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Contents

Preface v CHAPTER 13
Other Classical Genres 117
CHAPTER 1
Music, Sound, and Time 1 Global Perspectives 4: Musical
Form: Two Case Studies from Asia 124
CHAPTER 2
Rhythm and Pitch 5 CHAPTER 14
Beethoven 128
Interlude A: Musical Notation 11
CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 15
The Structures of Music 14 Prelude: Music after Beethoven:
Romanticism 136
Interlude B: Musical Instruments 20
CHAPTER 16
CHAPTER 4 The Early Romantics 144
Musical Form and Musical Style 24
CHAPTER 17
CHAPTER 5
Romantic Opera 158
The Middle Ages 27
Global Perspectives 1: Sacred Chant 41 CHAPTER 18
The Late Romantics 168
CHAPTER 6
The Renaissance 43 Global Perspectives 5:
Global Perspectives 2: Music and Musical Drama Worldwide 177
Early European Colonialism 56 CHAPTER 19
Prelude: Music and Modernism 180
CHAPTER 7
The Early Baroque Period 58 CHAPTER 20
Global Perspectives 3: The Twentieth Century:
Ostinato Forms 71 Early Modernism 185

CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 21
73 Alternatives to Modernism 198
Prelude: The Late Baroque Period
CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 22
80 205
Baroque Instrumental Music The Late Twentieth Century
CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 23
Baroque Vocal Music 90 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 214
CHAPTER 11 Global Perspectives 6:
Prelude: Music and African Drumming 225
the Enlightenment 100 Global Perspectives 7:
Global Music 227
CHAPTER .1 2
The Symphony 107 ANSWER KEY 229
vii
Test Bank to Accompany

SIXTH EDITION
C H A P T ER 1

Music, Sound, and Time

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Music, Sound,
and Time, p. 7 Music is
exclusively the art of:
a. arranging sound vibrations into high and low pitches.
b. sound in time.
c. melody and rhythm.
d. tone color and duration.

2. Sound Vibrations, p. 7
A healthy human ear can hear from___ to__________ cycles per
second.
a. 10; 20
b. 20; 20,000
c. 20; 440
d. 20; 440,000

3. Pitch (Frequency), p. 7
Frequency refers to:
a. how often a pitch is sounded.
b. how fast sounds are repeated or played.
c. the loudness or quietness of a sound.
d. the speed or rate of the vibrations.

4. Pitch (Frequency), p. 8
Pitch is the quality of:
a. highness or lowness of a sound.
b. loudness or softness of a sound.
c. brightness or dullness of a sound.
d. the speed of travel of sound waves.

5. Pitch (Frequency), p. 8
What determines the pitch of a sound?
a. complex, unfocused vibrations
b. how much force the player uses in playing an instrument
c. the length of the vibrating element
d. the material used in making an instrument
2 Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and Time

6. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
What is amplitude?
a. the level of strength of sound vibrations
b. the size of a musical instrument
c. how high or low a pitch is
d. the relative speed of the beat or rhythm
7. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
The musical term for the level of strength of a sound is:
a. pitch.
b. amplitude.
c. duration.
d. dynamics.

8. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
In which language are dynamics generally described?
a. German
b. Italian
c. English
d. French
9. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
Which dynamic indication is the softest?
a. piano
b. fortissimo
c. pianissimo
d. mezzo piano
10. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
What is the musical term for "medium"?
a. subito
b. mezzo
c. diminuendo
d. sforzando
11. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
Which of the following lists of dynamics shows a change from louder to softer?
a. piano; mezzo piano; mezzo forte
b. mezzo forte; forte; fortissimo
c. mezzo piano; mezzo forte; forte
d. mezzo forte; mezzo piano; piano

12. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8


What is the musical term for "suddenly"?
a. mezzo
b. subito
C. forte d.
mol to

13. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 9


Which term indicates a gradual increase in dynamic level?
1
a. diminuendo
b. decrescendo
c. crescendo
d. mezzo forte
Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and
Time 3

14. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 9


What is another name for tone color?
a. timbre
b. rhythm
c. pitch
d. volume

15. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 9


Tone color is the musical term for the general quality of:
a. a sound.
b. a melody.
c. a performance.
d. rhythmic combinations.

16. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 10


What determines the tone color of a sound?
a. the length of the sound-producing body
b. the number and proportion of overtones and the way they vibrate
together
c. the loudness of the sound produced
d. the pitch of the sound produced

17. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 10


Overtones, or partials, exist because sound-producing bodies:
a. do not actually vibrate themselves.
b. vibrate only along their entire length.
c. vibrate along their entire length and in halves, quarters, eighths, and
so on, simultaneously.
d. do not vibrate along their entire length, but in halves, quarters, and
so on.

18. Duration, p. 10
The broad term for the time aspect of music is:
a. volume.
b. meter.
c. tempo.
d. rhythm.

Essay Questions

1. Sound Vibrations, p. 7 Briefly explain


what causes sound and how it is measured.

2. Pitch (Frequency), p. 7 Briefly explain the acoustical property of


frequency and give the corresponding musical term.
3. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 8
Name six dynamic levels you have learned and give their
abbreviations and meanings. Arrange or number them in order from
softest to loudest.

4. Dynamics (Amplitude), p. 9
Draw the symbol for gradually getting louder. To the right of that draw
the symbol for gradually getting softer. Place the correct musical term
below each symbol.
5. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 9
Define timbre and briefly explain the cause of the great variety of timbres
in different kinds of voices and instruments.

6. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 10 Briefly explain overtones and


their contribution to variety in the experience of music.

7. Tone Color: Overtones, p. 9 Define tone color. Use adjectives to


describe some tone colors with which you are familiar.

8. Duration, p. 10 What is
the function of rhythm in music?
C H A P T E R 2
Rhythm and Pitch

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Rhythm, p. 11
The definition of rhythm as a general term is the:
a. organization of beats by accent.
b. time aspect of music.
c. speed of the beat.
d. relative duration of every note in a musical
composition.

2. Beat, p. 11 How is
musical time measured?
a. in decibels
b. in cycles
c. in beats
d. in seconds

3. Beat, p. 11
Which is not an example of "beating time"?
a. a conductor waving a hand
b. a pianist playing an intricate, syncopated
rhythm
c. a drum major moving a baton up and down
d. a listener tapping a foot

4. Accent, p. 12
Giving the beat an accent means:
a. playing all of the beats exactly the same.
b. gradually increasing the dynamic level.
c. changing tone color.
d. making some of the beats more emphatic than
others.

5. Accent, p. 12
An accent mark above or below a note tells the
performer to:
a. avoid playing that note any differently than the
other notes.
b. play that note a little longer than the other
notes.
c. play that note more strongly than the other
notes.
d. change tone color on that note.

5
9 Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

6. Accent, p. 12
The musical term sforzando means:
a. forced.
b. loud.
c. equal.
d. high.

7. Meter, p. 12 Any recurring pattern of


strong and weak beats is called a(n):
a. accent.
b. beat.
c. meter.
d. sforzando.

8. Meter, p. 12
A measure or bar is:
a. the time aspect of music.
b. each recurrence of a repeated pattern of a principal strong beat
and one or more weaker beats.
c. the length of the vibrating body.
d. one beat that is emphasized more than the others in a recurring
pattern of strong and weak beats.

9. Meter, p. 12
The purpose of bar lines is to:
a. show each beat.
b. show accented beats.
c. indicate specific arrangements of long and short notes.
d. divide music into measures.

10. Meter, p. 12
Which grouping shows duple meter?
a. ONE two three, ONE two three
b. ONE two THREE four FIVE six, ONE two THREE four FIVE six
c. ONE two, ONE two, ONE two, ONE two
d. ONE two three four five, ONE two three four five

11. Meter, p. 13
Which grouping shows triple meter?
a. ONE two three, ONE two three
b. ONE two, ONE two, ONE two
c. ONE two three four, ONE two three four
d. ONE two three four five six, ONE two three four five six

12. Meter, p. 13
Which grouping shows simple meter?
a. ONE two three four five six, ONE two three four five six
b. ONE two three four, ONE two three four
c. ONE two three four five six seven eight nine, ONE two three four
10 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
five six seven eight nine
d. ONE two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve, ONE
two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve

5
11 Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

13. Meter, p. 13
Which two meters have the most in common?
a. simple duple and simple triple
b, simple duple and compound duple
c. simple triple and compound duple
d. simple duple and compound triple
14. Rhythm and Meter, p. 13
Which term refers to the specific arrangements of long and short notes in
music?
a. tempo
b. meter
c. beat
d, rhythm

15. Rhythm and Meter, p. 13


Which aspect of duration in music can be thought of as the foreground?
a. beat
b. meter
c. rhythm
d. tempo
16. Rhythm and Meter, p. 14
Which is an example of nonmetrical music?
a. a Gregorian chant
b. a march
c. popular dance music
d. Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag
17. Syncopation, p. 14
Placement of accents away from their normal stresses in the meter results
in:
a. nonmetrical music.
b. simple triple meter.
c. compound triple meter.
d. syncopation.
18. Tempo, p. 15
Tempo is the term for the:
a, number of beats per measure.
b. arrangement of short and long notes.
c. arrangement of rhythms over the meter.
d. speed at which beats follow one another.

19. Tempo, p. 15
In musical notation, metronome marks indicate:
a. the arrangement of rhythms over meter.
b. the number of beats per measure.
c. which type of note gets how many beats per minute.
d. where the accented beats fall in each measure.
20. Tempo, p. 15
Which set of tempo markings is arranged in order from faster to slower?
12 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
a. moclerato, allegro, presto
b. allegro, moderato, andante
c. allegro, presto, andante
d. largo, moderato, presto
Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

21. Tempo, p. 15
Which term indicates the fastest tempo?
a. vivace
b. prestissimo
c. allegro
d. allegretto

22. Tempo, p. 15
Which term indicates the slowest tempo?
a. grave
b. moderato
c. adagio
d. larghetto

23. Tempo, p. 16
An individual movement of music is often referred to by its:
a. meter.
b. dynamic marking.
c. rhythm.
d. tempo indication.

24. Pitch, p. 16
A scale consists of:
a. all of the sounds that exist in nature.
b. all of the white keys on the piano.
c. a collection of fixed pitches.
d. all of the white and black keys on a piano.

25. Pitch, p. 16
Scales are made up of:
a. twelve pitches.
b. a different number of pitches in each culture.
c. no fewer than five and no more than twelve pitches,
d. eight pitches.

26. Intervals (I): The Octave, p. 16


An interval is:
a. the pitch range of an instrument or voice.
b. the distance or difference between two pitches.
c. a segment of vibrating string on a violin, viola, cello, or bass.
d. the time it takes to perform one tune.

27. Intervals (I): The Octave, p. 17


The distance between two pitches that seem to duplicate each other
and blend very well together is called:
a. diatonic.
14 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
b. a scale.
c. an octave.
d. chromatic.
Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

28. Intervals (I): The Octave, p. 17


How many octaves do most voices and instruments cover?
a. about one
b. four to five
c. three to four
d. two to three

29. The Diatonic Scale, p. 18


The set of seven pitches used in Western music is called a(n):
a. chromatic scale.
b. octave.
c. interval.
d. diatonic scale.

30. The Diatonic Scale, p. 18


The country of origin for the diatonic scale is:
a. England.
b. France.
c. Greece.
d. Italy.

31. The Chromatic


Scale, p. 18 The
chromatic scale consists
of:
a. all black keys on the piano.
b. all white keys on the piano.
c. all white and black keys on the piano.
d. any collection of pitches in an octave segment.

32. Intervals (II): Half Steps and


Whole Steps, p. 19 The chromatic
scale consists of:
a. half steps.
b. whole steps.
c. a certain combination of half steps and whole steps.
d. a variable number of half steps and whole steps.

33. Intervals (II): Half Steps and Whole Steps, p. 19


Which scale is considered "symmetrical"?
a. the diatonic scale
b. only C major, which uses only the white keys of the piano
c. the minor scale
d. the chromatic scale
16 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
34. Scales and Instruments,
p. 20 Playing in tune is more
difficult on the:
a. guitar.
b. flute.
c. piano.
d. violin.
Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

Essay Questions

1. Rhythm, p. 11
Define the musical term rhythm in the most general sense of the word.
What is meant by a reference to specific rhythms?

2. Beat, p. 11
Write a definition of the term beat. Describe three or four ways in which the
beat can be indicated visually and aurally during a performance.

3. Accent, p. 12
Describe the effect of accents on a series of beats. Draw an accent mark
above two or three words in your answer that you wish to emphasize.

4. Accent, p. 12
What is the meaning of the term sforzando? When is it used, and what are
the two possible abbreviations for this term?

5. Meter, p. 12 Define and distinguish


between beat, accent, and meter.

6. Meter, p. 12 Define and distinguish between duple meter,


triple meter, and compound meter.

7. Rhythm and Meter, p. 13


Explain which aspect of duration in music is considered to be the
background, and which the foreground, and why. Which one is simple, and
which one is usually more complicated?

8. Rhythm and Meter, p. 14


Distinguish between metrical and nonmetrical sounds in music and
nature, and give several examples of each.

9. Syncopation, p. 14 Define syncopation. With


what type of music is it often associated?

10. Tempo, p. 15 Differentiate between the relative duration of


sounds and the absolute duration of sounds.

11. Tempo, p. 15 Explain the


metronome and metronome markings.

12. Tempo, p. 15
List six common tempo indications in order from slowest to fastest. Use
the musical terms and give their English meanings.

13. Tempo, p. 15 Give the names and meanings for four tempo
terms having to do with a change in tempo.

14. Pitch, p. 16
Define the term scale. Explain the difference between the diatonic scale
and the chromatic scale, and briefly discuss the variety of scales in
other parts of the world.
18 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
15. Intervals (I): The Octave, p. 16
Define interval and octave. Why do certain pitches seem to have a lot in
common? Explain the "duplicating segments" that occur throughout the
entire range of pitches found in nature.
Chapter 2 Rhythm and Pitch

16. Intervals (Ti): Whole Steps and Half Steps, p.


19 Name the two types of "steps" in Western music,
and define them.

17. Intervals (II): Whole Steps and


Half Steps, p. 19 Which scale is
considered "symmetrical"? Why?

18. Scales and Instruments, p. 20


Are all instruments designed to produce exact pitches? Explain. Include a
discussion of the sound-producing mechanisms of instruments you are familiar
with to support your answer.

19. Scales and Instruments, p. 20


What is meant by playing or singing "in tune"? Do performers always try
to produce exact pitches according to the scale? Explain.

I N T E R LU D E A Musical Notation
Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Musical Notation, p.
21 aspect represents_____, while the horizontal
In musical notation, the aspect rep-
vertical resents
a. volume; time
b. pitch; time
c. time; pitch
2. Notes and Rests, p. 21
Which notational device shortens the rhythmic value of a note by one half?
a. a dot
b. a flag
c. a slur
d. a tie

3. Notes and Rests, p. 21


In rhythmic notation_______ and_________ call for the same effect.
a. ties; slurs
b. ties; beams
c. flags; beams
d. dots; rests

4. Notes and Rests, p. 21


Which notational device lengthens a note by one half?
a. a slur mark between the note and another note
b. a beam between the note and another note
c. a flag connected to the stem
d. a dot to the right of the note

5. Ties, p. 22 The musical term for the


20 Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
effect called for by slurs in music is:
a. legato.
b. staccato.
c. adagio.
d. sforzando.
6. Ties, p. 22
The musical term for effect called for by dots placed above or
the below notes is:
a. legato.
b. staccato.
c. adagio.

7. Pitch Notation, p. 22
How are pitches named in music?
a. in fractional ratios such as 2:1, 3:1, and so on
b. with numbers and prime marks
c. with beams and flags
d. with letters and prime marks

8. The Staff: Ledger Lines, p. 22


In musical notation, the staff is:
a. the collection of sharps or flats at the beginning of each line of music.
b. the symbol at the beginning of a composition showing how beats are
grouped.
c. a set of five parallel lines on which notes are placed.
d. the line used to connect two notes on the same line or space.

9. Sharps and Flats; Naturals, p. 23


Which symbol name indicates that a note should be raised one half step?
a. sharp
b. flat
c. staccato
d. ledger line

Essay Questions
1. Musical Notation, p. 21
Briefly explain the vertical and horizontal aspects of music notation with
regard to elements of music.

2. Notes and Rests, p. 21


Draw and list the rhythmic values for six different notes and their
corresponding rests, in order from longest to shortest.

3. Notes and Rests, p. 21


Distinguish between beams and flags. Draw examples of notes with each
to illustrate your answer.

4. Dotted Notes and Dotted


Rhythms, p. 21 What is the effect of a
dot beside a note or rest?

5. "Ties, p. 21 What is the function of


Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
the tie in musical notation?

6. Ties, p. 22
Distinguish between the effect of a slur and that of dots placed above or
below notes. Draw examples of each. What are the musical names for
these effects?
7. Time Signatures, p. 22
Define time signature, and explain what each part of a time signature means.
Where are time signatures found in the music?

8. Clefs, p. 22 Describe the meaning, function, and placement of clefs.


Draw a bass clef and a treble clef.

