tugas

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

tugas

© All Rights Reserved

- FAC Sample 2010
- 217
- Further Pure 4 Notes : Robbie Peck
- pr_l3
- 2010 Mathematical Methods
- Lec1_27
- fmcs_noanswers
- Analysis of Structural Member Systems
- MIT18_06S10_exam2_s10_soln
- Linear Algebra MIT Syllabus
- Laurio Ps123longtest2
- Numerical Methods in Sci and Eng
- SM-53Linear Algebra Opt
- Matrix Methods
- mm-29
- Exercises Mm
- Matrices
- Matrix
- Assignment 1 Mathematics I
- Dm Qm Background Mathematics Lecture 10

You are on page 1of 4

Fall 1997

Lecture Notes

Definitions:

A set of linear equations such as

y 1 = a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3 + ...

y 2 = a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3 + ...

can be written in matrix form as

x1

y 1 a 11 a 12 a 13 ... x2

=

y 2 a 21 a 22 a 23 ... x3

..

.

Dimension:

An nxm matrix has n rows and m columns

Addition

Only matrices with identical dimensions can be added

a a b b a + b 11 a 12 + b 12

A + B = 11 12 + 11 12 = 11

a 21 a 22 b 21 b 22 a 21 + b 21 a 22 + b 22

Commutative & Associative Property: Matricies can be added in any order.

Y = AX + BX

= (A + B)X

= (B + A)X

Multiplication:

Πa 1jb j1 Πa 1jb j2

A ⋅ B =

Πa 2jb j1 Πa 2jb j2

example:

7 8

1 2 3 1 ⋅ 7 + 2 ⋅ 9 + 3 ⋅ 11 1 ⋅ 8 + 2 ⋅ 10 + 3 ⋅ 12

9 10 =

4 5 6 11 12 4 ⋅ 7 + 5 ⋅ 9 + 6 ⋅ 11 4 ⋅ 8 + 5 ⋅ 10 + 6 ⋅ 12

The inner dimension must match for matricies to be multiplied.

A 3x7 ⋅ B 7x2 = AB 3x2 A 3x7 matrix can be multiplied by a 7x2 matrix,

B 7x2 ⋅ A 3x7 does not make sense

but a 7x2 cannot be multiplied by a 3x7.

Properties: Matrix multiplication is associative, but not commutative

A(B + C) = AB + AC assicoative

AB ≠ BA but not commutative

Transpose

a a a

A T = 11 21 31

a 12 a 22 a 32

1

EE 761 - Modern Control

Background - Matrix Operations

Fall 1997

(AB) T = B T A T

Determinant

The determinant is the area enclosed by the vectors composing the columns.

A = a 11 D 11 − a 12 D 12 + a 13 D 13 ...

D ij is the part of matrix A excluding row i & column j.

For 1x1 to 3x3 matricies, this works out to

a =a

a b

= ad − bc

c d

a b c

e f d f d e

d e f =a −b +c

h i g i g h

g h i

The determinant is zero if the area enclosed is zero. This happens when one or more columns are linearly dependent.

A⋅B = A ⋅ B

assuming both A and B are square.

Adjoint

D 11 D 12 D 13

Adj(A) = D 21 D 22 D 23

D 31 D 32 D 33

Inverse

If B is the inverse of A then

B = A −1

BA = I

AB = I

(only square matrices have inverses) In order to find a matrix inverse, cofactors or Gauss elimination works. Cofactors is

adj(A)

A −1 = A

Rank

The rank of a matrix is equal to the number of linearly independent columns or rows (either one is the same).

Linearly Independent: A vector Y is linearly independent of vectors X if no constants exist such that

Y = a 1 X 1 + a 2 X 2 + a 3 X 3 + ...

For example,

1 0

0 1

clearly has columns that are linearly independent. Thus, the rank is two.

2

EE 761 - Modern Control

Background - Matrix Operations

Fall 1997

1 2

2 4

has one linearly independent column (the second column is 2x the first). Thus, the rank is one.

Eigenvectors, Eigenvalues

Assume a system described by

.

X = AX

The eigenvalues are the solutions to

λI − A = 0

AΛ i = λ i Λ i

x(t) = x 1 (0)e λ 1 t + x 2 (0)e λ 2 t + x 3 (0)e λ 3 t + ...

where x(0) are initial conditions and are the eigenvalues of A. Thus, the eigenvalues tell you how the system will respond.

The eigenvectors tell you what states are associated with what eigenvalue. For example, the dynamic system:

. 0 1 x1

x1

. =

x2 −6 −5 x 2

has eigenvalues of {-2, -3}

λ −1

= λ(λ + 5) + 6 = (λ + 2)(λ + 3) = 0

6 λ+5

0 1 v1 v1

= −3

−6 −5 v

2 v2

v1 1

=

v 2 −3

The eigen vector associated with the eigenvalue of -2 is

0 1 v1 v1

= −2

−6 −5 v 2 v2

v1 1

=

v 2 −2

The natural response of this system will then be of the form

1 −3t 1 −2t

α e + β e

−3 −2

where α and β are determined by the initial conditions.

Example 2: If x1(0)=0 and x2(0)=1, find x1(t) and x2(t)

1 −3t 1 −2t

x(t) = α e + β e

−3 −2

3

EE 761 - Modern Control

Background - Matrix Operations

Fall 1997

at t=0

1 1

x(0) = α + β

−3 −2

so

α = −1, β = 1

1 −3t 1 −2t

x(t) = − e + e

−3 −2

Similar Matrices

You can use a change of variables to redefine the states while leaving the overall transfer function unchanged. For example,

the dynamic system

.

