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NOTES ON LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION

LEA 1: POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION WITH POLICE PLANNING

POLICE
- refers to a body of civil authority, which is tasked to maintain peace and order, enforce the law, protect lives
and properties and ensure public safety.
- a public official with an extraordinary power to make an arrest and performing direct police functions.

ORIGIN OF THE WORD “POLICE”


POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city
POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or government
POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English language

ORGANIZATION
- a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectives
- a form of human association for the attainment of a goal or objective
- the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and
authority, establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people work effectively

POLICE ORGANIZATION
- a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety administration engaged in the achievement of goals
and objectives that promotes the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life and property,
enforcement of the laws and the prevention of crimes

LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY


- pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws

ADMINISTRATION
- an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and internal operating
efficiency
- connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relatively routine decision-making and maintenance of the
internal order

POLICE/LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION


- the process involved in ensuring strict compliance, proper obedience of laws and related statutes
- focuses on the policing process or how law enforcement agencies are organized and managed in order to
achieve the goals of law enforcement most effectively, efficiently and productively

MANAGEMENT OR ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS

1) PLANNING
- the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained

2) ORGANIZING
- involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as the resource of an organization
to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the organization

3) DIRECTING
- involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the various activities in an
organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the pre-determined goals or objectives of the
organization

4) CONTROLLING
- involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance and comparing it with planned
goals or objectives of the organization, and making the necessary corrective actions so that work is
accomplished as planned

5) STAFFING
- the task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for the right job
- involves good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained personnel

6) REPORTING
- the making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and unusual in order to keep
every one informed or what is going on

7) BUDGETING

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- the forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of operations based on the highest
reasonable expectations of operating efficiency

ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION

1) UNITY OF COMMAND
- dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of
orders

2) SPAN OF CONTROL
- the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise

3) DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
- conferring of certain specified authority by a superior to a subordinate

4) HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
- the relationship between superiors and subordinates

5) SPECIALIZATION
- the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks which are highly technical and require special
skills and training

6) CHAIN OF COMMAND
- the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority

7) COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY
- dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and control of their
personnel and unit

THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE

Continental = is the theory of police service which maintains that police officers are servants of higher
authorities. This theory prevails in the continental countries like France, Italy and Spain.

Home Rule = the theory of police service which states that police officers are servants of the
community or the people. This theory prevails in England and United States. It is also the police service which
prevails in country with decentralized form of government. This is likewise the police service theory that should
prevail in the Philippines based on the existing laws, concepts and principles.

CONCEPT OF POLICE SERVICE


a. Old police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the number of arrest made.

b. Modern police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the absence of crime.

EVOLUTION OF POLICING SYSTEM


 Praetorian guards = military bodies who serve as guardians of peace in ancient Rome in which the idea
of policing said to have originated
 Officer de la Paix = a French term which claimed to be the origin of the term Police Officer

1. Anglo-Saxon Period of Policing System (Ancient England)

A. Tun Policing System


A system of policing emerged during the Anglo-Saxon period whereby all male residents were required
to guard the town (tun) to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people.
About 700 AD, the people living in England in small rural towns used the Anglo-Saxon System. Ten
families in a town (tun) equaled a tithing. Each tithing elected a leader who was known as the Tithingman. Since
10 tithings amounted to 100, the leader of the 100 families was named the reeve. Both the tithingman and reeve
were elected officials. They possessed judicial power as well as police authority.

B. Hue and Cry


A village law started in Britain which provided methods of apprehending a criminal by an act of the
complainant to shout to call all male residents to assemble and arrest the suspect.

C. Trial by Ordeal
A judicial practice where in the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting him to an
unpleasant, usually dangerous, experience. (In present terminologies, it would mean an employment of a “3rd
degree.”) The word “ordeal” was derived from the Medieval Latin word “Dei Indicum” which means “a
miraculous decision.”

2. Norman Period of Policing System

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This system of policing existed during the time of Norman William The Conqueror (King of France). When
he invaded and conquered England, a military regime of conquers and dictators began and changed the concept of
crime being committed against the state.

A. Shire-Rieve
Shire-Rieve was a policing system during the Norman Period when England was divided into fifty-five (55)
military areas, each headed by a ruler called the Rieve (head-man or lieutenant of the army). The fifty-five (55)
military divisions in England are called shires. The shire-rieve had absolute powers that no one could questions his
or her actions.
Two “Constabuli” or “The Keeper of the Horse” were appointed to each village to aid the Rieve in his
duties. It became the source of the word Constable.
The term “Shire-Rieve” is said to be the origin of the word “Sheriff.”

B. Travelling Judge or Circuit Judge


A judge selected to hear cases which were formerly being judged by the Shire-Rieve and tasked to travel
through and hear criminal cases. This was the first instance of the division of the police and judicial power s.

C. Legis Henrici
An act that was enacted during this period with the following features:
 Offenses were classified as against the king and individual.
 Policeman becomes public servant.
 The police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest. It introduced the system called “citizen’s
arrest.”
 Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law. A system which made inquisition onto the facts of
a crime and eliminate the “Anglo-Saxon Trial or “Trial by Ordeal System.”

D. Frankpledge System
A system of policing whereby a group of ten neighboring male residents over twelve years of age were
required to guard the town to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people

3. Westminster Period of Policing System


It is called by this name because the laws governing policing came out of the capital of England, which
at the time was Westminster. This period has the following features:
 Guards were appointed and the duties of the constables at night (watch) and in daytime (ward) were
defined
 Statute of Westminster of 1285, a collection of regulations aimed at keeping the peace.

Statute of 1295
The law that marks the beginning of the curfew hours, which demanded the closing of the gates of
London during sundown.

Justice of the Peace (About 1361)


Three or four men who were learned in the law of the land were given authority to pursue, arrest,
chastise and imprisonment violators of law. They handled felonies, misdemeanors and infractions of city or
village ordinances. This was later abolished about 75 years after.

Star Chamber Court (1487)


A special court designed to try offenders against the state. The room set-up is formed in a shape of a
star and judges were given great powers such as the power to force testimony from a defendant leading to
a great abuse of power or brutality on the part of the judges.

4. Keepers of the Peace

A proclamation issued by King Richard of England sometime in 1195 that required the appointment of
knights to keep the King’s peace by standing as guards on bridges and gates while checking the people
entering and leaving the cities and towns.

5. King Charles II of England (1663)


King Charles II passed an act which established or promoted the employment of watchmen or bellmen to
be on duty from sunset to sunrise.

6. Magna Carta or "The Great Charter"


A law promulgated by King John of England upon the demand of the Knights of the Round Table
forcing the King to sign the same with the following features:
 No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, banished or exiled except by legal judgment of his peers.
 No person shall be tried for murder unless there is proof of the body of the victim.

LONDON POLICING PRIOR TO 1829

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Henry Fielding = appointed as Magistrate in 1748, introduced the first detective force, known as the Bow Street
Runners
Bow Runners = a group of men organized by Henry Fielding and named by his brother John Fielding task to catch
thieves and robbers
identified by carrying a Tipstaff with the Royal Crown
= made up of eight constables who also investigated crimes handed over to them by the volunteer
constables and watchmen

BEGINNING OF MODERN POLICING (1829)


Sir Robert Peel = appointed as Home Secretary in 1822
= recognized as the father of modern policing system

METROPOLITAN POLICE = organized in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel (Metropolitan Police Act of 1829)
= the largest of the police services that operate in greater London (the others include the City of London
Police and the British Transport Police)
= finest police force around the world.
= the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland Yard, now known as the New
Scotland Yard

TOTAL POLICING = motto of London Metropolitan Police

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


1. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
- created in 1845 in New York, USA
- recognized as the first modern style police department in the US
- the largest police force in the world
- modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London

2. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT


- the oldest police department in the US
- the first night watch was established in Boston in 1631
- formally founded in May, 1854

AUGUST VOLLMER
- recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his contributions in the development of the field
of criminal justice in the US
- author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide in the administration of the police
organization in the US
- was the first police chief of Berkeley, California

III. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM

A. During the Spanish Regime


Maintenance of law and order is a part of the military system for the defense of the colony;
Locally organized police forces, although performing civil duties is a direct adjunct of the colonial military
establishments; (policemen in appearance yet colonial soldiers in the ultimate sense).
Police functions consisted mainly of (1) suppression of brigandage by patrolling unsettled areas; (2) detection
of local or petty uprising by spying upon the work and movements of the people and; (3) the enforcement of tax
collection including church revenues.
Cuardilleros = a body of rural police organized in each town established by Royal decree of Jan. 8, 1836. It
mandates that 5% of the able bodied male inhabitants of each province where to be enlisted in this police
organization for 3 years. There services are originally not paid or gratuitous subject to some privileges although in
some province they received a proportionate pay ranging from 4.00 to 8.00 depending on the revenue collection.

Carabineros De Seguridad Publica = Organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the regulations of the
Department of State. This was armed and considered as the mounted police who later discharged the duties of a
port, harbor and river police. It was later given special commission by Royal Decree of December 20, 1842 and it
was called – Cuerco De Seguridad Publica ( Corps of Crabbiness for Public Security).

Gurdia Civil = Created by Royal decree on February 12, 1852, to partially relieve the Spanish peninsula troops of
their works in policing towns. It is consisted of a body of Filipino policemen organized originally in each of the
provincial capital of the province of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor.)

B. American Period

The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by General Howard Taft as its
first governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant
to Act No 70 of the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the
Manila’s Finest every January 9th.

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1. ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of an Insular
Constabulary”, enacted on July 18, 1901

CAPT. HENRY ALLEN


- the first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1901

2. ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901

CAPT GEORGE CURRY,


- the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1901

3. Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine Constabulary, enacted on
October 3, 1901

4. Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four services of the Armed Forces
of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940

C. Post-American Period

RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted on September 8, 1966; created
the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the training and professionalization of the
local police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National Police Commission
(NAPOLCOM)

D. Martial Law Period

PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975, enacted on August 8, 1975; established the
Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) as the nucleus and the
integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of National Defense
- transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defense

E. Post Martial Law Regime

Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and municipal government the operational supervision and
direction over all INP units assigned within their locality; issued on July 10, 1985

Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative control and supervision of the INP from the Ministry of
National Defense to the National Police Commission

RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990, enacted on
December 13, 1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire
Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College

RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted
on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975

RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educational qualification for
appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009

“AN ACT EXTENDING FOR FIVE (5) YEARS THE REGLEMENTARY PERIOD FOR COMPLYING WITH THE
MINIMUM EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
(PNP) AND ADJUSTING THE PROMOTION SYSTEM THEREOF, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PERTINENT
PROVISIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6975 AND REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8551 AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES”

IMPORTANT FILIPINO PERSONALITIES IN THE EVOLUTION OF PHILIPPINE POLICING

BRIG GEN RAFAEL CRAME


- the first Filipino chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917

COL ANTONIO TORRES


- the first Filipino chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1935

COL LAMBERTO JAVALERA


- the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Philippine Independence from the
United States of America in 1946

P/DIR GEN CESAR NAZARENO


- the first chief of the Philippine National Police

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IV. HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 – THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT
OF 1990, RA 8551 – THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1998
and RA 9708

A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG)


- formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
- reorganized under RA 6975

ORGANIZATION:
- consist of:
a) the Department proper
b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) the National Police Commission
e) the Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975
- headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the pleasure of the
President
- the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries
- Undersecretary for Local Government
- Undersecretary for Peace and Order
- No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary within one (1) year
from date of retirement or resignation
- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission
- refer to the organizational chart of DILG
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POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG
1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local governments;
2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations and other issuances on the general
supervision over local governments and on public order and safety;
3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuances implementing laws on public order and
safety, the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of local autonomy and
community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof;
4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law enforcement and public safety;
Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to promote peace and order, ensure public
safety and further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities of local government offices
and personnel;
5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies arising from natural and man-
made disasters;
Establish a system of coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the
Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic services to the public;
6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police functions, a police force that is national in
scope and civilian in character.

RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (DND)


- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external security while
the DILG was in charge with internal security
- under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with both internal and external
security with the PNP as support through information gathering and performance of ordinary police
functions

B. NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION


- an agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination
- shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP

COMPOSITION:
- consist of a Chairperson, four (4) regular Commissioners and the Chief of PNP as ex officio
member
- shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension
- three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector and not former members of the
police or military
- the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either active or retired
at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman

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- from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall be
chosen
- the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission
- refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE REGULAR COMMISSIONERS


- citizens of the Philippines
- lawyers with at least five (5) years experience in handling criminal or human rights cases; or
- holders of a master’s degree in public administration, sociology, criminology, criminal justice, law
enforcement and other related disciplines

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
- composed of:
a) Commission Proper
b) Staff Services
1) Planning and Research
2) Legal Affairs
3) Crime Prevention and Coordination
4) Personnel and Administrative Service
5) Inspection, Monitoring and Investigation
6) Installations and Logistics
7) Financial Service
c) Disciplinary Appellate Boards
1) National Appellate Board
 shall decide cases on appeal from the decisions rendered by the Chief, PNP

2) Regional Appellate Board


 shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the mayor, PLEB, and PNP
officers other than the Chief, PNP

C. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE


- organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551
- a law enforcement agency under the operational control of the Department of the Interior and Local
Government and administrative supervision of the National Police Commission
- it is an organization that is national in scope and civilian in character, as provided by Article XVI,
Section 6 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution:
“The state shall establish and maintain one police force which shall be national in scope and civilian
in character…”
- headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director General, appointed by the President and who
shall serve a term of office of four (4) years

NATIONAL IN SCOPE
- means that the PNP is a nationwide government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breadth of the Philippine archipelago
- all uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP are national government employees

CIVILIAN IN CHARACTER
- means that that the PNP is not a part of the military, although it retains some military attributes such as
discipline

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PNP


1) Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
2) Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
3) Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and assist
in their prosecution;
4) Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the Constitution and
pertinent laws;
5) Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the person so
detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
6) Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
7) Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses to operate
security agencies and to security guards and private detectives, for the purpose of their professions.

ORGANIZATION and COMPOSITION OF THE PNP


- shall be headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by two (2) deputy chiefs:
1) Deputy Chief for Administration
2) Deputy Chief for Operations
- the Chief PNP and the two (2) deputy chiefs shall be appointed by the President
- no officer who is retirable within six (6) months shall be appointed Chief
- the PNP shall be composed of a national office, regional offices, provincial offices, district offices, and
city or municipal stations
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CAMP RAFAEL CRAME
- the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police, located in Quezon City
- houses the offices of the following:
a) Chief, PNP
b) two (2) deputy chiefs
c) Chief, Directorial Staff
d) Directorial Staff
e) National Administrative Support Units
f) National Operational Support Units

PNP Directorial Staff

The head of the PNP Directorial Staff is The Chief Directorial Staff (TCDS) with the rank of Deputy Director
General. The PNP is composed of twelve (12) Directorates headed by a Police Director with a position title of
Director of the Directorial Staff.

The PNP Directorial Staff is composed of the following:

1. Directorate for Personnel and Records Management;


2. Directorate for Intelligence;
3. Directorate for Operations;
4. Directorate for Logistics;
5. Directorate for Integrated Police Operations
6. Directorate for Plans
7. Directorate for Comptrollership
8. Directorate for Police Community Relations
9. Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management
10. Directorate for Research and Development
11. Directorate for Information and Communication Technology Management.
12. Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development

THE PNP SUPPORT UNITS

The PNP is composed of various National Support Units (NSU’s): the Administrative Support Units and the
Operational Support Units. The head of each Administrative and Operational Support Units has the rank of Chief
Superintendent.

NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT UNITS

1. Logistics Support Service (LSS) - responsible for procurement, distribution and management of all the
logistical requirements of the PNP including firearms and ammunitions.

2. Information Technology Management Service (ITMS) – formulates and implements information


technology (IT) policies, plans and programs of the PNP.

3. Finance Service (FS)- responsible for disbursement of all funds of the PNP and the accounting of the
same.

4. Health Service (HS) - responsible for providing medical and dental services to the PNP personnel and
their direct dependents and other authorized civilians. Operates and maintain PNP hospitals nationwide.

5. Communications and Electronic Service (COMMEL) – operates, maintains and ensures coordination
between and among PNP units and offices in the acquisition, distribution and operation of communications
and electronics facilities.

6. Chaplain Service (CS) – provides spiritual and counseling services for the moral growth of PNP personnel
and their dependents. This unit also conducts worship and religious services, provides pastoral care and
ministration, religious and moral education, guidance and counseling and values orientation.

7. Legal Service (LS) – serves as the PNP legal counsel as well as represents the PNP in all criminal and
civil actions before the courts in coordination with the Office of Solicitor General. It also serves as
adjudicative unit in the processing of claims for benefits of retires and separated PNP personnel.

8. Headquarters Support Service (HSS) – provides support for the security, management of traffic flows and
maintenance of the national headquarters.

9. Engineering Service (ES) – formulates policies, plans and procedures in the management of engineering
services, land utilization and on-based/off-based housing activities.

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10. Training Service (TS) – provides career and specialized training programs for PNP personnel in order to
upgrade their professional knowledge and skills necessary to cope with the challenges in public safety and
social defense.

11. Personnel and Retirement Benefits Service (PRBS) – this is a newly formed National Administrative
Support Unit (please refer to the organization chart).

NATIONAL OPERATIONAL SUPPORT UNITS (NOSU)

1. Maritime Group - performs all police function over the Philippine territorial waters and rivers.

2. Intelligence Group –serves as the intelligence and counter-intelligence operating unit of the PNP.

3. Police Security and Protection Group –provides security for government official, visiting dignitaries and
private individual authorize to be given protection.

4. Criminal Investigation and Detection Group – this unit undertakes the monitoring, investigation and
prosecution of all crimes involving economic sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and extent as
to indicate their commission by highly placed or professional criminal syndicate and organization.

It shall likewise investigate all major cases involving violations of the Revised Penal Code and
operate against organized crime groups, unless the president assigns the case exclusive to the National
Bureau of Investigation (NBI).

5. Special Action Force –functions as the mobile strike force or reaction unit to augment regional, provincial,
municipal or city police forces for civil disturbance control, counter-insurgency, hostage taking rescue
operations, and other special operations.

6. Civil Security Group –provides administrative services and general supervision over the organization,
business operation and activities of all organized private detectives. Watchman, security guard agencies
and company guard forces.

This unit shall likewise supervise the licensing and registration of firearms and explosives. The
approval of applicants for licenses to operate private security agencies as well as the issuance of license to
security guards and the licensing of firearms and explosives shall be decentralized to the PNP regional
offices.

7. Aviation Security Group – In coordination with the Airport authorities, it secures all the country’s airport
against offensive and terrorist acts that threaten civil aviation, exercise operational control and supervision
over all agencies involved in airport security operation and enforces all laws and regulations relative to air
travel protection and safety.

8. Highway Patrol Group – formerly known as the Traffic Management Group. It is tasked with the
enforcement of the provisions of Republic Act 6539 otherwise known as the “Anti-Carnapping Act of 1972”.

9. Crime Laboratory Group – provides scientific and technical investigative aid and support to the PNP and
other government investigative agencies.

It also provides crime laboratory examination, evaluation and identification of physical evidences
involved in crimes with primary emphasis on their medical, chemical, biological and physical nature.

10. Police Community Relations Group –implements PNP’s police community relations programs and
provides assistance to the regional, provincial, district and city/municipal offices in their respective police
community relations activities. This unit also accredits volunteer NGO’s supportive of PNP programs and
relatedly assists, trains, organizes, directs and supervises such NGO’s.

11. Anti-Kidnapping Group – the PNP has dissolved the Police Anti-Crime and Emergency Response Force
(PACER) and replaced it with a new anti-kidnapping group.

12. Anti-Cybercrime Group – this newly created PNP National Operational Support Unit was activated on
March 20, 2013. It is the primary unit responsible for the implementation of pertinent laws on cybercrimes
and anti-cybercrime campaigns of the PNP and the national government. It focuses on cybercrime
offenses, computer-related offenses, and other content-related offenses such as cybersex, child
pornography, unsolicited commercial communication, and other related offenses.

POLICE REGIONAL OFFICES

At the regional level, the PNP is composed of seventeen (17) Police Regional Offices.

Each Police Regional Office (PRO) is headed by a Regional Director with the rank of Chief Superintendent,
except in the National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) where the NCR Director has the rank of Police
Director.

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The Regional Offices is composed of PRO 1 to PRO 13, NCRPO, CAR and ARMM

THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION POLICE OFFICE (NCRPO)

The National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) is one of the Police Regional Offices of the PNP. The
NCRPO is headed by an NCR Director with the rank of Police Director. The NCRPO is divided into five (5) District
Offices, each headed by a District Director with the rank of Chief Superintendent.

The five (5) district offices of the NCRPO are the following:

1. Manila Police District (MPD) - formerly known as Western Police District. Located in the City of Manila. It
is popularly known as the Manila’s Finest.

2. Eastern Police District (EPD) – covers Marikina, Pasig, San Juan and Mandaluyong,

3. Northern Police District (NPD) – has jurisdiction over the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, and
Valenzuela.

4. Central Police District (CPD) – formerly known as Quezon City Police District. Located in Quezon City.

5. Southern Police District (SPD) – covers the cities of Pasay, Makati, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Muntinlupa,
Taguig and Pateros.

PROVINCIAL POLICE OFFICES


- for every region, there are provincial offices, each headed by a Provincial Director
- in large provinces, police districts may be established to be headed by a District Director
- at the city or municipal levels or stations, each is headed by a Chief of Police

THE CITY OR MUNICIPAL POLICE STATIONS

At the city or municipal level, there is a PNP station, each headed by a Chief of Police.

MANNING LEVELS (POLICE-TO-POPULATION RATIO)


1:500 – nationwide average
1:1000 – minimum police-to-population ratio

PNP RANK CLASSIFICATION AND ITS COUNTERPART IN THE MILITARY

DIRECTOR GENERAL GENERAL


DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL LIEUTENANT GENERAL
DIRECTOR MAJOR GENERAL
CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT BRIGADIER GENERAL
SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT COLONEL
SUPERINTENDENT LIEUTENANT COLONEL
CHIEF INSPECTOR MAJOR
SENIOR INSPECTOR CAPTAIN
INSPECTOR LIEUTENANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 4 MASTER SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 3 TECHNICAL SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 2 STAFF SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 1 SERGEANT
POLICE OFFICER 3 CORPORAL
POLICE OFFICER 2 PRIVATE 1ST CLASS
POLICE OFFICER 1 PRIVATE

POLICE NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER RANKS (PNCO)


- PO1 to SPO4

POLICE COMMISSIONED OFFICER RANKS (PCO)


- INSPECTOR TO DIRECTOR GENERAL

KEY POSITIONS and their CORRESPONDING RANKS IN THE PNP

CHIEF – highest position in the PNP, with the rank of DIRECTOR GENERAL

DEPUTY CHIEF FOR ADMINISTRATION – the second-in command, with the rank of DEPUTY DIRECTOR
GENERAL

DEPUTY CHIEF FOR OPERATIONS – the third-in-command, with the rank of DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL
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NCR DIRECTOR – with the rank of DIRECTOR

REGIONAL DIRECTOR - with the rank of CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT

PROVINCIAL DIRECTOR - with the rank of SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT

NCR DISTRICT DIRECTOR - with the rank of CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT

CHIEF OF POLICE

Manning Levels (police-to-population ratio)

The average manning level of the PNP nationwide shall be approximately in accordance with a police-to-
population ratio of one (1) policeman for every five hundred (500) persons (1:500).

The minimum police-to-population ratio shall not be less than one (1) policeman for every one thousand
(1,000) persons (1:1000).

STATUS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE PNP


- police officers are employees of the national government and shall draw their salaries from the
national budget
- they shall have the same salary grade level as that of public school teachers police officers assigned in
Metro Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial incentives by the local
government unit concerned subject to availability of funds

GENERAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE PNP (RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551 and RA
9708)
a) A citizen of the Philippines;
b) A person of good moral conduct;
c) Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be administered by the PNP or
by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of determining physical and mental
health;
d) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning;
e) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;
- Must have passed the board examination given by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) or
the NAPOLCOM Police Entrance Examination

f) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed for cause from any
civilian position in the Government;
g) Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
h) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m) in height for male and one meter and fifty-
seven (1.57 m) for female;
i) Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5kgs) from the standard weight corresponding to his or
her height, age and sex; and
j) For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30) years of age

Pursuant to RA 9708, “…PNP members who are already in the service upon the effectivity of
Republic Act No. 8551 shall be given five (5) years to obtain the minimum educational qualification
preferably in law enforcement related courses, to be reckoned from the date of the effectivity of this
amendatory Act: Provided, furthermore, That for concerned PNP members rendering more than fifteen (15)
years of service and who have exhibited exemplary performance as determined by the Commission, shall
no longer be required to comply with the aforementioned minimum educational requirement.”

EXAMINATION AND ELIGIBILITY

The National Police Commission shall administer the entrance and promotional examinations for police
officers on the basis of the standards set by the Commission (as amended by RA 8551).

POLICE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION – taken by applicants of the PNP

POLICE PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATIONS – taken by in-service police officers as part of the mandatory
requirements for promotion

POLICE OFFICER EXAMINATION


SENIOR POLICE OFFICER EXAMINATION
INSPECTOR EXAMINATION
SUPERINTENDENT EXAMINATION

NAPOLCOM MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 2008-003


The appropriate eligibilities for PO1 are those acquired from the following:
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1. NAPOLCOM PNP Entrance Examination
2. R.A. No. 6506 (Licensed Criminologist)
3. R.A. No. 1080 (Bar and Board Examinations of baccalaureate degree)
4. P.D. 907 (Granting Civil Service Eligibility to College Honor Graduates)
5. Civil Service Professional

NAPOLCOM MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 2008-016 (Promotional Examinations)


-Members of the Bar and Licensed Criminologists whose profession are germane to law enforcement and
police functions are no longer required to take promotional examinations up to the rank of Superintendent.

APPOINTMENT OF UNIFORMED PNP PERSONNEL


PO1 TO SPO4 – appointed by the Regional Director for regional personnel or by the
Chief, PNP for the national headquarters
INSP TO SUPT – appointed by the Chief, PNP
SR SUPT TO DDG – appointed by the President upon recommendation of the Chief, PNP, subject to confirmation
by the Commission on Appointments
DIRECTOR GENERAL – appointed by the President from among the senior officers down to the rank of CSupt,
subject to the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments

KINDS OF APPOINTMENT

1. PERMANENT – when an applicant possesses the upgraded general qualifications for appointment in
the PNP.
2. TEMPORARY – Any PNP personnel who is admitted due to the waiver of the educational or weight
requirements. Any member who will fail to satisfy any of the waived requirements with the specified time
periods shall be dismissed from the service.

Pursuant to NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-009, a newly recruited PO1 shall be appointed in
temporary status in twelve (12) months pending compliance with the Field Training Program (FTP) involving
actual experience and assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation.

APPOINTMENT UNDER A WAIVER PROGRAM (NAPOLCOM MC No. 2013-004)

1). Conditions on waivers for initial appointment to the PNP

a. The age, height and weight for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number of
qualified applicants falls below the approved national/regional quota.

b. Waiver of the age requirement may be granted provided that the applicant shall not be less than twenty
(20) nor more than thirty five (35) years of age. For purposes of this paragraph, one is considered to be not
over thirty five (35) years old if he or she has not yet reached his or her thirty six (36 th) birthday on the date
of the issuance of his or her appointment.

c. Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to a male applicant who is at least 1 meter and 57 cm
(1.57m) and to a female applicant who is at least 1 meter and 52cm (1.52m). Provided, that the minimum
height requirement for applicants who belong to indigenous group duly certified by the National
Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) or the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP) shall
be 1.52m for male and 1.45m for female. Provided further, that the Commission shall require said
applicants to submit appropriate proof of their membership in a certain indigenous group.

d. An applicant who is granted a weight waiver shall be given reasonable time not exceeding six (6) months
within which to comply with the said requirement.

e. The grant of waiver is not a guarantee for appointment into the police service.

f. The PNP Screening Committee shall, through the Chief of the PNP, request the Commission to consider
the appointment of those applicants with a certification under oath that the qualified applicants, at the time
the applicant is being considered, fall below the office/unit quota concerned.

Factors to be Considered in the Grant of Waivers

a. Possession of special skills in evidence gathering and safekeeping, cyber crime investigation, detection
and prevention, crime scene investigation, martial arts, marksmanship and similar special skills;

b. Special talents in the field of sports, music or arts and culture;

c. Extensive experience or training in forensic science and other legal, medical and technical services; and

d. Outstanding academic records and extracurricular activities of applicant during his/her school days, good
family background in law enforcement or socio-civic activities, recognized social standing in the community,

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awards and commendations received, which should indicate to the Commission En Banc that the applicant
can become a good member of the Philippine National Police

Selection Criteria under the waiver program


1. Applicants who possess the least disqualifications shall take precedence over those who possess more
disqualifications.
2. The requirement shall be waived in the following order:

1. Age
2. Height
3. Weight

NOTE: Use the acronym AHW (age, height and weight)

LATERAL ENTRY OF OFFICERS INTO THE PNP


1). In general, all original appointments of commissioned officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank of
inspector, to include all those with highly technical qualifications applying for the PNP technical services (R.A.
6975).
a). Senior Inspector
1). Chaplain;
2). Member of the Bar;
3). Doctor of Medicine
b). Inspector
1). Dentist
2) Optometrists
3) Nurses
4) Engineers
5) Graduates of forensic science
6) Graduates of Philippine National Police Academy
Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of inspector to fill up any vacancy after promotions
from the ranks are completed.

New policy on LATERAL ENTRY (NAPOLOCM M.C 2008-006)


a). A person with highly technical qualifications such as:
1). Dentist
2). Optometrist
3). Nurse
4) Engineer
5). Graduate of Forensic Science
6). Doctor of Medicine
7). Member of the Philippine Bar
8). Chaplain
9). Information Technologist
10). Pilot
11). Psychologist
b). Graduate of PNPA
c). Licensed Criminologist

Top priority consideration for lateral entry into the rank of Police Inspector shall be given to top ten (10)
placers of the different Licensure Examinations. However, incumbent PNP members who land in the top ten shall
be given first preference over the civilian provided that the qualifications are satisfied.
The maximum age of PNP members applicants through lateral entry shall be forty six (46) years old at the time
of appointment. Age waivers shall not be allowed.

THE PNP PROMOTION SYSTEM


Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another carrying higher
benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a position of leadership.

KINDS OF PROMOTION
1. Regular Promotion
2. Special/ Meritorious/Spot Promotion
3. Promotion by virtue of position

A. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory requirements for promotion.

MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION


1. Educational attainment (NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 2011-196 dated July 6, 2011)
For Police Sr. Supt. to Director General
a. Masters in Public Safety Administration (MPSA)
b. Allied Master’s Degree

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For Chief Inspector to Superintendent
a. Bachelor’s Degree preferably Master’s Degree

For POI to Sr. Inspector


a. Bachelor’s Degree

2. Completion of appropriate training/schooling, such as:


Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) / General Staff Course (GSC)
Officers Advance Course (OAC)
Officers Basic Course (OBC)
Officers Candidate Course (OCC)
Senior Leadership Course (SLC)
Junior Leadership Course (JLC)
Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC)

3. Time-in Grade – the number of years required for a police officer to hold a certain rank before he can be
promoted to the next higher rank. The time-in grade in the PNP is maintained as follows (NAPOLCOM Resolution #
2013-501):

2 years – from Sr Supt to Chief Supt.


3 years – from Supt to Sr Supt
3 years – Chief Insp to Supt
3 years – Sr Insp to Chief Insp
3 years – Insp to Sr Insp
3 years – SPO4 to Insp
2 years – SPO3 to SPO4
2 years – SPO2 to SPO3
2 years – SPO1 to SPO2
3 years – PO3 to SPO1
2 year – PO2 to PO3
2 years – PO1 to PO2

4. Appropriate eligibility – the required promotional examinations


a. Police Officer Promotional Examination
b. Senior Police Officer Promotional Examination
c. Police Inspector Promotional Examination
d. Police Superintendent Promotional Examination

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less than one (1) year of service before reaching the
compulsory retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or appointed to any other position.
Pursuant to RA 9708, “…In addition, the institution of a criminal action or complaint against a police
officer shall not be a bar to promotion: Provided, however, That upon finding of probable cause, notwithstanding
any challenge that may be raised against that finding thereafter, the concerned police officer shall be ineligible for
promotion: Provided, further, That if the case remains unresolved after two (2) years from the aforementioned
determination of probable cause, he or she shall be considered for promotion. In the event he or she is held
guilty of the crime by final judgment, said promotion shall be recalled without prejudice to the imposition of the
appropriate penalties under applicable laws, rules and regulations:
-Provided, furthermore, That if the complaint filed against the police officer is for a crime including, but not
limited to, a violation of human rights, punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment, and the court
has determined that the evidence of guilt is strong, said police officer shall be completely ineligible for
promotion during the pendency of the said criminal case.”

B. Special Promotion – promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of conspicuous courage and
gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of duty.

Conspicuous courage is a courage that is clearly distinguished above others in the performance of one’s
duty.

ACTS OF CONSPICUOUS COURAGE AND GALLANTRY (NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-003 and
PNP Memorandum Circular No. 2009-019)

1. A deed of personal bravery and self sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty, so conspicuous as to distinguish
the act clearly over and above his/her comrades in the performance of more than ordinary hazardous service, such
as; but not limited to the following circumstances:
a. Overwhelming number of enemies and firepower capability as against the strength of PNP
operatives and their firepower capability;
b. Infiltration and penetration of the safehouses and hideouts of organized crime syndicates like
kidnapping, illegal drugs, carnapping, hijacking and terrorism;
c. Shoot-out in robbery/hold-up incidents inside public places such as: malls, government offices, business
establishments and PUVs;
d. Conduct of rescue/disaster operations that resulted in the saving of lives and properties.

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2. An act of heroism exhibited in the face of an armed enemy or in the conduct of rescue/disaster operations
resulting in the loss of life (posthumous promotions).

Posthumous Award – in case an individual who distinguish himself dies before the granting of the awards.

C. PROMOTION BY VIRTUE OF POSITION (Section 32, R.A. 8551)

Any PNP personnel designated to any key position whose rank is lower than that which is required
for such position shall, after six (6) months of occupying the same, be entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding
to the position.
Provided, that the personnel shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher rank until after two (2)
years from the date of such rank adjustment.