9. Key Signatures, p. 23
Briefly explain key signatures and their function. How do they save
time for composers? Where are they found in the music?

10. Scores, p. 23 Define score. Explain the


difference between a score and a part.

11. Scores, p. 23
Briefly describe a typical orchestral score, explaining which range of
instruments is generally found at the top, and which is generally found at
the bottom. Also give the location of tempo markings, instrument names,
Rhythm and Pitch
Chapter 2
clefs, and staff lines. Draw a diagram if it will assist in your answer.
C H A P T E R 3

The Structures of Music

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Melody, p. 25
An organized series of pitches, played or sung in a certain
rhythm, is called a:
a. melody.
b. phrase.
c. tune.
d. sequence.

2. Tunes, p. 25
Tunes tend to be
a. long and elaborate.
b. simple and easily singable.
c. experienced separate from rhythm.
d. complex structures.

3. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26
In songs, musical phrases generally coincide with:
a. the meter.
b. the lines of poetry.
c. sequences.
d. dynamic changes.

4. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26
A melodic pattern of pitches that is repeated at different pitch
levels is called a:
a. chord.
b. key change.
c. phrase.
d. sequence.

5. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26
Most tunes have a high point. The musical term for this is:
a. modulation.
b. cadence.
c. climax.
d. theme.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 25

6. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26
The moments at the ends of phrases where a melody pauses or stops
altogether are called:
a. climaxes.
b. cadences.
c. contrasts.
d. balances.

7. Motives and Themes, p. 27


The shortest identifiable melodic idea is called a:
a. half step.
b. motive.
c. phrase.
d. tune.
8. Motives and Themes, p.
27 Motives are by
definition:
a. brief.
b. elaborate.
c. harmonic.
d. parallel.

9. Motives and Themes, p. 27


Which is true of themes?
a. A theme is generally heard only once, at the beginning of a work.
b. A theme is longer than three phrases.
c. A theme can consist of a motive.
d. A theme appears only in the foreground of a work.

10. Harmony, p. 28
Groupings of several pitches sounded simultaneously are referred to as
a(n):
a. octaves.
b. chromatic scales.
c. melodies.
d. chords.
11. Harmony, p. 28
When a melody is accompanied with chords, the melody is:
a. dissonant.
b. polyphonic.
c. harmonized.
d. ch.romaticized.

12. Harmony, p. 28
The nature of the chords used with a melody is called:
a. harmony.
b. texture.
26 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music

c. melody.
d. rhythm.

13. Consonance and Dissonance, p. 28


A chord that creates a sense of rest can be described as:
a. dissonant.
b. homophonic.
c. imitative.
d. consonant.

1.4
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 27

14. Consonance and Dissonance, p. 28


A chord that sounds discordant, unstable, or in need of resolution is
called:
a. dissonant.
b. a motive.
c. nonimitative.
d. consonant.

15. Texture, p. 29
Musical texture is a term that refers to the:
a. blend of rhythm, meter, and pulse in music.
b. relationship between the pull toward or away from the tonic in
harmony.
c. way different tone colors are combined in a piece of music.
d. blend of sounds or melodic lines occurring simultaneously in music.

16. Texture, p. 29 Which musical element is


perceived in the vertical dimension?
a. rhythm
b. texture
c. tone color
d. dynamics

17. Texture, p. 29
The three main textures of Western art music are:
a. monophony, polyphony, and counterpoint.
b. monophony, nonimitative polyphony, and imitative homophony.
c. monophony, homophony, and polyphony.
d. monophony, imitative monophony, and nonimitative polyphony.

18. Monophony, p. 29 The texture of a single


melody played without accompaniment is:
a. monophony.
b. homophony.
c. polyphony.
d. imitative counterpoint.

19. Monophony, p. 29 When you sing in the


shower, the texture is most likely to be:
a. polyphonic.
b. monophonic.
c. imitative.
d. homophonic.

20. Homophony, p. 29
Homophony occurs when:
a. various musical lines are heard one after another with the
28 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music
same melody or similar melodies.
b. the melody is heard in one line and the other parts have clearly
less important material that forms an accompaniment.
c. all musical lines are heard simultaneously, but each has a different
melody.
d. all voices or parts are heard simultaneously with the same melody.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 29

21. Polyphony, p. 29 The texture that combines two or more


individual melody lines simultaneously is:
a. monophony.
b. consonant.
c. homophony.
d. polyphony.

22. Polyphony, p. 30
Counterpoint is closely
related to:
a. monophony.
b. cadence.
c. polyphony.
d. tonality.

23. Imitation, p. 30
Imitative polyphony occurs when:
a. various musical lines are heard one after another with the
same melody or similar melodies.
b. the main melody is heard in one line and the other parts have
clearly less important material, forming an accompaniment to the
melody.
c. all musical lines are heard simultaneously, but each has a different
melody.
d. all voices or parts are heard simultaneously with the same melody.

24. Imitation, p. 30
Non-imitative polyphony occurs when:
a. various musical lines are heard one after another with the
same melody or similar melodies.
b. the main melody is heard in one line and the other parts have
clearly less important material, forming an accompaniment to the
melody.
c. all musical lines are heard simultaneously, but each has a different
melody.
d. all voices or parts are heard simultaneously with the same melody.

25. Tonality, p. 32 The principle of organizing music


around a central or "home" pitch is called:
a. consonance.
b. tonality.
c. dissonance.
d. harmony.

26. Tonality, p. 32 Music that centers around a


fundamental "home" pitch is described as:
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 30

a. tonal.
b. consonant.
C. homophonic.
d. imitative.

27. Tonality, p. 32
The fundamental "home"
pitch
a. principal harmony.
b. primary mode.
c. major chord.
d. tonic.

in a section of music is called the:


Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 31

28. Modality: Major and Minor, p. 33


Which mode is formed with the diatonic scale oriented around A (la)?
a. major
b. minor
c. tonic
d. chromatic

29. Modality: Major and Minor, p. 33


Which mode is formed with the diatonic scale oriented around C (do)?
a. major
b. minor
c. tonic
d. chromatic

30. Keys, p. 33
A change in key indicates a change in:
a. the location of the tonic.
b. half and whole steps.
c. tone color.
d. chords.

31. Keys, p. 33 The number of major and minor scales that can be built
on the notes of the chromatic scale is:
a. seven.
b. twelve.
c. fourteen.
d. twenty-four.

32. Hearing the Major and Minor Modes, p. 34 Which


scale degree should a listener use to determine the mode of a
selection?
a. fifth
b. first
c. third
d. fourth

33. Hearing the Major and Minor Modes, p. 34


Though there are exceptions, music in minor mode can sometimes be
described as_________________________________________________________________
whereas that in major mode can sometimes be described as_______________
a. happy; sad
b. sad; happy
c. dissonant; consonant
d. monophonic; homophonic

34. Hearing Keys and Modulation, p. 35


32 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music
Moving from one key to another in the middle of a composition is called:
a. disjunct.
b. dissonant.
c. modulation.
d. counterpoint.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 33

Essay Questions

1. Melody, p. 25 Distinguish between


melody, tune, motive, and theme.

2. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26 Define phrase. How


can the phrases of a melody be related to each other?

3. Characteristics of Tunes, p. 26
Explain how a tune can have a climax. Describe the function of the melodic
material leading up to a climax, and coming after a climax in a tune. Define and
use the term cadence in your answer.

4. Motives and Themes, p. 27 Describe the relationship between a


motive and a theme and the purpose of motives in music.

5. Motives and Themes, p. 27


Motive and theme are two distinct terms that describe two different kinds of
melodic units in music, yet a motive can be a theme. Explain.

6. Harmony, p. 28 Discuss how the study of harmony


is different from the study of melody.

7. Consonance and Dissonance, p. 28


Define consonance and dissonance. Describe their relationship to each other.
Why is music more interesting when both are present?

8. Texture, p. 29 Define texture. Include a discussion of the three


basic types of texture in Western music.

9. Polyphony, p. 29
Define counterpoint. Compare and contrast the terms counterpoint and
polyphony, and describe how they are related.

10. Imitation, p. 30
Define and contrast imitative polyphony and nonimitative polyphony. Name a type
of music for each.

11.. Tonality, p. 32
Define the terms tonality, tonal, and tonic. How are they related to one
another?

12. Modality: Major and Minor, p. 32


Define modality in terms of do and la, and explain the main difference
between the major mode and the minor mode. Refer to the diatonic
scale in your answer.

13. Keys, p. 33
Contrast key and
mode.
34 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music

14. Keys, p. 33 Define the term key.


Relate key to the chromatic scale.

15. Keys, p. 33 How many major and minor scales can be


built on the chromatic scale? Why?
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 35

16. Hearing Keys and


Modulation, p. 35 Define
modulation.

17. Hearing the Major and Minor Modes, p. 34


In contrasting the major and minor modes, which number of the scale
degrees in the scales is different? Because of this difference, which scale
sounds brighter? Which sounds more subdued? Explain.

I N T E R LU D E B Musical Instruments
Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Musical Instruments, p. 37
What is the criterion for organizing the instruments of the orchestra in
their present families?
a. method of production of sound vibrations
b. range of pitches possible
c. capacity for dynamic contrasts
d. tone color

2. Stringed Instruments, p. 37
What do all stringed instruments have in common?
a. range of pitches possible
b. the size of the instrument
c. sound produced by taut strings attached to a sound box
d. location in the orchestra

3. Stringed Instruments, p. 37
Plucking the string of a stringed instrument is called:
a. legato.
b. pizzicato.
c. counterpoint.
d. violoncello.

4. Stringed Instruments, p. 37
Which shows the correct order from lowest range to highest range in the violin
family?
a. double bass, viola, cello, violin
b. double bass, cello, viola, violin
c. violin, viola, cello, double bass
d. double bass, violin, viola, cello

5. Stringed Instruments, p. 38
Can an orchestral harp play all the notes in the chromatic scale? Why or
why not?
a. Yes. A pedal mechanism changes string tension, allowing all
twelve notes in the chromatic scale to be played individually.
36 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music
b. Yes. A harp has all of the necessary strings: one for each note
of the chromatic scale over many octaves.
c. No. A harp cannot play all twelve notes of the chromatic scale,
because it has only enough strings to play in certain keys.
d. Yes. Since pitch is determined by hand placement on the string
while playing, all pitches are possible, as on any other stringed
instrument.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 37

6. Woodwind Instruments, p. 38
What do all woodwind instruments have in common?
a. They are currently all made of wood.
b. All woodwinds use a reed of some sort as the vibrating sound
producer.
c. They all have the same kind of mouthpiece through which air is
blown.
d. They all set up vibrations in a column of air in a tube.

7. Woodwind Instruments, p. 39
Which list names woodwind instruments that have approximately the same
pitch range?
a. flute, oboe, trumpet
b. flute, oboe, clarinet
c. clarinet, oboe, French horn
d. flute, violin, oboe

8. Woodwind Instruments, p. 39
Which list names the flute family in order from highest pitch range to lowest
pitch range?
a. bass flute, alto flute, flute, piccolo
b. flute, piccolo, alto flute, bass flute
c. piccolo, flute, alto flute, bass flute
d. flute, piccolo, bass flute, recorder

9. Woodwind Instruments, p. 39
Sound is produced on a clarinet by:
a. blowing on a reed.
b. pushing fingers on the keys.
c. blowing across a hole in the mouthpiece.
d. plucking a string.

10. Woodwind Instruments, p. 40


The bassoon has a comparable range to which of the following
instruments?
a. viola
b. oboe
c. cello
d. French horn

11. Woodwind Instruments, p. 40


The saxophone's tone color is similar to that of the:
a. flute.
b. bassoon.
c. clarinet.
d. oboe.
38 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music

12. Brass Instruments, p. 41


How is sound produced on brass instruments?
a. The player blows through a hole in the side of the cylinder.
b. A single reed vibrates when air is blown through the small cup-shaped
mouthpiece.
c. A double reed vibrates as air is blown through it.
d. The player's lips vibrate as air is blown between them into the
small cup-shaped mouth-piece.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 39

13. Brass Instruments, p. 41


Which lists the brass family in order from the lowest range to the
highest range?
a. trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba b, tuba, trombone, French horn,
trumpet
c. tuba, trumpet, trombone, French horn
d. French horn, tuba, trombone, trumpet

14. Brass
Instruments, p. 41
Which is a brass
instrument?
a. oboe
b. English horn
c. bugle
d. bassoon

15. Percussion Instruments, p. 42


Which of these instruments is capable of playing melodies?
a. triangle
b. xylophone
c. tam-tam
d. cymbals

16. Keyboard Instruments, p. 45


How is the piano different from the harpsichord?
a. Piano strings are plucked, whereas harpsichord strings are struck
by hammers.
b. The piano can be played only rather quietly, but the harpsichord
has a wide dynamic range.
c. Piano strings are struck by hammers, whereas harpsichord strings
are plucked.
d. The piano has a tuned set of strings activated at the keyboard,
whereas harpsichord strings are plucked directly by the
performer.

17. Keyboard Instruments, p.


45 Unlike pianos, limited in their______
harpsichords are capability.
a. rhythmic
b. harmonic
c. melodic
d. dynamic
18. Keyboard Instruments, p. 46
Which keyboard instrument is known as "the king of instruments"?
a. clavichord
b. piano
c. organ
d. harpsichord
40 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music
Essay Questions

1. Musical Instruments, p. 37 List the four basic groups of


instruments found in a modern symphony orchestra.

2. Stringed Instruments, p. 37 Name and describe the four


members of the orchestral family of bowed instruments.
Chapter 3 The Structures of Music 41

3. Stringed Instruments, p. 38 Can the harp play all the notes in the
chromatic scale? If so, how, and if not, why not?

4. Woodwind Instruments, p. 39
Name the five families of woodwind instruments. List two members of
each family in order from higher range to lower range.

5. Woodwind Instruments, p. 39
Compare and contrast the transverse flute and the recorder; tell which
came first in development and why one is used more frequently in
orchestras today.

6. Woodwind Instruments, p. 40 Describe the


difference between oboe reeds and clarinet reeds.

7. Brass Instruments, p. 41 Name and


describe four members of the brass family.

8. Percussion Instruments, p. 42
Describe the two categories of percussion instruments and list three
examples from each category.

9. Keyboard Instruments, p. 45
Name four keyboard instruments. Then compare and contrast the
four instruments you have named.

10. Plucked Stringed Instruments, p. 47


Name four instruments that are plucked by hand. Tell which are
usually associated with popular music and which with Western
European art music.

24
C H A P T E R 4

Musical Form and Musical Style

Multiple-Choice
Questions

1. Musical Form and Musical Style, in music is


p. 48 called:
The arrangement, relationship, or organization of
elements
a. tone.
2. Form and Forms, p. 49
A standardized pattern used by composers to organize the elements
in a musical work is called:
a. form.
b. texture.
c. meter.
d. tone color.

3. Form in Music, p. 48
A musical composition takes on its form through:
a. modulation and returning to the tonic key.
b. meter and tempo.
c. variation of melody and rhythm.
d. repetition and contrast.

4. Form in Music, p. 48
Repetition of elements in form:
a. can only be exact, otherwise it is not a true repetition.
b. can occur only with some variation, however small.
c. can be exact or can have some variation.
d. is rarely used by composers; repetition breeds tediousness.

5. Form and Feeling, p. 49


What is the main skill involved in hearing form in music?
a. singing
b. memory
c. pitch identification
d. rhythm
Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style 25

24
6. Form and Forms, p. 50
In a piece of music that can be as A B A, the A indicates____, and the
diagrammed indicates B
a. contrast; repetition
b. repetition; contrast
c. variation; contrast
d. contrast; variation
7. Form and Forms, p. 51
Letter diagrams are least useful for
showing:
a. contrast.
b. repetition.
c. specific changes of the inner form.
d. the overall outer form.

8. Form and Forms, p. 50


Which diagram shows the greatest amount of musical contrast?
a. A B C
b. A B A
c. AA'A"A"'
d. AB AB

9. Musical Genres, p. 51
The genre of a musical work can be determined by its:
a. period in history.
b. inner and outer forms.
c. text, function, and performing forces.
d. meter, key, and tempo.

10. Musical Style, p. 52


The individual style of a particular composer is described in terms of:
a. the style of the era in which the composer worked.
b. writings by the composer about music.
c. the life and environment of the composer.
d. the way the composer handles musical elements.

Essay Questions

1. Musical Form and Musical Style, p. 48


Discuss the elements of form as applied to poetry and visual arts. Refer to
at least two elements for each discipline.

2. Form in Music, p. 48 List the elements of music that a


composer can manipulate in a piece of music.

3. Form in Music, p. 48
What is the function of musical form? What is the value of repetition and
contrast? Can you think of types of music that have no sections of
contrast?

4. Form in Music, p. 48
Discuss "beginnings, middles, and ends" in terms of musical form and
how composers can relate these parts of the whole.
26 Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style

5. Form and Feeling, p. 48 Discuss our


perception of music as opposed to the other arts.

6. Form and Feeling, p. 49


What might the composer of a long work, such as a symphony, do to
make the form of the work more comprehensible for the listener?

7. Form and Forms, p. 50 Name, define, and


discuss the two factors that determine musical form.