X = AX + BU

Y = CX + DU

can be written in terms of a new state variable, Z, related to X as

X = TZ

.

Z = T −1 ATZ + T −1 BU

Y = CTZ + DU

Transformations do not change the eigenvalues (how the system behaves remains unchanged with a change of variables).

Eigenvectors do change, however as

X = TZ

Λ X = TΛ Z

example: Let the states be defined as

z 1 −6x 1 − 2x 2

=

z 2 6x 1 + 3x 2

−6 −2

Z= X = T −1 X

6 3

then the system matrix changes to

A Z = T −1 A X T

−1

−6 −2 0 1 −6 −2 −2 0

AZ = =

6 3 −6 −5 6 3 0 −3

- FAC Sample 2010Uploaded byaslam844
- 217Uploaded bySilviu
- Further Pure 4 Notes : Robbie PeckUploaded byrobbiepeck
- pr_l3Uploaded byBirkan Göçerler
- 2010 Mathematical MethodsUploaded bySarada Nittala
- fmcs_noanswersUploaded byManuel Vargas Tapia
- Analysis of Structural Member SystemsUploaded bykhiettrth
- MIT18_06S10_exam2_s10_solnUploaded byAvanish Singh
- Lec1_27Uploaded byjuncos0729
- Linear Algebra MIT SyllabusUploaded byscribdusername23
- Laurio Ps123longtest2Uploaded byJohn Kelly Mercado
- Numerical Methods in Sci and EngUploaded byAshokan Keloth
- SM-53Linear Algebra OptUploaded bypavan kumar kvs
- Matrix MethodsUploaded byiganti
- mm-29Uploaded bySomasekhar Chowdary Kakarala
- Exercises MmUploaded byCourtney Williams
- MatricesUploaded byRichard Lu
- MatrixUploaded byAfolabi Olaniyi
- Assignment 1 Mathematics IUploaded byUjjWal MahAjan
- Dm Qm Background Mathematics Lecture 10Uploaded bycharles luis
- MFCSUploaded bySuraj Kumar
- eigenvalues and eigenvectorsUploaded byapi-318836863
- geometría analíticaUploaded byroberto
- BTech in Biomedical Engineering Curriculum and SyllabusUploaded bySouvik Das
- DCME c09 CurriculumUploaded byAnonymous ZntoXci
- SOLUTION OF EQUATION AX + XB = C BY INVERSION OF AN M ×M OR N × N MATRIXUploaded byPeet89
- RV7sol HW3 ques3Uploaded bykhalid
- Ee Engineering MathematicsUploaded byHariShankarSharma
- Basics of Matrix Algebra ReviewUploaded byLaBo999
- matlabUploaded byJohn Taulo

- NR24A-SR_datasheet_en-gb.pdfUploaded byWagesusilo23121986_
- Besi Kotak Pipa Hollow Square Tubes Rectangular Beyond Steel 2Uploaded bydidi
- l298n Dual Motor Controller ModuleUploaded byaprilhericovaleros
- Reads51 V4.2 (C to 8051).pdfUploaded byAgustinus Priyoko Pratyaksa
- Abstrak.id.EnUploaded byWagesusilo23121986_
- EC Centrifugal Fan G1G133DE1902 ENGUploaded byWagesusilo23121986_
- 274463856 ASTM E 1155 Procedure Floor FlatnessUploaded byWagesusilo23121986_
- 50CA2.75_5Uploaded byWagesusilo23121986_

- wcmUploaded byAsim Saleem
- Mathcad Prime 4 Keyboard ShortcutsUploaded byhonghainhi0806
- C Debugging SampleUploaded byPriyadarshini Krishnaswamy
- MATLAB IntroductionUploaded byPrasenjit Saha
- 01.05.Restoration of Multiple Images With Motion Blur in Different DirectionsUploaded byAlessio
- NumPy for IDL users – MathesaurusUploaded byFIKRUL ISLAMY
- Important.matricesUploaded byDiman Si Kancil
- Experiment 9Uploaded bySunil Soni
- 07425250+++++Uploaded byCristian Daniel Antilao Pizarro
- open-source math softwareUploaded byHaman Salem
- BSc Electrical EngineeringUploaded byAnonymous m4MF1g
- Simultaneous EquationsUploaded byCY
- IntroductionToRobotics(2ndEd) - Niku - SolutionsManualUploaded byAbdullahHamid
- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS- Unit Wise - Question Bank (Part a & b) & Unitwise -Important FormulaeUploaded byS A ABDUL SUKKUR
- Adams Theory Mcgrath Mcconville 1998Uploaded bytomekzawistowski
- RLS BeamformingUploaded bynithin s gowda
- Nemerical Methods JulianUploaded byjulianpetro23
- PHASE ARRAY ULTRASONIC PRINCIPLEUploaded byalexmontell
- Linear-Algebra.pdfUploaded byckvirtualize
- 43.a Novel Hybrid MCDM Model Combined With DEMATEL and ANP With Applications(IJOR)0430MUploaded byPaul Ndeg
- air20_flashplayer20_releasenotesUploaded bymuntamah.mirit60
- Digital Image Processing - Lecture Weeks 13 and 14Uploaded byJorma Kekalainen
- Octave Reference CardUploaded bymastropos
- 1st Year B.tech Syllabus Revised 18.08.10Uploaded byTanbir Mukherjee
- CEE272R.pdfUploaded byUtc Chattanooga
- game theoryUploaded byNinaReščič
- B.E.E I Syllabus2014-FtUploaded byArun Peethambaran
- Hill Cipher Workout tutorial in vectors and matricesUploaded bymorten44
- Full TextUploaded byKiran Phonde
- ISI_MIII_08Uploaded byapi-26401608

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.