ATTRITION (RA 8551)


- Refers to the retirement or separation from police service of PNP uniformed personnel pursuant to any of
the means mentioned in Section 24 to 29 of RA 8551 and other means as provided in NAPOLCOM Memorandum
Circular No. 2008-005.)

MODES OF ATTRITION
a. Attrition by attainment of Maximum Tenure in Position.

Maximum Tenure in Position refers to the maximum cumulative period for a PNP member to hold
a particular position level.
Position Maximum Tenure
Chief Four (4) years
Deputy Chief Four (4) years
Director of the Staff Services Four (4) years
Regional Directors Six (6) years
Provincial/City Directors Nine (9) years

b) Attrition by Relief – A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just cause and has not been given
an assignment within two (2) years after such relief shall be retired or separated.

c) Attrition by demotion in position or rank – Any PNP personnel, civilian or uniformed, who are relieved and
assigned to a position lower than what is established for his or her grade in the PNP staffing pattern and who shall
not be assigned to a position commensurate to his or her grade within EIGHTEEN (18) MONTHS after such
demotion shall be retired or separated.

d) Attrition by non-promotion – Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted for a continuous period of TEN
(10) YEARS shall be retired or separated

e) Attrition by other means - Any PNP member of officer with at least five (5) years of accumulated active
service shall be separated based on any of the following:
1. inefficiency based on poor performance during the last two (2) successive annual rating periods;

Poor performance refers to the poor rating in the promulgated PNP Performance Evaluation Rating System.

2. Inefficiency based on poor performance for three (3) cumulative annual rating periods;
3. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties.
4. Failure to pass the required entrance examinations twice and/or finish the required career course except for
justifiable reasons;
5. refusal to take periodic PNP Physical Fitness Test without justifiable reason.

Physical Fitness Test refers to the method of evaluating the physical condition of PNP members in terms of
stamina, strength, speed and agility.

6. failure to take PNP Physical Fitness Test for four (4) consecutive periodic tests due to health reasons;
7. failure to pass PNP Physical Fitness Test for Two (2) consecutive periodic tests or four (4) cumulative
periodic tests; or
8. non-compliance with the minimum qualification standards for the permanency or original appointment.

RETIREMENT OR SEPARATION UNDER THE ATTRITION SYSTEM


Any personnel who is dismissed from the PNP pursuant to different ways mentioned, shall be retired if he
or she has rendered at least twenty (20) years of service and separated if he or she has rendered less than
twenty (20) years of service, unless the personnel is disqualified by law to receive such benefits.

RETIREMENT
- the separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the age of retirement
provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active service.

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A PNP uniformed personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.

KINDS OF RETIREMENT
1. Compulsory– for officer and non-officer, upon the attainment of age Fifty-Six (56). Provided, in case of any
officer with the rank of CSUPT, Director or Deputy Director General, the Commission may allow his retention in the
service for an unextendible of one (1) year.

2. Optional – upon accumulation of at least Twenty (20) years of satisfactory active service.

RETIREMENT BENEFITS

Monthly retirement pay shall be FIFTY PERCENT (50%) of the base pay in case of twenty years of active
service, increasing by TWO AND ONE-HALF PERCENT (2.5%) for every year of active service rendered
beyond twenty years.

CREATION OF WOMEN’S DESK


- -provided by RA 8551
- -women’s desk in all police stations shall administer and attend to cases involving crimes against chastity,
sexual harassment, abuses committed against women and children and other similar offenses.
- -the PNP shall reserve TEN PERCENT (10%) of its annual recruitment, training and education quota for
women.
- -policewomen shall enjoy the same opportunities in terms of assignment, promotion and other benefits and
privileges extended to all police officers.

POWERS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS OVER THE PNP UNITS.


Governors and Mayors are deputized as representatives of the NAPOLCOM in their respective territorial
jurisdiction.

1. Provincial Governor
- power to choose the PNP Provincial Director from a list of 3 eligibles recommended by the PNP Regional
Director.
- oversee the implementation of the provincial public safety plan.

2. City and Municipal Mayors


- has the power to choose his CHIEF OF POLICE from a list of five (5) eligibles recommended by the
provincial police director.
- -he has the authority to recommend to the provincial director the transfer, reassignment or detail of PNP
members outside of their respective city or town
- Authority to recommend from a list of eligibles, the appointment of new members of the PNP to be assigned
in respective cities.
- exercise operational supervision and control over PNP units in their jurisdiction, except during the 30 days
period immediately preceding and the 30 days following any national, local and barangay elections.
- During the election period, local police forces shall be under the supervision and control of the
COMELEC.
.
Operational Supervision and control
- means the power to direct, superintend, and oversee the day to day functions of police investigation of
crime, crime prevention activities and traffic control.
- shall also include the power to direct the employment and deployment of units or elements of the PNP,
through the station commander, to ensure public safety and effective maintenance of peace and order
within the locality.

Employment -refers to utilization of units or elements of the PNP for purposes of protection of lives and properties,
enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and order, prevention of crimes, arrest of criminal offenders and
bringing the offenders to justice and ensuring public safety, particularly in the suppression of disorders, riots,
lawlessness, violence, rebellious and seditious conspiracy, insurgency, subversion or other related activities.

Deployment - shall mean the orderly and organized physical movement of elements or units of the PNP within the
province, city or municipality for purposes of employment

SUSPENSION OR WITHDRAWAL OF DEPUTATION


- Unless reversed by the President, the NAPOLCOM may, after consultation with the provincial governor
and congressman concerned, suspend or withdraw the deputation of any local executives for any of the following
grounds:
1. Frequent unauthorized absences
2. Abuse of authority
3. Providing material support to criminal elements

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4. Engaging in acts inimical to national security or which negate the effectiveness of the peace and
order campaign.

ADMINISTRATIVE DISCIPLINARY MACHINERIES


A. Citizen Complaints -pertains to any complaint initiated by a private citizen or his duly authorized representative
on account of an injury, damage or disturbance sustained due to an irregular or illegal act committed by a member
of the PNP

DISCIPLINARY AUTHORITIES:
1) CHIEF OF POLICE - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period not exceeding fifteen (15) days

2) CITY/MUNICIPAL MAYORS - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to


specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period not less than Sixteen
but not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.

3) PEOPLE’S LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB) -where the offense is punishable by withholding of
privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period
exceeding Thirty (30) Days, or by Dismissal.

B. INTERNAL DISCIPLINE – On dealing with minor offense involving internal discipline found to have committed
by any PNP members, the duly designated supervisors shall, after due notice and hearings, exercise disciplinary
powers as follows:

1) CHIEF OF POLICE - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand; restriction to
specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any combination of the foregoing for
a period not exceeding Fifteen (15) Days.

2) PROVINCIAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand; restriction
to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any combination of the foregoing
for a period not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.

3)REGIONAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand; restriction to
specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; demotion; or any combination of the
foregoing for a period not exceeding Sixty (60) Days.

4)CHIEF OF THE PNP - shall have the power to impose the disciplinary punishment of dismissal from the
service; suspension or forfeiture of salary; demotion; or any combination of the foregoing for a period not
exceeding One Hundred Eighty (180) Days.

MINOR OFFENSE - shall refer to an act or omission not involving moral turpitude but affecting the internal
discipline of the PNP, and shall include but not be limited to:
-simple misconduct or negligence
-insubordination
-frequent absences or tardiness
-habitual drunkenness
-gambling prohibited by law

INTERNAL AFFAIRS SERVICE (IAS) - created by RA 8551

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE IAS:


- pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP personnel and units;
- investigate complaints and gather evidence in support of an open investigation;
- -conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing administrative charges;
- -submit a periodic report on the assessment, analysis, and evaluation of the character and behavior of PNP
personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the Commission;
- -file appropriate criminal cases against PNP members before the court as evidence warrants and assists in
the prosecution of the case;
- -provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in cases involving the personnel of the PNP;

The IAS shall also conduct, motu proprio (on its own initiative), automatic investigation of the
following cases:
- -incidents where a police personnel discharges a firearm;
- -incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any violation of human rights occurred in the conduct of a
police operation;
- -incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered with, obliterated, or lost while in the custody of
police personnel;
- -incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police was seriously injured; and
- -incidents where the established rules of engagement have been violated.

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ORGANIZATION OF IAS
- -headed by the INSPECTOR GENERAL who is a CIVILIAN and appointed by the President upon the
recommendation of the Director General (Chief, PNP)
- -the Inspector General shall be assisted by a Deputy Inspector General
- -there shall be national, regional and provincial offices
- -the national office shall be headed by the Inspector General, the regional offices by a Director, and the
provincial offices by a Superintendent

ENTRY QUALIFICATIONS TO IAS


- -entry shall be voluntary
- -PNP personnel with at least five (5) years experience in law enforcement
- -with no derogatory service record
- -members of the bar may enter the service laterally

PEOPLE’S LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB)


- a body created pursuant to RA 6975.
- one of the disciplinary authorities of the PNP authorized to handle and investigate citizen’s complaint.
- the central receiving entity for any citizen’s complaint against the PNP members.
- shall be created by the sangguniang panlungssod/bayan in every city and municipality as may be
necessary.
- there shall be at least one (1) PLEB for every five hundred (500) city or municipal police personnel.
- membership in the PLEB is a civic duty.

COMPOSITION OF PLEB
PLEB is composed of five (5) members who shall be as follows:
- -any member of the sangguniang panlungsod/bayan.
- -any barangay chairman of the locality concerned.
- -three other members to be chosen by the local peace and order council from among the members
of the community.
- -for the three other members, the following conditions must be met:
- one must be a woman
- one must be a lawyer, or a college graduate, or the principal of an elementary school in the
locality
- -the CHAIRMAN of the PLEB shall be elected from among its members
- -the term of office of the members of the PLEB is THREE (3) YEARS

DISCIPLINARY APPELATE BOARDS


- formal administrative disciplinary appellate machinery of the National Police Commission.
- tasked to hear cases on appeal from the different disciplinary authorities in the PNP

National Appellate Board


- shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the PNP Chief and the
National Internal Affairs Service
-shall be composed of the four (4) regular commissioners and shall be chaired by the
executive officer

Regional Appellate Board


-shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the Regional Director,
Provincial Director, Chief of Police, the city or municipal mayor and the PLEB
-there shall be at least one (1) regional appellate board per administrative region

ADMINISTRATIVE PENALTIES
1. Withholding of privileges
2. Restriction to specified limits
3. Restrictive custody
4. Forfeiture of salary
5. Suspension
6. Any combination of the penalties above (1 to 5)
7. One (1) rank demotion
8. Dismissal from the service

POLICE PLANNING
- the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained; involves the
determination of a course of action to take in performing a particular function or activity
- a management function concerned with visualizing future situation, making estimates concerning them,
identifying issues, needs and potential danger points, analyzing and evaluating the alternative ways and means of
reaching desired goals according to a certain schedule, estimating the necessary funds and resources to do the
work and initiating action in time to prepare what may be needed to cope with changing conditions and contingent
events

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RESPONSIBILITY IN PLANNING

Broad External Policy Planning is the responsibility of the legislative branch of the government.

Internal Policy Planning is the responsibility of the Chief, PNP and other chiefs of the different units or
headquarters within their area of jurisdiction to achieve the objectives or mission of the police organization.

TYPES OF PLANS

PROCEDURAL PLAN OR POLICY PLANS


- deal with procedures that have been outlined and officially adopted by all members of the unit under
specified circumstances
- guidelines for actions to be taken.
- include all STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)

POLICY
- -general plan of action that serves as a guide in the operation of the organization or unit
- -codes of procedures

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP’s)


1. S.O.P # 1 – Police Beat Patrol Procedures
2. SOP # 2 – Bantay-Kalye
3. SOP # 3 – Siyasat
4. SOP # 4 – REACT 166
5. SOP # 5 – LIGTAS (anti-kidnapping)
6. SOP # 6 – Anti-Carnapping
7. SOP # 7 – Anti-Terrorism
8. SOP # 8 – Joint Anti-Bank Robbery Action Committee (JABRAC)
9. SOP # 9 – Anti-Hijacking or Highway Robbery
10. SOP # 10 – PAGLALANSAG or PAG-AAYOS (against Partisan Armed
Groups of Loose Fire)
11. SOP # 11 – Manhunt Bravo (wanted persons)
12. SOP # 12 – Anti-Illegal Gambling
13. SOP # 13 – Anti-Squatting
14. SOP # 14 – JERICHO
15. SOP # 15 – NENA (Anti-Prostitution)
16. SOP # 16 – Anti-Pornography
17. SOP # 17 – Guidelines in the Conduct of Arrest, Search and Seizure
18. SOP # 18 – Schematic Diagram of SANDIGAN Master Plan
19. SOP # 19 – Anti-Illegal Logging
20. SOP # 20 – Anti-Illegal Fishing
21. SOP # 21 – Anti-Illegal Drugs

EXAMPLES OF PROCEDURAL PLANS/POLICY PLANS

FIELD PROCEDURES
- procedures intended to be used in all situations of all kinds shall be outlined as guide to officers and men in
the field, such as: procedures that relate to reporting, to raids, arrests, stopping suspicious persons,
receiving complaints, investigation, etc

HEADQUARTERS PROCEDURES
- include the procedures to be followed in the headquarters, usually reflected in the duty manual.

SPECIAL OPERATING PROCEDURES


- procedures intended for specific operations to ensure uniformity of action

OPERATIONAL PLANS
- often called work plan
- the work program of the field units
- describe specific actions to be taken
- the work to be done is estimated, manpower and equipment is allocated, proper objectives are defined and
methods of accomplishment are developed
- statistical analysis is widely used

OPERATIONAL PLANS (OPLANS)


1. OPLAN JUMBO – ASG Strategic Plan against Terrorism
2. OPLAN SALIKOP – CIDG Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups
3. OPLAN DISIPLINA – TMG regarding vehicles and motorists
4. OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN – operation security measures and sea borne security patrols

TACTICAL PLANS

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- plans that concern methods of action to be taken at a designated location and under specific circumstances
- generally emergency type plans that can be put into effect on the sudden occurrence of a condition
requiring their use
- planning for emergencies of a specific nature at known locations
- developed for specific situations as they arise
- examples are: planning for major accidents; calamities or disasters; special events; hostage-taking
situations, etc

ADMINISTRATIVE or MANAGEMENT PLANS


- those plans that relate to staffing, equipping, supplying and organizing
- include the structuring of functions, authority and responsibilities, the allocation of resources, personnel
management, budgeting and other concerns administrative in nature
- examples are: assignment and training of personnel; recruitment; equipment and supply
procedures, etc

EXTRA-DEPARTMENTAL PLANS
- those which require actions or assistance from persons or agencies outside of the department
- involve coordination with other agencies
- examples are: exchange of information on wanted persons, known drug syndicates, known
organized crime groups, stolen vehicles, etc

PNP MASTER PLANS


1. SANDIGAN-MILENYO – Anti-Criminality Master Plan
2. SANDUGO – PNP Internal Security Operations Master Plan
3. SANGBANAT – PNP’s Master Plan on Campaign against Illegal Drugs
4. SANG-INGAT – The PNP’s Master Plan on Security Coverage in the 3rd Millennium
5. SAKLOLO – PNP Disaster Management Master Plan
6. SANGYAMAN – PNP’s Master Plan to help Protect and Preserve our Environment,
Cultural Properties and Natural Resources

Steps in Planning/ The Planning Process


1. Frame of Reference
2. Clarifying the Problems
3. Collecting All Pertinent Facts
4. Analyzing the Facts
5. Developing Alternative Facts
6. Selecting the Most Appropriate Alternatives
7. Selling the Plan
8. Arranging for the Execution of the Plan
9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Plan

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LEA 2: INDUSTRIAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT

DEFINITION OF SECURITY
- Generally, the meaning of security is a kind of state where people, institution, authority or groups feel fully secured
of feeling, free from any threat or vulnerability from somewhere or someone in his/her life, liberty, property or
activity. It could be in physical, psychological, social or economical form.
- It is a state or quality of being secured, freedom from fear or danger, assurance, certainty.
- It is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals.
- Protection against any type of crime to safeguard life and assets by various methods and device.

Brief History of Security in the Philippines


- The private security business began on March 11, 1933, when the first formally licensed private security agency
“Special Watchman Agency” started operations;
- Later it renamed “Jimenez Security Agency”, founded by brothers Juan and Pedro Jimenez;
- On May 30 1958, the Philippine Association of Detectives and Protective Agency Operations (PADPAO) was
formally organized;
- RA 5487 was passed on June 13, 1969 through the continuous lobbying of the incorporators and officers of
PADPAO, which set the standards and minimum requirements for the operations of security agencies.
- P.D. 11 was passed on October 3, 1972, widening the coverage of RA 5487 to include security guards employed
in logging concessions, agricultural, mining and pasture lands;
- P.D. 100 was issued on January 17, 1973, broadening the coverage of the security industry to include employees
of the national or local government or any agency who are employed to watch or secure government building and
properties.
- On August 1969, the Philippine Constabulary activated the Security and Investigation Supervisory office or SIASO
to supervise and control the organization and operation of private security and detective agencies nationwide;
- Later it was renamed Philippine Constabulary Supervisory Office for Security and Investigation Agencies or
PCSUSIA.
- With the passage of RA 6975, this unit was absorbed by the Philippine National Police;
- Later it was made into a division of the PNP Civil Security Group and was renamed Security Agencies and Guard
Supervision Division (SAGSD);
- It was again renamed to PNP Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency (SOSIA).

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY


1. Command Responsibility – Cannot be delegated but the security tasks can be assigned.
2. Compartmentation – Need to know basis
3. Balance between security and efficiency – Security prevails over efficiency
4. General principles of security remain constant – Specific measures to suit operations
5. Security is the concern of all personnel – Regardless of rank, position, designation

TYPES OF SECURITY MEASURES FOR AN EFFECTIVE DEFENSE AGAINST CRIMES:


1. ACTIVE MEASURES – these involve the installation of physical barriers, security lighting, use of vaults, locks
and others.
2. PASSIVE MEASURES – those that will deter man from committing such act of fear of being caught, charge in
court or get dismissed, such as: security education, programs, investigations, seminars, personnel security
check.

THREE MAJOR AREAS OF SECURITY


1. Physical Security
2. Personnel Security
3. Document and Information Security

TYPES OF SECURITY
1. PHYSICAL SECURITY – a system of barriers placed between the potential intruder and the objects/matter to be
protected. It is the broadest branch of security, which is concerned with physical measures adopted to prevent
unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials and documents and to safeguard them against espionage,
sabotage, damage and theft.

OBJECTIVES:
a. To protect the organization’s asset;
b. To make access so difficult that an intruder will not dare attempt penetration.

CONCEPTS:

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a. Enemy agents will always seek access;
b. Surreptitious entry is the greatest hazard to security;
c. There are no impenetrable barriers;
d. Each installation is different.

FACTORS THAT BRING INSECURE CONDITION:


1. Threat – An indication of impending danger or harm;
- positive inimical acts
2. Hazard – A chance of being injured or harmed;
-passive inimical acts
3. Vulnerability – inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment
-measure of how open an establishment to intrusion, attack or injury
4. Risk – is the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss (an
undesirable outcome).
-probability of an event to happen that will lead to loss.

SECURITY HAZARD – An act or condition which results in a situation conducive to a breach of the protection
system and the subsequent loss or compromise, or damage to personnel, property or facilities.

KINDS OF HAZARDS
1. Man –Made Hazards – an acts or conditions affecting the safe of operation of the facility caused by human
action, accidental or intentional. It includes sabotage, espionage, pilferage and theft.
2. Natural Hazard – cause by natural phenomena which cause damage, disturbance and problems of normal
functioning activities, including security. It includes flood, lighting, storms and volcanic eruptions.

THE EXTENT OF DEGREE OF RISK TO SECURITY WILL BE DEFENDANT ON THE FOLLOWING:


1. RELATIVE CRITICALITY OF OPERATIONS – is the importance of the firm which reference to the national
economy and security.
2. RELATIVE VULNERABILITY – The susceptibility of the plant or establishment to damage, loss, or disruption of
operation due to various hazard.

BARRIER – can be defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal
access to an installation.

Generally, a barrier is use for the following purposes:


1. Outline the perimeter of the area to be secured;
2. Create a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry;
3. Delay intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders;
4. Assist in more efficient and economical employment of guards;
5. Facilitates and impose the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

THREE LINES OF PHYSICAL DEFENSE


1. First Line of Defense
>Perimeter fences/barriers
>Guards at the gate
2. Second Line of Defense
>Doors, Floors, walls, roofs
>Windows – below 18 feet must be installed by grill.
3. Third Line of Defense
> Cabinets, locks, safes, vaults, interior file rooms

Perimeter barrier/fences – a medium or structure which defines the physical limits of an installation or area to
restrict or impede access thereto.

TYPES OF PHYSICAL BARRIER:


1. NATURAL BARRIER – include mountains, rivers, seas, desserts or terrain difficult to traverse. To be fully
effective, these barriers must be under surveillance of guards.
2.STRUCTURAL OR MAN-MADE BARRIER – structural constructions made by man like fences, walls, floors,
roofs, grill or other physical means to deter or impede penetration.
3. Human Barrier – Security guards and employees of the establishment.
4. Animal Barrier – animals are used in partially providing a guarding system like dogs and greese.
5. Energy Barrier – It is the employment of mechanical, electrical, electronic energy imposes a deterrent to entry
by the potential intruder.

TYPES OF PERIMETER BARRIER


1. SOLID FENCE – Constructed in such a way that visual access through the fence is denied. Its advantage is that
it denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel, activities and the scheduled
movements of the security personnel. On the other hand, it prevents the guards from observing the area around the
installation and it creates shadow that may be used by the intruder for cover and concealment.

WALL – Masonry wall should have the same as the chain linked and surrounded by the barbed wire as top guard.

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2. FULL VIEW FENCE – It is constructed in such a way that visuals access is permitted through the fence. Its
advantage is, that it allows the security personnel to keep the surrounding of the installation under observation. On
the other hand, it allows the intruder to become familiar with the movements of the security personnel.

TYPES OF FULL VIEW FENCE


1. CHAIN LINK FENCE
- Should be constructed minimum
height of 7 feet excluding top guard;
- 9 gauges or heavier;
- Mesh openings of not larger 2 inches per side;
- Twisted;
- Securely fastened to rigid material or reinforced concrete;
- Reach within 2 inches of hard ground or paving;
- On soft ground, it must reach below surface deep enough to compensate for shifting soil or sand.

2. BARBED WIRE FENCE – is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals
along the strand(s). It is used to construct inexpensive fences.

SPECIFICATIONS OF BARBED WIRE FENCE


>Standard barbed wire is twisted double strand, 12 gauge wires, with 4 point barb spaced on equal distant
part;
>Barbed wire fencing should not be less than 7 feet high, excluding the top guard;
>Barbed wire fencing must be firmly affixed to post not more than 6 feet apart;
>The distance between strands will not exceed 6 inches and at least one wire will be interlock and midway
between posts.

3. Concertina Wire or Dannert Wire – is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can
be expanded like a concertina. Opened concertina wire is 50 feet long and 3 feet diameter.

ADDITIONAL PROTECTIVE BARRIERS


1. Top Guard- an addition overhang or barbed wire place on vertical perimeter fences facing upward and outward
with a 45 degree angle with three to four strands of barbed wires space six inches apart. This will increase the
protective height and prevent easy access.
2. Entry Stations – provided at main perimeter entrances to secure areas located out of the doors, and manned by
guards on a full time basis.
3. Towers – a house like structures above the perimeter barrier. Height of tower increases the range of observation
during day and night with artificial illumination.
4. Clear Zones – unobstructed area maintain on both sides of the perimeter barrier. It affords better observation
and patrol movement. It should be cleared of anything that may provide concealment or assistance to a person
seeking an authorized entry.

CLEAR ZONE
-20 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and exterior structure. (Outside)
-50 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and structure within the protected areas. (Inside).

PROTECTION IN DEPTH – In large open areas or ground, where fencing or walling is impracticable and
expensive, warning signs should be conspicuously placed. The depth itself is protection.

Signs and Notices – erected where necessary in the management of unauthorized ingress and preclude
accidental entry.

SECURITY LIGHTING – provides sufficient illumination to areas during hours of darkness.

PURPOSES OF SECURITY LIGHTING


1. It improves visibility so that intruders can be seen, identified and apprehend;
2. It gives psychological fear, which serves as a deterrent to thieves, pilferers, trespassers, and sabotage;
3. It makes easier. The routine of work of guards in identifying employees, vehicles during night time;
4. If placed in certain areas, may even reduce the number of stationary guards, and instead, may require only
roving patrols at night.

TYPES OF SECURITY LIGHTING


1. Stationary Luminary – most common type consisting of fixed series of luminaries. It is commonly used on entry
gates of employees and vehicles.
>Glare Protection Type – The intensity is focused to the intruder while the observer or the guard
remain in comparative darkness.
>Controlled lighting – The lighting is focused on certain objects than the background.

2. Standby Lighting – similar to continuous lighting but can be turned on manually or by special device or other
automatic means, when there is a suspicion of entry.
3. Emergency Lighting – stand by lighting which can be utilized in the event of electrical failure.

TYPES OF LIGHT LAMPS

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1. Incandescent Lamps – These are common light bulbs that are found in every home. They have the advantage
of providing instant illumination when the switch is thrown and most commonly used protective lighting system
2. Gaseous –Discharge Lamp- The use of these in protective lighting is limited since it require a period of two to
five minutes to light when they are cold and even longer period to light, when hot, after power interruption.
- It is very economical to use but for industrial security, it is not acceptable due to long time of lighting.
>Mercury Vapor Lamps – It gives a blue green color light due to the presence of mercury vapor.
>Sodium Vapor Lamp – lamps emits yellow light. It is an efficient bulb and due to its color, this light lamps
are used in areas where insect predominate. Amber color does not attract insects at night.

3. Quarts Lamp – It is a lamp that emits very bright white light and instant on almost as rapidly as the incandescent
lamp. They are frequently used at very high wattage and they are excellent for use along the perimeter barrier.

TYPES OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT


1. Floodlights – project light in a concentrated beam. Best used in boundaries, building or fences. It is also known
as reflectorized or spotlight.
2. Searchlight – Highly focused incandescent lamps.
3. Fresnel lights – Wide beam unit, primarily to extend the illumination in long horizontal strips. It projects a narrow
horizontal beam which is approximately 180 degrees in the vertical plane.
4. Street lights – Produced diffused light rather than direction beam. They are widely used in parking areas.

PROTECTIVE ALARMS – is an aural or visual signal given by the annunciator to the security when intruder actuate
certain devices in a protected area.

Basically, alarm system is designed to alert security personnel of a attempted or consummated intrusion
into an area, building or compound. Each type of alarm is activated in the event that an intruder tampers with the
circuitry, a beam or radiated waves. Alarm is also for fire, smoke, or other emergencies and presence of hazards.

THREE BASIC PARTS OF ALARM SYSTEM


1. Sensors or Trigger device – device that can sense an abnormal condition within the system and provide
a signal indicating the presence or nature of the abnormality
2. Circuit or Transmission Line – It is the communication channel that conveys the information from all sensors in
the system to the signal by means of wire, radio waves.
3. Annunciator /Enunciator – is a visual or audible signaling device. The actual alarm may be audible or silent, a
bell, buzzer, phone ringing, or flashing of light.

TYPES OF PROTECTIVE ALARM


1. Central Station System – A type of alarm where the central station is located outside of the installation. It is a
system in which the alarm signal is relayed to remote panel located at the facilities of private owned protection
Service Company manned by its personnel. Several separate compounds tie their alarm system to a central station
so that in case of need, the central station calls for assistance to the police, fire department, hospital or with other
government assisting units.
2. Proprietary System – Similar to the central station type excepts that the proprietary console is located inside the
subscribers installation who owns or bases the system.
3. Auxiliary System – An installation owned system which is a direct extension of the local enforcement agency
and/or fire department by special arrangements.
4. Local Alarm System – a local alarm in which a siren or bell is sounded with no predictable response. This
system is used in residence or small establishment which cannot afford a respond system.
- Consists of rigging up a visual or audible alarm near the object to be protected.
5. Dial Alarm System – This system is set to dial a predetermined number. When the alarm is activated, the
number selected might be the police station or others. When the phone is answered, a recording voice will state
that an intrusion is in progress.

FIRE PROTECTION
FIRE ALARM - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warn the occupants of the building
or fire fighting elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate action to save life
and property and to suppress the fire.

FIRE ALARM DEVICES


1. Smoke Detector – a device placed at the ceilings of the floor that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
2. Fire Bell -a hollow device made of metal that makes a ringing sound.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER – a type of built in sprinklers which works by the increase of room temperature and
which automatically operates the system to put out the fire. Attached and distributed in the ceiling of the rooms.
These sprinklers will go into action once a fire starts, and those that will open are those that are directly above the
fire and water is delivered where it is needed.

STAND PIPES
G.I. steel or plastic pipes located inside the building from the lowest to the top floor with water under pressure for
use in case of fire. Located near the standpipe is a fire hose usually enclosed in a glass box.

FIRE HYDRANT – It is a mechanical device strategically located in an installation or in a street where a fire hose
will be connected so that the water will be available to extinguishe a fire.

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FIRE EXTINGUISHER – is a fire fighting equipment which can is a fire fighting equipment which can be portable or
in cart that is used to put out fire depending on the contents to extinguish certain types of fire.

CLASSES OF FIRE
1. CLASS A –- involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, and paper, requires an
extinguishing agent which cools. A water or multi-purpose dry chemical can be used.
2. CLASS B – fires involving flammable and combustible liquids and gases, such as solvents, greases,
gasoline, and lubricating oil, require an extinguisher which removes oxygen or cuts the chain reaction. Foam,
carbon dioxide, dry chemical, are effective.
3. CLASS C – fires involve energized electrical equipment (live electrical wires, electrical appliances). A non-
conducting extinguishing agent such as carbon dioxide or multi-purpose dry chemical must be used.
4. CLASS D FIRES – the result of the combustion of certain materials in firely divided forms. These metals can be
magnesium, potassium, powdered aluminum and zinc.

HOW TO OPERATE FIRE EXTINGUISHER


If you need to use a fire extinguisher, remember the word PASS:
 PULL the pin - Fire extinguishers often have a pin, latch, or puncture lever that you need to release
first.
 AIM low - Aim the nozzle or hose of the extinguisher at the base of the fire.
 SQUEEZE the handle - This releases the extinguishing agent.
 SWEEP from side to side - Move in close, and sweep across the base of the fire. Watch for re-flash of
the fire.

TYPES OF ALARM SYSTEM


1. Metallic Foil or Wire – It will detect any action that moves or break the foil or wire.
2. Photoelectric or Electric Eye Device – A light beam is transmitted at a frequency of several thousand vibrations
per second. It is connected by a wire to control station and when an intruder crosses the beam , he breaks the
contact with the photoelectric coil which activates the alarm
3. Audio Detection device – It is a supersensitive microphone speaker sensor that is installed in the walls,
ceilings, and floors of the protected area.
4. Vibration detection device - devices mounted on barriers and are used primarily to detect an attack on the
structure itself. When movement or vibration occurs, the unstable portion of the circuit moves and breaks the
current flow, which produces an alarm

ALARM DEVICES
1. Magnetic Door Contact -is a protective device usually placed in the door, and window that can send notification
when the opening and closure occurs
2. Passive Infrared Detector (PIR) or Motion Sensor –PIRs are able to distinguish if an infrared emitting object is
present by first learning the ambient temperature of the monitored space and then detecting a change in the
temperature caused by the presence of an object.
3. Panic button -Often located under the counter, the button can be pressed in times of distress (Such as robbery,
disruptive or threatening behavior, or a situation which may warrant assistance), triggering a silent alarm.
4. CCTV - A video monitoring system is more commonly known as Closed Circuit Television Systems. A CCTV
system is a system consisting of a television camera, video monitor, and a transmission medium (Cable, fiber or
wireless) connecting the two. It is used to monitor the premises.

IP CAMERA
>IP based cameras work by turning images and audio into data then transmitting this data over a network or
Internet connection.
>IP cameras are a type of Closed Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) used for capturing images and audio
recordings in surveillance for homes and businesses.
-The IP name stands for Internet Protocol, a system that allows the transmission of images captured by a digital
video recorder (DVR) to the end destination computers and these components together make up a video security
system.

TYPES OF BANK ALARM


1. Foot rail Activator – They are place on the floor in such a position that tellers may activate the alarm by placing
the front of their foot to foot rail to activate the alarm.
2. Knee or Thigh Buttons – It is installed inside the teller station so that they can be activated by knee or thigh
pressure.
3. Foot Botton – Like the foot rail, it permits alarm activation in relatively safety, while both hands remain clear in
view of the robbers.
4. Double Squeeze Button – It requires pressure on both side of the device , thus the probability of accidental
alarm is reduced.

PROTECTIVE LOCKS
LOCK – defined as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or electronic device designed to prevent entry to a building or
room.

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PADLOCK – a portable and detachable lock having a pivoted or sliding hasp which possess through a staple ring,
or the like and is made fast or secured.

General Groups of Locks


1. Warded Lock - is a type of lock that uses a set of obstructions, or wards, to prevent the lock from opening unless
the correct key is inserted. The correct key has notches or slots corresponding to the obstructions in the lock,
allowing it to rotate freely inside the lock.
2. Pin Tumbler Lock – is a lock mechanism that uses pins of varying lengths to prevent the lock from opening
without the correct key.
3. Lever Tumble Lock – lock used in safe deposit box and is for all purposes. It is also used in desk, lockers and
cabinets and are generally less secure than pin tumbler lock.
4. Disc Tumbler Lock – is a lock composed of slotted rotating detainer discs. A specially cut key rotates these
discs like the tumblers of a safe to align the slots, allowing the sidebar to drop into the slots, thus opening the lock .
-Disc tumbler lock is commonly designed for automobile industry and general use in car door today.

Type of Locks
1. Key – Operated Lock – It uses some sort of arrangement of internal physical barriers which prevent the lock
from operating unless they are properly aligned. The key is the device used to align these internal barriers so that
the lock may be operated.
2. COMBINATION LOCK – a lock that requires manipulation of parts according to a predetermined combination
code of numbers. Most of this lock has three dials but some locks have four dials for greater security.
3. CARD OPERATED LOCK/CODED LOCK – type of lock that can be opened by inserting a coded card in a slot in
the lock, or by pushing the correct button on the surface of the lock.
4. ELECTRONIC LOCK – type of lock that can be closed and opened remotely by electronic means.