8. Form and Forms, p. 49


Contrast the notions of form and a
form.

9. Form and Forms, p. 50


Define and relate outer form and inner form. With which kind of form are
composers best able to convey emotion and reveal their personal style?
Explain.

10. Form and Forms, p. 50


Discuss the ways in which sections of a musical work can be related to each
other and how these relations are diagrammed in musical form. Draw an
example to support your answer.

11. Musical Genres, p.


51 Contrast musical form
and genre.

12. Musical Style, p. 52 Describe and explain the two levels of


musical style that can exist within one style period.

27
C H A P T E R 5
The Middle Ages

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. "Vere dignum," p. 61
Who composed "Vere dignum"?
a. Guillaume de Machaut
b. Hildegard of Bingen
c. Pope Gregory I
d. not known

2. "Vere dignum," p. 61
The performing forces of "Vere dignum" are:
a. children's voices, unaccompanied.
b. adult male voices, unaccompanied.
c. a soprano solo voice with a small organ.
d. a mixed chorus of adult men and women with organ
accompaniment.

3. "
Vere dignum, " p. 61
How would you characterize the mood of "Vere dignum"?
a. bright and dancelike
b. majestic and grandiose
c. slow, solemn, then joyful
d. festive and celebratory

4. "In paradisum," p. 62
"In paradisum " is sung by:
a. mixed choir.
b. women's voices.
c. men's voices plus drone.
d. men's voices.

5. "In paradisum, " p. 62


The opening of the antiphon "In paradisum" is sung by:
a. a boy soprano.
b. a solo male voice.
c. men's chorus.
d. a solo female voice.

27
51 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

6. "In paradisum," p. 62
In the last line of "In paradisum," the last syllable of the word
aeternam:
a. pauses before the word habeas.
b. divides into two parts.
c. slowly rises and falls in pitch.
d. is accented.

7. "Columba aspexit, " p.


63 Who composed "Columba
aspexit"?
a. Guillaume de Machaut
b. Hildegard of Bingen
c. Pope Gregory I
d. not known

~. "Columba aspexit, " p. 63


Which structure do you hear in "Columba aspexit"?
a. a number of tunes sung twice, with one single tune at the end
b. the same tune sung over and over with slight changes each time
c. one recurring tune interspersed with contrasting sections
d. many phrases, each with a different melody

9. "
Columba aspexit, " p. 63
The performing forces in "Columba aspexit" consist of:
a. a soprano solo voice and a drone.
b. a choir of mixed voices and a drone.
c. a solo tenor voice, a pipe organ, and a lute.
d. one solo female voice, a female choir, and a drone.

10. "Columba aspexit, " p. 63 What is the texture of "Columba


aspexit," excluding the instrumental accompaniment?
a. rnonophony
b. homophony
c. imitative polyphony
d. nonimitative polyphony

11. "
Columba aspexit, " p. 63
Which does not change throughout "Columba aspexit"?
a. the pitch
b. the melody
c. the rhythm
d. the instrumental accompaniment

12. "Columba aspexit, " p. 63


Which changes provide contrast in "Columba aspexit"?
a. changes in tempo
b. changes in. instrumentation
c. changes from the soloist to a group of singers
52 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
d. changes from long, drawn-out notes to short, quick notes in the
rhythm

13. "La dousa votz," p. 66


Who composed "La dousa votz "?
a. Hildegard of Bingen
b. Bel-nail de Vmtadorn
c. Guillaume de Machaut
d. Pcrotin

27
53 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

14. "La dousa votz, " p. 66


What type of selection is "La dousa votz"?
a. troubadour song
b. plainchant
c. sequence
d. trouvere song

15. "La dousa votz," p. 66


The performing forces in "La dousa votz" are a:
a. male vocal soloist, a choir, and a drum.
b. female vocal soloist, a plucked stringed instrument, and a choir.
c. female vocal soloist, a recorder, and a drum.
d. male vocal soloist and a plucked stringed instrument.

16. "La dousa votz, " p. 66


The form of "La dousa votz" can be described as having:
a. one main melody recurring with variations.
b. several stanzas in an a a' b form.
c. no real structure; it is free-flowing.
d. several tunes, each sung twice, with one single tune at the end.

17. "La dousa votz, " p. 66


Which is true of the rhythm of "La dousa votz"?
a. There is no identifiable meter.
b. The tempo changes frequently.
c. The rneter is triple.
d. The meter is duple.

18. "La dousa votz," p. 66


"La dousa votz" is_______ in nature.
a. sacred
b. operatic
c. secular
d. theatrical
"
19. Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia, " p. 68
Who composed "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"?
a. Perotin
b. Leonin
c. Josquin Desprez
d. Guillaume Dufay

20. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia, " p. 68


When was "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia" written?
a. c. 1200
b. c. 1100
c. c. 900
d. c. 700
"
21. Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia, " p. 68
The performing forces in "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia" are:
a. male voices, unaccompanied.
54 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
b. an organ and a solo male voice.
c. a bowed stringed instrument and a solo male voice.
d. a mixed choir, unaccompanied.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

22. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia," p. 68


Which textures do you hear in "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"?
a. monophony, then imitative polyphony, then homophony
b. monophony, then organum, then monophony
c. homophony, then monophony, then homophony
d. organum, then homophony, then organum

23. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia," p. 68


Which is true of the rhythm of "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"?
a. The meter is compound triple, then simple duple, then free.
b. The tempo is slow throughout the selection.
c. The meter is free, then compound duple, then free.
d. The meter is a slow simple duple throughout the selection, with
syncopation.

24. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia," p. 68


Which is true of the relative speed of the upper and lower voices during
the organum section of "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"?
a. All the voices move together.
b. The higher voices move more quickly than the lower voices.
c. The higher voices move more slowly than the lower voices.
d. The relative speeds of the upper and lower voice parts change
constantly, for variety.

25. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia, " p. 68


The chant in "Alleluia Diffusa est gratia," sung by the lowest voice, at
times:
a. is moving with the upper voices.
b. drops out periodically.
c. is in triple rhythms.
d. is reduced to a series of lengthy drones.

26. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia," p. 68


"Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia" is in nature.
a. secular
b. operatic
c. sacred
d. theatrical

27. "Quant en moi, " p. 70


Who composed "Quant en moi"?
a. Guillaume de Machaut
b. Hildegard of Bingen
c. Phillippe de Vitry
d. Bernart de Ventadorn
56 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
28. "Quant en moi," p. 70
The performing forces in "Quant en moi" are:
a. a choir and a lute.
b. two high vocal soloists.
c. a high vocal soloist, a recorder, and a viol.
d. two high vocal soloists and a viol.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

29. "Quant en moi," p. 70


What contributes to the intricacy of "Quant en moi"?
a. the harmony
b. the small vocal range used
c. the complex rhythms
d. the performing forces

30. "Quant en moi, " p. 70


Which do you hear in "Quant en moi"?
a. hocket
b. chordal accompaniment
c. variation of theme
d. modulation

Topics

31. The Middle Ages, p. 58


The Middle Ages, or medieval era, covers the time period of the:
a. fifth century to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
b. twelfth century to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
c. ninth and tenth centuries to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
d. fourth and fifth centuries to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

32. Music and the Church: Plainchant, p. 58


The early history of Western music was dominated by:
a. troubadours.
b. the Christian church.
c. trouveres.
d. motets.

33. Music and the Church: Plainchant, p. 58 During the early Middle
Ages, the institution(s) that preserved written records of its culture,
including music, was(were) the:
a. secular court.
b. great urban libraries.
c. Christian Church.
d. group of landowners in each locale.

34. Music and the Church: Plainchant, p. 58


Most of the music of medieval times that has been preserved for us was
written down by:
a. kings and queens.
b. professional instrumentalists.
c. amateur singers and instrumentalists.
d. members of religious orders.

35. Music and the Church: Plainchant, p. 58


The type of music most likely to be written down in the Middle Ages
58 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
was:
a. music of the troubadours and trouveres.
b. the standard repertory of the concert hall.
c. religious music.
d. music for weddings, parties, and other festivities involving the
middle class.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

36. Music and Church Services, p. 59


The eight daily services in cathedrals and monasteries were
known collectively as:
60 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
a. the Mass.
b. the Divine Office.
c. plainchant
sequence.
d. organum.

37. Plainchant, p. 60
The single-line melodies
of the
a. plainchant. early Christian Church are known as:
b. madrigals.
c. chansons.
d. Masses.
61 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
38. Plainchant, p. 60
Another term for Gregorian chant is:
a. troubadour song.
b. motet.
c. madrigal.
d. plainchant.

39. Plainchant, p. 60
Who is traditionally associated with collecting and codifying the
chants of the church?
a. Leonin
b. Perotin
c. Pope Gregory I
d. Guillaume de Machaut

40. Plainchant, p. 60
Gregorian chant was organized around c.E.:
a. 400.
b. 600.
c. 800.
d. 1000.
41. Plainchant, p. 60
Gregorian chant is so named because Pope Gregory I:
a. organized the chants.
b. commissioned the chants.
c. composed all of the chants.
d. established a particular singing style to be used with the chants.

42. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60


The role of a chant in church services was the determining factor in
the chant's:
a. texture.
b. mode.
c. genre.
d. tempo and meter.

43. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60


Which is a false characteristic of plainchant?
a. It is monophonic.
b. It is metered.
c. It is unaccompanied.
d. It is sung in Latin.
44. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60
Musicforthe150Psalmssungeveryweekwas_____________, while other music could be

a. simple; more complex


b. complex; simple
c. simple; even more simple
d. complex; also complex

45. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60


Which two characteristics do all plainchants share?
a. All are in triple meter and use minor tonality.
b. All have polyphonic texture and are unaccompanied.
c. All are nonmetrical and use medieval modes.
d. All have homophonic texture and use medieval modes.

46. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60


A medieval mode is:
a. a musical interlude between two parts of the Mass.
b. a style of melodic writing.
c. one of the services in the Divine Office.
d. one of a system of scales.

47. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60


The medieval modes were traced back to ancient:
a. Rome.
b. Greece.
c. Egypt.

Israel.

48. Characteristics of
Plainchant, p. 60 Which is
n o t a medieval mode?
a. Dorian
b. Lydian
c. Grecian
d. Phrygian

49. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 61


On which musical element is the artistic effect of plainchant based?
a. melody
b. rhythm
c. texture
d. harmony

50. "Vere dignum," p. 61


"Vere dignum" demonstrates the use of the:
a. reciting tone.
b. estampic.
c. late medieval sequence.
d. troubadou r song.

51. "Vere dignum," p. 61


The Middle Ages
Chapter 5
"Vere dignum" would most. likely have been used:
a. in the Divine Office.
b. to introduce an important clement in the Mass.
c. at a royal coronation.
d. for courtly entertainment.
64 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

52. "In paradisum, " p. 62


"In paradisum" is part of the liturgy for:
a. celebrating Easter.
b. processing to the graveyard.
c. celebrating Communion.
d. the worship of the Virgin Mary.

53. "In paradisum," p. 63


"In paradisum " is sung by:
a. the priest and the entire religious community.
b. only the priest.
c. a special choir for the occasion.
d. a pair of boy sopranos.

54. "In paradisum," p. 63


After the initial "In paradisum," the music:
a. recedes into a monotone.
b. becomes increasingly disjunct.
c. develops an approximate duple meter.
d. becomes more and more melodic.

55. "In paradisum," p. 63


The mourners singing "In paradisum" in the Middle Ages would have
identified with the text referring to:
a. Lazarus.
b. the angel choir.
c. the martyrs.
d. the Virgin Mary.

56. "Columba aspexit," p. 63


A plainchant sequence consists of:
a. a simpler melody than an antiphon.
b. a series of short tunes repeated with some variation.
c. a choir accompanied by an instrumental drone.
d. a soloist accompanied by an instrumental drone.

57. Hildegard of Bingen, p. 63


Hildegard of Bingen composed in the__ century.
a. ninth
b. tenth
c. eleventh
d. twelfth

58. Hildegard of Bingen, p. 63


Hildegard's music is a product of:
a. biblical texts and her own plainchants.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
b. her own poetry and her own plainchants.
c. biblical texts and Gregorian chant.
d. her own poetry and Gregorian chant.
66 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

59. Hildegard of Bingen,


p. 63 The subject of "Columba
aspexit" is:
a. praise for Saint Maximinus.
b. unrequited love.
c. the coming of spring.
d. praise for Saint Francis of Assisi.

60. Hildegard of Bingen, p. 63


Which composition is a plainchant sequence?
a. "Quant en moi"
b. "La dousa votz"
c. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"
d. "Columba aspexit"

61. Music at Court, p. 64


Which is true about the sources of artistic and political influence
over the course of the Middle Ages?
a. The Christian Church remained the only influence.
b. Kings and barons completely took over the influence once
enjoyed by the Christian Church.
c. Kings and barons gained influence, but the Christian Church
retained some power.
d. The middle class rose and took over artistic life in society.
62. Troubadour and Trouvere Songs, p. 64
The troubadours, trouveres, and back to the_______
Minnesingers date centuries.
a. eleventh and twelfth
b. twelfth and thirteenth
c. thirteenth and fourteenth
d. eleventh through the fourteenth
63. Troubadour and Trouvere Songs, p. 64
Who were the medieval poet-musicians of southern France?
a. troubadours
b. trouveres
c. Leonin and Perotin
d. Minnesingers

64. Troubadour and


Trouvere Songs, p. 64 Who was
a troubadour?
a. Hildegard of Bingen
b. Countess Beatriz of Dia
c. Leonin
d. Perotin

65. Troubadour and Trouvere Songs, p. 64


The Middle Ages
Chapter 5
Subjects reflected in the poems of the troubadours and trouveres
included all except:
a. crusaders' songs.
b. laments for dead princes.
c. religious praise.
d. love, or lack thereof.
66. Troubadour and Trouvere Songs, p. 64
Who were considered the popular musicians of the Middle Ages?
a. troubadours
b. trouveres
c. jongleurs
d. Minnesingers

67. Troubadour and


Trouvere Songs, p. 66 Which is
a "dawn song"?
a. pastourelle
b. jongleur
c. estampie
d. alba

68. How Did Early Music Sound? p. 65


Which is commonly observed of the way early music was notated?
a. Tempo was never indicated in the score.
b. Instruments were indicated for accompaniments.
c. Solos and choral sections were indicated in the score.
d. Specific notes were not indicated in the score.

69. Bernart de Ventadorn, p. 66


Which is true of Bernart de Ventadorn?
a. He had a humble background but worked for Queen Eleanor
of Aquitaine, wife of Henry II.
b. He was born a prince but later became a priest-composer.
c. He had a humble background but ended his life as a bishop, working
for Pope Gregory I.
d. He was the first major composer of plainchant.

70. "La dousa votz," p. 66


Which characteristic makes "La dousa votz" different from "Columba
aspexit"?
a. "La dousa votz" is sung.
b. "La dousa votz" is sacred.
c. "La dousa votz" is medieval in style.
d. "La dousa votz" is secular.

71. "La dousa votz," p. 66


The meaning of the text of "La dousa votz" involves:
a. admiration of a saint.
b. contentment in love.
c. betrayal in love.
d. the joys of springtime.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages
72. The Estampie, p. 66 The few
surviving medieval court dances are
called:
a. sequences.
b. estampies.
c. al bas.
d. troubadour songs.
70 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

73. The Estampie, p. 66


Estampies are considered:
a. dances that are in an irregular meter.
b. music for voice and instrumental accompaniment.
c. unassuming one-line dance pieces repeated many times in varied
forms.
d. sacred music for performance in monasteries.

74. Organum, p. 67 The earliest type of


polyphony, dating from around C.E. 900, was:
a. the isorhythmic motet.
b. plainsong.
c. organum.
d. the sequence.

75. Organum, p. 67
The early compositional style consisting of a plainchant melody with
another melody sung simultaneously to the same words is called:
a. monophony.
b. organum.
c. a Gregorian chant.
d. estampie.

76. Organum, p. 68
Early polyphony had its beginnings at:
a. St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna.
b. the Vatican.
c. Winchester Abbey, England.
d. Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.

77. Organum, p. 68
Who were the two great composers of the Notre Dame school?
a. Guillaume Dufay and josquin Desprez
b. Leonia and Perotin
c. Hildegard of Bingen and Bernart de Ventadorn
d. Guillaume de Machaut and Phillippe de Vitry

78. Perotin, "Alleluia. Diffusa est


gratia, " p. 68 "Alleluia. Diffusa est
gratia" was composed for:
a. a Christmas festival.
b. middle-class home entertainment.
c. the birthday of Pope Gregory I.
d. the Mass.

79. Later Medieval Polyphony, p. 70


The Middle Ages
Chapter 5
What happened to polyphonic music during the thirteenth century?
a. It became more and more closely linked with church services.
b. It became more and more popular as middle-class family
entertainment.
c. It became more and more removed from church services.
d. It became more and more monophonic.
72 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

80. Later Medieval Polyphony, p. 70


The medieval polyphonic form that resulted from the addition of texts
to the upper parts while retaining the Gregorian chant in the lower
part is called the:
a. motet.
b. Mass.
c. madrigal.
d. estampie.

