ∠AQD

We know that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent to-

gether at the point K, so we have:

We know that ∠KBQ = ∠KCQ and ∠AKD = ∠AQD, So:

Therefore the circumcircles of triangles AOB and DI2 C are tangent together

at point Q.

On the other side of the problem, Suppose that the circumcircles of triangles

CI2 D and AOB are tangent together at point Q. Let the point K be the second

intersection of circumcircles of triangles AQD and BQC. Similarly we can show

that the circumcircles of triangles AI1 B and DHC are tangent together at the

point K.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Comment.

Also there is another solution using inversion with respect to a circle with

Michel’s point of the quadrilateral as its center.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

23

and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let P be the intersection point

of diagonals AC and BD. Suppose that ω1 is a circle passing through D and

tangent to AC at P . Also suppose that ω2 is a circle passing through C and

tangent to BD at P . Let X be the intersection point of ω1 and AD, and Y

be the intersection point of ω2 and BC. Suppose that the circles ω1 and ω2

intersect each other in Q for the second time. Prove that the perpendicular

from P to the line EF passes through the circumcenter of triangle XQY .

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

First solution.

at point E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . Let point P be the

intersection of AC and BD. Suppose that X and Y be two arbitrary points on

AD and BC, respectively. If BC ∩ P X = U and AD ∩ P Y = V , then the lines

XY , U V and EF are concurrent.

proof.

Let point Z be the intersection of XY and U V . Suppose that P F ∩ U V = L

and P F ∩ CD = K. We know that:

(Z, L, V, U ) = −1 , (E, K, D, C) = −1

E ≡ E 0 , so the lines XY , U V and EF are concurrent.

24

AB and CD meet at point E and the lines AD and BC meet at point F . If

point P be the intersection of AC and BD, then P O⊥EF .

proof.

Let ω be the circumcircle of quadrilateral ABCD. Suppose that point R is the

intersection of tangents to circle ω at A and C, and point S is the intersection

of tangents to circle ω at B and D.

According to Pascal’s theorem in Hexagonal AABCCD and ABBCDD, we can

say that points R and S lie on line EF .

We know that polar of the point R with respect to circle ω passes through P .

So polar of the point P with respect to circle ω passes through R. Similarly,

we can say that polar of the point P with respect to circle ω passes through S.

Therefore polar of the point P with respect to circle ω is EF . So P O⊥EF .

25

∠Y QP = θ ⇒ ∠Y CP = ∠Y P B = ∠V P D = θ

say that XY , U V and EF are concurrent at point Z. Now according to lamme

2, we can say that P O⊥EF . So the perpendicular from P to EF passes through

the circumcircle of triangle XQY .

26

Second solution.

Suppose that point O is the circumcenter of triangle XQY . The inversion with

respect to a circle with center P trasnforms the problem into this figure. Suppose

that X 0 is the inversion of point X wrt P . We have to show that the line P O0

is the diameter of circumcircle of triangle E 0 P F 0 . Let O00 be the circumcenter

of triangle X 0 Q0 Y 0 . We know that the points P , O0 and O00 are collinear. So

we have to show that he line P O00 passes through the circumcenter of triangle

E0P F 0.

Suppose that O1 , O2 , O3 and O4 are the centers of circles in the above figure

and K be the intersection point of O1 O3 and O2 O4 . We know that point K

lies on perpendicular bisector of P E 0 and P F 0 , thus K is the circumcenter of

triangle P E 0 F 0 . So we have to show that P , K and O00 are collinear. On the

other hand, we know that the quadrilateral D0 B 0 Y 0 Q0 is isosceles trapezoid. So

the point O00 lies on perpendicular bisector of B 0 D0 . Similarly, the point O00 lies

on perpendicular bisector of A0 C 0 . Therefore, the point O00 is the intersection

of A0 C 0 and B 0 D0 .

27

Suppose that:

A0 C 0 ∩ O1 O2 = M , A0 C 0 ∩ O3 O4 = T

B 0 D0 ∩ O2 O3 = N , B 0 D0 ∩ O1 O4 = L

Let points U and V be on A0 C 0 such that KU ⊥A0 C 0 and O00 V ⊥A0 C 0 . Also let

points R and S be on B 0 D0 such that KR⊥B 0 D0 and O00 S⊥B 0 D0 .

Similarly O2 O3 k O1 O4 , therefore the quadrilateral O1 O2 O3 O4 is a parallelo-

gram. It means that the point K lies on the midpoint of the segments O1 O3

and O2 O4 . So U M = U T . Also we have A0 M = P M and C 0 T = P T

⇒ P V = A0 V − A0 P = (P M + P T ) − 2P M = P T − P M

⇒ TV = PT − PV = PM ⇒ UP = UV

Similarly, we can show that RP = RS, so point K lies on the perpendicular

bisector of P V and P S. It means that K is the citcumcenter of triangle P SV .

Therefore the points P , K and O00 are collinear.

28

the triangles Xi Yj Zk are similar for 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2.

−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

Solution. (by Ilya Bogdanov f rom Russia)

Suppose a triangle XY Z, in such a way that XY = 1, Y Z = t2 , ZX = t3 and

∠Z = ∠X + 2∠Y .

Such a triangle exists, because for the minimum possible value of t, we have

∠Z > ∠X + 2∠Y and for t = 1 we have ∠Z < ∠X + 2∠Y . So there exists a

triangle with the above properties. Now consider the following 6 points, these

points have the properties of the problem.

29

be the similar triangles for all of 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ 2

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