BIOMETRICS – A machine that can be used for identification of humans by their characteristics or traits. It is used
as a form of identification and access control. It is equipped with recording device that can identify the person
operating the lock and the time it was operated.

KEY CONTROL – defined as the management of keys in a plant or business organization to prevent unauthorized
individual access to the keys.

Change Key – a key to a single lock


Sub-Master Key – a key that can open all locks within a particular area or grouping.
Master Key – a special key capable of opening a series of locks. It is capable of opening less number of locks than
grand master key.
Grand Master Key – a key that can open everything in a system involving two or more master key groups.

PETERMAN – A term used in England for lock picker, safecrackers, and penetrators of restricted areas or rooms.

FALSE KEY – Genuine key stolen from the owner

Personnel Identification and Movement Control


1. Pass/Badge System – A pass or badge system is issued by security to personnel to be admitted in the
installation. The purpose is to ensure that only persons who have the right and authority will be given the necessary
access to the area. The pass system is for general use and not for the restricted areas, like exclusive, limited or
controlled areas.

Types of Pass System


1. Single Pass System – authorization to enter specific areas issued to an employees who keeps it in the
possession until his authorization is change or until terminates.
2. Pass Exchange System – Exchange of the one color coded pass at the entrance to the controlled areas which
is issued to an employee who keeps it in his possession until his authorization.
3. Multiple Pass System – multiple copies of passes are issued to an individual. The individual exchange his
badge for another color or markings at the entrance. Once inside, if he needs to enter to a restricted areas, he
exchanges it for another color.

Restricted Area – It refers to an area in which personnel or vehicles are controlled for reasons of security. It is
established to provide security for installation or facilities and to promote efficiency of security operations and
economy in the use of the security personnel

Types of Restricted Areas


1. Limited Area – It is a restricted area in which lesser degree of control is required than in an exclusion area, but
which the security interest would be compromised by uncontrolled movement.
2. Exclusion Area – It refers to a restricted area which contains security interest to Top Secret importance and
requires the highest degree of protection. The area should be under surveillance at all times

Security Clearance – It is a certification by a responsible authority that the person described is cleared to access
to classified matters at appropriate levels.
Interim Clearance – Effectivity is two years

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Final Clearance – Effectivity is five years.

Protective Cabinets
1. Safe – metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents or small items in an office or installation. It can
be classified as both robbery and burglary resistance depending upon the use and need.
Safe Specifications
1. At least 750lbs. Below 750 must be anchored to building structure.
2.1 inch thick steel.
3. Door should be 1 ½ thick steel
2. Vault – heavily constructed fire and burglar resistance container usually part of the building structure used to
keep and protect cash, documents and negotiable instruments. It is bigger than safe but smaller than File Room.
Vault Specifications
>Doors should be 6 inches thick made of steel
>Walls, ceilings and floor should be 12 inches thick
>Floors should be elevated by 4 inches
>Not more than 5,000 cubic feet in size
> Vault door must be fire resistance up to 4 to 6 hours.
3. File Room – A cubicle in a building constructed to little lighter than a vault but bigger size. It can accommodate
limited people to work on the records inside
File Room Specifications
>Should be 12 feet high
>Interior cubage should be not more than 10,000 cubic feet
>Water tight door, fire proof for 1 hour.

Some Test for Fire Resistance


1. Fire Endurance Test – A safe should not have any one time a temperature 350 F
2. Explain Hazard Test – test to determine is the sudden rise in temperature will not cause the safe to rupture. If
the safe can withstand 2000 F for 30 minutes without cracking or opening then it has passed the test.
3. Fire and Impact test – Its objective is to determine the strength of a safe to resist the collapse of a building
during fire.

HUMAN BARRIER
Security guard – is any natural person who offers or renders personal service to watch or guard residential or
business premises or both, government and/or their premises for hire and compensation.

WHO MAY ORGANIZE AND MAINTAIN PRIVATE SECURITY AGENCY AND PRIVATE DETECTIVE AGENCY
Any Filipino citizen or corporation, association, partnership, one hundred percent of which is owned and
controlled by Filipino citizen.

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF SECURITY GUARD FORCE


Republic Act 5487, as amended – The Private Security Agency Law, approved on June 13, 1969.

2003 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of RA 5487, as amended,

PNPSOSIA – Philippine National Police Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency – office under the Civil
Security Group which is charged with the supervision, direction and control of all security agencies in the Republic.

BASIC REQUIREMENT OF AN OPERATOR OR MANAGER OF SECURITY AGENCY


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Not be less than twenty five (25) years of age;
3. College graduate and/or a commissioned officer in the inactive service or retired from the AFP or PNP;
4. Has taken a course/seminar on Industrial Security Management and/or must have adequate training or
experience in security business,
4. Good moral character;
5. Having no previous record of conviction of crime or offense involving moral turpitude.

QUALIFICATIONS OF SECURITY GUARD OR WATCHMAN


1. Filipino citizen;
2. High School graduate;
3. Physically and mentally fit;
4. At least eighteen (18) years of age but not more than fifty (50) years old;
5. Has undergone Pre-Licensing course or its equivalent.

Veterans and retired military/police personnel honorably discharge including graduates of ROTC advance
(or its equivalent in the PNP) are exempted from the required Basic-Licensing Training.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR SECURITY OFFICER


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Holder of a Baccalaureate Degree;
3. Physically and mentally fit;

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4. Has graduated from a Security Officer Training Course or its equivalent

QUALIFICATIONS OF SECURITY CONSULTANT


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of Masters degree either in Criminology, Public Administration, MNSA, Industrial Security Administration,
or Law
4. Must have at least ten (10) years experience in the operation and management of security business.

PRIVATE DETECTIVE
Any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission, other than members of the AFP,
BJMP, PNP or any other law enforcement agencies.

QUALIFICATIONS OF A PRIVATE DETECTIVE


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of baccalaureate degree, preferably Bachelor of Laws or Bachelor of Science in Criminology;
4. Graduate of a Criminal Investigation Course offered by the PNP or NBI or any police training school, or a
detective training in any authorized/recognized training center;
5. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate or its equivalent

DISQUALIFICATIONS
1. Having previous record of any conviction of any crime;
2. Having previous record of any conviction of any offense involving moral turpitude;
3. Having been dishonorably discharged or separated from employment or service;
2. Being a mental incompetent;
3. Being addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs, and
4. Being a habitual drunkard
5. Dummy of a foreigner

MORAL TURPITUDE – It is an act of baseness , vileness or depravity in the private and social duties which a man
owes to his fellowmen, or to society in general, contrary to the accepted and customary rule of right and duty
between a man and man. Conduct that is considered contrary to community standards of justice, honesty and good
morals. Examples . Rape, Forgery, Robbery

TYPES OF SECURITY GUARD FORCE


1. Company Guard Force – security force maintained and operated by any private company/corporation utilizing
any of its employees to watch secure and guard its establishment.
2. Security Agency service – security guard belonging to privately licensed agency (contractual basis);
3. Government Guard Forces –security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other than military
or police.
Validity of Security Guard License – Three (3) years

POSSESSION OF FIREARMS
1. One (1) firearm for every two (2) security guards;
2. Private security agency/private detective agency/company security force/government security force shall not be
allowed to possess firearms in excess of five hundred (500) units.
3. Shotguns not higher than 12 gauge
4. Weapons with bores not bigger than cal .22 to include pistols and revolvers with bores bigger than cal .38

Exemptions: in areas where there is an upsurge of lawlessness and criminality as determined by the Chief
PNP, Regional Office or their authorized representative, they may be allowed to acquire, possess and use high
powered firearms.

 Private Security Agency with Temporary License to Operate – for one hundred guards, an initial of at
least thirty licensed firearms.
 For with Regular License to Operate - for 200 hundred security guards, at least 70 pieces of licensed
firearms.

NUMBERS OF SECURITY PERSONNEL TO BE MAINTAINED TO SECURE REGULAR LICENSE TO OPERATE


1. Private Security Agency – minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel and a maximum
of one thousand (1,000).
2. Company Guard Force/Private Detective Agency – minimum of thirty (30) and a maximum of One thousand
(1,000)

LIMITATION IN THE CARRYING OF FIREARMS


1. No firearm shall be borne nor be in the possession of any private security personnel except when in actual
performance of duty, in the prescribed uniform, in the place and time so specified in the Duty Detail Order (DDO).
2. Shall be carried only within the compound of the establishment where he is assigned to guard.
3. While escorting big amount of cash or valuable outside of its jurisdiction or area of operation, private security
agency shall issue an appropriate Duty Detail Order to the security personnel concerned

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Duty Detail Order (DDO) – is a written order/schedule issued by a superior officer usually the private security
agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private security/detective services
duties. DDO for the purpose of post duties not requiring transport of firearms outside of the physical compound or
property of a client or client establishment shall be issued for not more than a thirty (30) days duration

CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING AND ITS DURATION


1. Basic Security Guard Course (Pre-Licensing Course) – 150 hours;
2. Re-Training Course- 48 hours;
3. Security Officers Training Course – 300 hours
4. Basic Security Supervisory Course – 48 hours

LICENSE AND FEES


New applicants to operate shall be required to obtain a minimum capitalization of P1 Million with minimum
bank deposit of P500,000.00 in order to start its business operation. All Private Security Agencies must be
registered at the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC).

SURETY BOND
Agency with 1 -199 guards – P50,000.00
Agency with 200-499 guards – P100,000.00
Agency with 500-799 guards – P150,000.00
Agency with 800-1000 guards – P200,000.00

This bond shall answer for any valid and legal claims against the agency filed by aggrieved party.

 All Licenses to Operate have a validity of Two (2) years;


 All applications for renewal of License to operate (LTO) shall be filed at least sixty (60) days before the
expiry date of LTO;
 No application shall be approved unless a certification is issued by FED-CSG to the effect that all licenses
of firearms of the agency are updated/renewed for at least one (1) year forthcoming during the validity of
the renewed LTO.
 PSA with 200-1000 guards – regular license to operate good for 2 years.
 New PSA – a temporary license to operate good for 1 year.
 PSA with temporary license to operate having posted 100 guards or more but less than 200 guards shall,
upon expiration of such license be issued extension period to operate good for 6 months. However, upon
the expiration of such 6 months extension, no additional extension shall be granted unless the PSA concern
shall submit a certification for the posting of at least additional 50 guards thereby making a total of 150
guards or more.
 PSA with extended temporary license, shall upon expiration of such license, but still fail to comply with the
200 guards requirement, be granted additional extension of another 6 months period to comply for the
issuance of a regular license to operate. Failure to comply shall serve as a basis for the issuance of a
cease operation order
 License PSA with less than 100 guards shall not be renewed after 1 year of operation.
 PSA with cancelled/revoked license shall cease to operate, and with 7 days after having been duly notified
of such cease operation order, shall immediately deposit all its firearms with PNP Firearms and Explosives
Division PNP-FED).

Approval, Cancellation, Suspension of LTO


Chief PNP
-Approval of New Regular LTO
-Cancellation of Regular LTO
-Re-instatement of Regular LTO
-Suspension of Regular LTO

Director Civil Security Group


- Renewal of Regular LTO
- Approval of Temporary LTO
- Reversion of Regular to Temporary LTO
- Cancellation of Temporary LTO
- Suspension of Temporary LTO

STOCKING OF AMMUNITION
1. Stocks of ammunition in the agency shall not exceed fifty (50) rounds of ammunition per unit of duly licensed
firearms.
2. Individual issue to each security guard shall be limited to twenty five (25) rounds for every security guard.

CONFISCATION OF FIREARMS OF SECURITY GUARD


1. When the firearm is about to be used in the commission of a crime;
2. When the firearm is actually being used in the commission of a crime;
3. When the firearm has just been used in the commission of a crime;
4. When the firearm being carried by the security guard is unlicensed or a firearm is not authorized by law and
regulation for his use;

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5. When the confiscation of the firearm is directed by the order of the court;
6. When the firearm is used or carried outside the property, compound or establishment serviced by the agency
without proper authority; or
7. When a security guard does not possess any license to exercise his profession.
In all the above cases, the confiscating officer shall inform immediately the agency concerned.

REVOCATION OF LICENSE TO POSSESS FIREARM


1. Failure to submit any issued firearm for verification as required;
2. Carrying firearms by security personnel without appropriate Duty Detail Order;
3. When the firearm serial number has been duplicated on another firearm or using one firearms license for more
than one firearm other than those stipulated in the license;
4. Carrying of firearms outside of the place stated in the permit or in places prohibited under the law;
5. When the firearm was reported lost.

SECURITY PERSONNEL RANKS, POSITIONS, STAFFING PATTERN AND JOB DESCRIPTION


1. Security Management Staff
1.1 Security Director (SD) –Agency Manager/Chief Security Officer – responsible for the entire operation
and administration/management of the security agency.
1.2 Security Executive Director (SED) – Assistant Agency Manager/Asst. Chief Security Officer – Assist
the Security Director
1.3 Security Staff Director (SSD) – Staff Director for Operation and Staff Director for Administration
 The Staff Director for operation – assistant of the security manager for the efficient operation of the
agency.
 The Staff Director for Administration – is the staff assistant of the agency manager for the effective
and efficient administration and management of the agency.
1.4Security Staff Director for Training – Staff in charge for Training – responsible for the training of the
Agency’s security personnel

2. Line Leadership Staff


2.1 Security Supervisor 3 – Detachment Commander – is the field or area commander of the agency;
2.2 Security Supervisor 2 – Chief Inspector – responsible for inspecting the entire area covered by the
detachment;
2.3 Security Supervisor 1 – Inspector – responsible for the area assigned by the Chief Inspector or the
Detachment Commander.
3. Security guard
3.1 Security Guard 1 – Watchman/guard – the one actually posted as watchman and or guard
3.2 Security Guard 2 – Shift-in-charge – responsible for the security officers who are scheduled in a
certain shift for a particular period
3.3 Security Guard 3 – Post-in-charge – responsible for the entire detailed security office within a certain
establishment.

Note: Security Agency operator/manager/owner can put its own staffing pattern provided it is consistent
with the provisions of IRR of RA 5487.

ADVANTAGES OF COMPANY GUARD FORCE


1. High caliber and receives higher salary;
2. Provides better service;
3. Can be trained to handle some of the more complex security duties;
4. More familiar with facilities they protect;
5. Tend to be more loyal with the company.

DISADVANTAGES:
1. May be required to join the union;
2. Cost more;
3. Problem of ensuring availability of back-up personnel.

ADVANTAGES OF AGENCY GUARD SERVICES


1. Less expensive;
2. Use is convenient;
3. Less administrative and personnel problems;
4. Agency assumes full responsibility for the scheduling and supervising of all guard personnel
5. Can easily obtain extra guard if needed;
6. Agency easily usually accepts liability of civil suits.

DISADVANTAGES:
1. Lack of training, low caliber employee;
2. No loyalty to the company;
3. Large turnover
4. Not familiar with facilities

ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF SECURITY GUARD

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1. Alertness – being watchful in spotting violator, a person, a vehicle or an incident;
2. Judgment – sound and good judgment to arrive at wise and timely decisions;
3. Confidence – faith in oneself and his abilities;
4. Physical Fitness – always in a condition to render effective service even under the most strenuous conditions;
5. Tactfulness – ability to deal with others successfully without offending;
6. Self Control – ability to take hold of oneself regardless of a provoking situation.

GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF A SECURITY GUARD


1. Enforce company rules and regulations;
2. Operate and enforce the personnel identification system;
3. Patrol and observe designated areas, perimeter, structures, installation;
4. Take into custody a person attempting or giving unauthorized access in restricted, limited and controlled areas
5. Check rooms, buildings, storage rooms of security interest and after working hours, check proper locking of
doors and gates.
6. Perform escort duties when required;
7. Respond to alarm signals or other indications suspicious activities and emergencies;
8. Safeguard equipment and material against sabotage, unauthorized access, loss, theft or damage;
9. At quickly in situations affecting the security of installation and personnel, to fire accidents, internal disorder,
attempts to commit criminal acts;
10. Control and regulate vehicle and personnel traffic within the compound as well as parking of vehicle;
11. Other duties that is necessary in the security guard function;

POWER AND DUTIES OF SECURITY GUARD


1. Territorial Power – A security guard shall watch and secure the property of the person, firm or establishment
with whom he or his agency has a contract for security services. Such services shall not extend beyond the
property or compound of said person, firm or establishment except when required by the latter in accordance with
the terms of their contract, or in hot pursuit of criminal offenders.
2. Arrest by Security Guard – A security guard or private detective is not a police officer and is not, therefore,
clothed with police authority. However, he may arrest a person under the circumstances mentioned in Section 5,
Rule 113, Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure.
3. Search without Warrant – Any security guard may, incident to the arrest, search the person so arrested in the
presence of at least two (2) witnesses. He may search employees of the firm or establishment with which he or his
agency has a contract, when such search is required by the very nature of the business of the person, firm or
establishment.

DUTIES DURING STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS


1. All private security personnel in direct confrontation with strikers, marchers or demonstrators shall not carry
firearms. They may carry only night sticks (baton) which may or may not be provided with tear gas canister and
dispenser. Security personnel not in direct confrontation with the strikers may carry in the usual prescribed manner
their issued firearm.
2. Private Security personnel shall avoid direct contact either physically or otherwise with the strikers;
3. They shall stay only within the perimeter of the installation which they are protecting at all times;
4. In protecting and securing the assets and persons of their clients, shall only use sufficient and reasonable force
necessary to overcome the risk or danger posed by strikers or hostile crowds.
5. They shall refrain from abetting or assisting acts of management leading to physical clash of forces between
labor and management.
6. They must at all times be in complete uniform with their names and agency’s name shown on their shirts above
the breast pockets.

FUNCTIONS OF A PRIVATE DETECTIVE


1. Background Investigation;
2. Locating missing person;
3. Conduct surveillance work;
4. Such other detective work as may become the subject matter of contract between the agency and its clients.

POWERS OF CITY, MUNICIPAL MAYORS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamity when the services of any security agency/entity
and his personnel are needed. The city or municipal mayor may muster or incorporate the members of the agency
or agencies nearest the area of such disaster or calamity to help in the maintenance of peace and order, prevention
of crime, or apprehension of violators of laws and ordinance, and in the protection of lives and properties.
They shall receive direct orders from the Chief of Police of the city or municipality for the duration of the
emergency, disaster or calamity.

SUPERVISION OF THE PNP


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamities, the Chief, PNP may deputize any security guard
to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties for the duration of such emergency, disaster or calamity.
Licensed guards, who are actually assigned to clients with DDO, shall be deputized by the Chief, PNP, and clothed
with authority to enforce laws, rules and regulations within his area of responsibility.

INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIVATE SECURITY PERSONNEL AND MEMBERS OF THE PNP

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1. Private security personnel are always subordinate to members of the PNP on matters pertaining to law
enforcement and crime prevention. They cannot enforce any provision of the law except in executing citizen’s arrest
and/or conducting initial investigation of a commission of a crime. In such case, any arrested person shall be turned
over immediately to the nearest PNP unit/station.
2. Criminal investigation is the responsibility of the PNP. All results of initial investigation conducted by the private
security personnel and all evidence gathered by them shall be turned over to the PNP unit/station concerned as a
matter of course without delay.

GROUNDS FOR CANCELLATION OF SECURITY GUARD LICENSE


1. Assisting or protecting criminals during on or off duty status;
2. Providing confidential information to unauthorized person;
3. Posted security guard found drunk or drinking intoxicating liquor; and
4. Other similar acts

THEFT AND PILFERAGE


Theft – committed by any person, who with intent to gain but without violence, against, or intimidation of persons
nor force upon things shall take personal property of another without the latter consent.

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS ON THEFT


1. The need or desire – An individual may need or desire to commit the act because of financial problem,
inadequate income, extravagant living, gambling.
2. The psychological need (Kleptomania) – is an irresistible urge to steal items of trivial value. People with this
disorder are compelled to steal things, generally, but not limited to, objects of little or no significant value.
3. The criminal tendency – The individual with such tendency may be more tempted to steal if security control are
inadequate.

THE CASUAL AND SYSTEMATIC PILFERER


1. Casual Pilferer – One who steals due to his inability to resist the unexpected opportunity and has a little fear of
detection.
2. Systematic Pilferer – One who steals with preconceived plans and takes away any or all types of items or
supplies for economic gain.

COMMUNICATION SECURITY – is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which prevent
or delay the enemy or unauthorized persons in gaining information through the communication system. This
includes:
a. Transmission Security – component of communications security which results from all measures
designed to protect transmission from interception.
b. Cryptographic Security – results from the provisions of technically sound crypto-system and their
proper use.
c. Physical Security – providing safeguards to equipment and material from access by unauthorized
persons.

THREATS IN COMMUNICATION SECURITY


1. Wiretapping - is the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means.
2. Bugging – means to secretly listen to or record a conversation using a hidden electronic device.
3. Eavesdropping (unauthorized listening)- is the unauthorized real-time interception of a private communication,
such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax transmission.

RA No. 4200, Approved June 19, 1965 – An Act to prohibit and penalize wiretapping and other related violations of
privacy of communication, and other purposes.

UNLAWFUL ACTS
Sec. 1
It shall be unlawful for any person, not being authorized by all the parties to any private communication or
spoken word, to tap any wire or cable, or by using any other device or arrangement, to secretly overhear, intercept,
or record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly known as a dictaphone or dictagraph
or dictaphone or walkie-talkie or tape recorder.
It shall also be unlawful for any person, be he a participant or not in the act or acts penalized in the next
preceding sentence, to knowingly possess any tape record, wire record, disc record, or any other such record, or
copies thereof, of any communication or spoken word secured either before or after the effective date of this Act in
the manner prohibited by this law; or to replay the same for any other person or persons; or to communicate the
contents thereof, either verbally or in writing, or to furnish transcriptions thereof, whether complete or partial, to any
other person:
Provided, That the use of such record or any copies thereof as evidence in any civil, criminal investigation
or trial of offenses mentioned in section 3 hereof, shall not be covered by this prohibition.

Sec.3
Nothing contained in this Act, however, shall render it unlawful or punishable for any peace officer, who is
authorized by a written order of the Court, to execute any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the two preceding
sections in cases involving the crimes of treason, espionage, provoking war and disloyalty in case of war, piracy,
mutiny in the high seas, rebellion, conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion, inciting to rebellion, sedition,

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conspiracy to commit sedition, inciting to sedition, kidnapping as defined by the Revised Penal Code, and violations
of Commonwealth Act No. 616, punishing espionage and other offenses against national security:

AUTHORIZATION
The authorization shall be effective for the period specified in the order which shall not exceed sixty (60)
days from the date of issuance of the order, unless extended or renewed by the court upon being satisfied that such
extension or renewal is in the public interest.
The court referred to in this section shall be understood to mean the Court of First Instance within whose
territorial jurisdiction the acts for which authority is applied for are to be executed.

BANK SECURITY – a specialized type of physical security protecting the assets, personnel and operation of a
bank, with special emphasis on the precaution and measures to safeguard the cash and assets while in s storage,
in transit, and during transaction.

Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Circular No. 620 Issued on September 3, 2008 – a Circular issued by BSP
concerning regulations on Bank protection which aims to promote maximum protection of life and property against
crimes (robbery, theft, etc), and other destructive causes.

Guard System – BSP requires that all banking offices be manned by adequate number of security personnel to be
determined by the bank, taking into consideration its size, location, costs and overall bank protection requirement.

Security Devices – Banks are required to have a robbery alarm or other appropriate device for promptly notifying
law enforcement office either directly or through an intermediary of an attempted, ongoing or perpetrated robbery.

In armored Car operations – all armored vehicles are required to be built with bullet resistant materials capable of
withstanding the firepower of high powered firearm (M16, M14). Also equipped with a vault or safe or a partition wall
with a combination lock designed to prevent retrieval of the cargo while in transit.

DOCUMENT AND INFORMATION SECURITY – Security involving the protection of documents and information
from loss, access by unauthorized persons
> prescribes the policies and establishes the standard basic procedures governing the classification and
security of official matter.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. The authority and responsibility for the preparation and classification of classified matter rest exclusively with the
originating office;
2. Classified matter should be classified according to content and not the classification of the file in which they are
held or of another document to which they refer;
3. Classification should be made as soon as possible by placing the appropriate marks on the matter to be
classified;
4. Each individual whose duty allows access to classified matter is responsible for the protection of the classified
matter while it is in his/her possession and shall insure that dissemination of such classified matter is on the “need
to know” basis and to “property cleared personnel only”.

CLASSIFY – refers to the act of assigning to information or material one of the four security classification
categories after determination has been made that the information requires the security protection as provided for in
the regulation;

SECURITY CLEARANCE – Is an administrative determination that an individual is eligible from a security


standpoint for access to classified matter of a specific category;

COMPARTMENTATION – Refers to the grant of access to classified matter only to properly cleared persons when
such classified information is required in the performance of their official duties, and restricting it to specific physical
confine when feasible.

NEED TO KNOW – term given to the requirement that the dissemination of classified matters be limited strictly to
those persons whose official duties require knowledge thereof.

SECURITY OF CLASSIFIED MATTER

CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
Memorandum Circular No. 196, dated 07/19/1968 (Security of Classified Matter in government offices)
1. TOP SECRET – any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would cause exceptionally
grave damage to the nation, politically, economically or militarily;
2. SECRET- any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would endanger national security,
cause serious injury to the interest or prestige of the nation or any governmental activity.
3. CONFIDENTIAL – any information and materials, the unauthorized disclosure of which would be prejudicial to
the interest or prestige of the nation or governmental activity or would cause administrative embarrassment or
unwarranted injury.
4. RESTRICTED – any information and material which requires special protection other than those determined to
be Confidential, Secret, and Top Secret matters.

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METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
1. By direct contact of officer or personnel concerned;
2. By official courier;
3. Electrical means in cryptographic form
4. Registered Mail

DESTRUCTION
1. Burning
2. Shredding

STORAGE shall be in a safe, steel filing cabinet with built in dial type combination lock of such weight, size and
construction as to minimize the possibility of physical theft or damage to fire.

OPERATIONAL SECURITY – part of physical security that deals primarily with the protection of processes,
formulas, patents, and other industrial and manufacturing activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or
photocopying;

INFORMATION CYCLE
1. The Creation – Information is discovered and develop;
2. Used – Some action is take with the information;
3. Storage and Retrieval – Stored for future use;
4. Transfer – transferring of information from active to inactive use;
5. Disposition – decision may be made to retain the information indefinitely.

CYBER CRIMES
ACTS IN VIOLATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE ACT (RA 8792 Approved on June 14, 2000)
1. Any acts of hacking or cracking or unauthorized access into or interference in a computer system/server or
information and communication system; or any access in order to corrupt, alter, steal, or destroy using a computer
or other similar information and communication devices including the introduction of computer viruses and the like,
resulting in the corruption, destruction, alteration, theft or loss of electronic data messages or electronic documents.
2. Any act of Piracy or the unauthorized copying, reproduction, dissemination, or distribution, importation, use,
removal, alteration, substitution, modification, storage, uploading, downloading, communication, making available
to the public or broadcasting of protected materials, electronic signature or copyrighted works including legally
protected sound recording or phonograms or information material on protected works, through the use of
telecommunication networks, such as, but not limited to, the internet, in a manner that infringes intellectual property
rights.
3. The access is without the knowledge and consent of the owner of the computer or information and
communications system.
4. Other analogous acts.

PENALTIES
(a) Hacking or crackling or any access in order to corrupt, alter, steal, or destroy using a computer or other similar
information and communication devices, without the knowledge and consent of the owner of the computer or
information and communications system, including the introduction of computer viruses and the like, resulting in the
corruption, destruction, alteration, theft or loss of electronic data messages or electronic documents shall be
punished by a minimum fine of One Hundred Thousand pesos (P 100,000.00) and a maximum commensurate
to the damage incurred and a mandatory imprisonment of six (6) months to three (3) years;
b) Piracy or the unauthorized copying, reproduction, dissemination, or distribution, importation, use, removal,
alteration, substitution, modification, storage, uploading, downloading, communication, making available to the
public, or broadcasting of protected material, electronic signature or copyrighted works including legally protected
sound recording or phonograms or information material on protected works, through the use of telecommunication
networks, such as, but not limited to, the internet, in a manner that infringes intellectual property rights shall be
punished by a minimum fine of One Hundred Thousand pesos (P 100,000.00) and a maximum commensurate to
the damage incurred and a mandatory imprisonment of six (6) months to three (3) years;

KINDS OF SENSITIVE INFORMATION


PROPRIETARY INFORMATION – information which some special way is related to the status, operations or
activities of the possessor over which the possessor asserts ownership.
TRADE SECRETS – It may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in
one’s business and which gives one opportunity to gain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.
PATENT – A grant given by the government to an inventor, conveying and securing to him the exclusive rights to
make, use and sell his invention for term of twenty (20) years.

LAW ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY


INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES [Republic Act No. 8293] Approved on June 6,
1997 AN ACT PRESCRIBING THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CODE
AND ESTABLISHING THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OFFICE,
PROVIDING FOR ITS POWERS AND FUNCTIONS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

THREAT TO PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE INFORMATION


Competitive Intelligence – systematic program for gathering and analyzing information about competitor’s
activities and general business trends to further company’s goals.

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Types of Competitive Intelligence
1. White – information available from company publication, public records or commercial reporting sources;
2. Gray – not readily available but which is usually can be obtained without acquiring any civil/criminal liability in the
process.
3. Black – obtained through clearly unethical or illegal means.

TYPES OF DOCUMENTS
Class I – Vital Document – This is an irreplaceable records , reproduction of which does not have the same value
as the original;
Class II – Important Document- This is a record, reproduction of which cause considerable expense and labor, or
considerable delay.
Class III – Useful Document – This is a record, the loss of which may cause inconvenience but could be readily
replaced and may not present insurmountable obstacle to the prompt restoration of the business;
Class IV- Non essential Document – This record may include daily files, routine in nature, lost of which will not
affect the organization.

PERSONNEL SECURITY – refers to the procedure followed, inquiries conducted, and criteria applied to determine
the work suitability of a particular applicant or the retention of a particular employee.

PURPOSE OF PERSONNEL SECURITY


1. To ensure that hired employees are best suited to assist the organization in achieving its mission and vision;
2. To assist in providing the necessary security to the employees while they carry out their functions.

PERSONNEL SECURITY INVESTIGATION (PSI) – It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion,
integrity, morals, and loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person’s suitability for appointment or access to
classified matter.

TYPES OF PSI
1. National Agency Check (NAC) – It consists of Local Agency Check supplemented by investigation of the
records and files of the following agencies: PNP, ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration and other agencies.
2. Local Agency Check (LAC) – Refers to the investigation of the records and files of agency in the area of
principal residence of the individual being investigated like clearances from Mayor, Police, Prosecutor and Courts.

BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION (BI) – It is an inquiry which aims to verify applicant’s information written at the
applicants form, to ascertain his/her past employment experiences and to obtain other information pertinent to the
decision to employ.
- A check made on an individual usually seeking employment through subjects records in the police, educational
institutions, place of residence, and former employers.

Kinds of Background Investigation


1. Complete background Investigation (CBI) – a type of BI which is more comprehensive, particularly all the
circumstance of his personal life.
2. Partial Background Investigation (PBI) – Investigation of the background of the individual but limited only to
some circumstances of his personal life.

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE CONDUCT OF BI


1. Loyalty – faithful allegiance to the Philippine government and its duly constitutional authorities;
2. Integrity – uprightness in character, soundness of moral principle, freedom from moral delinquencies.
3. Discretion – the ability or tendency to act or to decide with prudence, the habit of wise judgment;
4. Morals – distinctive identifying qualities which serve as an index to the essential or intrinsic nature of a person;
5. Character – the sum of traits that have been impresses by nature, education and habit upon the individual;
6. Reputation – opinion or estimation in which one is generally held. It is what a person is reported to be whereas
character is what a person is.

INVESTIGATIVE COVERAGE
1. Prior Employment;
2. Claimed education;
3. Claimed residence for the period covered in the employment and educational institutes;
4. If the candidate indicates a criminal record, then the details should be checked.

INVESTIGATIVE STANDARDS
1. Information sought should be relevant;
2. Information should be reliable;
3. If unfavorable, the information should be confirmed by at least two sources.

SECURITY SURVEY – A fact finding probe to determine a plant’s adequacy in all aspects of security, with the
corresponding recommendations.
- Refers to checklist, audits, or inventories of security conditions.
- Security Surveys are often called ‘RISK ANALYSIS SURVEYS’ or ‘RISK ASESSMENT SURVEYS

PURPOSES OF SECURITY SURVEY:

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1. To determine the existing state of security;
2. Identifying weaknesses in defense;
3. To determine the degree of protection required;
4. To produce recommendations for a total security systems.

Security Inspection
It is the process of conducting physical examination to determine compliance with establishment security
policies and procedures as a result of security survey.

SECURITY EDUCATION
It is defined as the exposure and teaching of employees on security and its relevance to their work.
Security education is conducted to develop security awareness among employees of the company. It should cover
all employees, regardless of rank or position.

PERSONAL SECURITY – Protection of personnel especially ranking official from any harm, kidnap, and others act.
VIP security is type of personnel security;
POLICE SECURITY PROTECTION GROUP (PSPG) - is mandated by law to provide protective security to
government officials, foreign dignitaries, and private individuals authorized to be given protection and also provide
physical security to vital installations, and assist the Presidential Security Group (PSG) in securing the President
and the members of the First Family.
PROTECTIVE CUSTODY – state or quality of being secured or freed from danger. It may also includes the
various means or device designed to guard a persons and property against a broad range of security hazard.
THREAT – is an indication of something impending and usually undesirable or unpleasant, with an intention
to inflict evil, injury or damage on another, usually as retribution or punishment for something done or left undone. It
is an expression of an intention to inflict loss or harm on another by illegal means, and especially by involving
coercion or duress over the person or his welfare.
THREAT ASSESSMENT – the process of investigation/validating the truthfulness of the existence of threat
to an individual.
EMERGENCY SITUATION – condition or state that danger has already occurred which resulted to loss of
life/liberty and/or there is imminent danger or threat to life and property where delay will endanger or may cause the
loss of life/property.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1. Access List – authenticated list of personnel given to the security allowing entry to a compound or installation or
part thereof;
2. Controlled Area – an area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where entry is restricted;
3. Dry-run – practical test or exercise of plans or any activity to test its validity, an operational readiness exercise;
4.Duress Code – type of code system so that security personnel or any employee when forced by armed men
intending to enter an installation can five alarm by the use of certain words in casual conversation with
personnel in the installation.
5. Exclusion Area – a restricted area containing materials or operation of security interest;
6. Restricted area – any area access to which is subject to special restriction control;
7. Security Hazard – Is any act or condition, which may result in the compromise of information, loss of life, loss or
destruction of property or disruption of objectives of the installation.
8. PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators, Inc.