81. Ars
Nova, p. 70
Music of the Notre Dame School was later referred to as:
a. ars nova.
b. ars antiqua.
c. the new school.
d. the isorhythmic school.

82. Ars Nova, p. 70 In Western music, the period from


about ] 300 to 1400 was the period of:
a. plainsong.
b. early experiments in polyphony.
c. the first flowering of polyphony at Notre Dame.
d. ars nova.

83. Ars Nova, p. 70


One of the chief characteristics of the late medieval motet is:
a. surprising cadences.
b. the jarring use of dissonance.
c. intricate and complex rhythmic combinations.
d. smooth, regular rhythms and brief melodies.

84. Ars Nova, p. 70 In the ars nova, what genre is increasingly


secular, using complex rhythm patterns?
a. alba
b. motet
c. estampie
d. plainchant

85. Ars Nova, p . 70 An outstanding


composer of the French ars nova was:
a. Guillaume de Machaut.
b. Perotin.
c. Hildegard of Bingen.
d. Pope Gregory I.

86. Ars Nova, p. 70


Guillaume de Machaut
composed
a. twelfth
b. thirteenth
c. fourteenth
d. fifteenth

in the________ century.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages 74

87. Ars Nova, p. 70 Guillaume de Machaut


was not only a composer, but also a:
a. dancer.
b. prince.
c. lawyer.
d. poet.

88. "Quant en
moi, " p. 70 "Quant
en moi " is a:
a. Gregorian chant.
b. motet.
c. sequence.
d. troubadour song.

89. "Quant en moi," p. 70


Which part has the plainchant fragment in "Quant en moi"?
a. the viol
b. the higher voice
c. the lower voice
d. the recorder

90. "Quant en moi," p. 70


The text of "Quant en moi" involves:
a. life at court in medieval Europe.
b. romantic love.
c. God's love and mercy to humankind.
d. honoring a saint.

91. "Quant en moi, " p. 71


The polyphonic technique in which the melodies in each stanza change
while the complex rhythms are repeated is called:
a. rhythmic isolation.
b. isorhythm.
c. isotonicism.
d. estampie.

92. "Quant en moi, " p. 71


The hocket is a device that:
a. assigned metrical values to plainchant.
b. was used in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in the composition of
sequences.
c. allowed for fast interplay between voices in motets.
d. allowed for the even division between soloists and choirs in the
singing of sequences.
Middle Ages
Chapter 5 The 75
93. "
Quant en moi, " p.
71 Which piece contains
a hocket?
a. "Columba aspexit"
b. "La dousa votz"
c. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"
d. "Quant en moi"
76 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

94. "Quant en moi," p. 71


Chant is the musical basis for all of the following except:
a. "Columba aspexit. "
b. "La dousa votz."
c. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia."
d. "Quant en moi."

Essay Questions

1. Music and the Church: Plainchant, p. 58


Describe the role of the early church in the music of the
Middle Ages.

2. Music and Church Services, p.


59 Describe the music sung in the
medieval church.

3. Music and Church Services, p. 59


Compare and contrast the music for the Mass and the music for the
Divine Office in terms of plainchant genre and style.

4. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60 Name and


describe the two characteristics common to all
plainchant.

5. Characteristics of Plainchant, p. 60 Name the four


medieval modes. List the starting pitch for each in the diatonic
scale.

6. "Vere Dignum," p. 61
Describe the setting for a performance of "Vere Dignum" in the Middle
Ages. Discuss the aspect of recitation and the reason for this.

7. "Columba aspexit," p. 63 Define and


diagram an example of plainchant sequence.

8. Music at Court, p. 64 Briefly describe the shift in sources of


political and artistic influence during the Middle Ages.

9. Music at Court, p. 64
Name the three types of court poet-composers and performers of the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. List the geographic location for each.

10. Music at Court, p. 64


What was the name given to medieval popular musicians? How were they
different from the court poet-composers?

11. How Did Early Music Sound? p. 65


Do performers today know how early music sounded? Explain.
Include a discussion of tempo, dynamics, performing forces, and
Middle Ages
Chapter 5 The 77
instruments in your answer.

12. Estampie, p. 66 Define estairzpie. Discuss the character, purpose, and


structure of the estampie in your answer.

13. Organum, p. 67 What is organ/1m? During what time period did


composers use this style of composition?
78 Chapter 5 The Middle Ages

14. Organum, p. 67 Trace the development of organum, from its


simplest manifestation to its most complex.

15. "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia," p. 68


Even though it is difficult to hear, what do you know about the
lowest voice part in "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia"? What is its origin?
Is it meant to be recognized? Explain.

16. Later Medieval Polyphony, p. 70


In the late Middle Ages, was it considered sacrilegious to use secular
elements in motets? Explain.

17. Later Medieval


Polyphony, p. 70 Distinguish
between organum and motet.

18. Ars Nova, p. 70


Differentiate between the music of ars antiqua and ars nova. Name two
composers for each style.
Chapter 5 The Middle Ages 79
19. Ars Nova, p. 70
Which musical element was used with particular sophistication by
composers of the ars nova? What technique did they develop for using this
element?

20. "Quant en moi," p. 70 What is a hocket? When and


in what type of composition was it used?

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 1 Sacred Chant

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Sacred Chant, p. 73
The musics of the world show several parallels. Two of them are:
a. mode and harmony.
b. function and technique.
c. notation and polyphony.
d. tone color and texture.

2. Islam: Reciting the Qur ' an, p. 73


Qur'anic recitation is thought of as________ the sacred text.
a. reading
b. dancing
c. singing
d. acting

3. Islam: Reciting the Qur'an, p. 73


Like Gregorian chant, Qur'anic recitation is:
a. monophonic, nonmetric.
b. homophonic, metric.
c. monophonic, metric.
d. polyphonic, nonmetric.
4. The Azan, p. 74
In Islamic chant, the special singer who calls the faithful to worship
is called:
a. lead tenor.
b. chanter.
c. soloist.
d. muezzin.

5. Hawai 'ian Chant, p. 74


The term for Hawai'ian prayer songs is:
a. adhan.
b. mete pule.
c. musiqi.
d. hula.

6. Hawai'ian Chant, p. 74
All traditional Hawai'ian songs, like Gregorian chant and Qur'anic
recitation, are:
a. polyphonic.
b. monophonic.
c. metrical.
d. modal.

7. A Navajo Song, p. 75
Most Native North American song is monophonic and:
a. is usually accompanied by a string drone instrument.
b. uses a sobbing vibrato.
c. is usually accompanied by drums or rattles.
d. is isorhythmic.

8. A Navajo Song, p. 75
The melody of "K'adnikini'ya' " is organized around a:
a. soloist.
b. specific mode.
c. disjunct tune.
d. reciting tone.

Essay Questions

1. Sacred Chant, p. 73 How do parallels in


different types of music come about?

2. Sacred Chant, p. 73 Briefly discuss the


role of music in the service of religion.

3. Islam: Reciting the Qur ' an, p. 73 How


does Qur'anic recitation compare to Gregorian
chant?
4. Hawai 'ian Chant, p. 74 How does the I-Iawai'ian chant
compare to Gregorian chant and Qur'anic recitation?

5. A Navajo Song, p. 75 Briefly define


vocables and their presence in "K'adnikini 'ya'."
C H A P T ER 6
The Renaissance

Multiple-Choice Questions
Listening

1. "Ave maris stella," p. 78


Which is true of "Ave maris stella"?
a. It is a homophonic setting of a Gregorian hymn.
b. It is a polyphonic setting of plainchant.
c. It is a monophonic chant.
d. It is a plainchant sequence.

2. "Ave maris stella," p. 78


In "Ave maris stella," which stanzas consist of the unembellished
plainchant?
a. 2, 3, and 4
b. 1, 3, and 5
c. 2, 4, and 6
d. 3 and 5

3. "Ave maris stella, " p. 78


In which stanzas of "Ave maris stella" do you hear the composer's own
music?
a. 2, 3, and 4
b. 1, 2, and 3
c. 1, 3, and 5
d. 2, 4, and 6

4. "
Ave maris stella, " p. 78 In which voice(s) during "Ave maris
stella" do you hear the hymn tune in paraphrase with extra notes?
a. the lowest voice
b. the lowest and middle voices
c. the highest voice
d. the middle voice

5. "Ave maris stella," p. 78


What are the performing forces in "Ave maris stella"?
a. solo male voice
b. solo male voice alternating with male choir
c. a choir of high and low voices
d. a female choir
84 Chapter 6 The Renaissance

Mass, p. 83
6 . .Pange lingua
Who composed the Pange lingua Mass?
a. Josquin Desprez
b. Guillaume Dufay
c. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
d. Thomas Weelkes

7. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83


The performing forces in Pange lingua consist of a:
a. solo high voice.
b. choir of high voices.
c. solo tenor and a mixed choir.
d. choir of high and low voices.
8. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83
The composer used the melody of the hymn_________as the basis of Pange
plainsong lingua.
a. "Qui tollis"
b. "Kyrie eleison"
c. "Gloria"
d. "Pange lingua"
9. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83
What do you hear after the brief plainchant section in the Kyrie of Pange
lingua?
a. a point of imitation
b. a pocket
c. an isorhythmic section
cl. a sequence

10. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83


The composer of Pange lingua uses plainchant to open:
a. each section of the Kyrie.
b. the first section of the Kyrie.
c. the middle section, or "Christe."
d. the "Qui tollis" section.

11. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83 Which parts of the


larger work are included in Pange lingua?
a. Kyrie and Gloria
b. Credo and Kyrie
c. Pange and lingua
d. first and second verses

12. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83 What is


the predominant texture of Pange lingua?
a. monophony
b. homophony
c. imitative polyphony
d. nonimitative polyphony
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 85
13. "Mille regrets, p. 85 "

Desprez's polyphonic chanson "Mille regrets" is notable for its:


a. use of isorhythms.
b. fragments of chant.
c. spiritual nature.
d. expressive matching of music to words.
86 Chapter 6 The Renaissance

14. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


Who composed the Pope Marcellus Mass?
a. Josquin Desprez
b. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
c. Thomas Weelkes
d. anonymous

15. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


The performing forces in Pope Marcellus consist of:
a. voices and organ.
b. voices and brass instruments.
c. voices and string instruments.
d. voices alone.

16. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


What is the predominant texture of Pope Marcellus?
a. monophony
b. imitative polyphony
c. nonimitative polyphony
d. homophony

17. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


How does Pope Marcellus differ from the Pange lingua Mass?
a. It uses fewer voices and more solos are heard.
b. It is more polyphonic; it has many points of imitation.
c. It uses more voices and alternates choirs; it is more homophonic.
d. It uses a different text than that used in the Pange lingua Mass.

18. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


The purpose of Pope Marcellus was to:
a. provide dance music.
b. entertain nobility.
c. entertain the public.
d. worship God.

19. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill


Descending, " p. 89 "As Vesta Was from
Latmos Hill Descending" is a:
a. madrigal.
b. Mass.
c. motet.
d. plainchant sequence.

20. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending," p. 89


The text of "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" involves:
a. worship of God.
b. Queen Elizabeth and mythological figures.
c. a celebration of the birthday of the Virgin Mary.
d. unrequited love.

21. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending," p. 89


"As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" demonstrates:
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 87
a. isorhythm.
b. hocket.
c. plainchant sequence.
d. word painting.
88 Chapter 6 The Renaissance

22. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending," p. 89


The performing forces in "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill
Descending" consist of:
a. a male choir.
b. two choirs in alternation.
c. male and female vocal soloists.
d. a female choir.

23. "Daph
ne," p. 91
"Daphne " is a:
a. pavane.
b. galliard.
c. jig.
d. stylized dance.

24. "Daphne," p. 91 The


performing forces in "Daphne"
consist of:
a. early violins.
b. early violins and lute.
c. recorders, early violins, and harpsichord.
d. organ and early violins.

25. "Daphne," p. 91
The texture of
"Daphne" is:
a. monophonic.
b. homophonic.
c. polyphonic.
d. monophonic, then polyphonic.

26. "Kemp's Jig," p.


92 The meter of
"Kemp's Jig" is:
a. duple.
b. triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

27. "Kemp's Jig," p. 92


What is the form of "Kemp's Jig"?
a. a b a repeated several times
b. a a b b c c repeated several times
c. a a b repeated several times
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 89
d. a a' a" a"' and so on

28. "Kemp's Jig," p. 92


The purpose of "Kemp's Jig" is:
a. praising Queen Elizabeth.
b. celebrating a biblical birthday.
c. use in a church service.
d. listening enjoyment.
90 Chapter 6 The Renaissance

To p i c s

29. New Attitudes, p. 77


The process by which Renaissance composers freely embellished
plainchant melodies for use in their compositions is known as:
a. harmonization.
b. improvisation.
c. paraphrase.
d. elaboration.

30. New Attitudes, p. 77


In the early Renaissance, composers concentrated on the__________________
rather than the________________________________________ of the plainchant
melodies used.
a. form; melody
b. sonority; authoritarian function
c. imitative and nonimitative polyphony; melody
d. intellectual elements; sensuous aspects
91 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
31. New Attitudes, p. 77
In medieval music the plainchant
melody was in Renaissance it moved to
the______________________________ voice.
a. lowest; highest
b. highest; lowest
c. lowest; middle
d. middle; highest

the_________ voice, but in the


early
92 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
32. Early Homophony, p. 77
What was the new, preferred texture of early Renaissance music?
a. monophony
b. imitative polyphony
c. non-imitative polyphony
d. homophony

33. Early Homophony, p. 77


What type of piece results when all voices move in simple chord
patterns?
a. plainchant harmonization
b. a motet
c. a polyphonic Mass
d. a madrigal

34. Guillaume Dufay, p. 77


Where is the birthplace of Dufay (and many other important
composers of his day) and where did he spend his career?
a. London; Paris
b. northern France near Belgium; Italy
c. southern France; Munich
d. Italy; northern France near Flanders

35. "Ave maris Stella, " p. 78


In church music, a short tune sung through many stanzas of text is a:
a. motet.
b. Mass.
c. madrigal.
dk hymn.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 93

36. "Ave maxis stella," p. 78


Dufay's "Ave maxis stella" is:
a. an estampie.
b. a madrigal.
c. a harmonized hymn.
d. part of a polyphonic Mass.

37. "Ave maxis stella," p. 79


Dufay is best known for his:
a. madrigals and motets.
b. instrumental dance pieces.
c. polyphonic Masses and plainchant harmonizations.
d. Gregorian chants and hymns.

38. The Mass, p. 80


The most important of the daily church services was the:
a. Office.
b. Mass.
c. proper.
d. vespers.

39. The Mass, p. 80


The five sections of the polyphonic Mass are:
a. Kyrie, Eleison, Christe, Eleison, Kyrie.
b. Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei.
c. Kyrie, Gloria, Cantus, Sanctus, Agnus Dei.
d. Kyrie, Gloria, Communion, Sanctus, Agnus Dei.

40. The Mass, p. 80


Which is n o t a movement of the Mass?
a. Credo
b. Sanctus
c. Cantus
d. Gloria

41. The Mass, p. 80 The great, large-scale compositional challenge of


the Renaissance was musical unification of:
a. the church.
b. the Mass.
c. the motet.
d. plainchant harmonizations.

42. The High Renaissance


Style, p. 80 The High Renaissance
style began around:
94 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
a. 1350.
b. 1400.
c. 1450.
d. 1500.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 95

43. The High Renaissance Style, p. 80


Which two techniques were blended to form the compositional style for
the Mass, the motet, and the chanson in the High Renaissance?
a. imitative counterpoint and homophony
b. monophony and harmonization
c. non-imitative polyphony and monophony
d. imitative counterpoint and polyphony

44. Imitation, p. 81
How did polyphony change from the beginning to the end of the fifteenth
century?
a. It disappeared.
b. It started out imitative and ended non-imitative.
c. It started out non-imitative and ended imitative.
d. Polyphony did not change throughout the century.

45. Homophony, p. 81
In terms of texture, High Renaissance composers:
a. focused on the horizontal aspects of music at the expense of the
vertical aspects.
b. used polyphonic lines in such a way that a chordal quality was
maintained.
c. focused on the vertical aspects of music at the expense of the
horizontal aspects.
d. turned their attention away from polyphonic and chordal writing and
focused on
monophony.

46. Other Characteristics, p. 81


The musical term for "voices alone" is:
a. strophic.
b. isorhythmic.
c. cantus.
d. a cappella.

47. Other Characteristics, p. 81


The preferred tone color of the High Renaissance style was:
a. stringed instruments and voice.
b. organ and voice.
c. brass and organ with voice.
d. voices alone.

48. Other Characteristics, p. 81.


How can rhythm in the High Renaissance style be characterized?
a. Music usually was in a clear triple meter.
b. Rhythm was unaccented and fluid, with the meter often obscured.
c. Rhythm was energetic, but with constantly changing meters.
96 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
d. Rhythm was complex, featuring techniques such as isorhythm.