TYPES OF SECURITY
1. Industrial Security – A form of physical security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to
safeguard personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents, and to protect
them from espionage, sabotage, damage or theft.
2. Bank Security – Is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which safeguards cash and
assets which are in storage, in transit and or during transaction.
3. Operational Security – Involves the protection of processes, formulas and patents, industrial and manufacturing
activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or photocopying.

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LEA 3: POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS WITH POLICE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
By: PROF. FELINO AGUIT BRAGADO

THE PURPOSE OF POLICE PATROL – Patrol Division is often the only one that perform twenty-four hours duty.
The patrol force continues to exits as the principal functioning unit or “backbone” of the department still attaches
well.

PATROL - means one or more police officer making rounds/walking from one place to another in order to guard or
inspect properties and to provide protection to people living within a prescribed area.

PATROL is the OPERATIONAL HEART of the Police Organization

PATROL is the SHOW WINDOW of the Police Department

PATROL – is very vital to police organization because civilized society cannot exist without people who will help
maintain law and order.

HISTORY OF POLICE PATROL

State of Winchester – 13th century – 1285 the state was enacted and introduces watch and ward to beef up law
and order.

The Charles – King Charles ll issued an act, which provided for the employment of 1,000 watchman to be in duty
from sunset to sunrise with a dimly lit lantern.

Bow Street Runners - 18th century -1748- Henry Fieldings become the Chief Magistrate at Bow Street in London
established the Bow Street Runners or sometimes called ”Thief Takers”. At the turn of the century a Bow Street
Horse Patrol was formed.

The Metropolitan Police – Sir Robert Peel. England’s Home Secretary formed the said police unit.

The French Police Institution expand Augustus Ceasar’s idea of police by giving them very wide powers including
such duties as price control, welfare, public morals, and even sitting in judgment of those offenders.

FOREIGN SETTING
The word “POLICE originated from the GREEK word “POLITEA”. Meaning government of a city. it applied to civil
officers and not necessarily policeman

The ROMANS changed the word to “POLITIA”

The French changer the word to POLICE – person who enforce the law

Patrol – French word PATROUILLER – rough by, to travel on foot

COP – Originated from European word to catch or seize

THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLICE ORGANIZATION IN THE PHILIPPINES


The police under the Philippine settings primitively evolved from the practice of different tribes to select able-
bodied young men to protect their villages, not from the assault of criminals , but from the depredation of wild
animal which prey on their livestock.
Section 2275, Book III, Title IX, Article XI, Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines, March10, 1917,
provides; Requirements of police service or patrol duty from male residents –between the age of 18 to 55 years
old to assist, for a period not exceeding five days in any month.

November 3, 1900 – the base of police organization was approved.

January 9, 1901 – Metropolitan Police Force now known as the Manila Police District was established, its first
Chief of Police was General Arthur McArthur (father of Gen Douglas McArthur).

July 4, 1901 William H. Taft was inaugurated as the First Civil Governor of the Philippines. He felt the need of the
police force under his supervision upon assuming the responsibility of civil government.

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July 18, 1901 - Act 175 was approved providing to the organization of Insular Constabulary

July 31, 1901- the MPF evolved into Manila Police Department - founded by Gov. Taft.

Capt. George Curry, a US Army officer was appointed as the First Chief of Police of Manila.

October 3, 1901 – the Insular Constabulary was changed to Philippine constabulary.

1935 - The Manila Police Department became an all Filipino organization with the appointment of Col. Antonio C.
Torres as the first Filipino Chief of Police
January 2, 1941 the Japanese forces invaded Manila Police and the Japanese military police known as the
“KEMPETAI” took the role police . The Manila Police was renamed Metropolitan Constabulary and placed under
the supervision of Japanese.

February 7, 1941, Manuel A. Roxas become the first President of the Republic. Appointed Col. Lambert T.
Javalera, a retired PC Officer, as a his first Filipino Chief of Police for Manila. Thus within the span of forty four
years from1901 to 1945, the American police system was the lifestyle of Philippine policing.

August 8, 1975 – PD 765 constituted the Integrated National Police with the Philippine Constabulary as nucleus.

August 26, 1977 - PD 1184 – Integrated National Police Personnel Professionalization law of 1977

December 13, 1990 - RA 6975 – An Act establishing the Philippine National Police under a reorganized DILG.

February 25, 1998 - RA 8551 – An Act providing the reform and reorganization of the Philippine national Police.

THE PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF POLICE PATROL


1. CRIME PREVENTION
2. CRIME SUPPRESION
3. CRIME CONTROL (Law Enforcement)
4. CRIME INVESTIGATION
a. Preliminary/Initial Investigation
b. Follow-up Investigation
c. Collection of Evidence
d. Crime Reporting
5. MAINTINANCE OF SOCIAL ORDER, and
6. POLICE SERVICE

Duties and Objectives of police patrol are many, but the basic duties could probably be summed up in two
(2) words; “PROTECTION and SERVICE’’

Note: The most power tool of a police officer is DISCRETION

CLASSES OF PATROL ACTIVITIES:


1. Called for Service – Incidents, requiring immediate police service.
2. Inspectional Service – Tending to reduce criminal opportunity and accidents.
3. Routine Patrol – Directed at less tangible hazards, such as poor lighted area, business section etc.

GENERAL CLASSES OF PATROL ACTIVITIES


1. Patrol and Observation
2. Supervision of Public Gathering
3. Miscellaneous Field Activities
4. Response Call
5. Investigation
6. Collection and Preservation of Evidence
7. Arrest Offenders
8. Preparation of Report
9. Presentation of Court Testimony

ANOTHER FUNCTION OF POLICE PATROL IN SERVICE


1. Emergency Service
2. Routine Call for Service

TEAM POLICING – It represent an attempt to integrate the police and community interest into a working
relationship so as to produce the desired objective of peacekeeping in the community.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TEAM POLICING:


1. Geographic stability of the patrol force.
2. Maximum interaction between team members
3. Maximum communication between team members and community residents.

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OMNIPRESENCE (patrol strategy in crime prevention)
1. High Police Visibility (Police Beat Patrol) Uniformed Police Officer
2. Low Police Visibility (Detective Beat Patrol) Plainclothes Police Officer

POLICE VISIBILITY:
1. Physical Presence
2. Proper Patrolling Scheme
3. Time Response

TYPES/METHODS OF PATROL
1. Foot Patrol – a. Uniformed, b. Plainclothes
2. Horse Patrol
3. Motorcycle Patrol
4. Bicycle and Small Vehicle Patrol
5. Helicopter and Fixed Wing Patrol
6. Automobile Patrol
7. Boat and amphibian Vehicle Patrol
9. Canine (K9) (Dog) Patrol
10. Cyber Patrol
11. Fixed Surveillance

PREVENTIVE PATROLS

FOOT PATROL (URBAN PATROLLING)


Historically, Foot Patrol is the oldest form of public patrol work. It means curving of crime in neighborhood,
enhancing community partnerships and keeping officers in touch with local activity. The use of foot patrols
decreased substantially in the last century before reemerging as a community policing tool. The benefits
particularly in the form of community goodwill and improved relationships between the police and community may
help to explain the recent resurgence in this practice
Coupled with the high gas prices, foot patrol are once again being used as a community policing tool.
Elements of Foot Patrol focus on the time, location and type of crimes committed to develop strategies to
decreased crime and enhanced the quality of life in their communities. It is also an important component of the
police strategies operating plan in crime prevention in the community

SCOPE OF OPERATIONS:
1. Determine the date, time, location, type of crimes and create crime maps to aid in efficient and effective
deployment.
2. Make statistical analysis with a community survey to obtain the opinions of residents and business owners
regarding priority issues.
3. Recruit individuals that can be use as volunteer on neighborhood watch programs as mutual aid societies and
as the eyes and ears of the police. Many exist in the city and describe them as the backbone of the city’s
community crime prevention effort.
4. Gain the understanding and support of the community.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Foot patrols should be part of a proactive, integrated problem-solving strategy
and not as a reactive response to an incident. The following are the duties and responsibilities on deploying
successful foot patrol:
1. Attend the roll call formation before his Tour of Duty for briefing and likewise attend the after Tour of Duty
formation for debriefing.
2. Patrol the assigned beats, observe and check suspicious people, structures, buildings, compounds and
vehicles;
3. Respond to call, entertain complains, initiate the investigation and protection of the scene and minimize the
after effects of accidents, fires and other catastrophes;
4. Observed and monitor public gatherings, prevent disorder and dispense unlawful assembles;
5. Prevent crimes and arrest sighted law violators, assuring the public that peace is preserved;
6. Inspect and/or conduct surveillance in various places of business establishments and other installation and
removed hazards to public safety;
7. Assist personnel of responsible agencies/unit in facilitating the flow of traffic at busy intersections/roads within
his area of responsibility, assist and provide pedestrian information such as directions and street locations;
8. Conduct home visitations when circumstances warrant, dialogues with the residents in their beat;
9. Reports occurrences and conditions which relate to crime, public peace, order and safety;
10. Enforce city/municipal ordinances on liquor establishments and night clubs, cabarets and all houses of ill-
reputes;
11. Check suspicious vehicles (private, public, or commercial/delivery vehicles) along the highways in the
course of their patrol period.
12. Foot patrollers must have the equipment necessary in the performance of their duty.

Advantages of Foot Patrol


1. You can be up close and personal with the public.
2. Police visibility is a great deterrent to crimes.
3. Police presence on the street speaks of the investment being made in the safety of every resident.
4. Presence of foot Patrols contributes to a feeling of safety.

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5. Foot patrollers can get places a lot faster than a car can sometimes.

Disadvantages of Foot Patrol


1. Foot patrollers can get places a lot faster than a car can sometimes.
2. It is more physically demanding
3. Lack of ability to arrest people.
4. You have to carry ALL of your equipments on you,
5. It really limits where you can go.
6. Back up is slower than if we were working in a car

BIKE PATROL
1. A Police bicycle is a land vehicle used by police departments, most commonly in the form of a mountain
bicycle.
2. Bike Patrol afforded more opportunity for contact between police and the public.
3. This kind of Patrol, when used with other enforcement methods employed forms an integrated patrol system. It
is also deployed to maintain law and order and the detection and prevention of crimes.
4. The maneuverability of these vehicles on crowded sidewalks and their ability to navigate narrow, crowded
driveways offer advantages over cars, although a bicycle's top speed is lower.

History of Seattle Police Department “Bicycle Patrol


The SPD bicycle patrol unit began in the summer of 1987. Comprised of just 2 officers, the department was
attracted to the ease of movement the bicycles could provide within an urban setting. In addition, during the
construction of the Metro bus tunnel, officers needed an easier way to maneuver around downtown when
responding to calls

HISTORY Of NYPD “Bicycle Patrol


Police officers adopted the bicycle early in the 20th century, initially using their own. However, they eventually
became a standard issue, particularly for police in rural areas. The Kent police purchased 20 bicycles in 1896, and
by 1904 129 rural police bicycle patrols were operating.

History of LPD “Bike Patrol”


The Lincoln Police Bike Patrol began in 1988 when Officer Mark Domangue looked for a more efficient way for foot
patrol officers to answer calls in the downtown area. A year later, the inclusion of bikes in regular patrol during
second shift made way for the conversion from a foot patrol squad to a formalized bike patrol in 1990. Bikes were
donated by area businesses and the first police bike patrol in the State of Nebraska was formed.
Scope of Operations

Bike Patrol Unit” which aims to strengthen police visibility of bike patrollers with the end in view of attaining a safe
place to live, works and do business. This also aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the anti-crime
efforts through information gathering and cost efficiency as a strategy in going after the criminal elements
victimizing people.

The PNP Bike Patrol Units were in full gear with Bull Cap from the head down to combat shoes with PNP Patrol
Shirt and PNP Athletic Shorts.

Equipments
1. Bicycle with equipment carry packs
2. Black Pistol Belt with complete paraphernalia
3. Side arms
4. Emergency lights
5. Bicycle helmet
6. Siren

Advantages of Bicycle Patrols


1. Bikes are less threatening than patrol vehicles:
2. Other bicyclists are more accepting of bike patrol officers: Cyclists can connect with bicycle officers on different
levels than vehicle patrol officers.
3. Bicycle patrols result in more than twice as many contacts with the public than vehicle patrols:
4. Bicycle police/security uniforms help officers to quickly transition from their traditional law enforcement duties to
more service oriented work:
5. Perpetrators don't notice bike patrols:
6. Bike patrols can go where traditional patrol vehicles can't: One of the biggest advantages to bicycle patrol is its
ability to navigate swiftly around a campus, avoiding obstacles and hazards that would stop a patrol vehicle in
its
7. Bicycle officers can use all of their senses to detect illegal activity: tracks.
8. Cycles have other uses: While essential for community policing initiatives, bike patrols can be integrated into
other operations and initiatives. Targeted enforcement, surveillance, traffic enforcement, and public order are
just a few ways in which bike officers can be deployed.
9. Bicycles cost much less to purchase and maintain than traditional patrol cars.
10. Bikes provide environmental and health benefits:

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Disadvantages of Bicycle Patrol
1. Officers don’t have on-board video cameras like those in patrol cars;
2. Bike patrol officers covers smaller area compared with using a patrol car;
3. Response time may be delayed by road and weather conditions;
4. Bicycle is slower as compared to motorized vehicles.
5. Bicycle has no capability to load arrested suspect.
6. Easy target for the lawless elements.

REMINDERS TO THE BIKE PATROLLERS


For a safe bicycle riding, the patrol officer should check if the bicycle is in proper working order:
1. With tires properly inflated,
2. Brakes being able to stop the bicycle,
3. The steering must be working properly, and
4. The size of the bicycle must be appropriate for the rider

RECONNAISSANCE PATROL
• PATROL – is a unit sent out from a large unit. It may be acquired a mission of reconnaissance link-up, re-
supply or combat or any combination mission.
• RECONNAISANCE PATROL – is a patrol which is sent out to gather information.

TEAM COMPOSITION
• TEAM LEADER – must be an officer or the most ranking of the team. Capable of all aspect.
• LEAD SCOUT – the eyes and ears of the team. Frontal Security is the main function and his trigger finger is
steady and sure.
• GUIDE – the path finder and the rappel master of the team.
• RADIOMAN – the radio operator of the team.
• ASST. RADIOMAN – the one who assist with the radioman & at the same time he is the sniper of the team.
• CONTACT MAN – the intelligence agent of the team, capable of getting information thru disguise.
• TAIL SCOUT – the track eraser of the team.

Buddy System – A very foundation upon which SR achieves teamwork. It is important that respect, trust and
confidence exist in the team if the team should be expected to accomplish the most hazardous mission.

Basic Arm Signal - To reserve secrecy while in mission, arm hand signal and other convenient signals are
employed during daytime when visibility becomes poor, sound signal like tapping the rifle or flicking of fingers are
employed
• Signals - because of the noise and speed and confusion of the battle particularly during the assault phase,
signals for maneuver and changes of position of the team replace lengthy verbal orders.
• Maneuver Right - thrust fist repeatedly to the right.
• Maneuver Left - thrust fist repeatedly to the left.
• Frontal Attack - thrust fist repeatedly to the front individual nearest the Team Leader repeat the signal to inform
team members down the line

CAPABILITIES OF THE TEAM


1. Ambuscade and Sneak Hit & Run.
2. Quick raid on small enemy concentration.
3. Infiltration thru normal enemy defensive position.
4. Independent mission averaging one week duration

LIMITATION OF THE TEAM


1. Ineffective if the team integrity is broken.
2. Unfit for defensive tactics.
3. More effectives in “Free Zone

CHART OF AN OPERATION (COCOA)


C– cover and concealment
O– observe & field of fire
C– critical terrain feature
O– obstacle
A– avenue of approach

AIMS OF PATROLLING
1. To gain and retain initiative
2. To gain information
3. To deny information to the enemy
4. To provide security
5. To provide protection
6. To harass the enemy

Specific Aims of Reconnaissance Patrolling


P – People
W – Weather

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E – Enemy
T – Terrain

RALLYING POINT
1. TL normally designated the RP> This points are consolidation in case the team dispersed
2. RP should be approached with outmost caution, the reason behind is that the team can see without being seen if
the RP is safe or not
3. Use of password or countersign in approaching and securing the RP is stressed.
4. When team is forced to break-up and meet all the RP, as much as possible five (5) team members should go
together

MOTORCYCLE PATROL
HISTORY
Police officers have used motorcycles—primarily for the enforcement of traffic laws and as escort vehicles—
since the early 20th century. Chief August Vollmer of the Berkeley Police Department is credited with organizing the
first official police motorcycle patrol in the United States in 1911. However, several police forces around the country
reported using motorcycles as patrol vehicles earlier. Harley-Davidson credits Detroit, Michigan as being the first
purchaser of police motorcycles in 1908.
The police department in Evanston, Illinois also purchased a belt-driven motorcycle for its first motorcycle
police officer in 1908. and the Portland, Oregon Police Bureau had a police officer who used his personal
motorcycle to patrol the city as early as 1909.On the other hand the British Police manufacturers themselves,
Triumph motorcycles, built at Meriden, were used by many British including the Metropolitan Police and
Commonwealth police forces until 1983
Today, The Philippine National Police has organized the Motorized Anti-Street Crime Operatives (Masco)
program. The Masco Unit will patrol Manila's main thoroughfares and shopping malls to upsurge in crimes. Other
Police Station and PCPs also use scooters in Patrolling small alleys and street.

ADVANTAGES
The First Responder, in a crime scene often is the Motorcycle Patrol Officer. Its duties and function are the
following:
1. Take note of his arrival at the crime scene.
2. Take immediate action and render medical assistance to the victim, if necessary.
3. Protect and secure the Crime scene by cordoning the area.
4. Locate, identify and apprehend suspects, identify Victim, Witness,
5. Preparation of Reports, and
6. Testifying in a Court Proceedings

DISADVANTAGES
1. Limited use in bad weather (Rainy Season);
2. Inability to carry and transport Police Equipment or Police Personnel .
3. The Danger and Hazard of Riding the Motorcycle
4. And other various hazard.

CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV)


WHAT IS CCTV?
Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) are used to monitor and record images of what takes place in specific
locations in real time. The images collected are sent to a monitor and recorded on video tape or as digital
information. The cameras can be fixed or set to scan an area or they can be operated by controllers. Monitors can
be watched by controllers or left unmonitored. The recorded information can be stored and/or reviewed by those
who have access to the recordings at their convenience.

SCOPE OF OPERATION
To achieve excellence in policing, a paradigm shift from the traditional to a more scientific and modern way to
prevent the occurrence of crimes, investigation of the same, and police operations must be adopted.

ADVANTAGES
1. There is strong anecdotal evidence that CCTV aids in detection and conviction of offenders;
2. Plays a crucial role in tracing the movements of suspects or victims and is widely regarded by antiterrorist
officers as a fundamental tool in tracking terrorist suspects;
3. Detect traffic congestion and notice accidents;
4. Deter crimes in such a way that a criminal is discouraged from committing a criminal act if he knows that
someone (or something) is watching him.
5. Gives a sense of security and safety to people knowing that everything that happened at the location is
recorded;
6. It plays the role of an informant to the security firm who will take the appropriate action to stop or prevent a
crime from happening.
7. Recording of events captured which can be used in the future

DISADVANTAGES:
1. Political hostility to surveillance, making it appear that there is something sinister in the installation of the CCTV;
2. Professional installation and maintenance of high definition CCTV is expensive;
3. Creates fears of the public that cameras placed strategically will invade privacy of the ordinary citizens.

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4. Vulnerable to hacking, and hoaxing via internet if com security is not strictly observed. Criminals can hack into
a facility's CCTV system to observe security measures and personnel, thereby facilitating criminal acts and
proving the technology to be counterproductive

MOTOR/MOBILE PATROL - The mobile patrol is responsible for accomplishing different police tasking and the
execute on of it shall be in conformity with the prescribed laws, decrees and ordinances in order to achieve its
maximum effectiveness particularly in the prevention of heinous crime and other form of criminality, and protection
of VIP’s

ADVANTAGES
1. A larger patrol area can be covered
2. Allows officers to respond in a timely manner
3. Can handle more incidents in a shorter time period than foot patrol

DISADVANTAGES
1. Does not facilitate community interaction
2. Some crimes scenes and areas are not easily accessible by the patrol vehicle.
3. Cost associated with vehicle, fuel, maintenance, etc.

DIRECTED PATROL: Directed at specific criminal activity that is occurring in patrol areas. Officers can determine
areas to be targeted by performing good crime analysis, by knowing their patrol area, and by making observations
of the people and activity in the patrol area.

ADVANTAGES
1. Good proactive approach for intercepting crimes in progress
2. Good for responding to patterns of specific crimes that occur in the same general area.
3. Can incorporate specific patrol techniques based on the types of crimes and the geography of the targeted
area. (e.g. using bikes in areas that are not accessible by vehicle)

DISADVANTAGES
1. Difficult to sustain over long periods as it may consume resources from normal patrol operations.
2. Effectiveness maybe lost when the targeted area is geographically large
3. Effectiveness is dependent on good crime analysis

PRIMARY FOCUS FOR PATROL - The primary areas on which patrol officers should focus their patrol initiatives:
SPECIFIC AREA OF CONCERNS
1. High security facilities
2. Roads in dangerous condition
3. Vacant buildings
4. Residence halls, specifically one with known crime problems.
5. Areas where valuable equipment is maintained
6. Student housing
7. Student frequented facilities
8. Bus stops
9. Parks
10. Athletic and recreation facilities and events
11. Parking garages and lots
12. Concerts
13. Abandoned or vacant buildings

BASIC FIELD PROCEDURE - Reasons for the police uniform – as with any other occupation, the police uniform is
distinctively to separate the policemen from everyone else not in the same line of work. And thereby avoid
confusion and assure others of his authority and his presence.

PATROL TACTICS AND STRATEGIES:


1. REACTIVE PATROL – An activity, which consist of driving around the district waiting to something to
happened.
2. PROACTIVE PATROL - The deployment of field personnel in their respective AOR with prescribe objectives.

PREPARING FOR THE PATROL SHIFT - The officer concerned must check all the necessary equipment for patrol.
ORIENTATION AND ORIENTATION AND RESPONSE TIME TO CALLS
(Aware of their location at all time)

SELF INITIATED FIELD ACTIVITY - Patrol officers must demonstrate interest and ability to initiate patrol related
activity. Officers should learn to develop information from observed activity by being inquisitive.

PREVENTIVE PATROL TECHNIQUES - It is a patrol function to attempt to prevent crime by being seen, checking
businesses, residence halls, and other facilities and properties.
1. Patrol officer shall not to develop a set pattern of patrolling. A routine style of patrol leads to an officer
safety and crime prevention problem.
2. Remember that crimes are often those of opportunity

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SHOPPING CENTER
(Never resolve problem in public)

KINDS OF INSPECTION ON PATROL


1. Building Inspection
2. Crime Prevention Follow-up
3. House Inspection
4. Miscellaneous Inspection
PATROL STRATEGIES - Patrol strategies should include not only responding to crimes reported to the agency, but
also proactive approaches to intercepting crimes in progress, surveillance activities, and crime prevention.

PATROL SUPERVISION – Keeping order in the community by insuring the effectiveness of prevention, repression
and control of criminal and delinquent behaviour, traffic patrol and services re- routine call for service and
emergency call for service.

ACRO NAME OF PARTOL:


P - Police,
A – Assign,
T – To,
R – Restore,
O – Order in the,
L – Locality

TYPES OF AREA PATOL:


1. Line Patrol – is a moving or a stationary patrol observation on a specified road between two points usually on
one City streets or a section of a highway.
2. Area patrol – is a moving or a stationary patrol observation in an area or beat which includes a number of
streets, roads or a section of highways.

TYPES OF AREA PATROL OBSERVATION:


1. Stationary Patrol Supervision–(to detect possible violations)
2. Conspicuous Patrol Observation – (attracting attention)
3. Visible Patrol Observation – (full view)
4. Concealed Patrol Observation – (not visible)

“ATTRACTIVE NUISANCE” OR PATROL HAZARDS:


1. Attractive Nuisance - is a known doctrine of law wherein an individual is said to be maintaining his premises
(business or residence) a condition, instrumentality, machine, or other agency that is dangerous to young children
because of their inability to appreciate peril, which may reasonably be expected to attract children, and the one
therefore has a duty to the children and the society in general, to exercise reasonable care to protect against the
dangers of such an attraction.
2. Patrol hazards – this term is frequently used to describe a specific condition of place that requires the patrol
officer’s special attention. The hazards may be a bar where fights frequently occur. It may an abandoned digging
filled up with a stagnant water and used as a swimming hole by children or an abandoned building, or a “haunted
house” used for illegal activities.
3. Hazards – is any person, place, thing, situation, or condition which, if allowed to exist may induce an accident or
cause the commission of a crime.
4. Police Hazards - is any person, place, thing, situation, or condition possessing a high potential for criminal
attack or for creation of any type of problem necessitating a demand for immediate police service.

FOUR KINDS OF IDENTIFIABLE POLICE HAZARDS:


1. Persons
2. Property
3. Places
4. Situation

FACTOR THAT CREATES HAZARDS:


1. Deficiency Visibility
2. The Insecurity of premises and other properties
3. The presences of condition of things create hazards
4. Presence of people may be a hazards
5. Lack of regulation may be hazards

ACTIVITIES OF THE PATROL DIVISION


1 .Routine Patrol and Observation
2. Preventive Attendance at Public Gatherings
3. Benevolent and Community Services
4. Business and Poverty Community
5. Inspection Service
6. Responding to Calls for Services
7. Animal Control
8. Traffic direction and Control

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9. Developing Contacts
10. Preliminary Investigation
11. Collection and Preservation of Evidence
12. Arrest of Offenders
13. Preparation of Reports
14. Testifying in Courts

PRIVATE POLICE ACTIVITIES


1. Perimeter and Access Control
2. Asset Protection and “Inventory Shrinkage”
3. Personal / Executive / Celebrity Protection
4. Location and Recovery of Stolen Children
5. Disturbance Protection and Crowd Control
6. Special-Purpose Police

DISTRIBUTION OF THE PATROL FORCE - The police force is charge with framework of limitation of funds,
human resources and equipment. Selectivity of assignment and referral to other agencies seem to be the only
realistic approach to the problem of distributing the patrol force so that it may the most good. Selectivity of
assignment and referral to other agencies is the realistic approach to the problem distributing the patrol force.

Purpose of Distribution of personnel chronologically and into beat areas is intended to accomplish a number of
objectives.
The following shall be considered in the determination of distribution, to wit;
 Work Load
 Response Time-Distance
 Area Responsibility
 Crime Reporting
 Geographical Problems

SCHEDULING – is the process of determining what and how much work will be done at what time and places,
including a time table of the movement of work from one station to another, and the coordinate movement of
material, supplies or components which enter into the flow of work.

POST ASSIGNMENT - In covering patrol posts, two method of assignment are possible. One a regular posts and
the other a rotate member.

SHIFT/POST ROTATION ASSIGNMENT.

JOB ROTATION – is the practice of rotating the hours of work of subordinates at periodic intervals.

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE PATROL DEPLOYMENT


1. Resident and Transient population
2. Number and types of crime and arrest
3. Location of crime and arrest
4. Traffic collision statics and patterns

DESIGNATION OF DISTRICTS The police jurisdiction may be done in the following manner:
 Divide into patrol districts that can be equitably handled by the assigned officer.
 Separate the jurisdiction into very small segment known “reporting districts” to maintain complete records on
each District.
 Group of the reporting districts into contiguous “patrol districts”.
 Assign the officers proportionate to the indicated proportionate needs of the districts.
 Frequent evaluation conference may cause fluid and frequent changes in the district boundaries to assure
maximum utilization of personnel. Gone are the days when a city or a municipality can be divided into equal
section, just as a pie cut, as a basic for work-load distribution. Police patrol involves serious strategy. The
district officers must be armed with current and valid information concerning the crime and other potential
disturbances in the respective districts and then attack each problem through a systematic patrol approach by
being at various places of patrol unpredictable and irregular times. The objective is to minimize the success of
criminals through strategy based upon knowledge and experience.

TERRITORIAL UNITS OF PATROL


1.Post – a fixed point or location
2. Route (line beat) – a length of street
3. Beat – area assigned
4. Sector – An area containing two or more beats, routes or posts.
5. District – a geographical subdivision of a large city, each composed of designated district.
6. Area – a section or territorial division of a large city.

PREPARATION FOR PATROL:


1. General Preparation (Inspection in rank)

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2. Pre-Patrol Preparation (PICE)
3. Infield Preparation (KAR)
4. Vehicle Safety Inspection (VSI)
5. Conduct of Patrol Activity
6. Post Patrol Preparation (Re-grouping)

SUPERVISORS DUTY AND RESPONSIBILITY- to insure that before, during and after patrol activities conducted
by the platoon under his direct supervision and control are all properly accounted for and shall insure that every
member of the platoon had successfully survive the street and the day for them to be re-prepared for the next tour
of duty. It is his duty and responsibility to prepare the overall assessment of the patrol activity of the day to be
submitted to the Operation Officer who shall summarized the overall patrol performance activities of the Patrol
Division.

CRITERIA IN THE SELECTION OF THE PATROL TEAM LEADER:


P – Performance
A – Adaptability
T – Training, Experience and Tactical Knowledge
R – Resourcefulness
O – Obedience
L - Loyalty

CRITERIA IN THE SELECTION OF MEMBERS OF THE PATROL TEAM:


P – Performance
A – Attitude
T – Training, Experience and Tactical Knowledge
R – Reliable
O – Obedience
L – Loyalty

PATROL ORGANIZATIONAL DUTIES


AND RESONSIBILITIES

Administrative Aspect:
1. Staff Supervisor
2. Shift/Platoon Leader
3. Desk Officer
4. Dispatcher
Operational Aspect:
1. Field Supervisor
2. Inspectorate
3. Patroller

POLICE PATROL METHODS


1. Beat – a. Foot Patrol
b. Bicycle Patrol
2. Sector (Motorized) – a. Automobile Patrol
b. Motorcycle Patrol
c. Helicopter/Fixed Wing Patrol
3. Specialized – a. Horse (Mounted) Patrol
b. Marine (Seaborne) Patrol
c. Canine (K9) Assisted Patrol
d. Reconnaissance Patrol

OTHER FORM OF PATROL STRATEGY


1. CLOCKWISE PATTERN
Done in the start of the 8/12 hours tour of duty, its purpose is for the patrol officer to survey the condition and
situation of the boundaries of his area of responsibility.

2. COUNTER-CLOCKWISE PATTERN
This technique is simply the reverse of the clockwise pattern. This is done at the last hour of the 8/12 hours tour of
duty to ensure that nothing unusually had happened to the area of responsibility.

3. THE ZIG ZAG or FREE WHEELING PATROL PATTERN


This is done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter of the beat, not at random but with a definite location
where patrol officer knows that his presence is necessary. This action is based on the study of the situation and
condition of the beat.

4. THE STRAIGHTWAY and CRISS – CROSS PATTERNS


Straight is done by patrolling the length of the of the street and therefore the easiest to observe the movement of
the patrol officer, Criss-cross is more or less similar to zig-zagging

PATROL ORGANIZATION

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Organization – it is an arrangement and utilization of persons with a common goals and objectives in an efficient,
effective, economical, and harmonious manner in the attainment of organizational primary objectives
1. the fixing of responsibility by the proper determination and assignment of duties.
2. The integration and coordination of the functions of the various units toward the primary objectives of the
organization.

A. ORGANIZATION OF PATROL - The need for organization structure arises only when, to get job done, more
than one person is required.

B. PLANNING FOR PATROL


1. Planning- is a process of evolving a workable method or procedure for an orderly arrangement of steps for the
purpose of facilitating the accomplishment of a set of goals or objectives.
2. Police Planning- it is the systematic and orderly determination of facts and events as basis for policy
formulation and decision affecting law enforcement management.
3. Operational Planning – refers to the rational design or pattern for all departmental undertakings rather than
simply relying on chance in an operational environment. It serves in the preparation and development of produces
and techniques in accomplishing each of the primary task and functions of an organization.
4. Police Operational Planning- act of determining policies and guidelines for police activities and operations and
providing controls and safeguards for activities and operations in the police organization for the attainment of their
goals and objectives.

OBJECTIVES OF POLICE PLANNING:


1. To increase the chances of success by focusing on the result and not so much on the objectives.
2. To force analytical thinking and evaluation of alternatives for better decisions.
3. To established a framework for decision making consistent with the goal of the organization.
4. To orient people to action instead of reaction.
5. To modify the day-to-day style of operation for future management.
6. To provide decision making flexibility
7. To provide basis for measuring original accomplishments or individual performance.
8. To increase employee and personnel involvement and to improve communication.

FIVE (5) STYLES OF PLANS:


1. PROCEDURAL - To properly achieve the administrative planning responsibility within the unit; or it involves day
to day activities of patrol units such as;
Deployment of personnel – in station level and number of personnel deployed to beat patrols.
Deployment of patrol cars and numbers of automobile and personnel deployed to area.
Further, standard operating procedures shall be planned to guide members in routine and field operations and in
some special operations in accordance with the following procedures;

Field Procedures – Procedures intended to be used in all situations of all kinds shall be outline as a guide to
officers and men in the field. Examples of these procedures are those related to reporting, to dispatching, to raids,
arrest stopping suspicious persons receiving complaints, touring beats, and investigations of crimes. The use of
physical force and clubs, restraining devices, firearms, teargas and the like, shall in dealing with groups or
individuals, shall also be outlines.

Headquarters Procedures – include in these procedures are the duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron, and other
personnel concerned that may be reflected in the duty manual. Procedures that involve coordinate action on activity
of several offices, however, shall be established separately as in the case of using telephone for local or long
distances calls, the radio teletype, and other for similar devices.

Special Operation Procedures – certain special operations also necessitate the preparation of procedures as
guides. Included are the operation of the special unit charge with the searching and preservation of physical
evidence at the crime scenes and accidents, the control of licenses, dissemination information about wanted
persons, inspection of the PNP headquarters, and the like.