49. Josquin Desprez, p. 82 Who was the


first master of the High Renaissance style?
a. Thomas Weelkes
b. Josquin Desprez
c. Guillaume Dufay
d. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 97

50. Josquin Desprez, p. 82


Josquin composed works in which genre(s)?
a. stylized dance
b. motet, chanson, and madrigal
c. plainchant and madrigal
d. Mass, motet, and chanson

51. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83


The text of the Kyrie section of the Pange lingua Mass is:
a. Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison.
b. Kyrie, Eleison, Christe.
c. Gloria patri, qui tollis peccata mundi.
d. Pange lingua, Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison.

52. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83


Points of imitation are used extensively in:
a. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending."
b. the Kyrie from the Pange lingua Mass.
c. "Kemp's Jig. "
d. "Daphne."

53. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83


What is a point of imitation?
a. the beginning of each movement in a polyphonic Mass
b. a cadence point where the polyphony comes together to form
homophonic chords
c. a passage of imitative polyphony using one musical motive and one
phrase of text
d. the place where the second voice enters in a passage of imitative
polyphony

54. Pange lingua Mass, p. 84


A characteristic of High Renaissance music, as heard in the Pange lingua
Mass, is the contrasting of____ and
a. imitative polyphony; non-imitative polyphony
b. monophony; homophony
c. points of imitation; monophony
d. homophony; imitative polyphony

55. Music as Expression, p. 84


Renaissance composers were inspired to explore the power of music to
express human feelings. Their inspiration came from the:
a. church.
b. court.
c. ancient Greeks.
d. ancient Egyptians.
98 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
56. Music as Expression, p. 84
The first style period in which set words to music in a natural
composers tried to way was: and clear
a. ancient Greece.
b. the Middle Ages.
c. the early Renaissance.
d. the High Renaissance.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance 99

57. Music as Expression, p. 85


The style of setting words to music using rhythms that approximate
human speech is called:
a. declamation.
b. imitative.
c. word painting.
d. isorhythmic.
58. Music as Expression, p. 85
What is the device used by Renaissance to depict in music the words or
composers text? ideas of a
a. a cappella
b. word painting
c. cantus firmus
d. isorhythm

59. Music as Expression, p. 85


Word painting was first used extensively in the century.
a. fourteenth
b. fifteenth
c. sixteenth
d. seventeenth

60. Late Renaissance Music, p. 86


The universality of the Late Renaissance style is found in the works of
Palestrina, Lassus, Victoria, and Byrd, who worked, respectively, in:
a. Rome; Munich; Rome and Madrid; and England.
b. Venice, Rome, Madrid, and England.
c. Rome, Munich, Madrid, and England.
d. Rome and Madrid; Munich; Venice; and England.

61. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


The most convincing and diplomatic composer of Roman Catholic Church
music during the Counter-Reformation was:
a. Fabritio Caroso.
b. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
c. Josquin Desprez.
d. Thomas Weelkes.

62. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


Homophonic texture and avoidance of long, elaborate phrases composed
on one syllable of text characterize the music of:
a. Josquin Desprez.
b. Guillaume Dufay.
c. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
d. Perotin.

63. The Motet, p. 88


Which is true of the evolution of the motet over the centuries?
a. The motet has changed a great deal over the centuries.
b. The motet stayed the same over the centuries.
c. The motet appeared in the medieval period, changed to a
100 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
simpler form in the early Renaissance, then changed back to its
more intellectual form by the end of the Renaissance.
d. The motet began in the early Renaissance and changed drastically
during that era.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance

64. The Motet, p. 88


Why was the motet more attractive to sixteenth-century composers than
the Mass?
a. Polyphony was allowed in the motet, but not in the Mass.
b. The motet allowed for different texts, but the Mass always had the
same text.
c. The motet was secular, and the Mass was religious.
d. The motet was in the High Renaissance homophonic style,
whereas the Mass was usually polyphonic.

65. The Italian Madrigal, p. 89


The Italian madrigal dates from about:
a. 1500.
b. 1530.
c. 1560.
d. 1600.

66. The Italian Madrigal, p. 89


A short piece of music set to a one-stanza poem of a secular nature with
each part sung typi-
cally by one singer, and having alternating sections of homophony and
a. motet.
b. pavane.
c. madrigal.
d. galliard.
67. The English Madrigal, p. 89
The anthology of madrigals in honor of Queen Elizabeth that was
compiled in 1601 was called:
a. Celeste Giglio.
b. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending."
c. "Veni Creator Spiritus."
d. The Triumphs of Oriana.

68. The English Madrigal, p. 89 The most significant difference


between the Italian madrigal and the English madrigal is that Italian
madrigals are and English madrigals are
a. in Italian; in English
b. polyphonic; homophonic
c. homophonic; polyphonic
d. religious in nature; secular

69. Thomas Weelkes, p.


89 Thomas Weelkes wrote
madrigals in:
a. Latin.
b. Italian.
c. English.
d. French.

70. Instrumental Music: Early Developments, p. 91


102 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
The basis for the development of great Baroque instrumental music was
laid in:
a. ancient Greece
b. the Middle Ages
c. the ars nova
d. the Renaissance
Chapter 6 The Renaissance

71. Dance Stylization, p. 92


A stylized dance is one that:
a. was used only by nobility, specifically at court functions.
b. used up-to-date dance steps.
c. was made more elaborate so that musical elements are more
important.
d. combines homophony and polyphony in a way that was typical of
the High Renaissance style of composition.

72. Dance Stylization, p. 92


One aspect of "ICemp' s Jig" that leads to dance stylization is:
a. unusual instrumentation.
b. the association with dancing in the theater.
c. predictable cadences.
d. irregular cadences.

73. Renaissance Dances, p. 91


Which was the most widespread of Renaissance instrumental genres?
a. the madrigal
b. dance music
c. organ music
d. instrumental music used to accompany voices in church

74. Renaissance
Dances, p. 91 The
pavane and galliard
were:
a. types of Renaissance chansons.
b. forms used in Renaissance Masses.
c. types of Renaissance dance music.
d. forms used in madrigals.

75. Renaissance
Dances, p. 91 Pavanes
are often paired with:
a. galliards.
b. jigs.
c. madrigals.
d. other pavanes.

76. Renaissance Dances, p. 91


The pavane is in________ meter, and the galliard is in___ meter.
a. duple; duple
b. duple; compound duple
c. duple; triple
d. compound duple; compound triple
104 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
77. "Daphne," p. 91
What makes it easy for the dancers to keep their places in "Daphne"?
a. the polyphony
b. the clear cadences ending the phrases
c. the instrumental accompaniment
d. the text
Chapter 6 The Renaissance

78. "Kemp's Jig," p. 92


Will Kemp was:
a. the composer of "Kemp's Jig."
b. a famous Elizabethan violinist.
c. a composer of music for Shakespeare's plays.
d. an actor in Shakespeare's plays.

Essay Questions

1. The Renaissance, p. 76
Renaissance means "rebirth." What was reborn during the Renaissance
and what was the source of the inspiration for the Renaissance?
Discuss.

2. The Renaissance, p. 76 Briefly contrast medieval


thought with the new ideas of the Renaissance.

3. New Attitudes, p. 77
Briefly contrast the way medieval composers used plainchant
melodies with the way Renaissance composers used them. In your
answer, state which aspect of the chant was valued by whom and the
location of the chant in the music.

4. Early Homophony, p. 77 Explain how


polyphonic voices can sometimes sound homophonic.

5. Early Homophony, p. 77
Define plainchant harmonization. Does this technique contribute to the
sensuous aspect of a chant, or to the intellectual, authoritarian
aspect? Explain.

6. "Ave maris stella," p. 78 Define


Gregorian hymn and name an example of
one.

7. "Ave maris stella," p. 79 For which two


types of composition is Dufay best known?

8. The Mass, p. 79
Describe the change in attitude of Renaissance composers with regard
to medieval authority and intricacy in composition. For example, what
was the Renaissance attitude toward isorhythm?

9. The Mass, p. 79 Define chanson.


Is a chanson sacred or secular?

10. The Mass, p. 80 What is the Mass?


Name the five parts of the Mass.

11. The Mass, p. 80


106 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
What was the goal of Renaissance composers regarding the Mass?
How did Renaissance composers achieve this goal?

12. The High Renaissance Style, p. 81


Describe the change in the use of imitation from the beginning to the
end of the fifteenth century.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance

13. The High Renaissance Style, p. 81


Describe the High Renaissance style with regard to musical texture,
tempo, and dynamics. When did it emerge?

14. Homophony, p. 81
Describe the change in composers' approach to their use of
homophony from the late medieval period to the time of the High
Renaissance style.

15. Other Characteristics, p. 81 Define a cappella. Explain why it was


the ideal tone color for High Renaissance composers.

16. Josquin Desprez, p. 82


Approximately when did Josquin Desprez live? What were his most
important musical contributions? In which genres was he a great
pioneer?

17. Pange lingua Mass, p. 83 Define point of imitation. How does


Josquin use this device in his Pange lingua Mass?

18. Music as Expression, p. 84


How did the idea of expressiveness in music change from the
medieval period to the Renaissance? What inspired this change?

19. Music as Expression, p. 85


Define and discuss the processes of declamation and word painting,
through which Renaissance composers attempted to achieve
heightened expressiveness.

20. Late Renaissance Music, p. 86


In the late Renaissance, composers applied their compositional style to
new secular genres. Describe two of them.

21. Late Renaissance Music, p. 86


Name four composers of the High Renaissance who contributed to the
distribution of this musical style throughout most of Europe and
England.

22. Pope Marcellus Mass, p. 87


Describe the career of Palestrina with regard to his role as a composer
and a Roman Catholic during the time of the Counter-Reformation.

23. The Motet, p. 88 Define motet as


known to sixteenth-century composers.

24. The Italian Madrigal, p. 89


What is a madrigal? When did the madrigal become popular? Are
madrigals generally sacred or secular?

25. The English Madrigal, p. 89


Did the madrigal remain a uniquely Italian genre because the music was
so closely tied to the Italian words? Explain.
108 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
26. "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending," p. 89
What gives the madrigal "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" by
Weelkes a modern feel? Explain the musical causes for the difference
between the mood of this music and that of Josquin.
Chapter 6 The Renaissance

27. Instrumental Music: Early Developments, p. 90


What are some instruments that date from the sixteenth century? Which
one was originally from the near East?

28. Dance Stylization, p. 92


What is the most widespread of Renaissance instrumental genres?
Name and describe two types of compositions within this genre.

29. Dance Stylization, p. 92 Compare and contrast the nature and


purpose of music for dancing and a stylized dance.

30. "
Kemp ' s Jig," p. 92 What tendency does "Kemp's Jig" illustrate
in the evolution of musical dances? Explain.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 2 Music and Early European Colonialism

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Music and Early European Colonialism, p. 93


The first great phase of European expansion into other parts of the
world was from_______________________________________________________________
to_____________________________________________________________________________
a. 1780; 1820
b. 1680; 1720
c. 1580; 1620
d. 1480; 1620

2. Cultural Conquest and Music, p. 93


During the first great phase of European expansion, explorers,
missionaries, and merchants heard and described music such as:
a. Argentinian polkas.
b. Andean antiphons and sequences.
c. spiritual songs of Tupi Indians of Brazil.
d. Hawai'ian mele pule chants.

3. Cultural Conquest and Music, p. 93


It was the_________ explorers who told of the____ of Indonesia.
a. Dutch, gamelans
b. Aztec, sackbuts
c. English, song and dance
d. Chinese, Noh opera

4. Music of the Aztecs and Incas, p. 93


Spanish missionaries, while amazed at the achievements and
complexities of the Aztec and Incan empires, sought to:
a. preserve native customs.
b. encourage native song and dance in Christian festivals.
110 Chapter 6 The Renaissance
c. include harvest festivals in the church liturgy.
d. include native instruments and costumes in church liturgy.
5. Inca Processional Music, p. 94 The
song "Hanaq pachap Kusikuynin" was
published in:
a. 1431.
b. 1531.
c. 1631.
d. 1731.

6. Inca Processional Music, p. 94


The words of "Hanaq pachap Kusikuynin" is in the native Andean
language:
a. Nahuatl.
b. Basque.
c. Quechua.
d. Mayan.

7. Inca Processional Music, p. 94


The texture of "Hanaq pachap Kusikuynin" is:
a. homophonic.
b. monophonic.
c. polyphonic.
d. heterophonic.

Essay Questions

1. Music and Early European


Colonialism, p. 93 Discuss briefly the early
explorers of the 1480s to 1620s.

2. Cultural Conquest and Music, p. 93


During the 1480s to 1620s, was the European attempt to conquer
solely a military need? If so, why, and if not, why not?

3. Cultural Conquest and Music, p. 93


What reports of music and rituals came back to Europe from the
explorers, soldiers, and missionaries of the 1480s to 1620s? Discuss
the accuracy of these reports.

4. Music of the Aztecs and Incas, p. 93


What great civilization posed the first great challenge of religious
conversion to the missionaries in the 1500s? Discuss briefly.

5. Inca Processional Music, p. 94


Describe the mixture of Native Andean and European cultural and musical
expression during the time of the Franciscan friar Bocanegra.

58
C H A P T E R 7

The Early Baroque Period

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


Who composed " 0 magnum mysterium"?
a. Giovanni Gabrieli
b. Claudio Monteverdi
c. Henry Purcell
d. Arcangelo Corelli

2. " 0 magnum mysterium, " p. 97


What is the genre of " 0 magnum mysterium"?
a. Mass
b. motet
c. madrigal
d. pavane

3. "0 magnum mysterium, " p. 97 The style heard


in " 0 magnum mysterium" is typical of music from:
a. seventeenth-century Paris.
b. sixteenth-century London.
c. seventeenth-century Venice.
d. sixteenth-century Rome.

4. " 0 magnum mysterium, " p. 97


Which compositional technique do you hear in " 0 magnum
mysterium"?
a. isorhythm
b. hocket
c. plainchant paraphrase
d. echoing semichoirs

5. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


What are the performing forces of " 0 magnum
mysterium"?
a. choirs
b. choirs and organ
c. choirs, brass instruments, and organ
d. choirs, brass instruments, woodwind instruments, and
organ

58
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 115

6. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


The two elements that most bring about the change of mood in the
"Alleluia" section of " 0 magnum mysterium" are:
a. texture and tone color.
b. harmony and texture.
c. tone color and dynamics.
d. tempo and meter.

7. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


Which describes the use of meter in " 0 magnum mysterium"?
a. There is no discernible meter anywhere.
b. The meter is duple throughout.
c. The meter is sometimes duple and sometimes triple or compound
duple.
d. The meter is triple or compound duple throughout.

8. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


In which section of " 0 magnum mysterium" do you hear the most echoing?
a. " 0 , o magnum mysterium ..."
b. "... sacr.amentu, ..
c. "Alleluia"
d. closing " 0 , o magnum mysterium ..."

9. " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


Which musical technique do you hear in the first and last sections of " 0
magnum mysterium"?
a. sequence
b. points of imitation
c. isorhythm
d. plainchant paraphrase

10. Monteverdi, The Coronation of


Poppea, p. 102 The singers in The
Coronation of Poppea are:
a. two male sopranos.
b. one male soprano and one female soprano.
c. two female sopranos.
d. two females: a mezzo soprano and a soprano.

11. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


In the opening recitative of The Coronation of Poppea, there is:
a. no identifiable meter.
b. constant duple meter.
c. constant triple meter.
d. duple meter at first, then triple meter.

12. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


116 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
In the opening recitative of The Coronation of Poppea, which word is repeated
in several different ways, sometimes sounding minor, sometimes sounding
major?
a. dalle
b. tornerai
c. col'
d. divelle

58
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 117

13. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


The opening recitative of The Coronation of Poppea is interrupted by a very
short section in regular meter sung by Nero. It is a(n):
a. arioso.
b. aria.
c. recitative.
d. alba.

14. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


How is the word addio treated at the end of the recitative section of The
Coronation of Pop pea?
a. with sequences
b. with ornamentation
c. with a change in instrumental accompaniment
d. with paraphrasing in the lower voices

15. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


In the aria part of The Coronation of Poppea, what does not change from section
to section?
a. tonality
b. the accompaniment
c. the meter
d. the soloist

16. Dido and Aeneas, p.


106 Who composed Dido and
Aeneas?
a. Giovanni Gabrieli
b. Claudio Monteverdi
c. Henry Purcell
d. Arcangelo Corelli

17. Dido and


Aeneas, p. 106 Dido
and Aeneas is a(n):
a. Mass.
b. opera.
c. motet.
d. madrigal.

18. Dido and Aeneas, p. 106


Where was Dido and Aeneas
composed? a. Italy
h. Germany
c. France
d. England
118 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
19. Dido and Aeneas, p. 106
There are__________ sectionsinActIII,finalsceneof DidoandAeneas. Theyarea
a. two; recitative (including a short arioso) and an aria
b. three; recitative, an aria, and a chorus
c. four; recitative, an aria, a recitative, and a chorus
d. three; recitative, an aria, and another aria
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 119

p. 106
20. Dido and Aeneas,
Who is singing to whom in the recitative section of the final scene of Dido
and Aeneas?
a. Dido sings to Aeneas.
b. Aeneas sings to Dido.
c. Dido sings to Belinda.
d. Belinda sings to Dido.

21. Dido and Aeneas, p. 106


How can you tell when the aria portion of the final scene of Dido and Aeneas
has begun?
a. The rhythm settles into a regular meter.
b. The rhythm is suddenly irregular.
c. The chorus comes in.
d. A vocal duet begins.

p. 106
22. Dido and Aeneas,
In which section of the final scene of Dido and Aeneas do you hear a ground
bass?
a. the recitative
b. the chorus
c. the arioso
d. the aria

p. 106
23. Dido and Aeneas,
When does the chorus begin to sing in the final scene of Dido and Aeneas?
a. as Dido is singing
b. after Dido stabs herself
c. when Aeneas finishes his aria
d. when Aeneas stabs himself

24. Dido and Aeneas, p. 106


What textures do you hear in the closing chorus of Dido and Aeneas?
a. monophony, then polyphony
b. monophony, then homophony
c. polyphony, then homophony
d. imitative polyphony, then non-imitative polyphony

25. Suite, p. 109


The composer of this Suite is:
a. Giovanni Gabrieli.
b. Claudio Monteverdi.
c. Henry Purcell.
d. Girolamo Frescobaldi.

26. Suite, p. 109


What genre of keyboard music opens the Suite?
a. toccata
b. arioso
c. canzona
d. fugue
120 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
27. Suite, p. 109
Which statement is true of the Suite?
a. The passacaglia ends the Suite.
b. The canzona ends the Suite.
c. The Suite is a collection of three stylized dances.
d. The Suite opens with a toccata.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 121

28. Suite, p. 109


The canzona of the Suite opens with:
a. three repeated notes.
b. three repeated chords.
c. a theme that begins very slowly.
d. a theme that begins with long leaps followed by running sixteenth
notes.

29. Suite, p. 109


The balletto and corrente of the Suite are dances related by their:
a. contrasting keyboards.
b. similar meters.
c. bass lines.
d. attention to variation.

30. Suite, p. 109 The balletto and corrente of


the Suite contrast strongly in their:
a. contrasting keyboards.
b. homophonic texture.
c. bass lines.
d. meters.

31. Suite, p. 109


The length of the bass line in the passacaglia of the Suite is:
a. four measures in triple meter.
b. eight measures in triple meter.
c. four measures in duple meter.
d. eight measures in duple meter.

32. Suite, p. 109


In the third variation of the passacaglia of the Suite, the composer
surprises the listener with a(n):
a. descending bass line.
b. ascending bass line.
c. no bass line.
d. fugue section.

Topics

33. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 95


What was the most "advanced" form in late Renaissance music?
a. the madrigal
b. the motet
c. the Mass
d. dance forms

34. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 95


At the end of the Renaissance an influential group of Florentines reacted
against the madrigal because of its:
122 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
a. homophonic lines.
b. great capacity for expressing emotions of an individual.
c. word painting and counterpoint.
d. religious orientation.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 123

35. From Renaissance to


Baroque, p. 95 Opera began
in:
a. London around 1500.
b. Rome around 1450.
c. Paris around 1200.
d. Florence around 1600.

36. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 96


In the early Baroque period, composers subdivided choirs in order to
exploit more:
a. sonorous effects.
b. complex textures.
c. word painting.
d. austere moods.

37. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 96


Which texture gained prominence in seventeenth-century Venice?
a. monophony
b. homophony
c. imitative polyphony
d. non-imitative polyphony

38. Extravagance and Control, p. 97


Musical form in the early Baroque period was becoming:
a. less concerned with structure.
b. more influenced by classical Greek music theory.
c. less oriented toward intense sonorities.
d. more controlled and systematic.

39. The Gabrielis, p. 97


Who were the most important composers in Venice around 1600?
a. Claudio Monteverdi and Arcangelo Corelli
b. Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli
c. Arcangelo Corelli and Henry Purcell
d. Giovanni Gabrieli and Claudio Monteverdi

40. The Gabrielis, p. 97


Where did the Gabrielis work?
a. St. Peter 's Basilica in Rome
b. Westminster Abbey in London
c. St. Mark 's Cathedral in Venice
d. the opera house in Venice

41. " 0 magnum mysterium, " p. 97


" 0 magnum mysterium " was written for:
a. Christmas.
b. Easter.
c. Pentecost.
d. Epiphany.
42. Style Features of Early Baroque Music, p. 98
124 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
The Baroque period spans the years:
a. 1600 to 1700.
b. 1600 to 1750.
c. 1400 to 1750.
d. 1450 to 1650.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 125

43. Style Features of Early Baroque


Music, p. 98 The original meaning of
baroque was:
a. a piece of music broken into several sections.
b. plainchant.
c. a perfectly shaped pearl.
d. an irregularly shaped pearl.
44. Rhythm and Meter, p. 98
In the Baroque period, rhythm became more:
a. syncopated.
b. unidentifiable.
c. regular.
d. irregular.
45. Rhythm and Meter, p. 99
Which accurately describes the Baroque treatment of meter?
a. Meter became more accepted; bar lines came into use.
b. Meter disappeared; bar lines disappeared.
c. Meter became more and more blurred with increased polyphony.
d. Meter was no longer necessary now that recitatives were popular.

46. Texture: Basso Continuo, p. 99


The term basso continuo refers to:
a. an extended style of singing for men in the Baroque period.
b. where the plainchant melody is paraphrased in Baroque vocal music.
c. the bass line and continuous chords of a Baroque composition.
d. another term for ground bass.
47. Texture: Basso Continuo, p. 99
Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo
in the Baroque era?
a. cello and harpsichord
b. bassoon and piano
c. violin and cello
d. bassoon and cello

48. Texture: Basso Continuo, p. 99


In Baroque music, what is the form in which there is a repeated bass
figure with chords, above which the upper lines play different
melodies?
a. strophic
b. ground bass
c. basso continuo
d. recitative
49. Functional Harmony, p. 99
What feature of harmony disappears during the Baroque period?
a. major/minor system
b. functional harmony
c. strong sense of tonality
d. use of Church modes
126 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
SO. Opera, p. 100
Drama set to music is:
a. opera.
b. Greek tragedy.
c. a madrigal.
d. a motet.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 127

51. Opera, p. 101


Early Florentine operas were:
a. religious dramas set to music in churches.
b. public entertainment on a grand scale.
c. court entertainments for events such as royal weddings.
d. traveling minstrel shows with Greek tragedies set to music.
52. Opera, p. 101
The first public opera theater was opened in:
a. Vienna in 1603.
b. Florence in 1603.
c. Florence in 1637.
d. Venice in 1637.
53. Opera, p. 101
Opera provided the perfect vehicle for the Baroque idea of:
a. expressing the views of many individuals at once.
b. expressing the emotions of the individual.
c. enacting biblical stories.
d. political propaganda.
54. Recitative, p. 101
The operatic equivalent to dramatic dialogue is a(n):
a. aria.
b. theme.
c. recitative.
d. arioso.
55. Recitative, p. 102
In a recitative, the rhythm:
a. follows the rhythm of speech.
b. follows the meter.
c. is vague, and the text is not important.
d. is hidden by polyphony.
56. Recitative, p. 102
Which is true of recitatives?
a. The plot action stops.
b. There is much musical elaboration.
c. There is very little accompaniment for the soloist.
d. The singer meditates on the dramatic situation at hand.
57. Aria, p. 102
The operatic equivalent of a soliloquy or meditation is a(n):
a. recitative.
b. aria.
c. arioso.
d. declamation.
58. Aria, p. 102
An aria is:
a. the musical declamation of words in a heightened, theatrical manner.
b. between recitative and arioso in style.
128 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
c. used for moving the plot along.
d. an extended piece for a solo singer having more musical
elaboration and a steadier pulse than recitative.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 129

59. Aria, p. 102


Which is true of arias?
a. There is very little accompaniment for the singer.
b. The singer meditates on the dramatic situation at hand and
emotions are "frozen" into a tableau.
c. There is far less musical elaboration than in a recitative.
d. The plot action moves along quickly and emotions are ever-changing.

60. Claudio Monteverdi, p. 102


Which composer was the first whose music was attacked for being too
radical?
a. Andrea Gabrieli
b. Henry Purcell
c. Arcangelo Corelli
d. Claudio Monteverdi

61. Claudio Monteverdi, p. 102


Who is known as the "last great madrigalist and the first great opera
composer "?
a. Arcangelo Corelli
b. Henry Purcell
c. Claudio Monteverdi
d. Giovanni Gabrieli

62. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102


During which phase of Monteverdi's career did he compose The Coronation
of Poppea?
a. It was late in his career.
b. It was early in his career.
c. It was in the middle of his career.
d. It was the first piece he ever wrote.

63. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p.


103 The plot of Monteverdi's Coronation of
Poppea involves:
a. the founding of Rome and the Roman Empire.
b. biblical characters, including David, Goliath, and Poppea.
c. Nero; his mistress, Poppea; his wife, Ottavia; and his adviser,
Seneca.
d. Poppea's coronation as queen of Carthage.

64. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 103 An aria-like


fragment in an opera that is neither a recitative nor an aria is
a(n):
a. alba.
b. arioso.
c. recitoso.
130 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
d. interlude.

65. Henry Purcell, p. 105


Who is considered to be the greatest English composer of the Baroque
period?
a. George Frideric Handel
b. Thomas Morley
c. William Byrd
d. Henry Purcell
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 131

66. Henry Purcell, p. 105


Purcell wrote:
a. only vocal music.
b. instrumental music and operatic vocal music.
c. instrumental music, sacred music, secular songs, and theater music,
including opera.
d. secular songs, sacred music, and theater music, including opera.

67. Henry Purcell, p. 106


What was the source for Dido and Aeneas?
a. the Bible
b. the Aeneid, by Virgil
c. a Shakespearean play
d. an original play he wrote earlier in his career

68. Dido and Aeneas, p. 107


"Remember me, but ah, forget my fate" is part of the text of:
a. " 0 magnum mysterium. "
b. The Coronation of Poppea.
c. "When I am laid in earth."
d. "Thy hand, Belinda."

69. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


What are the three main sources of instrumental music?
a. dance, virtuosity, and vocal music
b. dance, the Church, and vocal music
c. virtuosity, the Church, and vocal music
d. dance, opera, and virtuosity

70. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


In the Baroque period, dance music gained popularity because of:
a. the increased popularity of liturgical dance in the church.
b. commissions from royalty to compose dance music for festive
occasions.
c. the way ballet was used in opera.
d. its popularity with the rising middle class.

71. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


A set of dances collected from an opera or ballet is called a:
a. concerto grosso.
b. suite.
c. sonata.
d. recitative.

72. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Pieces written in the form or style of dance music but meant for listening,
not dancing, are:
a. suites.
b. sonatas.
c. movements.
d. stylized dances.
132 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
73. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108
What characterizes the art of the early instrumental virtuosos?
a. They repeated simple melodies.
b. They used chant sequences.
c. They improvised music that was rarely written down.
d. They notated everything they played for their students' use.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 133

74. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Which feature of vocal music was transferred to Baroque instrumental
music?
a. word painting
b. imitative polyphonic texture
c. monophonic texture
d. declamation

75. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Points of imitation in vocal music led to the development of the in
instrumental music.
a. fugue
b. concerto
c. stylized dance
d. suite

76. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


A Baroque composition that treats one melody imitatively is called a:
a. suite.
b. concerto.
c. fugue.
d. recitative.

77. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Fugues were composed and improvised mainly by:
a. singers.
b. virtuoso violinists.
c. conductors.
d. keyboard players.

78. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 108


The foremost organ virtuoso of the early seventeenth century was:
a. Henry Purcell.
b. Girolamo Frescobaldi.
c. Andrea Gabrieli.
d. Claudio Monteverdi.

79. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 109


The keyboard virtuoso and composer who was influenced a century
later by Frescobaldi's music was:
a. Johann Sebastian Bach
b. Antonio Vivaldi
c. Andrea Gabrieli
d. Claudio Monteverdi

80. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 109 The genre of


keyboard work that emphasized imitative polyphony is
134 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
the:
a. toccata.
b. variation.
c. canzona.
d. balletto.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 135

81. Suite, p. 109


A keyboard genre based on melodic or harmonic patterns borrowed from
vocal music is a:
a. set of variations.
b. stylized dance.
c. toccata.
d. canzona.

82. Suite, p. 109


Frescobaldi's Suite consists of a canzona followed by:
a. a pair of dances, the pavane and galliard.
b. two dances and a set of variations.
c. a toccata and two short dances.
d. a second canzona and a short toccata.

83. Suite, p. 109 A set of variations on a brief harmonic progression


and the bass line associated with it is a:
a. fugue.
b. passacaglia.
c. canzona.
d. corrente.

84. Suite, p. 109 A keyboard genre that


means "touched" in Italian is a:
a. corrente.
b. passacaglia.
c. canzona.
d. toccata.

85. Suite, p. 110 The balletto and corrente of


Frescobaldi's Suite have a formal design that is:
a. a a b.
b. a a b b .
c. a b b .
d. a b a.

86. Suite, p. 110 The passacaglia in Frescobaldi's


Suite bears a close relationship to the:
a. galliard.
b. stylized dance.
c. ostinato.
d. canzona.

Essay Questions

1. The Early Baroque Period, p. 95


Which country was the musical leader in the early Baroque period? What
was the state of the art of music in this country at that time?

2. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 95


Describe the style of the madrigal at the end of the sixteenth century
136 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
and reactions against this style.

3. From Renaissance to Baroque, p. 95 Name and


explain the new musical style emerging in Florence around
1600.
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 137

4. Music in Venice, p. 95
Describe the "Serene Republic " of Venice around 1600. Refer to the arts,
the socioeconomic climate of the city, and the city's appearance in your
answer.

5. Music in Venice, p. 96
Explain how seventeenth-century Venetian composers expanded on the
echoing semichoir technique of sixteenth-century composers.

6. Extravagance and Control, p. 97


Discuss the Baroque dualism of freedom of expression and extravagance
versus formal control and balance.

7. The Gabrielis, p. 97
Name the two important composers who worked at St. Mark's Cathedral
in Venice around 1600. Describe their acoustical innovations.

8. Gabrieli, " 0 magnum mysterium," p. 97


For which festive day in the Church year was " 0 magnum
mysterium" composed? Summarize the text.

9. Style Features of Early Baroque Music, p. 98


Briefly describe how Baroque music differs from Renaissance music in
terms of rhythm, meter, mode, and harmony. You can put your answer
in chart form if you wish.

10. Texture: Basso Continuo, p. 99 Define,


compare, and contrast basso continuo and ground bass.

11. Opera, p. 100


Define opera. Explain why it is referred to as the most characteristic art
form of the Baroque era.

12. Opera, p. 101 Characterize the nature and


purpose of early Florentine operas.

13. Opera, p. 101 Explain why opera provided the perfect


opportunity for individual emotional expression.

14. Recitative and Aria, p. 101 Define and contrast recitative and
aria; address their musical and dramatic differences.

15. Claudio Monteverdi, p. 102


Name the Baroque composer who is known as the first master of opera.
Where did he work? How was his music regarded during his lifetime?

16. Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, p. 102 Summarize the plot of


The Coronation of Poppea. What is the specific plot situation of the portion of
this opera in your listening selection?

17. Henry Purcell, p. 105 Summarize the career


and types of compositions of Henry Purcell.
138 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
18. Dido and Aeneas, p. 106
What are the background and plot of Dido and Aeneas? What is the literary
source for this work?
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period 139

19. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Describe the roles played by dance, virtuosity, and vocal music in the rise
of Baroque instrumental music.

20. The Rise of Instrumental Music, p. 108


Define fugue in terms of texture and themes. Explain what sort of
musician would be most likely to write and improvise fugues.

21. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 108 What


instrument did Frescobaldi play and whom did he
influence?

22. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 108


What three basic tendencies in instrumental music are present in the
keyboard music of Frescobaldi? Give an example of each.

23. Girolamo Frescobaldi, p. 109 What distinguishes


the canzona, and what later genre does it influence?

24. Suite, p. 110


Describe the passacaglia and how it may differ from the ground bass
found in "Dido's Lament" by Henry Purcell.

25. Frescobaldi, Suite, p. 111 Describe the ways


Frescobaldi creates variation in the passacaglia from his Suite.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 3 Ostinato Forms

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. African Ostinatos, p. 112


The rich array of ostinato form is displayed up and down the continent of:
a. Asia.
b. Europe.
c. South America.
d. Africa.

2. A Minstrel's Song, p. 112


The instrument that accompanies the singer in the Gambian song is called
a:
a. harp.
b. viol.
c. kora.
d. lute.

3. A Minstrel's Song, p. 112


Traditions of solo song accompanied by an instrument like the kora, harp,
or lyre are:
140 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
a. a recent development.
b. performed in Europe today.
c. found very far back in history around the Mediterranean Sea.
d. rare in cultures around the Mediterranean Sea.

vii
72 Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period

4. A Minstrel's Song, p. 112


In this Gambian song, the kora player creates an ostinato pattern by:
a. plucking mainly on the low-pitched strings with his thumbs.
b. playing cascading melodies on the higher strings.
c. singing quietly along with the music.
d. playing dissonant notes.