2. TACTICAL PLANS – these are the procedures for coping with specific situations at known locations. Included
are plans for dealing with an attack against the building with alarm systems and against the police headquarters by
lawless elements. Plans shall be made for blockade and jail emergencies and for special community events, such
as large meetings, athletic contest, parades, religious celebrations/carnivals, strikes, demonstrations and other
street protest
Outline or description of actions to be undertaken in case of emergency or when a report is received that robbery is
in progress or has just been committed at a specific locations.
Plans that deal with special occasions in the community and other holiday celebrations attracting large crowds of
people including labor disputes at designated locations

3. OPERATIONAL PLAN – These are plans for the operation of special divisions like patrol detective, traffic, vice
and juvenile control divisions.

4. EXTRA-OFFICE PLAN – The active interest and participation of individual citizens is so vital to the success of
police program, that the police shall continuously seek to motive, promote, and maintain an active public concern in
its affairs.

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5. MANAGEMENT PLAN- Plans of management shall map out in advance all operations involved in the
organization, management of personnel and material and in the procurement and disbursement of money, such as
the following;

Budget Planning - Present and future money needs for personnel, equipment and operations must be estimated,
and plans for supporting budget request must be made if need appropriations are to be obtained and contained in
the police agencies Operational Budget ( OPB)

Accounting Procedures – Shall be established and expenditure reports shall be provided to assist in making
decisions and in holding expenditures with the appropriations in accordance with general auditing and accounting
procedures of the government.

Specification and Purchasing Procedures – Specification for equipment, supplies and purchasing procedures
shall be established to ensure checking of deliveries against specification of orders. Transactions regarding this
matter shall be transparent in accordance with the pertinent provisions of R.A 6713.

Personnel – Procedures shall be established to assure carrying out of personnel program and he allocation of
personnel among component organizational units in proportion to need.

Organization – A basic organization plan of the unit shall be made and posted for guidance of the force. It shall be
accompanied by a duty manual that defines relationships between component units in terms of specific
responsibilities. The duty manual shall incorporate rules and regulations and contain the following; definitions of
terms, organization of ranks. General duties of various units provided the same should not be in conflict with the
approved manual of the public safety bureau concerned.

C. STAFFING LEVEL
1. Determining what it is that the patrol force does or is expected to do.
2. Determination of acceptable standards of performance.
3. Calculate actual staffing requirements based on the information derived.

POLICE INTEGRATED PATROL SYSTEM (PIPS) PURPOSE - Prescribes the operational guidelines and
procedures relative to the PIPS to enhance crime prevention and solution, conduct of high police visibility (foot and
mobile patrols), anti-criminality and police security operations – checkpoints/chokepoints operations, Oplan
Bakal/Sita, saturations drives and other police interventions to address motorcycle riding criminals, reduce street
crimes and crime incidents perpetrated with the use of firearms.

QUAD concept of operation (Intelligence, Operation, Police Community Relations and Investigation) with
the active support of the community and its implementation.

COMPONENT OF PIPS
1. FIXED COMPONENT – include the different police station hqs, police community precinct, police visibility
points and traffic posts manning the different intersection and thoroughfares.
2. PATROL COMPONENT – include the air patrols, the line beat patrols, mobile patrols, motorcycle patrols,
bicycle patrols and detective repressive patrols.
3. AUXILLARY COMPONENTS – include the security guards deployed in the area, traffic law enforcers/aids,
junior police, barangay tanods, civilian volunteers, radio groups, and non-governmental organization.

CHECKPOINT Defined - A place where police check vehicular or pedestrian traffic in order to enforce circulation
control measures and other laws, orders, and regulations.

BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF POLICE INTERVENTION OPERATIONS


Generally, all police intervention operations (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint etc) shall be conducted:
With a marked police vehicle;
1. Preferably led by a Commissioned Officer
2. With personnel in proper police uniform, and
3. One deputised member of the Traffic Management Unit

Note: For checkpoint operations, the team shall be officer-led composed of at least eight (8) PNP personnel
composed of the following: Team Leader, Spotter, Profiler, Verifier, and Security.

AUTHORITY TO ESTABLISH CHECKPOINTS –


The establishment of permanent checkpoints must always be authorized by the PNP and manned by uniformed
PNP personnel assigned in the area. Other units directly involved in an operation may establish mobile checkpoints
in coordination with the Commander of the Unit/Station in the area.

3. REQUIREMENTS IN THE ESTABLISMENT OF CHECKPOINT


a. Only mobile checkpoints are authorized and they shall be established only in conjunction with ongoing
operations. Only official and marked vehicles shall be used in establishing mobile checkpoints.
b. Checkpoints may be established when there is a need to arrest a criminal or fugitive from justice.
c. The conduct of searches, seizures, and arrests in checkpoints shall be done with civility and with due respect to
innocent passer-by, commuters or bystanders.

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d. The area where the checkpoints shall be established must be properly lighted and legible and clear signs shall
be exhibited to show that searches are being conducted.
e. Enforcement officers manning the checkpoints shall be in proper uniform at all times with their identification cards
and nameplates on.
f. Personnel manning checkpoints shall always be led by an Officer with the rank of Police Inspector at least.
g. Checkpoint personnel shall not mulct, extort, or harass drivers, passengers, traders, etc.

4. PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED WHEN CHECKPOINTS ARE IGNORED - When checkpoints are ignored,
the following shall be observed:
a. In the event that checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored and the motorist/suspects bump the roadblock in an attempt
to elude arrest or avoid inspection, the team leader shall immediately contact adjacent units to inform them of the
situation and immediately conduct dragnet operation, while those at the checkpoint shall pursue the errant fleeing
motorist.
b. Warning shots shall be discouraged due to the confusion it may create for the driver and passengers of the
vehicle. Megaphone or police sirens shall be used instead during the pursuit. The plate number of the vehicle shall
be noted and given to other units in adjacent areas to prevent the possibility that the vehicle may elude the pursuit
operation.
c. In the event that the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the checkpoint, reasonable
force to overcome the suspect aggression may be employed.

5. LIMITATION OF SEARCHES AT CHECKPOINTS- Searches made at check or checkpoints shall be limited to


visual search and neither the vehicle nor the occupants shall be subjected to physical search. An extensive search
may be allowed only if the officers conducting the search have probable cause to believe that they would find
evidence pertaining to the commission of a crime in the vehicle to be search and there is no sufficient time to
secure a valid warrant.

6. FLAGGING DOWN OR ACCOSTING VEHICLES WHILE IN MOBILE CAR- This rule is a general concept and
does not apply in hot pursuit situations. The Mobile Car Crew shall undertake the following, when applicable:
a. Call the headquarters and inform it of the make or type and plate number of the motor vehicle to be accosted
including the number and, if possible, identity of occupants;
b. State the reason(s) for flagging the suspected motor vehicle;
c. Give mobile car location and direction (heading) before making actual intervention;
d. Try to get side-by-side with the suspect and check the occupants without alarming them of your purpose. You can
even overtake them and wait for them at your chosen location before stopping their vehicle;
e. Determine whether the suspects are hostile or not;
f. Make known to the suspect(s) that you are after them through the siren or megaphone;
g. Instruct the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the street;
h. Park behind the suspect’s vehicle at a discreet distance and cautiously approach the vehicle on the driver’s side;
i. If the vehicles window heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open all windows to
have a clear view of the interior of the vehicle;
j. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition, if this was not done when he stopped;
k. The other members of the team must be on guard for any eventuality while the vehicle is being approached.
l. Talk to the driver in a most courteous manner and inform him of the nature of his violation. Demand to see the
driver’s license, photocopies of the certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine these documents and
counter-check the driver on the information reflected herein;
m. If it concerns traffic violations, immediately issue a Traffic Violation Receipt (TVR). Never indulge in prolonged,
unnecessary conversation or argument with the vehicle’s occupants;
n. In cases of other violations that require the impounding of the vehicle, inform the driver regarding this situation
and instruct him to follow you, after issuing the TVR; and
o. Before moving out, inform Headquarters regarding the situation/status and disposition of the person and motor
vehicle accosted.

7. DEALING WITH HOSTILE SITUATION – The following are the procedures to be followed in dealing with hostile
drivers:

A. STOPPING VEHICLES
Follow the procedure stated from (a) to (c) No.6;
1. Immediately request for back-up;
2. Follow the suspect and always keep him within visual range;
3. Expect that the suspect will notice your action at any time. Be prepared for a car chase or actual hostile
confrontation;
4. If the back-up is already in the vicinity, inform Headquarters that you are proceeding to accost the suspect.
5. Inform the suspects that you are after them through the siren or megaphone and instruct the driver to pull over or
stop on the side of the street;
6. Park at a discreet distance behind the suspect’s vehicle;
7. While the vehicle is being approached, the other members of the crew and back-up must be on guard for any
eventuality. Overreactions should be avoided;
8. If the vehicle’s windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open all
windows for a clear view of the vehicle’s interior;
9. Direct the driver and other occupants of the vehicle not to make unnecessary movements and to show their
hands outside the car;

49
10. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground. Demand to see the Driver’s license and
photocopies of the vehicle’s certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine the documents and counter-
check the driver on the information reflected therein; and
11. If there are other suspects aside from the driver, separate them from one another.

Note: Additional instructions in stopping and approaching erring motorist:


1. Stopping a violator must be done with consideration to your safety, the driver you stopped, to other drivers and
pedestrians;
2. Approach the violator perfectly on the left side of the motor vehicle from the rear and be alert for the unexpected;
3. Do not extend your hand inside the motor vehicle when you are asking for the driver’s license or any
identification card;
4. Consider your weak arm when asking for the driver’s license or any identification cards.

B. FLEEING VEHICLES
1. In the event that the motor vehicle did not stop despite the warning given, inform Headquarters so that
roadblocks can be put up.
2. When the vehicle of the suspect is cornered or stopped, instruct the driver and other occupants in a clear and
commanding voice to follow specifically what you will require of them. Failure on their part to follow will be
construed as a hostile act on their part. Execute instructions on the use of reasonable force.
3. Instruct the driver to open his door and to put his foots out of the vehicle, followed by his hands to be placed on
top of the vehicle, or to move towards you with his hands up.
4. Instruct other occupants of the vehicle, if any, to come out one by one, as what the driver has done.
5. Arrest and handcuffs the suspect and bring them to Headquarters for proper disposition.
6. Before moving out, inform Headquarters about the situation, status and disposition of the suspects and motor
vehicle accosted.

Note: Additional instructions in pursuit of traffic enforcement


1. Decision – type and seriousness of violation is an important factor to pursuit;
2. Pursuit technique – methods and techniques while on offense driving;
3. Safety driving pursuit – on emergency call, observe caution while on offensive driving.

APPROACHING THE VIOLATOR:


a. Take time to get ready to talk with the violator.
b. Know what are going to do and say
c. Have any equipment you will need such as flashlight, clipboard or citation pad.
d. Review the facts, which led to your stopping the violator before you begin to talk
e. Decide what enforcement action you are going to take before you approach the violator.

SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN REQUESTING FOR A DRIVER’S LICENSE AND MOTOR VEHICLE


CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION:
a. Do not put your head or arms in the car’s window
b. While waiting for the license, ask the driver, “What is your name, sir?”

NEVER ACCEPT ANYTHING OTHER THAN THE PAPERS REQUESTED:


a. Ask that the papers being request be moved from the billfold or other container.
b. Have the driver hand the requested documents to you outside the window.
c. Establish the identity of the driver and check the entries of both license and registration papers for any possible
fraud, or false identities or falsifications.

OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING IN TERMINATING YOUR CONTACT WITH THE VIOLATOR:


a. Explain to the driver what action he must take.
b. Tell him where and when he must appear.
c. Do not discuss probable bail or probable penalties with the violator.
d. Avoid any naughty suggestion that he should engage in the services of a counsel or how he should plead.
e. When you are certain the driver understands what he should do, close the interview. And thank the driver for the
cooperation.
f. Explaining how he may avoid further difficulty
g. Help the driver get safety through traffic.
h. When the violator leaves, do not follow him immediately. He may feel that you are just waiting to nab him again.

SURVIELLANCE/ DEFINITION OF TERMS:


a. Surveillance – Surveillance is the disguised of secret observation of places, persons and vehicles for the
purpose of obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of the subject.
b. Survellant – the persons’ who perform/conduct the surveillance.
c. Subject – the person or place being watched.
d. Convoy – the person hired by the subject to detect or identify a survellant.

KINDS OF SURVEILLANCE
1. Surveillance of Places
2. Tailing or Showing
3. Undercover Investigation or Roping
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SURVEILLANCE OF PLACES: Crimes which requires this type of surveillance are:
a. Gambling
b. Abortion
c. Prostitution
d. Illegal Drugs
e. Dishonesty among employee
f. Infidelity in a divorce

OBJECTIVES OF SURVEILLANCE OF PLACES


a. To detect criminal activities
b. To discover the identities of persons who frequent the establishment and determine their relationships.
c. To discover the habits of a person who live or frequent the place.
d. To obtain evidence of a crime or to prevent the commission of a crime.
e. To provide a basis for obtaining a search warrant.
f. To apprehend persons in the commission of an offense

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE PLACE OF SURVEILLANCE - A careful survey of the surrounding should be
made. The character of the neighbourhood, the residents and transient should be noted. The observation point
should be selected.

TWO TYPES OF PLACES OF SURVEILLANCE ARE:


 Indoor
 Outdoor

EQUIPMENT USE IN SURVEILLANCE:


a. Picture camera with telephone lenses.
b. Moving picture camera equip with ultra magnified sound recorder.
c. Binocular
d. Tape recording apparatus
e. Wire-taping devices
f. Other recording equipment.

DUTIES OF SURVEILLANT - The surveillant should record all activities taking place in the establishment under
surveillance. The time of arrival and departure of each person should be carefully noted. Photographs and motion
picture, film footage should be numbered with reference to time. In certain instances, it may be necessary to move
the observation post, move the equipment, relieve the surveillants, or terminate the surveillance. This must be done
with secrecy. It is necessary to have the surveillant to be at its minimum number and the purpose of the installation
should be revealed.

REQUIREMENTS AND APPEARANCE OF SURVEILLANCE - They are the ideal requirements for an Investigator
to shadow a person:
a. Be of average size, built and general appearance
b. Have no noticeable peculiarities in appearance or mannerism.
c. Wear inconspicuous jewellery or clothing.
d. Have nothing about him to attract attention or fix him in the mind of anyone seeing him.
e. Have perseverance and be able to wait for hours at a time without showing signs of impatience or irritation,
since those attracts attention.
f. Always give the appearance of attending strictly to his own business and of not being interested in what
anyone else may be doing
g. Be resourceful, versatile and quick-witted, so that he can readily conceive reasons or excuse for being in
any given place.
h. Be a good talker, able to talk his way out of any embarrassing situation.

SHODOWING OR TAILING - Shadowing or tailing is the act of following a person.


A. PURPOSE OF SHADOWING:
1. To detect evidence of criminal activities.
2. To established the association of a suspect.
3. To find a wanted person.
4. To protect a witness.
5. To discover the associated, amusement and habits of an employee who has been prose for a position of
responsibility.
6. To check the loyalty of an employee in an establishment where theft have occurred.

The subject of surveillance will determine the character of the tail or shadower:
1. A loosen tail will be employed where a general impression of the subject’s habit and associate is required.
2. A rough shadowing or shadowing without special precaution may be used when the criminal must be shadowed
and he is aware of this fact; Or where the subject is a material witnesses and must be protected from other
undesirable influences.
3. A close tail or surveillance in which the precaution is taken against loosing the subject where constant
surveillance is necessary.

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B. DON’TS IN SHADOWING:
1. Don’t meet the eye of the subject. Doing so, tends to fix the shadower in the mind of the subject. If the subject
turns and it seems as if a face-to-face encounter will result, the shadower will look anywhere except the
subject’s face.
2. Don’t adapt a slinking, sleuthing, creeping, pecking (hawk show) manner. Don’t slink in and out of the doorway,
sleuth behind the subject, creep from around parked car and peck from around corners. It is necessary, ineffectual,
and above all will attract attention.
3. Don’t wear story-book disguises, false whiskers, artificial noses, simulated effeminateness and the likes, rarely, if
ever used, are convincing when worn by an amateur and seldom convincing for any length of time even worn by a
professional make-up artist. This disguises may be good for the theatre but not for the street.
4. Don’t carry brief-Cases, notebooks, papers or other noticeable objects.
5. Don’t greet fellow officers or allow them to greet you. it must be an established policy that other officers in and
out of uniforms do not greet each other on the street is any possibility that one may be on a job.
6. Don’t make notations or entries ostensibly. Strangely enough more experienced shower fail to observe this
precaution. This is to avoid suspicion of his mission.

C. PREPARATION FOR SHADOWING - Preliminary survey of the future work as surveillant must be made by the
Investigator himself to prepare himself for the contingencies that may arise.
1. If the surveillant does not know the subject, he should obtain complete description of him, or have somebody
point to him the subject.
2. He must learn the habits, haunts, and social life of the subject
3. From the information gathered, the investigator should be prepared accordingly. He should endeavour to dress
and act as thoughts he belongs to the melee in which he expect to find the subject.
4. He should comfort himself as one belonging to the neighbourhood. His manner should be casual and his interest
apparently centered on matter other than the subject, Nervousness and haste should be avoided.
5. He should study the neighbourhood carefully in order to become familiar with the transportation lines and the
likely pedestrian routes between points. In the events that he losses the object, the Investigator will thus be better to
prepare to pick up the tail again.
6. The subject should be identified at onset of the surveillance. Mental notes be taken of the physical description,
clothing and behaviour of the subject.

D .METHOD OF SURVEILLANCE SHADOWING BY FOOT - There are several methods of shadowing by foot.
The method used will depend on the circumstances of the case.

1. One-Man Shadow - This is the most common because it involves the use of the least number of men. In this
type of surveillance, the shadower will follow the subject and making notes of all that the subject does. He will
record all contracts, description of persons encountered, places visited, time spent in various places, routes taken,
etc. If the subject enters a public lobby, the shadower shall follow, of the subject enters a telephone booth, the
shadower may take the adjoining room. He may listen to conversions, which may take in the place in the subject’s
room. If the subject takes another conveyance, the shadow will also take the same conveyance and take the
seat behind the subject. If the subject gets into a theatre line, railway ticket line and the like, the shadower will fall
in line immediately behind the subject so that he can hear the reservation or destination. If he fails to hear, he must
ask the ticket agent.

2. Two-Man Shadow - This is more advantageous because it permits immediate changes and less likely to be
recognized. One shadower will follow the subject and the other may either be abreast with the subject on the
opposite side of the street, or following the first shadower.

3. Three-Man Shadow: (ABC Method of shadowing) - A, B, & C are the agents and S is the subject. A, follows
closely to the subject depending upon the volume of pedestrian traffic. He follows S at quite distance when volume
of pedestrian traffic from A as A if from S, or may precede S, or if the vehicular is moderate may be approximately
opposite him on the other side of the street. B and C takes turn in occupying the A position, thus preventing A of
becoming familiar and noticeable figure to S. Pre-arrange signal would be employed.

Advantage of ABC Method:


1. If the subject becomes suspicious of any of the operating agents, the agent concerned can quickly drop out of
the trail.
2. If subject suddenly make corner move. A may continue straight ahead, instead of hurrying to the corner and
anxiously looking for the subject. B may then cross the street then follow the subject, thus taking up the position of
A. C moreover has been in position to view any sudden disappearance into the building.

SPECIAL METHOD SURVEILLANCE:


1. Wire tapping – The telephone line is tapped somewhere along the line, either in the street line or in the
telephone company. The tapped line is run into a recorder which is monitored by the investigator.
2. Concealed microphones – The microphone may be concealed in dark room or may be disguised as a common
object such as desk ornament.
3. Tape recorder – A pocket size tape recorder may be concealed when recording a conservation.
4. Television – A closed circuit television system may be used as that the activities of the subject may be observed
by the surveillant at a distances

E. TACTICS AND TECHNIQUES IN SHADOWING:

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General - The subject should be kept unaware of the shadowing operation. The investigators should be
inconspicuous. He should not be detected looking directly at the subject. Both side of the street should be used.
If the subject is aware. The trailing, the 9 agent should request for his immediate removal.

Particular:
1. Turning corners- If the subject turns a corner the surveillant should not hurry. If the subject is lost, the nature of
the neighbourhood will determine the subsequent procedure. In most cases, it is preferable to lose the subject than
to alert him of the shadowing.

2. Entering a Building – if the building is a store, the surveillance should wait until the subject comes out. In
building having a number of exists, it is necessary to follow inside. If the subject enters an elevator, the surveillant
should bear the same elevator. The surveillant may tell the elevator boy that his destination is the same floor as the
floor as the subject, or may proceed to the top floor. If there are more than one surveillant, one should alight at
the subject’s floor and the other should proceed in a different direction; the latter can return to the ground floor and
wait for the subject.

3. Taking the Bus – The surveillant should board the same bus, sit behind the subject and on the same bus, and
on the same side. If he misses the bus, he should hire and board the bus at a point ahead

4. Taking a Taxi – When the subject takes a taxi, or a cab, the surveillant should record the time, place and name
of taxi company and license. He should endeavour to follow in another taxi. If by means of recorded information and
ascertain the destination from the taxi.

5. Taking a Train – If the subject shows his intention of buying train ticket, the surveillant should endeavour to get
in line behind with on requested by the subject, he may buy a similar ticket. In the event that he should merely
request a time table.

6. In a Restaurant - The surveillant should follow a few minutes to elapse before following the subject, into a
restaurant, he should then take an obscure seat and arrange to finish his meal at the same time as the subject.

7. In a Motel - An inquiry can be made concerning the room of the subject. If he is registered, the surveillant can
take adjoining the room.

8. In a Telephone Booth – The surveillant should either go into the next booth or stand near enough to hear. Wee
should note the telephone book used and the page at which it is left open.

9. In the Theater – The surveillant should sit behind sit behind the subject and take not of the various exists which
are available.

F. RECOGNITION OF SURVEILLANT: Risks constantly incurred by a shadower :


1. The risk of being recognized as a shadower by the subject
2. risk of being “Lost” or eluded by the subject.
3. The surveillant must be prepared to take counter measure to such risk. If the subject is conscious that he is being
followed, the shadower will either desist entirely from the pursuit of his objective or render the surveillance difficult,
if not impossible. The surveillant should drop the surveillance at once and must experience care in his subsequent
action.

G. TEST FOR TAILING - The common trick of the subject, when he become conscious that he is being followed or
trailed is to board a public conveyance such a bus, street car, sub-way train, and the jumping off the vehicle. The
subject then looks about quickly to determine if any other person jump off. If the shadower alights too, the subject
will study him closely to facilitate future recognition.

H. THE CONVOY - Sometimes the subject is being guarded against shadower. The “Convoy” is usually at the rear
of the subject. It may be therefore necessary for the surveillant to look out behind him to guard, the shadower must
get behind the convoy and follow him instead of the subject.

I. TAILING BY AUTOMOBILE - In tailing by automobile, two cars are more effective than one. At least two persons
should be assigned in each car. if only one car is used, it should follow the subject at a distance of operation will be
greater in highways and less in crowded traffics. If a second car is used, it should follow at an equal distance
behind the first.

DISGUISING THE CAR – The following precaution must be observe in disguising the car:
License Plate – A popular type of black color car should be used and must be careful that the license plate are not
identified. This can reminded by:
1. Use of security plate
2. Use of colorum cars, or drive-it-yourself car.
3. Borrowing cars from friends.

Appearance – Various devices may be used to charge the appearance of a car, placing and removing stickers,
windshield adornments, shifting headlights from dim to bright, re-arranging the seat of occupants, etc.

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TECHNIQUES - The manner of driving should be change often as by alternating between the left and right lane. If
two car are trailing, the stopping of the subject’s car canbe signalled to the second car by a sign, such as by
flashing of the light. In parking the surveilant’s car, it should be parked in the next block.The a building exists and
the subject’s car should be kept under close observation. The occupant of the surveillant care should be in the back
seat and remain inconspicuous. If they will wait for considerable time, it is advisable to leave the car and walk up
and down the street.

PRECAUTION TO BE OBSERVED IN TRAILING BY AUTOMOBILE:


1. Don’t stay parked on the same too long.
2. Don’t sit behind the steering wheel for an extended period. It is preferable to sit in the passenger seat.
3. Don’t use conspicuous car.
4. Don’t approach the parking position in a manner that may arouse suspicion.
5. Don’t seat both surveillant on the front seat for an extended time.
6. Don’t parked in a prohibited zone if it can be avoided since such situation attracts attention and frequency
leads to police conference.
7. Don’t be mysterious about leaving or returning to your car.
8. Don’t use credit card in the vicinity of the surveillance. If the car has some identification marks or
equipment, care should be exercised in the selection of service stations.
9. Don’t operate a short wave radio with extensive volume.
10. Don’t held a long conference with relieving team
11. Don’t fail to give the relieving team the pertinent data developed
12. Don’t telephone repeatedly from the same store or filling stations.
13. Don’t be toe unconcerned in appearance. In some instance, it is better to appear to be impatiently waiting.
14. Don’t stand around a lobby reading newspaper.
15. Don’t look away if the subject approaches. Be formal and look at them briefly.

RECORDING OF CHRONOLOGICAL INFORMATION - It is highly important to have a chronological records of


both activities or surveillant and subject for future interrogation and cross-examination during the trial or confession
persuasion.

UNDERCOVER ASSIGNMNET:
A. UNDERCOVER ASSIGNMENT or “Roping” defined - is a form of investigation in which the investigator
assumes a different and unofficial identity may be used as evidence in court is lacking.

B. OBJECTIVE:
1. Obtaining Evidence – The undercover worker can observe criminal activities, listen to conversation photograph
the documents and perform many other useful services for the purpose of obtaining evidence.

2. Obtaining Information – The undercover worker is closed to the criminal; hence, he is in a much better position
to know the details of the crime.

3. Checking Information – if it is suspected that the informant’s report are prejudicial, misleading or inaccurate, the
undercover check can be made.

4. Fixed Surveillance – The most effective position for a surveillant is in the bosom of criminal family. The
undercover worker can even become a friend of a subject so that he is aware of every move made by him. He can
also assist in the installation and maintenance of investigative equipment

5. Check Loyalty – It is often difficult to determine a person’s loyalty on the basis of information supplies by his
associates. The latter may be reluctant to quote him or may undercover work can determine the true color of the
subject’s view and thus dispel false impressions based on understatement of exaggerations.

6. Subversive Organization – The effective undercover agent is perhaps the only means of obtaining detailed
information concerning a subversive group or information.

7. Security Check – The undercover investigator can listen to conversation of the social groups on security leaks
or careless observations.

8. Preliminary Search or Raids – The investigator can lay part of the legal basis of the raid by determining
presence of contrabands, for example, pr by determining criminal activities entry of the raiders or searchers.

SELECTION OF UNDERCOVER AGENTS-The undercover agent is a combination of an actor a good investigator.


The selection should be made in consideration of the following elements:
1. Background – A good investigators (Undercover man) must be able to fit the environment of his
assignment. He must be able to think that of his associates. His educational and technical background
must race to a required level. His conversation and knowledge of hobbies, spots and general information
should suit the particular stratum in which he will find himself
2. Temperament – A calmed, affable, enduring personality is required he should have the necessary self—
confidence to carry him trough the more trying moments and the resourcefulness to adjust to change of
plans or situations.
3. Intellect – The undercover agent must above all be intelligent. He should have a clear view of the objective
of the mission, and the over-all strategy that must be employed in its accomplishment. A retentive memory

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and keen imagination will serve himself in good stead. Finally, he should be excellent observer and a
person of sound judgement.

PLACES OF ASSIGNMENTS:
1. Neighbourhood Assignment – The investigator must move into the neighborhood of the subject. The
assimilation of the undercover agent into neighbourhood background must be gradual and natural. A long
period of time is required before the agent is accepted and his comparatively recent occasion to the
neighbourhood is forgotten.
2. Social Environment— in this type of work the investigator frequent clubs, taverns or other social places
visited by the subject or known to be centers of illegal activities.
3. Organizational Assignment – an investigation of a subversive organization is extremely difficult unless
include a knowledge of the history of the history of the group, its professed aims, and its true aims.
4. Work Assignment – In the investigation of a systematic theft in a place of business, it is usually necessary
`employee. The work can also be employed in of the neighbourhood type. The agent is not required to
explain or justify his presence. If the job which the agent fills is sale or clerical position, the
assignment is relatively simple. Prior to the engagement of the assignment.

E. PREPARATION FOR THE ASSIGNMENT:


1. STUDY OF THE SUBJECT:
a. Name –full name, aliases, and nicknames. If he holds public office, then the title and name of the department.
b. Address – Past and present, residential and business address.
c. Description – Identifying marks, pictures etc.
d. Family and Relatives – An acquaintance with members of the family may suggest another source of
information.
e. Associates – Knowledge of the associates will understand the subject’s activities.
Character and Temparament – The strength and weakness of the adversary should be known, likes, dislikes and
prejudices are particularly helpful.
f. Vice – Drug addiction, alcohol, gambling, etc.
g. Hobbies – Suggest a simple way of developing acquaintance. A common interest of this nature creates a strong
bond of sympathy.
h. Education – The knowledge suggest the limitation of the subject and will indicate the desired level of
interrogation in the investigation.
i. Occupation and Specialty – These suggest again a possible meeting ground and are also indicative of the
character of the subject.

2. KNOWLEDGE OF THE AREA:


a. Maps – The general layout and features of the area can be learned from a street man. bordering areas should be
included in the study.
b. National & Religious Background – The predominant radical characteristics of the inhabitants can be
learned from a resident or from police officers assigned to the post in the area .
c. Transportation – The routes of surface lines should be known together with schedule of service.
d. Public Utilities – A knowledge of matters such as the type of current available will assist of setting up a plan for
technical surveillance.

3. SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATION:
a. History and background of the organization
b. Biography of the officials
c. Identity and background of members and former members.
d. Method of identification employed by the members.
e. File and record – nature, location and accessibility
f. Meetings – schedule and meeting places.

4. COVER STORY - A fictitious background and history for the new personality of character should be prepared,
including the names, addresses and description of the assumed places of education, employment, associates,
neighbourhood, trades and travels.

5. PHYSICAL DETAILS - Personal possession should be obtained for the undercover investigator which are
appropriate for the character.

6. TESTING - The investigators should memorized all details in connection with his assumed role and the fictitious
portions of his biography. He should be tested by prolonged questioning and surprise inquiry.

7. DISCLOSURE OF IDENTITY - The investigator should be instructed whether to disclose his identity or remain
undercover if arrested by the civil authority. A plan or act should also be laid out against the contingency of
accidental of accidental disclosure of identity.

F. RULES FOR UNDERCOVER AGENTS:


1. Don’t drink while working undercover. Drink is a great tongue loosener. But it is well to get the subject drunk.
2. Don’t court women.
3. Don’t take woman on undercover assignment.
4. Don’t claim to be “Big Shot”.
5. Don’t fail to provide persons in the place who can vouch for the investigator.

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6. Don’t spent too much money.

G. CONDUCT OF THE ASSIGNMENT - Demeanor – The Undercover man must in every respects live the part
which he play. His appearance, language, attitude, opinions, interest and recreation must support the assumed role.
We should speak little, but let his action carry conviction. Bragging or showing up too much knowledge may invite
unwanted attention.

RAID
Raid – It is a surprise invasion of a building area. It is an attack on a small scale of a limited territory

Legal basis – No raid must be made without either a search warrant or a warrant of arrest.

Personal property to be seized:


a. Property subject of the offense.
b. Property stolen or embezzled and other proceeds or fruits of the offense;
c. Property used or intended to be sued as the means of committing and offense. (Sec.2, Rule126, NRC)

Purpose of the raid: -


a. To effect an apprehension
b. To obtain evidence of illegal

THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION USED IN THE POLICE SERVICE: (THE POLICE TEN-CODES SIGNAL)

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LEA 4: POLICE INTELLIGENCE

INTELLIGENCE

In Military Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and
interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or potential significance to the development
and execution of plan, policies and programs of the user.

In Police Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and
interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and other law violators for the purpose
of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and forestalling plan to commit crimes.

HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE

Numbers 13:17-32, Old Testament (Holy Bible) = Moses sent twelve (12) scouts to the land of Canaan where he
directed them to spy the land, the people and their location and the nature of their living.

Rahab – known as the “Harlot of Jericho” who sheltered and concealed the agents of Israel. Made a covenant with
the agents and duped their pursuers.

Delilah – an impromptu philistine agent. Used her sex to gain information that lead to the location of the largest
effective forces of the enemy.

Sun tzu – a Chinese philosopher takes a more practical view in intelligence history. According to him, what is called
foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits, nor from gods. It must be obtained from men who knew the enemy
situation. Sun –tzu wrote a book entitled “the Art of War” which is the favorite book of the late Communist leader
Mao Tse Tung.

Alexander the Great – when Alexander the Great was marching to Asia, there were rumors of disaffection growing
among his allies and mercenaries. He sought the truth and got it by simplest expedient. He devised the first letter
sorting and opening to obtain information. (modern day mail censorship for prisoners)

General Romano Sertorius – (Quintus Sertorius of Rome) The Roman commander in Spain who possessed a
white fawn and allowed it to become widely known that he derived both secrets and guidance from its fawn. His
allies also believed that he can communicate with animals.

Akbar – known as the “Great Mogul” master of Hindustan who employed more than 4,000 agents for the sole
purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest upon it.

Genghis Khan – known as the “Great Mongol”. A leader of the so-called “Mongol Conquererors” who used
effective propaganda machine by spreading rumors of mongol terror. The Leaders usually disguise as Merchants

The Renaissance Period


Sir Francis Walsingham – protector of Queen Elizabeth I. he utilizes students as his agents. He gave the England
its first National Secret Service. Regarded as the First Great Spymaster.
He employed spies on the staff of the Spanish army and able to obtain information regarding Spanish army
as to their strength and weaknesses.

Armand Jean du Plessis (Richelieu) – became a Cardinal and Chief or prime minister of King Louis XIII. Cardinal
Richelieu became the most powerful in France.

Louis XIV – systematized political policy, continuous surveillance, postal censorship and military intelligence
organization.

Napoleon Bonaparte – “one spy in the right place is worth 20,000 men in the field”. Organized two bureaus:
1. The bureau of intelligence – consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy to obtain information.
2. The topographical bureau – maintains a large map, which covers the latest information regarding both enemy
and friendly forces.