5. Pygmy Polyphony, p. 113


Pygmy polyphony involves a technique common to many kinds of African
music:
a. monophonic statement of a theme
b. interlocking ostinatos
c. polyphonic accompaniment by brass instruments
d. interjection of virtuosic drumming
6. Pygmy Polyphony, p. 113
The intricate, repetitive texture of the pygmy chorus's are
short melodic lines reminiscent of:
a. the hocket in the isorhythmic motet of the Middle Ages.
b. the polychoral sound of the early Baroque.
c. the homophonic texture of Palestrina's Pope Marcellus Mass.
d. the dance rhythms of the pavane in the Renaissance.

7. A Hunting Song for Chorus, p. 113


A Hunting Song for Chorus opens with:
a. an instrumental introduction of drums and flutes.
b. an aria-like solo.
c. a clear ostinato that is to last the entire piece.
d. two choral announcements describing bravery and
daring.

8. A Hunting Song for Chorus, p. 113


What accompanies A Hunting Song for Chorus is:
a. a lyre being strummed.
b. two sticks struck together to keep the beat.

Essay Questions

1. African Ostinatos, p. 112


How prevalent is the ostinato in
the world?

2. African Ostinatos, p. 112


Briefly discuss the construction of
the kora.

3. A Minstrel's Song, p.
112 Outline the flow of this
Gambian song.

4. Pygmy Polyphony, p. 113 Describe the social


aspects and musical techniques of pygmy polyphony.

5. A Hunting Song for Chorus, p. 113


Describe briefly how this composition unfolds, particularly the
appearance and presence of the ostinato.

73
C H A P T E R 8
Prelude
The Late Period

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116
The Baroque Period spanned the years:
a. 1200-1450.
b. 1400-1550.
c. 1600-1750.
d. 1700-1800.

2. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116


An instrument from the Baroque period that revived is
has been the:
a. harpsichord.
b. clarinet.
c. piano.

3. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116


Much of the Baroque music we hear today is from the late Baroque
era, which spanned the years:
a. 1600-1750.
b. 1700-1750.
c. 1750-1850.
d. 1650-1750.

4. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116


Who are the two most important composers of the late Baroque
period?
a. Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann
b. Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach
c. George Frideric Handel and Antonio Vivaldi
d. Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel

5. Absolutism and the Age of Science, p. 116


Historians might speak of the Baroque Period as the:
a. Age of Absolutism.
b. ars nova.
c. Age of Classicism.
d. Age of Literature.
144 Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

6. Absolutism and the Age of Science, p. 117


Which best describes the dualism found in Baroque art and music?
a. recitative versus aria
b. pomp and extravagance versus system and calculation
c. church music versus secular music
d. systematic extravagance versus calculated pomp

7. Art and Absolutism, p. 117


Who was the leading monarch in the Age of Absolutism?
a. Elizabeth I of England
b. Cosimo de' Medici
c. King Phillip of Spain
d. Louis XIV of France

8. Art and Absolutism, p. 118


The purpose of art in the Age of Absolutism was:
a. to share with the general populace.
b. to demonstrate scientific absolutes.
c. to impress and overwhelm.
d. to protest the influence of the church.

9. The Music of Absolutism, p. 118


Which is true of music in the Age of Absolutism?
a. Monarchs had no control over music.
b. Music functioned at least partly to flatter the nobility who paid
for it.
c. Absolutely no emotional display was allowed in Baroque music.
d. Only emotion mattered in music; control was not important.

10. Art and Theatricality, p. 119


Opera arose around the year:
a. 1600.
b. 1603.
c. 1637.
d. 1650.

11. Art and Theatricality, p. 120


Which characteristic of Baroque theater made it appealing to
Baroque audiences and composers of opera?
a. the deep, quiet spirituality of the theater
b. the slapstick comedy of the stage
c. the display of strong emotions in drama
d. the down-to-earth, realistic topics and characters

12. Science and Music, p. 122


Which best describes rhythm in the
Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period
Baroque era?
a. It became less regular.
b. It became more regular.
c. Bar lines disappeared.
d. Meters changed frequently and often were unidentifiable.
146 Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

13. Science and Music, p. 123


Which best describes the musical depiction of emotion in the late Baroque
era?
a. Emotions were expressed freely and naturally.
b. A piece of music was performed differently each time; the
performer expressed what he or she felt at the moment.
c. Emotional display was kept at a minimum, as a reaction to the
Renaissance musical style.
d. Emotions were scientifically categorized and musical expression
of emotion was systematized into techniques and devices.

14. Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century, p. 123


Baroque composers were likely to think of themselves as:
a. artists, striving for self-expression.
b. virtuoso performers, capable of amazing the ordinary person.
c. craftspeople, creating a product on demand.
d. undesirables, constantly moving from town to town looking for
employment.

15. Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century, p. 123


The three main institutions where Baroque composers could make a living
were:
a. the church, the tavern, and the concert hall.
b. the church, the opera house, and the court.
c. the court, the university, and musical journals.
d. the opera house, the theater, and the concert hall.

16. Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century, p. 124


In the early eighteenth century, court musicians had a better sense of new
musical trends than church musicians because:
a. they were required to travel with their employers.
b. they studied composition with their employers.
c. they periodically took time to refine their skills.
d. they studied past compositional techniques.

17. Rhythm, p. 125


Which is true of the Baroque treatment of rhythm?
a. There are no bar lines, so meter is not important.
b. The beat tends to be unsteady and unpredictable.
c. Certain instruments, such as the harpsichord, emphasize a clear,
steady beat and meter.
d. The harmonic rhythm tends to be unsteady and unpredictable.

18. Rhythm, p. 126


A bass part that moves in even notes, usually eighths or quarters, is called
a:
a. marching bass.
b. walking bass.
c. ground bass.
Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

d. continuo.

19. Dynamics, p. 126


Baroque dynamics generally:
a. change with the harmonic rhythm.
b. get gradually louder and softer throughout a movement.
c. stay the same throughout a movement.
d. get louder and softer according to the emotions of the performer.
148 Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

20. Tone Color, p. 126


Baroque music is often very adaptable and changeable with regard to
which musical element?
a. rhythm
b. texture
c. harmony
d. tone color

21. The Baroque Orchestra, p. 127


Which instrument family formed the core of the Baroque orchestra?
a. strings
b. woodwinds
c. brass
d. percussion

22. The Baroque Orchestra, p. 127 The


orchestra of the court of Louis XIV was
called the:
a. "Opera Orchestra of the Sun King."
b. "Twenty-Four Violins of the King."
c. "Royal Festival Orchestra."
d. "Versailles Philharmonic."

23. Melody, p. 127


Which best describes Baroque melodies?
a. simple lines
b. symmetrical and graceful
c. complex and appearing in sequences
d. brief motives

24. Ornamentation, p. 128


Ornamentation is the practice of:
a. improvising changes in the beat.
b. improvising melodic extras in the music.
c. wearing highly decorative costumes in operas.
d. improvising changes to the words of an aria.

25. Texture, p. 128 The standard


texture of much Baroque music is:
a. monophonic.
b. homophonic.
c. non-imitative.
d. polyphonic.

26. The Continuo, p. 129


In Baroque music, the continuo, or basso continuo, is the:
a. lowest voice part in polyphonic vocal music.
b. lowest instrument in the orchestra that plays continuously.
c. chordal instrument.
cl. bass line that is linked to a series of chords.
Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period
27. The Continuo, p. 129
Which two instruments most likely have played the basso continuo part
would composition? in a Baroque
a. flute and violin
b. violin and cello
c. cello and
harpsichord
150 Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

28. The Continuo, p. 129 The numerical shorthand below the basso
continuo notes indicating the content of chords to be played is called:
a. ground bass.
b. figured bass.
c. ground figures.
d. concerto grosso.

29. The Emotional World of Baroque Music, p. 130


How did Baroque composers view the use of emotion in their
compositions?
a. They isolated emotions, analyzed them, and portrayed them as
consistently as possible.
b. They revealed their own emotions directly in their compositions.
c. They allowed only subtle emotional display in their work.
d. They left all emotion out of the music, knowing that the
performer would provide an emotional rendition of this intellectual
style of music.

Essay Questions

1. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116


Define baroque. What is the source of this word? When was the word baroque
applied to the music of this period, and in what spirit?

2. Prelude: The Late Baroque Period, p. 116


Alessandro Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Francois Couperin, Jean-Philippe
Rameau, Domenico Scarlatti, and Georg Philipp Telemann were
important composers in the late Baroque period. Give their respective
countries of employment.

3. Absolutism and the Age of Science, p. 116


Explain the "divine right of kings" and name a king to whom this right
seemed to apply. Relate this concept to the Age of Absolutism.

4. Absolutism and the Age of Science, p. 116 Explain


how science affected both art and ordinary life in the
Baroque era.

5. Art and Absolutism, p. 117


Describe the extent to which the monarchy of the "Sun Icing" influenced
music, the visual arts, and architecture in his country and elsewhere.

6. The Music of Absolutism, p. 118


Describe the types of music and the musical forces demanded in the
courts of nobility in the Age of Absolutism.

7. The Music of Absolutism, p. 119


Describe two purposes of opera in the Age of
Absolutism.

8. Art and Theatricality, p. 120


Explain the theatrical quality of the Baroque play as it related to and
inspired opera of the time.
Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period
9. Science and Music, p. 122 Explain the impact of
improved tuning on composers in the Baroque era.

10. Science and Music, p. 122 Describe the


change in the use of harmony in the late Baroque era.
152 Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period

11. Science and Music, p. 122 How did


composers approach form in the late Baroque
era?

12. Science and Music, p. 123 Describe the scientific approach to


emotional expression in music in the late Baroque era.

13. Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century, p. 123


Describe the way the career of a composer was viewed in
the Baroque era.

14. Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century, p. 123


Name and describe the three main institutions where a Baroque
composer could make a living. Contrast the probable quality of life of
composers in each institution.

15. Rhythm, p. 125


Characterize the Baroque use of rhythm. Refer to walking bass, meter,
and harmonic rhythm in your answer.

16. Rhythm, p.
126 Define harmonic
rhythm.

17. Dynamics, p. 126 How did Baroque


composers and performers use dynamics?

18. Tone Color, p. 126 Briefly describe the two ways Baroque
composers approached and used tone color.

19. The Baroque Orchestra, p. 127 Briefly describe the early


Baroque orchestra as typified in the court of Louis XIV.

20. The Baroque Orchestra, p. 127


Name the keyboard instruments of the Baroque orchestra. For which type
of music was each used?

21. The Baroque Orchestra, p. 127


Describe the basic Baroque orchestra and explain the difference between
this and the "festive" Baroque orchestra. When might the festive
orchestra be called on to play?

22. Melody, p. 127


Characterize Baroque melody. Refer to musical elements such as pitch
range, rhythm, ornamentation, length, and use of sequence.

23. Melody, p. 128


Is it generally easier to sing typical Baroque melodies, or to play
them on instruments? Explain.

24. Texture, p. 128


Is Baroque music primarily simple or complex in texture? Describe
instances in which Baroque music is polyphonic and ways in which
Chapter 8 Prelude: The Late Baroque Period
it is homophonic.

25. The Continuo, p. 129 Define basso continuo. Refer to


instrumentation and figured bass in your answer.

26. The Continuo, p. 129 Briefly describe the functions of the left
and right hands of a continuo keyboard player.
27. The Continuo, p. 129 Briefly explain
the way Baroque harmony is "polarized."

28. Musical Form, p. 130 Discuss the


patronage system that existed in the Baroque
era.

29. Musical Form, p. 130


What two nonmusical factors were influential in making Baroque forms so
clear and regular? In what ways?

30. The Emotional World of Baroque Music, p. 130


Characterize the Baroque depiction of emotion in music. Was it
realistic or exaggerated? Explain how.
C H A P T E R 9

Baroque Instrumental Music

Multiple-Choice Questions
Listening

1. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4,


No. 12, p. 134 The composer of the Violin
Concerto in G, La stravaganza, is:
a. Johann Sebastian Bach.
b. Henry Purcell.
c. Antonio Vivaldi.
d. Antonio Stradivarius.

2. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


The Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, was composed between:
a. 1600 and 1650.
b. 1650 and 1700.
c. 1700 and 1750.
d. 1750 and 1800.

3. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


In the recording of the Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, the continuo
chords are played by a(n):
a. cello.
b. bassoon.
c. violin.
d. archlute.

4. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


From which country and style period is the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza?
a. England; Classical
b. Germany; Baroque
c. Germany; Renaissance
d. Italy; Baroque

5. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


Which do you hear in the first movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza?
a. a contrast between ritornello and solo passages
b. variation on a melody above a ground bass
c. subjects and countersubjects
d. A B A' form

80
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

6. Violin Concerto in G, L a stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 138


The form of the second movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza,
is:
a. fugue.
b. variation.
c. ritornello.
d. ABA.

7. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 138


The main melody of the second movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza, is:
a. in the bass.
b. in the solo violin line.
c. in the upper part of the orchestra.
d. passed back and forth between solo and orchestra.

8. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 138


Which is true of the third movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza?
a. It starts with the orchestral ritornello.
b. It starts with the solo violin.
c. The second ritornello is the same as the main ritornello.
d. The solo violin line hardly changes.

9. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 138


The third movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, is an
example of:
a. a dance suite.
b. imitative polyphony.
c. ritornello form.
d. variation form.

10. Bach, Concerto No. 5, p. 139


Brandenburg
The opening melody of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5:
a. becomes more and more complicated as it goes along.
b. is brief and starkly simple.
c. is in a more difficult meter than the rest of the movement.
d. is slow and somber.

9.1. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139


The meter of the first movement of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is:
a. duple.
b. triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

12. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139 In the


first movement of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, the mode
is:
a. major throughout.
158 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

b. minor throughout.
c. mostly major with a couple of minor spots.
d. mostly minor with a couple of major spots.

13. Bach,Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139


Instruments heard in the first movement of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 are:
a. oboe, organ, and string orchestra.
b. trumpet, flute, harpsichord, and string orchestra.
c. flute, violin, harpsichord, and string orchestra.
d. violin, harpsichord, and string orchestra.

80
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

14. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139


What is the form of the first movement of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5?
a. passacaglia
b. fugue
c. dance suite
d. ritornello
15. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139
Which instrument(s) is/are featured in the quiet, central solo section of the
first movement of Brandenburg Concerto No. 5?
a. flute and violin
b. harpsichord
c. flute and harpsichord
d. violin and harpsichord

16. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 139


Which instrument plays the cadenza in the first movement of Brandenburg
Concerto No. 5?
a. flute
b. harpsichord
c. orchestra
d. violin
17. Bach, Contrapunctus 4, from The Art of Fugue, p. 1 4 6
In Contrapunctus 4, the exposition of the subject voices proceeds from:
a. bass to tenor, then alto to soprano.
b. tenor to alto, then bass to soprano.
c. soprano to alto, then tenor, then bass.
d. soprano to tenor, then alto, then bass.
18. Bach, Contrapunctus 4, from The Art of Fugue,
p. 146 The performance of Contrapunctus 4
is by:
a. a pipe organ.
b. a harpsichord.
c. a string orchestra.
d. a string quartet.
19. Bach, Contrapunctus from The Art of Fugue, p. 146 In the first episode of
4,
Contrapunctus 4, Bach composes:
a. a second fugue subject used later.
b. a cuckoo figure in sequence.
c. a dancelike figure.
d. a chorale tune.

20. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


The Air movement of Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D was written for:
a. strings only.
b. woodwinds only.
c. brass only.
d. a festive Baroque orchestra.
21. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150
160 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
Which best describes the character of the Air movement of Orchestral
Suite No. 3 in D?
a. peppy and spirited
b. songlike
c. grandiose
d. festive
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

22. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


One characteristic that gives the Air movement of Orchestral Suite
No. 3 in D organized momentum is Bach's use of:
a. imitative counterpoint.
b. dissonance.
c. episodes.
d. sequences.

23. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


After the Air, what two instruments return together in the Gavotte
movement of Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D?
a. cellos and timpani
b. wind instruments and timpani
c. strings and timpani
d. cellos and violins
24. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150
The Gavotte movement of Orchestral Suite evokes a________ mood in the
No. 3 in D in its use of_________ and suite
a. solemn; violins and cellos
b. complex; imitative and non-imitative
polyphony
c. military; trumpet and timpani
d. soothing; flutes and violins
25. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150
The meter of the Gavotte movement of Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D is:
a. duple.
b. triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

Topics

26. Concerto and Concerto Grosso, p. 133


The term concerto comes from the Latin word concertare, which indicates in
the concerto grosso a:
a. blending of orchestral sound to avoid contrast.
b. contest between a soloist and a keyboard instrument.
c. contest between soloists and orchestra.
d. contest between two or more choirs.

27. Concerto and Concerto Grosso, p. 133


The concerto and concerto grosso are characterized by:
a. more contrast than much other Baroque music.
b. less contrast than much other Baroque music.
c. about the same amount of contrast as other Baroque music.
d. almost no contrast at all.

28. Movements, p. 133


I -low many movements does a typical concerto have?
a. one
b. two
162 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
c. three
d. four
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

29. Ritornello Form, p. 133


The term for the initial orchestral melody in a concerto grosso that
returns from time to time is:
a. subject.
b. episode.
c. countersubject.
d. ritornello.