Frederick the Great – known as the father of organized military espionage. He divided his agents into four classes:
1. Common spies – recruited among poor folk, glad to earn small sum or to accommodate a military officer.
2. Double spies – the law enforcers and unreliable renegades of value. Chiefly in spreading false information to the
enemy.

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3. Spies of consequences – couriers and noblemen, invariable requiring a substantial bribes or bait.
4. Forced Spies – Persons who are forced to undertake espionage against his will

Hannibal – considered one of the brilliant military strategies in history. He had developed an effective intelligence
system for 15 years in Rome, and he usually roam around the city often disguised as a beggar to gather first-hand
information.

Julius Caesar – during his time, his staff of each legion includes ten “speculators” who served as an information
collecting agency. The speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear definitely in a military
organization.

George Washington – served as the Grand Master in intelligence who mobilized the free masons of the colonies
at the outbreak of the American war of independence.

Karl Schulmeister – Renowned as "Napoleon's Eye". He was credited for establishing counter intelligence
conducted against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information pertaining to the
personality and identify of the enemies of Napoleon during the 18th Century.

Alfred Redl – brilliant intelligence agent although a homosexual. Become chief of the Austro Hungarian Secret
Service, but in fact a double agent of Russia. In 1913, his treason was discovered and he was forced to commit
suicide.
His treason lead to the death of 500,000 agents and soldiers combine in 13 years of espionage service.

Wilhelm Johann Karl Eduard Steiber – Known as the Prussia's "King of Sleuthhounds" as minister of police he
studied the use of propaganda and censorship as well as utilizing statistical intelligence accounting. Steiber's
thorough organization and ruthless, his sinister innovations and cold, calculating manipulation of human weakness
made him the spymaster who most shape the course of the 20th century espionage.

William "Wild Bill" Donovan –Headed the Office of Strategic Service (OSS), the immediate forerunner of the
Central Intelligence Agency, a lawyer and millionaire Republican, Donovan enjoyed Roosevelt's trust, friendship,
and most crucial of all direct access to the inner sanctums of the White House. His jovial outgoing personality and
his upper class social background played a considerable part in setting overall tone and style of "THE COMPANY"

Herbert Yardley – Head of MI-8, The forerunner of the Top Secret National Security Administration a.k.a Black
Chamber, a Cryptanalytic Organization.

Battle of Midway – In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the victory gained by the Americans
was due to the disrupted messages from the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto – April 1943, the Cryptoanalyst of the U.S. Navy Communications Intelligence
intercepted a top secret signal relaying the travel of the Admiral. En route ha was intercepted and crashed in the
Jungles of Baungainville.

King Edward I – King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police system so called Witch and Ward. By
Royal proclamation, the profession “State Informer” was created in 1734 enjoining all informers to expose criminal
activities and be compensated.

Joseph Fouche – The French statesman (1759-1820) served as minister of police under Napoleon and was
influential in the return of Louis XVIII to the throne in 1815.
He rose to become the most feared and respected intelligence director in French history. He founded the
system spying against spy which later know as counter-espionage

JOSEPH PETROSINO – member of the New York Police Department in early 1900, he was the head of the Italian
Squad. Through extensive intelligence network, he is credited to smash the Black Society.

Frey Tomas de Toquemada – Master Planner. Conducted espionage during the 15 th century under the inquisition
wherein purging and ecclesiastical cleansing was undertaken to fortify and solidify the church

Sir Samuel Luke


Chief Scout of Oliver Cromwell who was able to dethrone King Charles I in British Civil War of 1640's. Sir
Samuel Luke was said to be industrious in snooping on the enemy.

Sir Arthur Wellesly – Duke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. Regarded as the
"Greatest Military Spymaster at All Time". He live by the motto; "All the business of war is to find out what you
don’t know by what you do." He always studied the enemy in depth, finding out not only where the opposing army
was and how strong it was, but the character of it's commander, the spirit and training of its troops, their battle
experience, and how they were supplied with arms and rations. He also studied and mapped the roads, rivers and
topography of the war theatre.

V2 Rackets – OSS agents working in conjunction with the British Intelligence, through penetration and technical
intelligence discovered Pneumundo, which was the V2 guide missile research project of Nazi Germany.

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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) – The agency was created under the US National Security Act of 1947
a.k.a. Public Law 110 established by the late President Truman in January 1946.The CIA is under the National
Security Council. The First Director of the Agency was Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter. It is called THE
COMPANY.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) – First established in 1908 as an investigative arm of the U.S.
Department of Justice. It becomes what is known as the F.B.I. under its first director John Edgar Hoover in 1942.

The Committee for State Security – Russia – The intelligence agency known as the KGB – Komitet
Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)

The British Secret Service (BSS – MI5/MI6) – established in 1909 as an internal departments under the control of
Secret Service Bureau. It is now known as Secret Intelligence Service (SIS)

The Mossad – (Ha-mosad le modiin u-letafquidim meyuhadim) – The agency’s motto is found in “Proverbs XI, 14”
Where no counsel is, the people fall, but in the multitude of counselors there is safety. Mossad has two branches
namely:
1. Aman – Military Intelligence (Israels Defense Forces)
2. Shabak – General Security Service (Internal Security
Shabak is from the word “shin bet” that means a defender who shall not be seen. Reuven Shiloah was the First
Director of MOSSAD.

NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COORDINATING AGENCY (PHILIPPINES) – the intelligence agency in the


Philippines under the Office of the National Security Adviser

INFORMATION
Refers to all evaluated materials of every description including those derived from observation, reports,
rumors, imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is produced.

Two General Classifications of Sources of Information:


1. Open Sources – 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources.
 Enemy Activities
 POW
 Captured Documents
 Map
 Weather Forecast, Studies, Reports
 Agencies

2. Close Sources – 1% of information from close sources.


Close/Covert Method
a. Surveillance
b. Casing
c. Elicitation
d. Surreptitious Entry
e. Employment of Technical Means
f. Bugging and Tapping Devices
g. Tactical Interrogation
h. Observation and Description

PERSONS AS SOURCES OF INTELLIGENCE

Informant Net – a controlled group of people who work through the direction of the agent handler
Informant – persons who give information to the police voluntarily
Informer – persons who give information for reward or price

TYPES OF INFORMANTS
1. Confidential Informant – an informant who gives information to the police pertaining to the underworld about
organized criminals with the understanding that his identity will be protected.
2. Anonymous Informant – those who gives information through telephone with the hope that the informant
cannot be identified.
3. Voluntary Informant – a type of informant who give information freely and willfully as a witness to a certain act.
4. Special Informant – those who gives information concerning specialized cases only and it is regarded a special
treatment by the operatives (ex. Teachers, businessman)

SUB-TYPE OF INFORMANT
1. Incidental Informant – person who casually imparts information to an officer with no intention of providing
subsequent information
2. Recruited Informant – person selected, cultivated and developed into a continuous source of information

CATEGORIES OF INFORMANT
1. Spontaneous Informant – informant who by reason of his position or work has certain legal, moral o ethical
responsibilities to report an info to the police. Also known as Automatic Informant

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2. Ordinary (Out-of-Their-Will) Informant – informant that is under the compulsion to report the info to the police
3. Legitimate informant – operators of legitimate business establishments.

THE INTELLIGENCE CYCLE


Intelligence Cycle – the process through which intelligence is obtained, produced and made available to users.

PHASE I – Planning the Collection Effort – it involves the determination of the requirements of intelligence
operation

1. Determination of Requirements
a. Enemy capabilities, including time, place, strength, or other details
b. Enemy vulnerabilities, including nature, extent, performance and other details
c. Enemy order of battle and factors
d. Terrain, including natural and artificial obstacles
e. Weather
f. Information desired by higher, lower or adjacent headquarters

2. Determination of the Essential Elements of Information


Essential Element of Information – an item of information of the characteristics of the area of operations and the
enemy which the commander feels he needs before he can reasonably arrive at a decision.

3. Establishment of Priorities
Priorities – reflect the criticality of the need for the particular information. No formula exists which can automatically
determine priorities. Such determination is a matter of judgment.

PHASE II – Collection of Information


a. Determine collecting agency
b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts
d. Use tools or technique in collection
e. Ensure timely collection

Factors in Choosing Collection Agents


1. Capability – agent’s placement or access to the target
2. Multiplicity – more agents
3. Balance – the number of agents needed in the operation

PHASE III – Processing the Collected Information


1. Recording – is the reduction of information into writing or some other form of graphical representation and the
arranging of this information into groups related items.
2. Evaluation – is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation, reliability of the source of
or agency and the accuracy of the information.

Evaluation to Determine
a. Pertinence – does it holds some value to current operation
is it needed immediately
b. Reliability – judging the source of information or agency
c. Credibility – truth of information

Judging Credibility
a. It is possible for the reported fact or event to have taken place?
b. Is the report consistent within itself?
c. Is the report confirmed or corroborated by information from different sources or agencies?
d. If the report does not agree with information from other sources which one is more likely to be true?

3. Interpretation – it is the determination of the meaning and significance of the information relative to the
information and intelligence already known and drawing deductions about probable meaning of the evaluated
information.
a. Assessment – shifting and isolating those elements that have significance in the light of the mission or
objective
b. Integration – combining the elements isolated in analysis and known information to form a logical
picture or theory
c. Deduction – the formulation of conclusions from the theory developed, tested and considered valid in
determination of efffort and meaning of the information

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EVALUATION RATING
Reliability of Information Accuracy of Information Sources of Information

A – Completely Reliable 1 – Confirmed By Other T-Direct observation by a commander of a unit


Sources
B – Usually Reliable 2 – Probably True U-Report by a penetration or resident agent
C - Fairly Reliable 3 – Possibly True V-Report by an AFP trooper or PNP personnel in
encounter or operation
D – Not Usually Reliable 4 – Doubtfully True W-Interrogation of a captured enemy agent or
foreigner
E – Unreliable 5 – Improbable X-Observation by a government or civilian
employee or official
F – Reliability Cannot Be 6 – Truth Cannot Be Judged Y-Observation by a member of populace
Judged Z-Documentary

PHASE IV – Dissemination and Use of Information


1. Timeliness – intelligence must reach the users on time to be of value.
2. Propriety – the message must be clear, concise and complete and must be in the proper form for the receiver to
be readily understandable

TOOLS FOR RECORDING INTELLIGENCE


1. Intelligence Journal – permanent official chronological record of the operations of the intelligence section, unit
or agency. Includes all incoming and outgoing messages
2. Intelligence Workbook – a device that provides a means of systematic arrangement of information by type or
subject for particular topic are group together
3. Situation Map – graphic representation of the current enemy situationm

Functional Classifications of Police Intelligence


1. Criminal Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation,
arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.

Principles Of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and operation are interdependent – separate and distinct activities but compliment each other.
2. Intelligence requires continuous security measures – deny unauthorized personnel information about operation
and intelligence product.
3. Intelligence must be useful – must serve the commander’s need and requirements
4. Intelligence must be timely – must reach the user in time to serve as basis for appropriate action.
5. Intelligence must be flexible – based on reason and sound judgment
6. Intelligence requires imagination and foresight – agents must be given the leeway to be resourceful to obtain
more than what is normally acquired

Broad Categories of Intelligence


1. National Intelligence – integrated product of intelligence developed by all government departments concerning
the broad aspect of national policy and national security.
a. National Policy – specific courses of action to achieve the national objectives.
b. National Security – this relate to the protection and preservation of military, economic and a productive
strength of a country including the security of the government and domestics and foreign affairs against espionage,
sabotage and subversion.
2. Department of Intelligence – the intelligence required by department or agencies of the government to execute
its mission and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence – used in the preparation and execution of tactical plans.

Fields of Police Intelligence


1. Strategic Intelligence – knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation, which is
required by the National Planners for the formulation of an adequate National Defense in peace and forms the
basis for, projected military operations in time of war.

Components of Strategic Intelligence

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a. Political Intelligence – deals with Domestic and Foreign affairs and relation of government operations;
1. Basic Principles of the Government
2. Government Structures
3. Public Order and Safety
4. Subversion
5. Intelligence and Security Organization
b. Economic Intelligence – deals with the extent and utilization of Natural and Human resources to the industrial
potential of the Nations.
c. Transportation and Telecommunication Intelligence – concerned with the operations and facilities not only
the Military but also the Civilians.
d. Sociological Intelligence – deals with the demographic and psychological aspects of groups of people.
1. Population and Manpower
2. Characteristics of the People
3. Public Opinion – attitudes of the majority of the people towards matters of public policy.
4. Education – based on literacy rate
e. Biographical Intelligence – deals with individual personalities who have actual possession of power.
f. Armed Forces Intelligence – deals with the armed forces of the Nation.
1. Position of the Armed Forces – constitutional and legal basis of its creation and actual role.
2. Organization and structure and territorial disposition
3. Military Manpower Recruitment
4. Order of Battle
g. Geographical Intelligence – deals with the natural as well as man made features of the physical environment of
man considered from the point in view of military operations.
1. Location – military and economic importance
2. Size – measurement of which a nation can exchange space or time during war.
3. Shape
4. Weather and Climate
h. Scientific Intelligence – deals with the progress of the research and development as it affects the economic
and military potential of a nation.

2. Line Intelligence (Tactical and Combat) – is the intelligence required by the commander to provide for planning
and conduct of tactical operation.
- Knowledge of the People, Weather, Enemy, and Terrain (PWET) – used in planning and conducting tactical
and administrative operation in a counter insurgency.

What are the Intelligence Information to be Determined in Line Intelligence?


 People
a. living condition of the people
b. sources of income
c. education of the people
d. government livelihood of the people
e. extent of enemy influence to the people

 Weather
a. visibility
b. cloudy
c. temperature
d. precipitation(rain)
e. wind

 Enemy
a. location of the enemy
b. strength of the enemy
c. disposition
d. tactical capability
e. enemy vulnerability

 Terrain
a. relief and drainage system
b. vegetation
c. surface material
d. man made features

3. Counterintelligence – phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of
hostile foreign activities and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and sabotage.

Three Activity of Counterintelligence


1. Protection of information against espionage
2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Two General Types of Counterintelligence

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1. Passive Measures – are those measures, which seek to conceal information from the enemy.
2. Active Measures – are those measures, which seek actively to block the enemies’ effort to gain information or
engage in espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Five Categories of Counterintelligence Operation


1. Military Security – it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage,
enemy operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise.
2. Port Frontier and Travel Security – has to do with the application of both military and civil security measures for
counterintelligence control at point of entry and departure, international borders and boundaries.
3. Civil Security – it encompasses active and passive counterintelligence measures affecting the non-military
nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction.
4. Censorship – it is the control and examination of the following;
a. civil
b. national
c. armed forces
d. field press
e. POW

Counterintelligence Investigation – is an activity which constitutes the value of the counterintelligence workload,
worldwide and includes specific investigation of individual and incidence, which for the most part are conducted in
an overt but discreet manner.

Three Categories of Counterintelligence Measures


1. Denial Measures – secrecy discipline, document security, camouflage and concealment, communication
security, military censorship, counter reconnaissance effort
2. Detection Measures – secuiry tag or pass card, challenge or password, reconnaissance
3. Deception Measures – ruse – use of escape and evasion, dummy position, fabricated information

COVER AND UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS


Cover – the means by which an individual, group or organization conceals the true nature of its acts and/or
existence from the observer
Cover Story – a biographic account, true or fictitious that will portray the personality of the agent he assumed, a
scenario to cover up the operation.

TYPES OF COVER
1. Natural Cover – using actual or true background
2. Artificial Cover – cover using biographical data adopted for such purpose
3. Cover Within a Cover – use of secondary cover in case of compromise for justification of existence
4. Multiple Cover – any cover wished

FUNCTIONS OF COVER
1. Offensive – gives access to the target and facilitates the achievement of clandestine objective
2. Defensive – serves to prevent detection

Organizational Cover – an account consisting of biographical data which when adopted by an individual will
assume the personality he wants to adopt

HAZARDS TO COVER
1. Static or Dormant Opposition
2. Inhostile Active Opposition
3. Hostile Active Opposition

UNDERCOVER OPERATION – an investigative technique in which the agent conceal his official identity to obtain
information from the target organization

TYPES OF UNDERCOVER ASSIGNMENT


1. Dwelling – one in which the agent establishes residence in or near the dwelling which houses the subject
2. Work Assignment – places the undercover agent in a type of employment where he can observe the activities
of the target
3. Social Assignment – requires to frequent places of entertainment and amusement known to be habitually
visited by the target
4. Multiple Assignment – agent is given the task of covering two or more of the above specific assignments
simultaneously
5. Personal Contact Assignment or Rope Job – agent is required to develop friendship and trust with the target
for purposes of obtaining information or evidence

METHODS OF UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS


1. Direct – employment and utilization of special agents
2. Indirect – employment and utilization of controlled informants

SELECTING ACTION AGENTS


1. Placement – location of prospective agent with respect to the target

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2. Access – the capability of a prospective agent to obtain the desired information

TYPES OF ACCESS
1. Primary Access – the physical access to the desired information
2. Secondary Access – the access to the desired information through a principal source where the agent has
direct access
3. Outside Access – agent employed outside target and merely monitor information from a third person who is
monitoring info in the area

CONTROL – is the authority to direct the agent to carry out task or requirement on behalf of the clandestine
organization in an acceptable manner and security

TWO CATEGORIES OF CONTROL


1. Positive Control – characterized by professionalism and rapport like agent motivation or psychological control
2. Negative Control – characterized by threat which includes:
a. Disciplinary Action – includes verbal reprimand for poor performance or insecure actions of withholding
certain rewards, reduction of agents, salary or threat of terminating professional relationship
b. Escrow Account – control of agent by putting his salary in a bank to be withdrawn only after a fulfillment
of a condition
c. Blackmail

PROCURING DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGENT


1. Agent in Place – agent who has been recruited by an intelligence service within a highly sensitive target, who is
just beginning a career or have been long or insider
2. Double Agent – an enemy agent who has been captured, turned around as an agent of his captor
3. Expandable agent – agent whom false information is leaked to the enemy
4. Penetration Agent – agent who reached the enemy gets information and manage to get back alive
5. Agent of Influence – agent who uses influence to gain information
6. Agent of Provocation – agent who provoke the enemy to get information

SURVEILLANCE
It is a form of clandestine investigation which consists of keeping persons, place or other targets under
physical observation in order to obtain evidence or information pertinent to an investigation

Important Terms
Surveillant – person conducting the surveillance
Subject – a party under observation or surveillance
Stakeout – the surveillant remains in one or fixed position or locale. Also called Plant or Fixed Surveillanmce
Convoy – a countermeasure to detect or elude surveillance
Decoy – a cover supporting the surveillant who can become a convoy whenever surveillance is burned out
Drop – any convenient, secure and unsuspecting place where police undercover man meet his action agent for
debriefing or reporting purposes
Contact – any person whom the subject picks or deals with while he is under observation and identifies the
observer
Mustard Plaster – the subject is followed so closely that surveillant and subject are almost in lock step.. It is
tantamount to protective custody
Tailgaiting – open surveillance in which the subeject’s vehicle is closely followed
Tailing or Shadowing – surveillance of person
Casing or Reconnaissance – surveillance of place
Roping – surveillance of events, activities or other things

TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE

According to Intensity
1. Covert or Discreet – a type of surveillance operation in which the subject is not aware that he is being
observed in order to obtain information.
2. Overt, Open or Rough – a surveillance operation with little or no attempt of concealment. The subject is
most likely aware that he is followed. This type is usually applied for purposes of protecting the subject.
3. Close or Tight – in this type the subject is unaware that he is being followed and the aim is not to lose the
subject even at the risk of being detected.

According to Method of Operation


1. Stake-out or Stationary – the surveillant is in fixed position which involves watching a fixed establishment,
warehouse or clandestine laboratory.
2. Tailing or Shadowing – this involves following the subject from place to place to maintain continuous
observation.
3. Technical Surveillance – this type involves the utilization of electronic gadgets, equipments or systems.

CASING OR RECONNAISANCE
Casing is the term used in the police organization while reconnaissance is the term used in the military. It
is the visual inspection of an area, installation or building to determine its suitability for operational activities.

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TWO TYPES OF CASING
1. Exterior Casing – observation of the whole area, building or installation, possible exits and approaches and the
type vicinity
2. Interior – close observation of the layout of the building. Includes item that can be observed a building which are
of intelligence value

Methods of Casing
1. Personal Reconnaissance – the most effective method and will produce the most information
2. Map Reconnaissance – it may not be sufficient but may produce a certain amount of information
3. Research – sometimes additional info can be gathered through research
4. Prior Information – information from records of file
5. Hearsay – info usually gain by operating personnel

METHODS OF SURVEILLANCE

a. One man –extremely difficult and should be avoided, if unavoidable keep subject in view at all times.
b. Two man – two agents are employed to follow the subject.
c. ABC method – reduces the risk of losing the subject, affords greater security agents detection.
d. Progressive/Leap frog method – poor chances of obtaining good results, agents are stations at a
fixed point assuming that subject followed the same general route each day.
e. Combined foot-auto surveillance – employment of surveillants on foot and agents in an automobile.

How to detect foot surveillance?


A subject who is suspicious of being under surveillance may resort to trickery in order to verify his
suspicion. When a subject resort to such trickery, it is good policy to change agents, for the suspect may have
‘spotted’ one or more of his surveillants.
a. stopping abruptly and look back
b. casually looking around
c. reversing course/retracing steps
d. boarding bus and alighting just before they start
e. riding short distance on bus
f. circling the block on a taxi
g. entering a building and leaving immediately via another exit
h. stopping abruptly after turning a corner
i. using convoys
j. watching reflection in shop windows
k. walking slowly and rapidly at alternate intervals
l. dropping a piece of papers to see if anyone retrieves it
m. stopping to tie a shoe string, meanwhile looking around for surveillants
n. arranging with a friend in a shop, stores or other places to watch for surveillants.

How to elude foot surveillance?


Common method to elude foot surveillance in which surveillants must be prepared and guard against are
the following:
a. jumping off a bus, trains just as the doors are about to close
b. leaving a building through the rear or side exits
c. losing one self in crowds
d. entering theaters and leaving immediately through an exit
e. pointing out one surveillant to a police to a generally require the agent to explain his action
f. using decoys
g. taking the last taxi at a stand
h. changing clothing

AUTOMOBILE SURVEILLANCE
The methods of auto surveillance to be used depends upon the numbers and type of surveillance vehicles
available, the volume of vehicular traffic in the area, the importance of concealing the surveillance from the subject,
and the subject’s estimated ability to detect and elude surveillance. At all times each vehicle should be occupied by
at least two agents; one to concentrate on driving, and the other to observe, take notes, operate radio equipment,
or to dismount and continue the surveillance on foot.

How to detect automobile surveillance


As in the case of foot surveillance, a subject who believes he is being followed may resort to trickery in
order to verify his suspicions. Some of the common tricks employed:
a. Alternate fast and slow driving
b. Driving into dead-end streets
c. Frequency parking
d. Committing flagrant traffic on one way streets, and running through red lights
e. Stopping suddenly around curves or corners
f. Pulling into driveways
g. Speeding up a hill, then coasting slowly down

How to elude automobile surveillance

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a. Committing traffic violations
b. Using double entrances to driveways; in one and out the other
c. Curbing through parking lots
d. Driving through congested areas
e. Deserting the vehicle behind curves or corners, but permitting the drivers to drive on as a decoy.

OBSERVATION AND DESCRIPTION


Observation – encompasses the use of all the major senses to register and recognize the significance of given
operation
Description – actual and factual reporting of one’s observation
85% of knowledge gathered through sight
13% gathered through hearing
2% gathered through three other senses

ELICITATION
A system in which information of value is obtained through the process of direct communication in which
one or more of the parties is unaware of the specific purpose of the conversation.

ORDER OF BATTLE INTELLIGENCE (ORBAT)


It is the identification of strength, command structure and disposition of the personnel, units and equipment
of any threat force.

CRYPTOGRAPHY – the art and science of code and ciphers. It is done through the use of telephone scrambler or
technically speaking, Speech Inverter where speech frequencies are divided to produce a scrambling speech when
intercepted.

Cryptographer – person skilled in converting messages from clear to unintelligible forms by the use of codes and
ciphers. Also known as Coder, Encrypter or Code Clerk.

Crypto-Analyst – one who break intercepted codes

Coding – changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible form. Also known as Encrypting.

Decoding – transforming of coded message into plain text. Also known as Decrypting.

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LEA 5: POLICE PERSONNEL AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

Management pertains to the utilization of available resources in an organization to achieve its


organizational objectives. It also refers to the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in
formal groups in order to achieve a desired goal. It is concerned in placing the right people on the right job and in
maintaining a satisfied work force.

ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT

1. Authority – is the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions within an
organizational hierarchy. A particular position within an organization carries the same regardless of who
occupies that position.

SOURCES OF MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY


1. Law
2. Tradition
3. Delegation

2. Responsibility – means that the management shall be held accountable for whatever result that may arise
in the exercise of authority. Thus, responsibility limits the exercise of one’s authority.
Command Responsibility - is the doctrine that imposes commensurate accountability to one who is
vested with management and leadership functions.

ADMINISTRATION
- is an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and internal
operating efficiency. It connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relatively routine decision making
and maintenance of the internal status quo.

MANAGEMENT OR ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS

1. PLANNING - refers to the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained.

2. ORGANIZING - involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as the resource of an
organization to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the organization.

3. DIRECTING - involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the various activities in an
organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the pre-determined goals or objectives of the organization.

4. STAFFING - the task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for the right job. It
involves good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained personnel.

5. CONTROLLING - involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance and comparing it
with planned goals or objectives of the organization, and making the necessary corrective actions so that work is
accomplished as planned.

6. REPORTING - the making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and unusual in order to
keep everyone informed or what is going on.

7. BUDGETING - the forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of operations based on
the highest reasonable expectations of operating efficiency.

Scientific Management
- proposed by Frederick Taylor (the “Father of Scientific Management).
Under this theory, workers are motivated by economic rewards and that if they are paid commensurate to
work being done they produce maximum amount of work. This management theory entails that good salary and
incentives must be given to workers to ensure their hard work, innovative action and good will.

THEORY X AND Y
This behavioral science approach was introduced by D. McGregor. Theory X assumes that people have
little ambition, dislike work, and must be coerced in order to perform satisfactory. Theory Y assumes that people do
not inherently dislike work and if properly rewarded, people will perform well on the job.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Personnel Management is that part of management process which is primary concerned with the human
constituents of an organization.

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It also refers to that specialized branch of management which is concerned with solving the human
problems of an organization intelligently and equitably in a manner that not only the employee potentials are
developed but maximum satisfaction is also achieved by the individual, the group and the executives or managers
and the goals of the organization are accomplished to the fullest possible extend.

POLICE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT


- the art of preparing, organizing and directing the efforts of members of a police force in order that they
may achieve the accomplishment of the police purpose. The primary objective of an effective police personnel
management is the establishment and maintenance for the public service of a competent and well-trained police
force.

FUNCTIONS OF POLICE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

1. Police Personnel Planning – study of the labor supply of jobs which are composed of the demands for
employees in an organization to determine future personnel requirements which either increase or decrease.

2. Police Recruitment – is the process of encouraging police applicant form outside an organization to seek
employment in an organization. It consists of developing a recruitment plan, recruitment strategy and maintaining a
list of qualified applicants.

3. Police Screening/Selection – the process of determining the most qualified police applicant for a given position
in the police organization.

4. Police Placement – the process of making police officers adjusted and knowledgeable in a new job and/or
working environment.

5. Police Training and Development – refers to any method used to improve the attitude, knowledge and skill or
behavior pattern of an employee for adequate performance of a given job.

6. Police Appraisal – process of measuring the performance of people in achieving goals and objectives. Also
known as Performance Evaluation System

7. Police Compensation – constitute the largest single expenditure for most organizations

RECRUITMENT
- the process of attracting candidates who have minimum qualifications to be eligible for selection
procedure. It is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply
for jobs in the organization.

SELECTION
- the process of screening out or eliminating undesirable applicants who do not meet the organization’s
criteria.

In the Philippine National Police, the recruitment and selection of applicants who will be appointed to the
police service is the responsibility of the Directorate for Personnel and Records Management (DPRM). DPRM is
tasked in the management of PNP uniformed and non-uniformed personnel as individuals, manpower procurement
and control and in the records management of the organization.

GENERAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE PNP (R.A. 6975, as amended by R.A. 8551 and
R.A. 9708)

No person shall be appointed as officer and member of the Philippine National Police unless he or she
possesses the following minimum qualifications:

k) A citizen of the Philippines;


l) A person of good moral conduct;
m) Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be administered by the PNP or
by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of determining physical and mental
health;
n) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning;
o) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;
p) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed for cause from any
civilian position in the Government;
q) Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
r) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m) in height for male and one meter and fifty-
seven (1.57 m) for female;
s) Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5kgs) from the standard weight corresponding to his or
her height, age and sex; and
t) For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30) years of age

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Pursuant to RA 9708, “…PNP members who are already in the service upon the effectivity of Republic Act No.
8551 shall be given five (5) years to obtain the minimum educational qualification preferably in law enforcement
related courses, to be reckoned from the date of the effectivity of this amendatory Act: Provided, furthermore, That
for concerned PNP members rendering more than fifteen (15) years of service and who have exhibited exemplary
performance as determined by the Commission, shall no longer be required to comply with the aforementioned
minimum educational requirement.”

EXAMINATION AND ELIGIBILITY

The National Police Commission is vested with the authority to administer the entrance and promotional
examinations for members of the PNP on the basis of the standards set by the Commission.

The PNP entrance and promotional examinations are designed to measure the examinee’s mental
capabilities, value orientation, aptitude and fitness for initial appointment or for promotion. Applicants who pass
these examinations are granted the appropriate eligibilities.

These examinations are given twice a year and simultaneously conducted in the different examination
venues nationwide. The following are the examination categories with the corresponding rank examination
coverage:

1. Police Entrance Examination – an examination taken by the applicants to the PNP.

2. Police Promotional Examination – an examination taken by the in-service police officers as part of
the mandatory requirements for promotion. They are the following:

a. Police Officer Examination


b. Senior Police Officer Examination
c. Inspector Examination
d. Superintendent Examination

Members of the Bar and Licensed Criminologists whose profession are germane to law enforcement and
police functions are no longer required to take promotional examinations up to the rank of Superintendent.
(NAPOLCOM MC N0. 2008-016).

Aside from the PNP entrance and promotional examinations, the Commission also administers the Police
Executive Service Eligibility (PESE) examination. Those who pass this examination are granted third level eligibility
which is appropriate for the ranks of Police Senior Superintendents and higher.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
The appropriate eligibilities for Police Officer 1 are those acquired from the following: (NAPOLCOM MC No.
2008-003).

1). NAPOLCOM PNP Entrance Examination


2). R. A. 6506 (Licensed Criminologists)
3). R. A. 1080 (Bar and Board Examinations of baccalaureate degree)
4). P. D. 907 (Granting Civil Service Eligibility to College Honor Graduates)
5). Civil Service Professional Examination

DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS (NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2011-007)


The application folder of the applicant shall contain the following mandatory requirements:
a. Duly accomplished CSC Form 212;
b. Birth Certificate authenticated by the NSO;
c. Report of Rating of Eligibility authenticated by the issuing authority;
d. Two (2) pieces “2 X 2” black and white picture indicating the applicant’s name;
e. Transcript of Scholastic Records and diploma duly authenticated by the school registrar;
f. Clearance from the Barangay, Local Police Station, RTC/MTC and NBI;
g. Medical Certificate issued by the Local Health Officer;
h. Copy of two (2) valid ID’s with picture, signature and address; and
i. Certificate of Good Moral Character issued by the applicant’s college/university.

SCREENING COMMITTEE

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- responsible for the widest dissemination of vacancies in their respective areas, the evaluation of the
applicant’s qualifications and the selection of the most qualified applicants to be recommended for appointment to
the police service.
- established at the NHQ, NSU’s and PRO’s.

NATIONAL SUPPORT UNIT (NSU) SCREENING COMMITTEE:


Chairman: Deputy Director for Administration of the respective National Support Unit/ the Deputy Director
General for Administration.

Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be designated by
the Vice Chairperson and Executive Officer of the NAPOLCOM.

Members:
1. National Peace and Order Council (NPOC) member designated by the NPOC Chairman;
2. Private Sector representative designated by the NPOC Secretary General; and
3. Women’s representative from private sector with known probity designated by the NSU Director.

Secretariat: Assistant Director for Personnel and Records Management (ADPRM) / Human Resource
Management Officer (HRMO)

POLICE REGIONAL OFFICE (PRO) SCREENING COMMITTEE


Chairman: Deputy Regional Director for Administration

Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be designated by the
NAPOLCOM Regional Director

Members:
1. Regional Peace and Order Council (RPOC) member designated by the RPOC Chairman;
2. Senior Regional DILG Officer designated by the DILG Regional Director;
3. Women’s representative from private sector with known probity designated by the PNP Regional
Director.

Secretariat: Chief, Regional Personnel and Human Resource and Doctrine Development (RPHRDD)

PNP RECRUITMENT PROCEDURE (NAPOLCOM M.C. No. 2007-009)

1. Preparation and proper approval of quota allocation


The PNP shall prepare, through the Directorate for Personnel and Records Management (DPRM) and
submit it to the NAPOLCOM for approval of the PNP annual recruitment quota.

2. Posting and publication of Notice of Recruitment


The Notice of Recruitment shall include the following data for the information of prospective applicants:

1. quota for the city/municipal police station;


2. vacancies are open to both male and female applicant;
3. general qualification standards;
4. documentary requirements;
5. where to submit the application papers and documents;
6. deadline for submission; and
7. schedule of screening/evaluation.

3. Submission of the application folders


4. Selection and evaluation process by the PNP Screening Committee
A. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE)
B. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE)
C. Physical Agility Test
D. Final Committee Interview
9. Certification by the NAPOLCOM and attestation by the Civil Service Commission
10. Issuance of appointment order and oath taking

The final evaluation includes the sequential conduct of the following examinations, test and interview:

1. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE) – to exclude applicants that may be suffering from any mental
disorder. It shall be administered to all applicants under the supervision of the PNP Medical Officer and
NAPOLCOM Representative.

NOTE: Only those applicants who passed the PPE shall proceed to the next stage, the Physical, Medical
and Dental Examination (PMDE).

2. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE) – this test shall determine whether or not the
applicants are in good health and free from any contagious diseases. It shall be conducted by the PNP Health

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Service under the supervision of the PNP Medical Officer and NAPOLCOM Representative. Applicants who passed
the PMDE shall be indorsed for the conduct of the Physical Agility Test (PAT).

NOTE: Absolutely, there shall be no retake of the PMDE.

3. Physical Agility Test (PAT) – this test shall determine whether or not the applicant possesses the required
coordination, strength and speed of movement necessary in the police service. The PAT consists of the following:

- Pull-up for Men; Horizontal Bar Hang for Women;


- Two (2) Minutes Push-ups;
- Two (2) Minutes Sit-ups;
- 100 meter dash; and
- 1000 meter run.

NOTE: Absolutely, there shall be no retake of the PAT. Applicants who passed the PAT shall be indorsed to
the Screening Committee through the Secretariat for the Final Interview Phase.

4. Final Committee Interview (FCI) – it shall determine the applicants’ aptitude to join the police service,
likableness, affability, outside interest, conversational ability, disagreeable mannerisms, etc. The Screening
Committee en banc shall interview the applicants who successfully passed through the sequential stages including
the drug test and character and background investigation.
Absolutely, no applicant shall be interviewed unless he/she passes through the sequential process and is
declared “Passed” in all the stages.

NOTE: The conduct of the Physical Agility Test (PAT) and Neuro-Psychiatric (NP) examination shall be
simultaneous nationwide to prevent a retake in another place of said tests by applicants who initially failed on the
same.

Drug Test
The drug test (DT) shall not follow the sequential steps but shall be conducted on passers only anytime
after the PPE, PMDE, or PAT but before the Final Committee Interview. It shall be administered by the PNP Crime
Laboratory.

Character and Background Investigation (CBI)


The complete Character and Background Investigation (CBI) shall be conducted on all PPE passers and
must be completed before the start of the Final Committee Interview. The complete CBI shall determine their
reputation and possible involvement in any questionable or criminal activities or violent incidents.

APPOINTMENT OF UNIFORMED PNP PERSONNEL


PO1 TO SPO4 – appointed by the Regional Director for regional personnel or by the
Chief, PNP for the national headquarters
INSP TO SUPT – appointed by the Chief, PNP
SR SUPT TO DDG – appointed by the President upon recommendation of the Chief, PNP, subject to confirmation
by the Commission on Appointments
DIRECTOR GENERAL – appointed by the President from among the senior officers down to the rank of CSupt,
subject to the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments

KINDS OF APPOINTMENT
1. PERMANENT – when an applicant possesses the upgraded general qualifications for appointment in the PNP.
2. TEMPORARY – Any PNP personnel who is admitted due to the waiver of the educational or weight
requirements. Any member who will fail to satisfy any of the waived requirements with the specified time periods
shall be dismissed from the service.

Pursuant to NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-009, a newly recruited PO1 shall be appointed in
temporary status in twelve (12) months pending compliance with the Field Training Program (FTP) involving
actual experience and assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation.

APPOINTMENT UNDER A WAIVER PROGRAM (NAPOLCOM MC No. 2013-004)

1). Conditions on waivers for initial appointment to the PNP

g. The age, height and weight for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number of
qualified applicants falls below the approved national/regional quota.

h. Waiver of the age requirement may be granted provided that the applicant shall not be less than twenty
(20) nor more than thirty five (35) years of age. For purposes of this paragraph, one is considered to be not
over thirty five (35) years old if he or she has not yet reached his or her thirty six (36 th) birthday on the date
of the issuance of his or her appointment.

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i. Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to a male applicant who is at least 1 meter and 57 cm
(1.57m) and to a female applicant who is at least 1 meter and 52cm (1.52m). Provided, that the minimum
height requirement for applicants who belong to indigenous group duly certified by the National
Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) or the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP) shall
be 1.52m for male and 1.45m for female. Provided further, that the Commission shall require said
applicants to submit appropriate proof of their membership in a certain indigenous group.

j. An applicant who is granted a weight waiver shall be given reasonable time not exceeding six (6) months
within which to comply with the said requirement.

k. The grant of waiver is not a guarantee for appointment into the police service.

l. The PNP Screening Committee shall, through the Chief of the PNP, request the Commission to consider
the appointment of those applicants with a certification under oath that the qualified applicants, at the time
the applicant is being considered, fall below the office/unit quota concerned.

Factors to be Considered in the Grant of Waivers

a. Possession of special skills in evidence gathering and safekeeping, cyber crime investigation, detection
and prevention, crime scene investigation, martial arts, marksmanship and similar special skills;
b. Special talents in the field of sports, music or arts and culture;
c. Extensive experience or training in forensic science and other legal, medical and technical services; and
d. Outstanding academic records and extracurricular activities of applicant during his/her school days, good
family background in law enforcement or socio-civic activities, recognized social standing in the community,
awards and commendations received, which should indicate to the Commission En Banc that the applicant
can become a good member of the Philippine National Police

Selection Criteria under the waiver program

a. Applicants who possess the least disqualifications shall take precedence over those who possess more
disqualifications.
b. The requirement shall be waived in the following order:

4. Age
5. Height
6. Weight

NOTE: Use the acronym AHW (age, height and weight).

LATERAL ENTRY OF OFFICERS INTO THE PNP


1). In general, all original appointments of commissioned officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank of
inspector, to include all those with highly technical qualifications applying for the PNP technical services (R.A.
6975).

a). Senior Inspector


1). Chaplain;
2). Member of the Bar;
3). Doctor of Medicine

b). Inspector
1). Dentist
2) Optometrists
3) Nurses
4) Engineers
5) Graduates of forensic science
6) Graduates of Philippine National Police Academy

Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of inspector to fill up any vacancy after promotions
from the ranks are completed.

New Policy on LATERAL ENTRY (NAPOLCOM M.C 2008-006)


a). A person with highly technical qualifications such as:
1). Dentist
2). Optometrist
3). Nurse
4) Engineer
5). Graduate of Forensic Science
6). Doctor of Medicine
7). Member of the Philippine Bar

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8). Chaplain
9). Information Technologist
10). Pilot
11). Psychologist
b). Graduate of PNPA
c). Licensed Criminologist

Top priority consideration for lateral entry into the rank of Police Inspector shall be given to top ten (10)
placers of the different Licensure Examinations. However, incumbent PNP members who land in the top ten shall
be given first preference over the civilian provided that the qualifications are satisfied.
The maximum age of PNP members applicants through lateral entry shall be forty six (46) years old at the
time of appointment. Age waivers shall not be allowed.

POLICE TRAINING
- is a means of providing knowledge and skill to police officers which are needed in the performance of their
functions. It is the objective of police training to bring the police force to the desired standards of discipline and
efficiency by making each police officer fully aware of his duties and responsibilities and by providing him with a
working knowledge of police procedures and techniques.

TYPES OF POLICE TRAINING PROGRAM


1. Basic Recruit Training – is the most basic of all police training. It is a pre-requisite for permanency of
appointment and is required for newly hired police officers. In the Philippine National Police, a newly appointed
Police Officer 1 is required to undergo a Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC) as a basic recruit training.

2. Field Training Program (FTP) – or on-the-job training is the process by which an individual police officer who is
recruited into the service receives formal instruction on the job for special and defined purpose and performs actual
job functions with periodic appraisal on his performance and progress.
As provided for under R.A. 8551, police officers are required to undergo a Field Training Program for twelve
(12) months (inclusive of the PSBRC) involving actual experience and assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation
which is required for permanency in the police service.
Pursuant to NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-009, a newly recruited PO1 shall be appointed in
temporary status in twelve (12) months pending compliance with the Field Training Program (FTP).

EXCEPTION FROM FIELD TRAINING PROGRAM


Under Section 33, R.A. 6975, PNPA Graduates shall be automatically appointed to the initial rank of
Inspector via Lateral Entry.
Taking into consideration that the PNPA Cadetship Program is a four-year course that includes academic
subjects on core police functions such as patrol, traffic and criminal investigation, and on-the-job training in urban
and rural areas, PNPA graduates are exempted to undergo the FTP and that they shall be issued with a permanent
status.

3. In-Service Training Program – or refresher training program.

The following are examples of in-service training programs as mandatory requirement for promotion:
1. Junior Leadership Training – PO1 to PO3
2. Senior Leadership Training – SPO1 to SPO4
3. Police Basic Course (PBC) –for senior police officers
4. Officers Basic Course (OBC)– Inspectors to Chief Inspectors
5. Officers Advance Course (OAC) – for Chief Inspectors to Senior Superintendent
6. Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) – Superintendent and above
7. Directorial Staff Course (DSC) – for Directors and above

4. Departmental Training Program


a. Roll-Call Training – instructional courses of several hours a day concerning departmental activities
b. Supervisory Development, Specialized or Technical Training – seminars or special sessions on
criminal investigation, traffic, drug control, etc
c. Training conducted by other law enforcement units or agencies

POLICE ASSIGNMENT
Police assignment refers to the process of designation a police officer at a particular function, duty or
responsibility. The very purpose of police assignment is to ensure systematic and effective utilization of all the
members of the police force.
Police Officer 1s, specifically those who were recruited under the attrition recruitment program, after
undergoing the required Field Training Program (FTP), shall be assigned with the Regional/Provincial/City Public
Safety Battalion/Company of their place of recruitment for a maximum period of two (2) years.
After their assignment with the Regional/Provincial/City Public Safety Battalion/Company, they shall be
downloaded/assigned to their respective city/municipal police stations where they were recruited.
Upon assumption of duty, the Police Officer 1s shall pay a courtesy call to the city/municipal mayor who in
turn shall inform the Regional Director of the National Police Commission Regional Office. (NAPOLCOM
Memorandum Circular No. 2011-010)

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THE PNP PROMOTION SYSTEM
Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another carrying higher
benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a position of leadership.

KINDS OF PROMOTION
1. Regular Promotion
2. Special/ Meritorious/Spot Promotion
3. Promotion by virtue of position

A. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory requirements for promotion.

MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION

1. Educational attainment (NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 2011-196 dated July 6, 2011)


For Police Sr. Supt. to Director General
a. Masters in Public Safety Administration (MPSA)
b. Allied Master’s Degree

For Chief Inspector to Superintendent


a. Bachelor’s Degree preferably Master’s Degree

For POI to Sr. Inspector


a. Bachelor’s Degree

2. Completion of appropriate training/schooling, such as:


Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) / General Staff Course (GSC)
Officers Advance Course (OAC)
Officers Basic Course (OBC)
Officers Candidate Course (OCC)
Senior Leadership Course (SLC)
Junior Leadership Course (JLC)
Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC)

3. Time-in Grade – the number of years required for a police officer to hold a certain rank before he can be
promoted to the next higher rank. The time-in grade in the PNP is maintained as follows (NAPOLCOM Resolution #
2013-501):

2 years – from Sr Supt to Chief Supt.


3 years – from Supt to Sr Supt
3 years – Chief Insp to Supt
3 years – Sr Insp to Chief Insp
3 years – Insp to Sr Insp
3 years – SPO4 to Insp
2 years – SPO3 to SPO4
2 years – SPO2 to SPO3
2 years – SPO1 to SPO2
3 years – PO3 to SPO1
2 year – PO2 to PO3
2 years – PO1 to PO2

4. Appropriate eligibility – the required promotional examinations


a. Police Officer Promotional Examination
b. Senior Police Officer Promotional Examination
c. Police Inspector Promotional Examination
d. Police Superintendent Promotional Examination

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less than one (1) year of service before reaching the
compulsory retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or appointed to any other position.
Pursuant to RA 9708, “…In addition, the institution of a criminal action or complaint against a police
officer shall not be a bar to promotion: Provided, however, That upon finding of probable cause, notwithstanding
any challenge that may be raised against that finding thereafter, the concerned police officer shall be ineligible for
promotion: Provided, further, That if the case remains unresolved after two (2) years from the aforementioned
determination of probable cause, he or she shall be considered for promotion. In the event he or she is held
guilty of the crime by final judgment, said promotion shall be recalled without prejudice to the imposition of the
appropriate penalties under applicable laws, rules and regulations:
-Provided, furthermore, That if the complaint filed against the police officer is for a crime including, but not
limited to, a violation of human rights, punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment, and the court
has determined that the evidence of guilt is strong, said police officer shall be completely ineligible for
promotion during the pendency of the said criminal case.”

B. Special Promotion – promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of conspicuous courage and
gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of duty.

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Conspicuous courage is a courage that is clearly distinguished above others in the performance of one’s
duty.

ACTS OF CONSPICUOUS COURAGE AND GALLANTRY (NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-003 and
PNP Memorandum Circular No. 2009-019)

1. A deed of personal bravery and self sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty, so conspicuous as to distinguish
the act clearly over and above his/her comrades in the performance of more than ordinary hazardous service, such
as; but not limited to the following circumstances:
e. Overwhelming number of enemies and firepower capability as against the strength of PNP
operatives and their firepower capability;
f. Infiltration and penetration of the safehouses and hideouts of organized crime syndicates like
kidnapping, illegal drugs, carnapping, hijacking and terrorism;
g. Shoot-out in robbery/hold-up incidents inside public places such as: malls, government offices, business
establishments and PUVs;
h. Conduct of rescue/disaster operations that resulted in the saving of lives and properties.
2. An act of heroism exhibited in the face of an armed enemy or in the conduct of rescue/disaster operations
resulting in the loss of life (posthumous promotions).

Posthumous Award – in case an individual who distinguish himself dies before the granting of the awards.

C. PROMOTION BY VIRTUE OF POSITION


Any PNP personnel designated to any key position whose rank is lower than that which is required
for such position shall, after six (6) months of occupying the same, be entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding
to the position.
Provided, that the personnel shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher rank until after two (2)
years from the date of such rank adjustment. (Section 32, R.A. 8551).

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
- refers to the process of measuring the performance of PNP members. It is also known as “performance
evaluation system”. The Performance Evaluation System in the PNP is focused on two (2) areas: administrative
(40%) and operational (60%). It is conducted every six (6) months or twice a year.

FREQUENCY OF RATING
The frequency of the individual performance shall be undertaken every six (6) months. Evaluation report
covering the period of January to June shall be submitted on the 1 st week of July and the report from July to
December shall be submitted on the 1st week of January of the succeeding year.

PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION


1. Serves as guide for promotion, salary increase, retirement and disciplinary actions.
2. Increases productivity and efficiency of police works
3. Assimilates supervision
4. Informs the officer of the quality of his work for improvements

POLICE COMPENSATION (WELFARE AND BENEFITS IN THE PNP)


The uniformed members of the PNP are considered employees of the National Government and shall draw
their salaries therefrom. The salary of a Police Officer 1 of the PNP is equivalent to a salary of a public school
teacher 1 with salary grade scale of 10 under existing laws as of year 2012.
The PNP members assigned in Metropolitan Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be
paid financial incentive by the local government unit concerned subject to the availability of funds.

LONGEVITY PAY AND ALLOWANCES


A uniformed personnel of the PNP is entitled to a longevity pay of ten percent (10%) of basic monthly
salaries for every five (5) years of service, which is reckoned from the date of the personnel's original appointment
in the AFP, or appointment in the police, fire jail or other allied services to the integration of the PC and the INP.
The totality of such longevity pay should not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the basic pay. It should also
continue to enjoy the subsistence allowance, quarter’s allowance, clothing allowance cost of living allowance,
hazard pay, and all other allowances as provided by existing laws.

The total earnings of a police officer consist of the following:


1. Base pay;
2. Longevity pay;
3. Personnel Economic Relief Allowance (PERA);
4. Incentive pay;
5. Hazard pay;
6. Subsistence allowance;
7. Quarter allowance;
8. Additional compensation;
9. Clothing allowance;
10. Laundry allowance; and
11. Gratuity

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PERMANENT PHYSICAL DISABILITY
Total Permanent Physical Disability refers to any impairment of the body which renders PNP member
indefinitely incapable of substantially performing the mandated duties and functions of his positions.
- entitled to one year's salary and to lifetime pension equivalent to eighty percent (80%) of his last salary, in
addition to other benefits as provided under existing laws.

RETIREMENT PROGRAM
Retirement is the separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the age of
retirement provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active service
A PNP uniformed personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.
Active Service shall refer to services rendered as an officer and non-officer, cadet, trainee or draftee in the
PNP.

TYPES OF RETIREMENT IN THE PNP


1. Compulsory retirement – separation from the PNP upon reaching the age of fifty-six (56), the compulsory
age of retirement.
2. Optional Retirement - separation from the PNP upon accumulation of at least twenty (20) years of
satisfactory active service.

RETIREMENT BENEFITS
The PNP member who has been retired from the service is entitled to a monthly retirement pay of fifty
percent (50%) of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of twenty (20) years of active service,
increasing by two and one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of active service rendered beyond twenty (20) years to
a maximum of ninety percent (90%) for thirty-six (36) years of active service and over.

Part II
POLICE RECORDS MANAGEMENT

THE CONCEPT OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT

Records are the memory of the company or the organization. They are vital and considered the working
tools in decision-making for both administration and operation of business. No organization will exist without its
records, because it provides not only the history of the organization but also contains information necessary for
future actions and decisions on which the progress of the company or organization depends.

The PNP-DPRM by virtue of R.A. 6975 ensures the proper management and care of police records.

Record refers to the information whether in its original form or otherwise including documents, signatures,
seals, texts, images, sounds, speeches or data compiled, recorded or stored, as the case may be:
1. in written form on any material;
2. on film, negative, tape or other medium so as to be capable of being reproduced; or
3. any means of recording device or process, computer or other electronic device or process.

Record Management
- refers to the managerial activities involved with respect to the record creation, record maintenance, and
use, transmission, retention, and record disposition in order to achieve adequate and proper documentation of
policies and transactions of government for its efficient, effective and economical operation.

Cardinal Principles of Records Management


1. A record that is misplaced or misfiled is as good as lost.
2. No record that is subject to a pending audit should be destroyed, regardless of the published destruction
schedule.
3. Active records are to be kept in offices during their useful life. Inactive records are to be transferred to some
type of archives or destroyed according to the record retention schedule.
4. Records should be grouped according to the retention value and functions.
5. Information is not tangible (not real or true) until it is represented as data or recorded in a document.

Reasons why managing government records a difficult problem


1. Large in volume
2. Accumulates rapidly
3. Must be available to a wide variety of users
4. It occupies valuable office space and crowded out office personnel.

Avoiding of losing/misplacing of records:


1. Only authorized personnel should have access to the files or records.
2. Maintain a record book for borrowers.
3. File all records properly.

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4. Store records in a safe place.
5. Conduct periodic inspection and inventory.
6. Report immediately to your superior any missing or lost records.

RECORDS CYCLE
- also known as “birth-through-death cycle”
- the life span of records from creation to final disposition:

1. Birth or Creation – the period during which the record is created or comes into existence.

2. Records Maintenance and Use refers to the period when the records serve its purpose:
a. Active Life – during which the record is maintained, used and controlled
b. Inactive Life – the time when the record is very rarely or no longer referred to and must be
transferred to a cheaper place. These records have already served their purpose but must be kept
for legal requirement or other compelling reasons.

3. Classification – records are classified for filing purposes.


4. Storage – refers to the filing of records according to classification.
5. Retrieval – the act of taking out of record from the storage for reference purposes.
6. Purging or Retention – the act of determining if the record is for retention or ready for disposal.
7. Transfer – the process of moving the record from one storage to another.
8. Archival Storage or Records Disposition – the systematic transfer of non-current records from the office
to any storage area or archives for long term storage, the identification of preservation of permanent
records and the destruction of valueless records.

CLASSIFICATION OF RECORDS
A. According to Period of Retention:
1. Permanent Record – to be kept for not less than ten (10) years
2. Semi-Permanent – to be kept for five (5) years
3. Temporary – no specified period but usually less than (5) years.

B. According to Importance or Essentiality:


1. Vital Records – are records that are irreplaceable, but can be reproduced.
2. Important Records – records that can be reproduced after considerable delay.
3. Useful Records – records that would cause inconvenience if lost but could be readily replaced.
4. Non-essential Records – records that are previously determined by retention schedule to be illegible for
destruction.

C. According to Phases of its Life Cycle


1. Current Phase (Current or Active Records) - records that are regularly used and maintained.
2. Semi-current Phase (Semi-current Records) - records that are still used but only infrequently.
3. Non-current Phase (Non-current or Inactive Records) - records that are no longer used.

TYPES OF POLICE RECORDS


1. Case Records – it is the heart of any police records system. It serves as the basis for an analysis of offenses
and the methods by which they are committed.

a. Complaint Sheet – it is the foundation record of the police department. It reflects all information regarding
complaints and reports received by the police from citizens and other agencies or actions taken by the police.

b. Investigative Report – it contains the findings and actions taken by the investigating officer based on the
inquiries made and by obtaining the available facts of the incident.

1. Initial or Advance Report – is an advance information on a new or fresh case. It is written and submitted
immediately after having conducted the initial investigation of the case.

2. Progress or Follow-up Report – it is the result of the follow-up investigation of a new or fresh case. It is
written and submitted every time or whenever any development or progress is accomplished in the follow-
up investigation.

3. Final or Closing Report – is a complete written narration of facts based on an exhausted investigation of
the case. It is the result of evaluated, summation, analysis of all facts and circumstances of the case. This
is written and submitted whenever the case is solved and closed. A case is solved and closed when the
offender was arrested; evidence against him was completely gathered to warrant prosecution and witness
located to testify in the trial.

4. Technical Report – a report on the laboratory examination of the physical evidence gathered in order to
supplement the findings of the investigator.

5. Accident Report – an investigation report regarding an accident which includes vehicular accident and
damage to property.

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6. Wanted Persons Report – a report on persons who are wanted by the police.

7. Daily Record of Events – a record needed to keep all members of the police force informed concerning
police operations, assignments, and administrative functions.

2. Arrest and Booking Records – these records maintain the arrest and jail booking report which is required for all
persons arrested.
a. Arrest Report – it contains the information regarding the full name of the offender, charges and
circumstances of arrest.
b. Booking Report – it contains the list of the prisoners in custody which indicates the status and
disposition thereof.
c. Prisoner’s Property Receipt - contains all the information regarding the property taken from the
prisoner and accomplish in duplicate.

3. Identification Records – third major division of police records. It provides identification criminals which includes
names, physical characteristics and in some cases photograph.
a. Fingerprint Record – heart of any identification system.
1. Civilian Fingerprint
2. Alien Fingerprint
b. Criminal Specialty/Modus Operandi (MO) File – contains photographic record of the modus
operandi of criminals

4. Administrative Records – essential in administering personnel matters and designed to aid in assignment,
promotion, and disciplinary action of personnel.
1. Personnel Records
2. Correspondence File
3. Memoranda, Orders, Policy Files
4. Assignment Record

5. Miscellaneous Records – these are records which are not related to the recorded complaints and investigation
reports but are essential to the daily police activities.

FILING SYSTEM
1. Alphabetical – all materials are filed in dictionary order. It is the most widely used form of filing.

2. Encyclopedic Order – the subjects are grouped into major headings; individual folders are filed in alphabetical
order behind each heading.

3. Chronological Order – folders are arranged by sequential date order. It is useful for records that are created
and monitored on a daily basis.

4. Geographical – files are arranged alphabetically by geographical name of the place.

5. Numerical – assigning of numerical value or number into a specific file which can be managed through the
following system:
a. Serial Number
b. Digit Filing

6. Centralized Filing – places all record series in one central location in an office. Most useful when the majority of
individuals within an office require access to majority of files

7. Decentralized Filing – it physically locates record series in different places within an office. Most useful when
only one individual requires access to a specific record series.

THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE PERSONNEL RECORDS MANAGEMENT


As provided in the PNP Personnel Records Management Manual of 2008, the PNP shall establish a
centralized records management system and create, maintain, protect and preserve records both in physical and
electronic form.

RECORDS MANAGEMENT DIVISION (RMD)


The Records Management Division (RMD) was established to oversee the records management functions
of the DPRM. The RMD shall develop, coordinate and implement PNP-wide programs, policies and procedures for
creation, usage, maintenance, storage and disposition of personnel records. The RMD is headed by a division chief
with a rank of Police Senior Superintendent and assisted by an assistant division chief with a rank of
Superintendent.

RECORDS CREATION
Records creation refers to the act of exchanging written ideas between two (2) sources. At this point, the
life of the record begins. However, due to the fast pace at which the records of PNP personnel are created, and the
cost involved in maintaining them, a control system is necessary.

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THE PNP PERSONNEL FILE (PPF)
The PNP Personnel File which is also known as 201 File is a folder containing a set of personal records
and information pertaining to an individual member of the PNP, which serves as basis in availing of service record,
leave record, PNP ID, legal beneficiaries, authentication of photocopies, etc.

The color of the folder for the PPFs shall be as follows:


a. Red, for Police Commissioned Officers (PCO);
b. Blue, for Police Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCO)
c. Green, for Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP)

RECORDS MAINTENANCE
Records maintenance refers to the activities involving proper handling of records, arranging them into
usable filing sequence, using the most efficient type of filing equipment.

RECORDS DISPOSITION
Records Disposition is the systematic transfer on non-current records from an office to any records
storage area, the identification and preservation of permanent records and the outright destruction of valueless
records.
No PNP personnel or units/offices shall dispose of, destroy or authorize the disposal or destruction of
records or PPFs which are in the custody or under its control except with the prior written authority of the Executive
Director, National Archives of the Philippines (Section 18, R.A. 9470).
Any PNP personnel who, willfully or negligently, damages a police record or disposes of or destroys a
police record shall be deemed to have committed an offense.

RECORDS SECURITY AND PROTECTION


- refers to the preventive and preventive and protective measures and actions undertaken in order to
safeguard records/documents in all government agencies from unauthorized and indiscriminate disclosure,
damage, destruction and loss, whether records are filed in current of non-current storage area.

PROTECTION OF RECORDS
1. Duplication – records shall be created with additional copies or duplicates depending on the needs and
circumstances.
2. Dispersal – records shall be distributed without additional copies or duplicates.
3. Vaulting – vital records shall be stored in a vault.
4. Evacuation – original and older records considered to be vital shall be transferred to a secure location.

RECORDS PROTECTION LEVEL


1. Vital – or “top protection priority”, consists of all essential records considered as mission critical and
irreplaceable.
2. Important – or “second protection priority”, consists of all documents still considered as essential but could
be replaced or recreated.
3. Useful – or “lowest protection priority”, consists of all other documents considered to be non-essential to
normal operations but inconvenient when lost.

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LEA 6: POLICE COMPARATIVE SYSTEM

POLICE
= refers to a body of civil authority, which is tasked to maintain peace and order, enforce the law, protect lives and
properties and ensure public safety.
= a public official with an extraordinary power to make an arrest and performing direct police functions.

COMPARATIVE = is the degree of likeness and unlikeness of two police models

SYSTEM = is a complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose operations are directed towards goals and
which are influenced by the environment within which they function

GLOBALIZATION = The process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in an effort to form
and sustain a global economy.

EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION to Law Enforcement


= law enforcers are expected to be the protector of the people…….unaccountable flow of migration and
open markets present new threats to state-based human rights regimes – great challenge to law enforcement.

Threats to Law Enforcement


 increasing volume of human rights violations as evidence by genocide and mass killing
 conflict between nations
 Transnational criminal networks for drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism

TYPES OF POLICE SYSTEM


1. Common Law Systems = usually exists in English speaking countries of the world
= there is strong adversarial system and rely upon oral system of evidence in which the public trial is a
main focal point
= also known as “Anglo-American Justice”

2. Civil Law Systems = distinguished by strong inquisitorial system where less right is granted to the accused and
the written law is taken as gospel and subject to little interpretation
= also known as “Continental Justice or Romano-Germanic Justice”

3. Socialist System = distinguished by procedures designed to rehabilitate the offender.


= known as Marxist-Leninist Justice and exist in places such as Africa and Asia

4. Islamic System = based more on the concept of natural justice or customary law or tribal traditions

THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE


1. Continental = is the theory of police service which maintains that police officers are servants of higher
authorities. This theory prevails in the continental countries like France, Italy and Spain.

2. Home Rule = the theory of police service which states that police officers are servants of the community or
the people. This theory prevails in England and United States.

CONCEPT OF POLICE SERVICE


1. Old Police Service = states that the yardstick of police efficiency relies on the number of arrest made.
2. Modern Police Service = states that the yardstick of police efficiency relies on the absence of crime.

EVOLUTION OF POLICING SYSTEM


Praetorian guards = military bodies who serve as guardians of peace in ancient Rome in which the idea of
policing said to have originated

Officer de la Paix = a French term which claimed to be the origin of the term Police Officer

1. Anglo-Saxon Period of Policing System (Ancient England)


A. Tun Policing System
A system of policing emerged during the Anglo-Saxon period whereby all male residents were required
to guard the town (tun) to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people.
About 700 AD, the people living in England in small rural towns used the Anglo-Saxon System. Ten
families in a town (tun) equaled a tithing. Each tithing elected a leader who was known as the Tithingman. Since
10 tithings amounted to 100, the leader of the 100 families was named the reeve. Both the tithingman and reeve
were elected officials. They possessed judicial power as well as police authority.

B. Hue and Cry

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A village law started in Britain which provided methods of apprehending a criminal by an act of the
complainant to shout to call all male residents to assemble and arrest the suspect.

C. Trial by Ordeal
A judicial practice where in the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting him to an
unpleasant, usually dangerous, experience. (In present terminologies, it would mean an employment of a “3rd
degree.”) The word “ordeal” was derived from the Medieval Latin word “Dei Indicum” which means “a
miraculous decision.”

2. Norman Period of Policing System


This system of policing existed during the time of Norman William The Conqueror (King of France). When
he invaded and conquered England, a military regime of conquers and dictators began and changed the concept of
crime being committed against the state.

A. Shire-Rieve
Shire-Rieve was a policing system during the Norman Period when England was divided into fifty-five (55)
military areas, each headed by a ruler called the Rieve (head-man or lieutenant of the army). The fifty-five (55)
military divisions in England are called shires. The shire-rieve had absolute powers that no one could questions his
or her actions.
Two “Constabuli” or “The Keeper of the Horse” were appointed to each village to aid the Rieve in his
duties. It became the source of the word Constable.
The term “Shire-Rieve” is said to be the origin of the word “Sheriff.”

B. Travelling Judge or Circuit Judge


A judge selected to hear cases which were formerly being judged by the Shire-Rieve and tasked to travel
through and hear criminal cases. This was the first instance of the division of the police and judicial power s.

C. Legis Henrici
An act that was enacted during this period with the following features:
 Offenses were classified as against the king and individuals
 Policeman becomes public servant.
 The police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest. It introduced the system called
“citizen’s arrest.”
 Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law. A system which made inquisition onto
the facts of a crime and eliminate the “Anglo-Saxon Trial or “Trial by Ordeal System.”

D. Frankpledge System
A system of policing whereby a group of ten neighboring male residents over twelve years of age were
required to guard the town to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people

3. Westminster Period of Policing System


It is called by this name because the laws governing policing came out of the capital of England, which
at the time was Westminster. This period has the following features:
Guards were appointed and the duties of the constables at night (watch) and in daytime (ward) were defined

Statute of Westminster of 1285, a collection of regulations aimed at keeping the peace.

B. Statute of 1295
The law that marks the beginning of the curfew hours, which demanded the closing of the gates of
London during sundown.

C. Justice of the Peace (About 1361)


Three or four men who were learned in the law of the land were given authority to pursue, arrest,
chastise and imprisonment violators of law. They handled felonies, misdemeanors and infractions of city or
village ordinances. This was later abolished about 75 years after.

D. Star Chamber Court (1487)


A special court designed to try offenders against the state. The room set-up is formed in a shape of a
star and judges were given great powers such as the power to force testimony from a defendant leading to
a great abuse of power or brutality on the part of the judges.

4. Keepers of the Peace


A proclamation issued by King Richard of England sometime in 1195 that required the appointment of
knights to keep the King’s peace by standing as guards on bridges and gates while checking the people
entering and leaving the cities and towns.

5. King Charles II of England (1663)


King Charles II passed an act which established or promoted the employment of watchmen or bellmen to
be on duty from sunset to sunrise.

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6. Magna Carta or "The Great Charter"
A law promulgated by King John of England upon the demand of the Knights of the Round Table
forcing the King to sign the same with the following features:
 No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, banished or exiled except by legal judgment of his peers.
 No person shall be tried for murder unless there is proof of the body of the victim.

LONDON POLICING PRIOR TO 1829


Henry Fielding = appointed as Magistrate in 1748, introduced the first detective force, known as the Bow Street
Runners

Bow Street Runners = a group of men organized by Henry Fielding and named by his brother John Fielding task
to catch thieves and robbers
= identified by carrying a Tipstaff with the Royal Crown
= made up of eight constables who also investigated crimes handed over to them by the volunteer
constables and watchmen

1798 = Marine Police Force was established, salaried constables were being paid by local magistrates.
= initially made up of 220 Constables assisted by 1,000 registered dock workers, and was responsible for
preventing the theft of cargo. = widely regarded as being the first modern police force in the world, in the sense
that they were not government controlled and were responsible for the prevention of crime.

LONDON 1829
Sir Robert Peel = appointed as Home Secretary in 1822

METROPOLITAN POLICE FORCE (MPF) = organized in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police
Act of 1829
= the largest of the police services that operate in greater London (the others include the City of London
Police and the British Transport Police)
= finest police force around the world.

TOTAL POLICING = motto of London Metropolitan Police

IMPORTANT DATES
1833 = Coldbath Fields Riot (Grays Inn Road). A major crowd disturbance dealt with by the Metropolitan Police
with controversial use of force.
1836 = The Metropolitan Police absorb the Bow Street Horse Patrol into its control.
1838 = incorporates Marine Police and Bow Street Runners into the Metropolitan Police and the disbandment of
the Bow Street Office and other Offices. These were all agreed and put into effect.

SUPERVISION AND ADMINISTRATION OF MPF


1. The Metropolitan Police Authority (MPA) was the police authority responsible for supervising the Metropolitan
Police Service, the police force for Greater London. It consisted of 23 members: 12 London Assembly members,
appointed by the Mayor of London in accordance with the political balance on the Assembly, four magistrates and
seven independents. The MPA was set up in 2000 as a functional body of the Greater London Authority, by the
Greater London Authority Act 1999. Previously control of the Metropolitan Police had vested entirely in the Home
Secretary.
2. The MPA was disbanded on 16th January 2012 when the functions of the MPA were transferred to the Mayor's
Office for Policing and Crime (MOPC)

MPF Age criteria


As of 1 October 2006, the age criteria (at the time of application) is as follows:
 18–62½ years old = Police community support officers
 18–57 years old = Special constables
 18–57 years old = New constables and experienced officers
 Police staff = 16 years, except where the role involves shift work where the minimum age will be 18 years.
 Volunteers = 18+

UNITED STATES POLICE SYSTEM


TYPES OF US POLICE
1. Municipal Police = includes village, township, city and country police departments, sheriff departments.

Types of Local Police


a. Country Sheriff = in charged with the operation of county jail, civil function such as service of eviction notices
and other court orders and police responsibility.
b. City Police = most common local police organization. It has jurisdiction in matters that occur in an incorporated
municipality.

2. State Police = includes special investigative agencies that concentrate on statewide law enforcement. Also
Tasked of regulating traffic and maintaining order and safety on state and federal highways.

3. Federal Police = agencies operated by federal government at the national level

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Some Federal Agencies Having Police Functions
a. Protection of Life, Property and Enforcement of Penal Statutes
1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of federal law except
when the enforcement authority was given to other specific federal agency
2. United States Secret Service (Department of Treasury) = concerned with investigation of counterfeiting,
forging or altering of any of the money or other securities of the U.S. It is also in charged of the protection of the
president and his family, and of the executive mansion grounds
3. Bureau of Narcotics (Department of Treasury) = investigates all violations of federal law relating to prohibited
drugs
4. Immigration and Naturalization Service (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of immigration
and naturalization laws, patrol boarders to prevent surreptitious entry of aliens,

b. Protection of the National Revenue


1. Intelligence Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = investigation of violations of income tax laws
2. Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = violations of internal revenue laws
3. Division of Investigation and Patrol, Bureau of Customs = investigates smuggling activities and enforces
customs and navigation laws.
4. Private Police = additional police protection made by employing sworn officers through contract when they are
not officially on duty

Two Basic Forms of Private Police


a. Proprietary Police = when a person wish to receive service, he hires and security personnel directly
b. Contract Security = services of an independent security company

Selected U.S. Police Agencies


 New York City = it is where the first full time police force was organized in the United States
 New York Police Department = the largest police force in the United States
 Texas Ranger = police force originally created in response to colonization
 Boston Police Department = first local modern police department established in the United States
 Pennsylvania State Police = the first state police agency established
 Los Angeles Police Department = police force that hired the first female police officer named, Alice
Stebbins Wells
 Department of Homeland Security = a federal law enforcement agency in the United States which
handles U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, United States
Secret Service, United States Coast Guard and Transportation Security Administration

CANADA POLICE SYSTEM


Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) = colloquially known as Mounties and internally as “The Force” = is the
national police force of Canada and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world being a national, federal,
provincial and municipal policing body. It is founded in 1920 by the Merger of Royal Northwest Mounted
Police(1873) with the Dominion Police (1868).

AUSTRALIA POLICE SYSTEM


Australian Federal Police = a progressive and multi-faceted law enforcement organization, taking strong lead in
the fight against 21st century crime.

JAPAN POLICE SYSTEM


Keihoryo (Police Bureau within the Ministry of Home affairs to 1945)
Japanese Colonial Government = the one which organized the first formal policing in China.
Japanese Yakuza = considered as the center of Asian organized crime action.

OUTLINE OF PRESENT POLICE ORGANIZATION


A. National Level
1. National Public Safety Commission (NPSC) = an administrative board under the jurisdiction of the Prime
Minister. It is composed of Chairman and five members, serving five year term, who are appointed by the Prime
Minister.
The Chairman is the State Minister, who convenes the commission and presides over its matters, but is not
a member.

The NPSC controls the National Police Agency (NPA) with respect to:
a. police training
b. communications
c. criminal statistics
d. equipment
e. other police administration and
f. matters of police operations affecting national public safety.

The NPSC has the power to appoint or dismiss the Commissioner-General of the National Police Agency
with the approval of the Prime Minister.
Appointments and dismissals of Chiefs of Prefectural Police Headquarters are also made by the NPSC with
the consent of the Prefectural Public Safety Commission.

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For the Chief (Superintendent-General) of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department, the further approval
of the Prime Minister and the consent of the Tokyo Metropolitan Public Safety Commission are required.

2. National Police Agency (NPA) = established under the control of the National Public Safety Commission,
headed by a Commissioner-General. It is made up of Commissioner-General’s Secretariat and five Bureaus:
a. Community Safety Bureau
b. Criminal Investigation Bureau
c. Traffic Bureau
d. Security Bureau
e. Info-Communications Bureau

Attached Agency of the NPA:


a. National Police Academy = provides training to police officers and conduct academic research
b. National Research Institute of the Police Science = conducts research in police science
c. Imperial Guards = provides escort to the Emperor, Empress, Crown Prince and other Imperial family.
= responsible for the security of Imperial Palace

NPA Regional Bureaus = exercise control and supervision over regional police offices and provides support with
the prefectural police.
There are seven (7) Regional Police Bureaus established as local police officers of the NPA whose
jurisdiction extends to all districts except in the areas of Tokyo Prefecture and Hokkaido.

B. Prefecture Level (Local)


1. Prefectural Public Safety Commission (PPSC) = established under the jurisdiction of the respective
Prefectural Governors, it controls the Prefectural Police in its respective jurisdiction.
The PPSC may, when necessary, submit recommendations to the NPSC with respect the dismissal of or
disciplinary action against the Chief of a Prefectural Police Headquarters.

2. Prefectural Police = jurisdiction is generally confined in their respective prefectures.


There are 47 Prefectural Police Departments in Japan. The largest is the Tokyo Metropolitan Police
Department, and the next is the Osaka Police Headquarters.

Superintendent-General = head of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department

Rank Structure and Corresponding Position of NPA


 Commissioner-General (Keisatsu-chō Chōkan): The Chief of National Police Agency
 Superintendent General (Keishi-sōkan): The Chief of Metropolitan Police Department
 Superintendent Supervisor (eishi-kan): Deputy Commissioner General, Deputy Superintendent General,
The Chief of Regional Police Bureau, The Chief of Prefectural Police Headquarters,
 Chief Superintendent (Keishi-chō): The Chief of Prefectural Police Headquarters.
 Senior Superintendent (Keishi-sei): The Chief of Police Station.
 Superintendent (Keishi): The Chief of Police Station.
 Police Inspector or Captain (Keibu)
 Assistant Police Inspector or Lieutenant (Keibu-ho)
 Police Sergeant (Junsa-buchō)
 Senior Police Officer or Corporal (Junsa-chō): Honorary rank.
 Police officer, old Patrolman (Junsa)

MALAYSIA POLICE SYSTEM


ROYAL MALAYSIAN POLICE (RMP)
Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM)
= police force of Malaysia.
= headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur
= The constitution, control, employment, recruitment,fund, discipline, duties and powers of the police force is
specified and governed by the Police Act 1967

Motto = TEGAS, ADIL DAN BERHEMAH = Firm, Fair And Prudent

RMP Organizations
1. Management Department = the Management Department is tasked with the routine of management and
administration affairs of the RMP. This department is also the nerve centre of the RMP and acts as the support
services platform for the rest of the force.
2. Logistics Department = has the role to provide several equipments needed in RMP
3. Criminal Investigation Division = deals with the investigation, arrest and prosecution of hard crimes (murder,
robbery, rape etc) and petty crimes (theft, house-breaking etc).
= This department also specializes in gambling, vice and secret societies (triads)

Branches of Criminal Investigation Division


D1 – Administrative Division
D2 – Criminal Record Registration
D3 – Internal Affairs

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D4 – Statistics
D5 – Prosecution and Law Divisions
D6 – Technical Assistance Division
D7 – Gambling / Vice / Secret Societies
D8 – Investigation Division / Planning
D9 – Special Investigation Division
D10 – Forensic Laboratory Division
D11 – Sexual Investigation Division
D12 – National Centre Bureau-Interpol Division

4. Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division = this department's function is to fight against dangerous drugs
by enforcing the law to stop and reduce the demand and supply of dangerous drugs.

5. Internal Security and Public Order Department = responsible for traffic control and Search And Rescue (SAR)
operations

6. The Police Field Force (PFF) = organized in battalions and was a para-military units of the Royal Malaysia
Police. Also known as the Jungle Squad
= established in 1948

7. Police Counter-Terrorism Unit = an elite unit of RMP responsible in counter-terrorism operations

8. Marine Combat Unit (MCU) or Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN) = was established in 2006 and it was fully
operational by the end of 2007
= first name was Unit Selam Tempur due to the pressing need to suppress the pirate attacks alongside the
coastal area of Malacca Straits and open sea area of South China Sea which were continuously widespread from
time to time despite various efforts done to overcome the problem
= members received training from U.S

*9. Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) or Pasukan Simpanan Persekutuan = its role is riot suppression, crowd
control, disaster relief & rescue, as well as special operations assistance
= organized in 1955

10. C4-i Implementations System (abbreviation for Command, Control, Communications, Computer-
Integrated) = based at Police Control Centre in all police contingents in Malaysia.
= this unit is assigned to patrol the city and the suburbs.

11. The Marine Operations Force or (Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Marin) = tasked with maintaining law and order
and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas

12. Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing Unit or Unit Udara PDRM (UUP) = is a special unit of Royal Malaysia
Police with a vital role in maintaining national security with thorough surveillance and patrol from the air

13. Special Branch = This department is responsible for collecting intelligence for national security

14. Traffic Unit = responsible in maintaining the flow of traffic

15. Commercial Crimes Investigation Department = this department's main function is to investigate, arrest, and
prosecute offenders committing white collar crimes such as fraud, breach of trust, cyber-crimes, forgery,
counterfeiting etc

16. Mounted Police = police who patrol on horseback (equestrians) or camelback. They continue to serve in
remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be picturesque or ceremonial, but they
are also employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height advantage

INDONESIA POLICE SYSTEM


Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia) = is the official police force of Indonesia
= organized 1946
= also known as Polri

Markasbesar/Mabes = name of the headquaters of Indonesian National Police located in KebayoranBaru, South,
Jakarta, Indonesia

POLRI TERRITORIAL FORCES


1. Kepolisian Wilayah or Polwil = regional police
2. Kepolisian Daerah or Polda = provincial police
3. Kepolisian Resort or Polres = city or regency police
4. Kepolisian Sector or Polsek = sub-district police

SPECIAL BRANCHES
1. Brigade Mobile (BRIMOB) = the most militarized trained to deal with mass demonstrations

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= paramilitary role to conduct security stabilization operations and providing security for VIP and vital
facilities

2. Anti-Riot Unit (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hura) = received special anti-riot training

3. Sea and Air Police = responsible patrolling the airspace


4. Plainclothes Unit = assigned in conducting investigations

5. Maritime Police = responsible in protecting the territorial sea

6. Anti-Terrorist Unit = trained in counter-terrorism

7. Forensics = in-charged of laboratory examination of evidence

SINGAPORE POLICE SYSTEM


Singapore Police Force (SPF) = is the main agency task with maintaining law and order in the city-state. It is
formerly known as Republic of Singapore Police. Organized with split staff (15) and line functions (13) roughly
modeled after the military. Headquarters at New Poenix Park in Novena.

Francis James Bernard = formed the skeleton force as the heritage of Singapore Police Force in 1819.

Training in SPF
Police Academy = provides basic training to both new and serving officers of the SPF
6 Months = is the duration of training for Constables
10 Months = duration of training for Officer Cadet Trainees

THAILAND POLICE SYSTEM


Royal Thai Police (RTP) = is the primary law enforcement agency of Thailand. Formerly known as Thailand
National Police Department (TNPD)
= In 1998, TNPD was transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Thailand to be directly under the Office of
the Prime Minister using the name Royal Thai Police. The position of its supreme head was changed from that
of the Director-General of the TNPD to the Commissioner-General of the Royal Thai Police

10 Geographical Regions of RTP


1. Metropolitan Police Bureau
2. Provincial Police Region 1 = central region
3. Provincial Police Region 2 = eastern region
4. Provincial Police Region 3= lower northeastern region
5. Provincial Police Region 4 = upper northeastern region
6. Provincial Police Region 5 = upper northern region
7. Provincial Police Region 6 = lower northern region
8. Provincial Police Region 7 = western region
9. Provincial Police Region 8 = upper southern region
10. Provincial Police Region 9 = lower southern region

Different Bureaus of RTP


1. Border Patrol Police = maintenance of the public peace and security along the border areas
2. Central Investigation Bureau = responsible for major criminal cases, specially offenses committed in breach of
national security and integrity
3. Immigration Bureau = responsible for immigration proceedings of all country checkpoints, alien registration
control, prevention and suppression of trafficking of women and children
4. Narcotics Suppression Bureau = in charge of drug prevention and suppression in Thailand
5. Office of the Royal Court Security Police = provides security for His Majesty the King and the Queen, the Heir,
and His Majesty’s representatives
6. Special Branch = police intelligence unit, responsible for acquiring and managing intelligence concerning
national security.
7. Office of Human Resources = responsible for personnel management within the RTP
8. Police Education Bureau = provides training to RTP

Recruitment and Training


Applicants with high school education receive training provided by Police Education Bureau and
become rank-and-file police officers.
Applicants who are college graduate are trained inside the Police Cadet Academy and become sub-
inspectors. They undergo 4 year course in the academy.
No entry is allowed beyond sub-inspector rank from outside the agency

Age:
Male 14-18 years old for a High School Applicant.

Male or Female 18-35 year old for college graduate applicant.

MYANMAR POLICE SYSTEM

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Myanmar Police Force = formally known as The People's Police Force (Burmese: Pyi Thu Yae Tup Pwe)
Its command structure is based on established civil jurisdictions. Each of Myanmar's seven states and
seven divisions has their own Police Forces with headquarters in the respective capital cities.

State and Division of Police Forces


There are 14 State and Divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police Forces
commanded by Police Colonels. Their jurisdictions are divided according to the Civil Administration.

Each State and Divisional Police Force consist of four components.


1. Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force
2. Office of the Commander of the District Police Force
3. Office of the Commander of the Township Police Force
4. Police Stations

The District Police Forces are classified into two classes depending on the area, population and
development, namely A and B Class.
a. Class A District Police Forces = commanders are Police Lieutenant Colonels
b. Class B District Police Forces = commanders are Police Majors.
c. Township Police Forces = commanders are Police Majors
d. Police Station Officers = commanders are Police Lieutenants.

Special Departments
There are four Special Departments, in which the first two Departments are headed by the
Police Brigadier Generals and the remaining two are by Police Colonels.
1. Special Intelligence Department (Special Branch)
2. Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
3. Railways Police Department
4. City Development Police Department
5. Myanmar Traffic Police

Others Major Departments


1. Aviation Police Department
2. Coastal and River Patrol Police Department
3. Highway Patrol Police Department
4. Tourist Police Department

TRAINING CENTERS
1. Central Training Institute of Myanmar Police Force
2. No.1 Police Training Depot = undertakes Basic Training Course for Police Sergeant for 2 years; Warrant Officer
and Police Sergeants Course for 12 Weeks; and Basic Training Course for Constables for 6 Month
3. No. 2 Police Training Depot = undertakes only Basic Training Course for Constables, which normally takes
around 6 months to complete.

CAMBODIA POLICE SYSTEM


Cambodian National Police = is the primary law enforcement agency in Cambodia
The Cambodian National Police is divided into four autonomous units, headed collectively by the First
Deputy Director of National Police, and five central departments, each managed by a Chief of Department and
Deputy Director:

Four Autonomous Units ((headed by First Deputy Director)


1. Interpol unit
2. Headquarters unit
3. Intervention unit
4. Drug Enforcement unit

Five Central Departments (each managed by a Chief of Department and Deputy Director)
1. Border department
2. Public Order department
3. Judicial department
4. Security department
5. Central Department of Means (support office)

Border Department
The border police department is divided into three sub-departments:
1. Land border
2. Marine border
3. Logistics and technical

Public Order Department


1. Social Security

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2. Defense
3. Administration
4. Public order

Judicial Department
The judicial police force is divided into three sub-departments:
1. Criminal police
2. Economic police
3. Scientific and technical

Security Department
The security police department is divided into four sub-departments:
1. General information
2. Anti-terrorism police
3. Body-guards
4. Foreigners

Central Department of Means


1. Personnel
2. Training
3. Logistics and material

HONG KONG POLICE SYSTEM


Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) = is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong.
It is the world's second, and Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system. It was formed on 1
May 1844.
In 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the Royal Charter to the Hong Kong Police Force for their handling of
the Hong Kong 1967 riots — renaming them: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. Following the transfer of
sovereignty, the Force is once again named the Hong Kong Police Force
The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, who is assisted by two deputy commissioners:
a. Deputy Commissioner – Operations = supervises all operational matters including crime and
b. Deputy Commissioner – Management = is responsible for the direction and coordination of force
management including personnel, training, and management services.

Motto =We Serve with Pride and Care

The Hong Kong Police Force is organized into Six Regions:


1. Hong Kong Island
2. Kowloon East
3. Kowloon West
4. New Territories North
5. New Territories South
6. Marine Region

The Force Headquarters (Management) is made up of five departments:


1. Operations & Support
2. Crime & Security
3. Personnel & Training
4. Management Services
5. Finance, Administration and Planning

Operations Wing
The Operations Wing consists of three sections: Operations Bureau, the Police Tactical Unit and
the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau.

Operations Bureau:
a. Regional Command and Control Centre provides the means for exercising control over resources both at
regional and district levels. It also acts as an information centre for the passage of information to the Headquarters
CCC and other agencies.
b. Emergency Unit comprises the ordinary uniformed policemen. The unit is primarily tasked with regular patrol
beats as well as providing quick responses to emergency situations such as 999 calls

Police Tactical Unit


a. Special Duties Unit (SDU)
b. Emergency Unit
c. Airport Security Unit (ATU)
d. Counter Terrorism Response Unit (CTRU) created in 2009 as a means to deal with terror threats in Hong
Kong. The unit initially trained with the NYPD Hercules Team.

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Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau is a special standalone unit within the Operations and Support Wing. Its
main responsibilities are bomb disposal work both on land and underwater. It also trains officers on explosives
related matters and inspects storage of ammunition and explosives.

Anti-Illegal Immigration Control Centre is responsible for collecting intelligence and monitoring operations in
respect to illegal immigrants from the Mainland and Vietnam

Administration Formation implements policies laid down by the Regional Commander and is responsible for the
Region's general administration. Its responsibilities include community relations, staff relations, and magistrates.
Crime Formation investigates serious and inter-district crimes. In addition, it collects, collates and evaluates
intelligence on criminals and criminal activity within the Region.

Traffic Branch Headquarters covers traffic control, enforcement of traffic legislation and regulations, investigation
of traffic accidents, promotion of road safety, and implementing Force and Regional traffic policies.

Crime Wing
1. Organized Crime and Triad Bureau (OCTB) investigates major organized and serious crime involving all types
of activities such as theft/smuggling of vehicles, human trafficking, firearms, vice, debt collection, syndicated
gambling and extortion.

2. Criminal Intelligence Bureau (CIB) is the Force's central co-ordinating body for intelligence on crime and
criminality which, after analysis and assessment, is disseminated to crime investigation units as required.

3. Commercial Crime Bureau (CCB) investigates serious commercial and business fraud,computer-related
crimes, the forgery of monetary instruments, identity documents andpayment cards, and the counterfeiting of
currency and coins.

4. Narcotics Bureau (NB) investigates serious drug cases such as importation and manufacture of illicit drugs, and
gathers intelligence in relation to major drug activities.
5. Support Group is made up of units which provide a technical and professional service to support criminal
investigation, including Criminal Records Bureau, Identification Bureau, Forensic Firearms Examination
Bureau and Child Protection Policy Unit. The group also fulfils a liaison responsibility for the Forensic
PathologyService and the Forensic Science Division.

Hong Kong Police College = is responsible for all matters relating to training within the Hong Kong Police except
internal security, Auxiliary and Marine Police training.
Training provided by the Police College includes recruit and continuation training, crime investigation
training, police driver training and weapon tactics training. The information technology training, command training,
local and overseas management training, some specialist courses and periodic courses on firearms and first aid
are also provided by the Police College.

Service Quality Wing = is responsible for spearheading initiatives to improve services provided to force customers
both external and internal. The wing comprises three branches: Performance Review, Research and Inspections
and Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II)

Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II)


= includes the Complaints Against Police Office (CAPO) oversees the investigation and successful resolution of
all complaints made both externally and internally against members of the force.

Recruitment and Training


 Inspector = holder of a Bachelor degree from a Hong Kong university
 Constable = Level 2 or equivalent (Note 1) or above in five subjects in the Hong Kong Diploma of
Secondary Education Examination (HKDSEE) (Note 2), or equivalent; or Level 2 (Note 3) / Grade E or
above in five subjects in the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE) (Note 2), or
equivalent
 For Inspector, 36 weeks of basic training which covers leadership, staff management, police
procedures, laws, footdrill, physical training, weapon handling etc.
 For Constable, 27 weeks of basic training which includes police procedures, laws, footdrill, physical
training, weapon handling and first aid, etc.

Physique
 Male candidate, should be at least 163cm tall and weigh 50kg.
 Female candidate, must be at least 152cm tall and weigh 42kg.

CHINA POLICE SYSTEM


Kinds of Police System in China
1. Chinese People's Armed Police Force (commonly known as People's Armed Police <PAP>) = is a
paramilitary force primarily responsible for civilian policing and fire rescue duties in the People's Republic of
China

2. State Security Police = safeguards state security, prevent foreign espionage, sabotage and conspiracies.
Under the Ministry of State Security and directly accountable to the State council.
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3. Prison Police = a part of the correctional arm of the overall police system stationed in prisons and correction
units. This is under the leadership of the Ministry of Justice.

4. Judicial Police = responsible for maintaining the security and order in courts and serving instruments and
some also executing death sentences.

5. Quasi-Parapolice = operate in many places and hired by officials to help carry out some unpopular actions such
as collecting taxes and fines and ousting peasants from seized land.

3 Important Ministry of China


1. Ministry of National Defense = is the top of the hierarchy with judicial and public security agencies such as
Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of State Security.

2. Ministry of Public Security= is the principal police authority of the mainland of the People’s Republic of China
which oversee the day to day law enforcement. (It is the equivalent of the NAPOLCOM in the Philippines).

3. Ministry of State Security = the Chinese government’s largest and most active foreign intelligence agency,
though it is also involved in domestic security matters.

Other Important Government Agencies


1. Special Police College = conducts nationwide recruitment once a year.

2. Central Military Commission = appoints police in China

3. People’s Liberation Army = Chinese Armed forces.

4. Civil Service Promotion Examinations = basis for regulation of the rank promotion for police officer.

Recruitment and Training


Under the Police Law of 1995, an applicant must be over 18 years old and must be high school
graduate.
Once recruited, new recruits are required to undergo 1 year probationary period in which they received
training in police academics. Only those who performed satisfactorily and passed and end-term exams will be
formally hired as police officer.

TAIWAN (Republic of China)


NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY = is the unified police force of Taiwan
= under the supervision of MINISTRY OF INTERIOR
= under effective civilian control

ORG. OF NATIONA POLICE AGENCY IN TAIWAN


1. Administration Police = are generally referred to those who are required to wear uniforms to carry out duties of
household visits, patrolling, raid, guarding, duty officer, and reserves.

2. Traffic Police = the primary duties of the Traffic Police are to keep traffic order, to ensure traffic safety, to prevent
traffic accidents, and to smooth traffic flow.

3. Special Police = are those who are responsible for protecting the Central Government, establishing contingent
plans and assisting local and specialized police units in maintaining public order.

4. Criminal Investigation Police = the primary duties of the criminal investigation police are to prevent and detect
crimes.

5. Specialized Police = main duties are to protect state-run enterprises and public facilities like railways, highways,
airports, harbors, MRT and Bank of Taiwan.

UNITED NATIONS
United Nations = officially came into existence on October 24, 1945
= Coined by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in the declaration by United Nation. This declaration
was made to officially state the Cooperation of the allies (Great Britain, the United States, and the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics)

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF UN
The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

Branches of United Nations


1. UN general Assembly = is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations.
Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the
full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter. is headed by a president elected from the member
states and 21 vice-presidents, and meets from September to December
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= makes final decision on admission to UN upon recommendation of Security Council

Functions of General Assembly


a. Deliberative = initiating studies and making recommendations for the development of international law
b. Supervisory = receiving and considering annual and special reports from another organs
c. Financial = approval and apportionment of budget
d. Elective = election of non-permanent members of the security council
e. Constituent = admissions of members and the amendments of charter

John W. Ashe = President of the 68th session of the General Assembly


Term of Office

The President and the 21 Vice-Presidents so elected will assume their functions only at the
beginning of the session for which they are elected and shall hold office until the close of that session
[Rule based directly on a provision of the Charter (Art. 21, second sentence)].

2. UN Security Council = is another branch in the organization of the UN and is the most powerful of all the
branches.
The presidency of the Council is held by each of the members in turn for one month, following the English
alphabetical order of the Member States names

FUNCTIONS
a. Preventive Action = consist of provisional measures to prevent a conflict from worsening, and may involve the
deployment of PEACEKEEPING AND OBSERVER missions
b. Enforcement Action = consist of deployment of air, sea and land forces

Five Permanent Members of Security Council with Veto Power


1. China
2. France
3. Russia
4. United Kingdom
5. United States

*The other 10 members are rotating or elective members for a period of two years by the General
Assembly

3. International Court of Justice = Located in the Hague, Netherlands. Universal court for international law.
Decides disputes between states that recognize its jurisdiction and issues legal opinions
Its 15 judges are elected by the UN General Assembly for nine-year terms. It renders judgment
with relative majority.

4. Secretariat = Administrative organ of the UN. Supports the other UN bodies administratively, e.g., in the
organization of conferences, writing reports and studies, and the preparation of the budget-plan.
Its chairperson – the UN Secretary General – is elected by the General Assembly for a five-year
mandate and is the most important representative of the UN.

Ban Ki-moon = current secretary-general from South Korea

5. Economic and Social Council = consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a 3 year term.

Martin Sajdik became President of the Economic and Social Council on 14 January 2014.

Efforts are Towards the Following:


a. Higher standards of living
b. Condition of economic and social progress and development
c. Solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems
d. Universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

6. Trusteeship Council = task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship
System. It is made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council-China, France, Russian
Federation, United Kingdom and United States.
Its goal is to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive
development towards self-government or independence.

UN CHARTER = it is closest to a constitution that basically governs the relations of international persons.
Technically, it is a Treaty.

TREATY = an international agreement concluded between states in written form and sworn by international law,
whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more instruments and whatever its particular designation.

INTERPOL

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International Criminal Police Organization (I.C.P.O.) or Interpol = is the police forces organization that primarily
manifest global or international cooperation in addressing transnational crime. Its headquarters was initially located
in Vienna Austria (it is where Interpol was founded) but at present it is transferred to Lyon France.

= is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. It exists to help create a
safer world by supporting law enforcement agencies worldwide to combat crime.

= It aims to facilitate international police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations, authorities and
services whose mission is to prevent or combat internal crime.

= the organization of law enforcement agencies worldwide that serves as transmission or communication line
for the exchange of information, data and request for assistance between and among the member
countries.

= It focuses on: (1) Combat crimes and transnational crimes; (2) protect minorities against the dominant
groups; and (3) Maintain law enforcement regardless of race or religion.

= INTERPOL today has a global membership of 190 countries. Each country maintains a National Central
Bureau (NCB), staffed by national law enforcement officers.

Africa = 54 National Central Bureaus


America = 44 National Central Bureaus
Asia and South Pacific = 49 National Central Bureaus
Europe = 51 National Central Bureaus

INTERPOL’ s Structure
1. General Assembly
2. Executive Committee
3. General Secretariat
4. National Central Bureaus
5. Advisers
6. The Commission for the Control of INTERPOL’s Files.

INTERPOL’ s Structure
1. General Assembly = is the supreme governing body of the Interpol, it meets annually and comprises
delegates appointed by each member country. The assembly takes all important decisions related to policy,
resources, working methods, finances, activities and programmes.

2. Executive Committee = consisting of 13 members elected by the General Assembly and comprises the
president, three vice –presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
It is the INTERPOL’s select deliberate organ which meets three times a year, usually in March, July and
immediately before the General Assembly.

3. General Secretariat (based in Lyon, France) = operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the
Secretary General. It Works with Officials of more than 80 countries side-by-side using four official languages:
1. Spanish
2. Arabic
3. French
4. English
It consists of seven (7) regional offices across the world namely: Argentina, Cameron, Cote D’Ivoire,
Kenya, El Salvador, Thailand, and Zimbabwe.

4. National Central Bureaus (NCB) = Each INTERPOL member country maintains a National Central Bureau
staffed by National law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact point for the General
Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas investigations and
the location and apprehension of fugitives.

5. Advisers = these are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the Executive
Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.

6. Commission for the Control of INTERPOL’ File (CCF) = this is an independent body whose mandate is
threefold:
(1) to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies with the Organization’s
regulations,
(2) to advice INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter concerning the information
contained in INTERPOL’S files.

INTERPOL’s Governance = comprises the General Assembly and the Executive Committee, which is headed by
the President.

The President of the Organization is elected by the General Assembly for a period of four (4) years.

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Oskar Dressler = the first secretary general of the Interpol.

Johann Schober = the first president of the Interpol.

Ronald K. Noble = Current Secretary General. First elected on 3 November 2000 by INTERPOL’s General
Assembly, Mr Noble became the youngest secretary general at the age of 44 in INTERPOL’s history. He was
elected for the second time in 2005. And was re-elected by an overwhelming majority to serve a third five-year
term in 2010.

Mireille Ballestrazzi = current President; elected at the INTERPOL General Assembly held in Rome in November
2012. She will serve as President until 2016. First woman President of the INTERPOL.

INTERPOL’S NOTICE
1. Red Notice – a notice which is issued to seek the arrest or provisional arrest of wanted persons with a view
to extradition.

2. Blue Notice – this type of notice is issued in order to locate, identify or obtain information on a person of
interest in a criminal investigation.

3. Yellow Notice – to help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who are unable
to identify themselves.

4. Green Notice – to warn about a person's criminal activities if that person is considered to be a possible
threat to public safety.

5. Orange Notice – to warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing an imminent threat
and danger to persons or property.

6. Black Notice – a notice issued to seek information on unidentified bodies.

7. Purple Notice – issued to provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and concealment
methods used by criminals.

8. INTERPOL–United Nations Security Council Special Notice – is issued for individuals and entities that are
subject to UN sanctions.

INTERPOL’s FOUR CORE FUNCTIONS


1. Secure Global Police Communications Services
INTERPOL developed the I-24/7 = global police communications system to exchange crucial data quickly and
securely is a cornerstone of effective international law enforcement.

2. Operational Data Services and Databases for Police


INTERPOL provides operational data services and databases for police to fight international crime, police
need access to information which can assist investigations or help prevent crime. INTERPOL manages several
databases, accessible to the INTERPOL bureaus in all member countries through its I-24/7.

3. Operational Police Support Services


a. 24-Hour Support
The Command and Co-ordination Centre (CCC) operates round the clock in all of INTERPOL’s four
official languages (English, French, Spanish and Arabic) and serves as the first point of contact for any member
country faced with a crisis situation.

b. Crisis Response and Major Events


In the event of a disaster or major crime, INTERPOL Response Teams or Disaster Victim Identification
teams composed of officers from the General Secretariat and member countries can be dispatched to the scene
within hours of an event.

c. International Alert System


An important component of INTERPOL’s operational police support is the notice system, of which the
Red Notice for wanted persons is the most well known. In addition to the six color-coded notices (Red, Blue,
Green, Yellow, Black and Orange), is the INTERPOL-United Nations Special Notice issued for groups or
individuals who are the targets of UN sanctions against Al Qaeda and the Taliban.

d. Analyzing Crime Data


Criminal intelligence analysis is recognized by the law enforcement community as a valuable tool,
helping to provide timely warning of threats and operational police activities. INTERPOL contributes to
investigations by assisting officers working at the General Secretariat and in member countries with research and
analysis on crime trends and with training courses in criminal analysis techniques.

Divisions of Criminal Intelligence Analysis


a. Operational Analysis = aims to achieve a specific law enforcement outcome. Usually, it has immediate benefit

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b. Strategic Analysis = provides early warning signals of threats and to support decision making in setting
priorities to deal with criminal issues

4. Police Training and Development


As one of the 4 INTERPOL core functions, Police Training and Development continues to evolve as a
priority for INTERPOL and member countries.

The following are channels of global bilateral and multilateral international cooperation against
transnational crime:
1. Global multi-lateral cooperation via Interpol;
2. Bilateral police cooperation agreements with individual states;
3. European multilateral cooperation via Europol.

ASEAN NATIONAL POLICE(ASEANAPOL)


1981 (Manila) = The first formal meeting of The Chiefs of ASEAN Police
= Attended by 5 original member countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

FIVE OTHER MEMBERS


1. Brunei 4. Myanmar
2. Cambodia 5. Vietnam
3. Laos

IMPORTANT DATES
 1983 (Jakarta) = Endorsement of the model & design of ASEANAPOL logo
 1984 (Kuala Lumpur) = Royal Brunei Police became a member and joined the annual conference
 1996 (Kuala Lumpur) = Vietnam joined as a new member
 1998 (Brunei) = Laos joined ASEANAPOL
 2000 (Myanmar) = Myanmar became the 10th country to joined as a new member
 2005 (Bali) = The setting up of a working group to consider the viability of establishing a permanent
ASEANAPOL Secretariat
= Silver Jubilee Commemoration of ASEANAPOL
 2008 (Brunei) = The Royal Malaysia Police was chosen as a host of permanent ASEANAPOL Secretariat
 2009 (Vietnam) = Adoption of Terms of Reference (TOR)
 2010 = On 1st January 2010 commencement of ASEANAPOL Secretariat in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

ORANIZATION
1. ASEANAPOL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE = comprise of deputy heads of delegation attending the annual
ASEANAPOL conference. It provides a summary reports of the activities of the Secretariat to the Head of the
Delegation

2. ASEANAPOL PERMANENT SECRETARIAT = is on rotational basis with member countries taking turn to host
the ASEANAPOL conference and automatically assume the role of the secretariat for the current year.
= headed by executive director and assisted by 2 directors

Tenure of Services
a. Executive Director - 2 years
b. Directors - 3 years (one for Police Services and one for Plans and Programs

*During the 29th ASEANAPOL Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2009, the Terms of Reference on the
establishment of ASEANAPOL Secretariat was finally endorsed. Kuala Lumpur was made the permanent seat.
*The ASEANAPOL Secretariat started its operation fully on January 1, 2010.

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