30. Ritornello Form, p. 134


Ritornello form is based on:
a. constant variation of a ground bass.
b. a periodic return of a central, musical theme by the orchestra.
c. the alternation of various dance movements.
d. persistent imitation of a single subject.

31. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


A___________ beginning and_______ cadence is typical of the opening
ritornello of the first movement of a Baroque concerto.
a. quiet; a strong final
b. strong; a strong final
c. quiet; a quiet
d. strong; no

32. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 134


The five ritornello sections in the first movement of the Violin
Concerto in G, La stravaganza, are:
a. all different in some way.
b. the same each time.
c. sometimes exact repetitions and sometimes different.
d. different only in key and harmonies.

33. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4,


No. 12, p. 134 The musical term for work is:
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
a. aria.
b. opus.
c. continuo.
d. ritornello.

34. Antonio Vivaldi, p. 136 Known as the


, Antonio Vivaldi taught music much of his at an orphanage for girls
music for this institution. and wrote
a. "Red Priest"
b. "Venetian Master"
c. "Crimson Monk"
d. "Compassionate Scholar"
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
35. Antonio Vivaldi, p. 136
The Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi is especially
remembered for his:
a. symphonies.
b. sonatas.
c. concertos.
d. suites.
166 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

36. Antonio Vivaldi, p. 136


Which composer copied many pages of Vivaldi's concertos in learning
how to write in this genre?
a. Henry Purcell
b. Arcangelo Corelli
c. Johann Sebastian Bach
d. George Frideric Handel

37. Baroque Variation Form: The Ground Bass, p. 137


A form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with successive
changes to arouse the listener's interest is called:
a. ritornello form.
b. ground bass.
c. variation form.
d. imitative polyphony.

38. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, ®p. 4, No. 12, p. 138


Which best describes the second movement of the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza?
a. It is vigorous and brilliant, and in ritornello form.
b. It is slow and gentle, and in variation form.
c. It starts slow, becomes fast, ends slow, and is in A B A' form.
d. It is in a medium dance tempo, and is in binary form.

39. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5,


p. 139 How many Brandenburg Concertos
did Bach write?
a. eight
b. seven
c. six
d. five

40. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 140


In Bach ' s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, the harpsichord player:
a. plays solos only.
b. plays continuo.
c. plays both solos and continuo.
d. does not have any part at all.

41. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 140


In Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, the part where the harpsichord
plays improvisatory solo material unaccompanied is called a(n):
a. ritornello.
b. episode.
c. cadence.
d. cadenza.

42. Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 143


Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
The__________ was the main instrument on which Bach performed.
a. violin
b. organ
c. trumpet
d. flute
43. Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 143
At the end of his career, Bach:
a. was regarded as old-fashioned by other composers.
b. was considered an innovator, musically.
c. turned his attention from oratorio writing to opera
writing.
d. destroyed many of his earlier compositions.

44. Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 143


The collection of forty-eight preludes and fugues by Bach is
called:
a. The Art of Fugue.
b. the Goldberg Variations.
c. The Well-Tempered Clavier.
d. the Brandenburg Concertos.

45. Fugue, p. 142


The outstanding element of a fugue is:
a. basso continuo.
b. word painting.
c. variations on a ground bass.
d. systematized imitative polyphony.

46. Fugue, p. 142


The fugue subject is the:
a. main theme or melody.
b. story or text on which the fugue is based.
c. recurring contrasting section.
d. melody that sometimes accompanies the theme.

47. Fugal Exposition, p. 144


The section of a fugue in which all subject entries first
occur is the:
a. subject.
b. exposition.
c. countersubject.
d. episode.

48. Fugues, Free and Learned, p. 145


A section of a fugue in which new, contrasting material is
presented is a(n):
a. subject.
b. exposition.
c. countersubject.
d. episode.

49. Bach, Contrapunctus 4 from The Art of Fugue,


p. 146 The Art of Fugue was written by:
a. Antonio Vivaldi
b. George Frideric Handel
c. Johann Sebastian Bach
d. Arcangelo Corelli
50. Bach, Contrapunctus 4 from The Art of Fugue,
p. 147 The Art of Fugue was written for:
a. harpsichord.
b. clavichord.
c. string ensemble.
d. organ.
170 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music 87

51. Bach, Contrapunctus 4 from The Art of Fugue, p.


146 The Art of Fugue consists of canons and
fugues based on:
a. a German folk song.
b. the same fugue subject.
c. melodies from Nature.
d. Baroque dance rhythms.

52. Bach, Contrapunctus 4 from The Art of the Fugue, of the subject
p. 146 In Contrapunctus 4, for climactic effect, enter:
Bach has the order a. in reverse order (bass,
tenor, alto, soprano).
b, in pairs of voices (soprano and tenor; alto
and bass).
c. in augmentation.
d. in reverse inversion.

53. The Dance Suite, p. 147


"Stylized" dances were intended
for:
54. The Dance Suite, p. 148
A Baroque dance suite:
a. always included the same eight standard dance forms.
b. maintained the same tempo in all movements.
c. maintained the same key in all movements, and ended with a fast
dance.
d. used the sonata da camera format.

55. Baroque Dance Form, p. 148


The typical Baroque dance form can be diagrammed:
a. a a b b.
b. a b a.
c. a b a c a b a .
d. a b c.

56. Baroque Dance Form, p. 148


Some Baroque dances, particularly the gavotte and minuet, were
grouped in pairs, to create a large A B A form. The B dance in such a
pair is called the:
a. episode.
b. trio.
c. subject.
d, ritornello.

57. The French Overture, p. 149


The French overture may consist of:
a. imitative counterpoint interspersed with contrasting episodes.
b. solo sections alternating with the full orchestral ritornello.
c. contrasting sections in A B A form.
d. shorter versions of the main melodies of the suite to come, serving as
a preview.
172 Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music

58. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


The movement titles of Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D are:
a. Overture, Air, Gavotte, Bourree, Gigue.
b. Spiritoso e non presto, Largo, Allegro.
c. Allegro, Affetuoso, Allegro.
d. Overture, Allegro, Affetuoso, Gigue.

59. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D contains:
a. subject entries and episodes.
b. dance pieces.
c. a contrast between the soloist and the orchestra.
d. variations over a ground bass.

Essay Questions

1. Concerto and Concerto Grosso, p. 133


Describe the two sets of forces in a concerto or concerto grosso.
Explain the interplay between them.

2. Concerto and Concerto Grosso, p. 133 Explain how


contrast is an important feature of the concerto and concerto
grosso.

3. Movements, p. 133 Describe the character and


tempo of the movements of a typical concerto.

4. Movements, p. 133
Define movement. Describe the way in which various movements in a work
can contrast with each other.

5. Ritornello Form, p. 134


Draw a diagram of a typical ritornello form as found in a Baroque
concerto grosso. Describe the function and character of the ritornello
sections in this structure.

6. Antonio Vivaldi, p. 136


Discuss the work of Antonio Vivaldi in terms of what types of pieces are
his most famous, for whom his pieces were written, how they are
organized, and for what genres and instruments he composed.

7. Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 135


Describe the scheme of the movements of the Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza. Refer to tempo, form, and mood in your answer.

8. Baroque Variation Forms: The Ground Bass, p. 137


Explain variation form. Why did Baroque composers emphasize
the bass line?

9. Baroque Variation Forms: The Ground


Bass, p. 137 List the elements that can be altered
or varied in variation form.

10. Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, p. 139


Explain how the third movement of Vivaldi's Violin Concerto in G, La
stravaganza, is unusual with regard to internal form.
Chapter 9 Baroque Instrumental Music 89

11. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, p. 140


Describe the character and tempo of each of the three movements of
the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5.

12. Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 143


Briefly discuss the career of Johann Sebastian Bach. Include a
discussion of the patronage system.

13. Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 143


List the three main compositions written by Bach at the end of his
life and explain the purpose of each.

14. Cadenza, p. 140 Define cadenza and give its


usual location in Baroque concertos.

15. Fugue, p. 142 Define fugue. List and


describe the various parts of a fugue.

16. Fugues, Free and Learned, p. 145


Why would one refer to fugues as "free," and in what possible context?
Are "free" fugues rare or commonplace?

17. Fugues, Free and Learned, p. 145 Briefly


describe four ways in which a fugue subject may be
manipulated.

18. The Dance Suite, p. 147 Define Baroque dance suite. Describe the
medium(s) for which such suites were written.

19. Baroque Dance Form, p. 148


When shorter dances like the gavotte and minuet were paired to create
an A B A form, what was the B section called, and why?

20. The French Overture, p. 149 Diagram a French


overture and describe the character of each section.

21. Bach, Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, p. 150


Discuss how Bach achieves variety in his Orchestral
Suite No. 3 in D.
CHAPTER 10

Baroque Vocal Music

Multiple-Choice Questions
Listening

1. Julius Caesar, "La


giustizia," p. 158 Who
composed Julius Caesar?
a. Johann Sebastian Bach
b. George Frideric Handel
c. Antonio Vivaldi
d. Arcangelo Corelli

2. Julius Caesar, "La


giustizia," p. 158 "La
giustizia " is from a(n):
a. oratorio.
b. Mass.
c. cantata.
d. opera.

3. Julius Caesar, "La


giustizia," p. 158 The first part
of "La giustizia" is a(n):
a. aria.
b. arioso.
c. ritornello.
d. accompanied recitative.

4. Julius Caesar, "La giustizia," p. 158


Which describes what happens in "La giustizia" when the aria
begins?
a. The full orchestra plays and the meter is regular.
b. The full orchestra plays and the chorus comes in.
c. Only the continuo plays the accompaniment, and the
meter is less regular.
d. Two soloists sing instead of just one.

5. Julius Caesar, "La giustizia, " p.


158 The performing forces in "La
90
giustizia" are:
a. one vocal soloist, strings, and trumpet.
b. one vocal soloist, strings, and continuo.
c. two vocal soloists, strings, flutes, and continuo.
d. three vocal soloists, strings, flutes, trumpets, and
continuo.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

6. Messiah, p. 161
Who composed Messiah?
a. Johann Sebastian Bach
b. Antonio Vivaldi
c. Henry Purcell
d. George Frideric Handel

7 . Messiah, p. 162
"There were shepherds" is part of a(n):
a. opera.
b. cantata.
c. oratorio.
d. Mass.

8. Messiah, " There were shepherds, " p. 162


"There were shepherds" is part of a larger work called:
a. Julius Caesar.
b. Christmas Oratorio.
c. Messiah.
d. Dido and Aeneas.

9. Messiah,"There were shepherds," p. 162


In terms of accompaniment, the four sections of "There were shepherds"
are:
a. all accompanied.
b. all secco.
c. accompanied, secco, secco, accompanied.
d. secco, accompanied, secco, accompanied.

10. Messiah, "There were shepherds," p. 162


The performing forces in "There were shepherds" are:
a. one vocal soloist and continuo.
b. two vocal soloists, strings, and continuo.
c. one vocal soloist, strings, and continuo.
d. two vocal soloists, flutes, oboes, trumpets, strings, and continuo.

11. Messiah, " Glory to God, " p. 162


Which is true of the ending of "Glory to God" from Messiah?
a. The loud dynamics of the opening are maintained all the way to the
end.
b. The orchestra gets quieter and quieter.
c. The trumpets play a fanfare at the very end.
d. The chorus becomes quiet and accompanies the strings.

12. Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus, p. 162


What is/are the texture(s) of the Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah?
a. monophony and homophony
b. monophony, homophony, and polyphony
c. homophony and polyphony
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
d. polyphony and monophony

13. Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus, p. 162


The performing forces in the Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah consist of a:
a. chorus and continuo.
b. chorus, festive Baroque orchestra, and female soloist.
c. chorus, continuo, and trumpet.
d. chorus and festive Baroque orchestra.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

14. Cantata No. 4, " Christ lag in


Todesbanden, " p. 165 "Christ lag in
Todesbanden" is part of a(n):
a. cantata.
b. chorale.
c. opera.
d. Mass.

15. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in


Todesbanden, " p. 165 Who composed
"Christ lag in Todesbanden"?
a. Antonio Vivaldi
b. Henry Purcell
c. Johann Sebastian Bach
d. George Frideric Handel

16. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


The performing forces of stanza 3 of "Christ lag in Todesbanden"
are:
a. castrato and "festive" Baroque orchestra.
b. voices and continuo.
c. baritone voice, viola, and continuo.
d, tenor voice, violin, and continuo.

17. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


Which do you hear in stanza 3 of "Christ lag in
Todesbanden"?
a. variation over a ground bass
b. gapped chorale tune
c. recitative
d. aria

18. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


The texture of stanza 4 of "Christ lag in Todesbanden" is:
a. imitative polyphony.
b. non-imitative polyphony.
c. homophony.
d. monophony.

19. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden, " p. 165


Which part has the main melody in stanza 4 of "Christ lag in
Todesbanden"?
a. the violin
b. the tenor voice
c. the soprano voice
d. the alto voice

20. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


Which do you hear in stanza 7 of "Christ lag in
Todesbanden"?
a. choral fugue
b. gapped chorale melody
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
c. ungapped chorale melody
d. arioso

21. Cantata No. 4, " Christ lag in Todesbanden, " p. 165


Which part has the main melody in stanza 7 of "Christ lag in
Todesbanden"?
a. soprano voice
b. alto voice
C. tenor voice
d. bass voice
182 Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

22. Choral Prelude, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


The Chorale Prelude of "Christ lag in Todesbanden" is based on a(n):
a. aria melody.
b. chorale melody.
c. recitative.
d. arioso.

23. Choral Prelude, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


The texture of the Chorale Prelude of "Christ lag in Todesbanden" is:
a. monophony.
b. homophony.
c. polyphony.
d. polyphony, then homophony.

Topics

24. Words and Music, p. 154


The application of "vocabulary of the emotions" occurs most easily in:
a. chamber music.
b. vocal music.
c. solo sonatas.
d. orchestral music.

25. Opera, p. 154


The most important genre in Baroque secular vocal music is:
a. the madrigal.
b. the chanson.
c. opera.
d. the motet.

26. Opera, p. 155 The singing style characterized by fast runs and
scales, a large pitch range, cadenzas, and virtuosic displays of all
sorts is:
a. oratorio.
b. da capo.
c. arioso.
d. coloratura.

27. Italian Opera Seria, p. 155


Opera seria is a style of Baroque opera that originated in:
a. Italy.
b. France.
c. England.
d. Germany.

28. Italian Opera Seria, p. 155


The text of an opera is called the:
a. mot.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
b. word painting.
c. arioso.
d. libretto.
29. Recitative, p. 156
The technique of declaiming words musically in a heightened, theatrical
manner is called:
a. word painting.
b. vocabulary of the emotions,
c. recitative.
d. aria.
30. Recitative, p. 156
A recitative in which only continuo instruments play the accompaniment
is called:
a. accompanied recitative.
b. secco recitative.
c. arioso.
d. da capo.

31. Recitative, p. 157


A recitative with full orchestral accompaniment is called:
a. accompanied recitative.
b. secco recitative.
c. arioso.
d. da capo.

32. The Castrato, p. 157


Castrati generally sang_____ parts.
a. soprano or alto solo
b. soprano or alto chorus
c. tenor or bass solo
d. tenor or bass chorus

33. Aria, p. 157


Which is true of an aria?
a. An aria ordinarily is accompanied only by the continuo.
b. An aria's text phrases are not repeated.
c. An aria has coherence and musical elaboration.
d. An aria is used to keep the plot moving.

34. Aria, p. 157


The musical term for "from the beginning" is:
a. arioso.
b. da capo.
c. a tempo.
d. allegretto.

35. Aria, p. 157


The standard form for the Baroque Italian opera aria is form.
a. song
b. ritornello
c. binary
d. da capo

36. Aria, p. 157


Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
In da capo form, more elaborate ornamentation occurs primarily185 in the .
_______________________________________________________________________
section(s).
a. opening A
b. B
c. final A
d. A and B
186 Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

37. Julius Caesar, p. 158


The plot of Julius Caesar offers singers opportunities for:
a. showing repose, grace, and control.
b. strong emotional displays.
c. a meditative atmosphere in the middle of a church service.
d. reinforcing a single mood throughout the work.

38. Julius Caesar, "La giustizia," p. 158


The essence of the text of "La giustizia"
involves:
a. encouragement in a love affair.
b. encouragement of religious behavior.
c. discouragement of villainous tyranny and cruelty.
d. encouragement of vengeance and justice.

39. George Frideric Handel, p. 158


Handel composed most of his operas and oratorios in:
a. Germany.
b. England.
c. Italy.
d. France.

40. George Frideric Handel, p. 160


Handel knew how to follow the tastes of the public in his compositional
style. This is shown in his switch from writing__ to writing
a. operas; oratorios
b. string music; woodwind and brass music
c. oratorios; operas
d. vocal music; instrumental music

41. George Frideric Handel, p. 160 Many Baroque operas deal


with ancient , whereas oratorios deal with ancient

a. Greece; Rome
b. Rome; Greece
c. Rome; Israel
d. Israel; Rome

42. Oratorio, p. 159


Which is true of an oratorio?
a. An oratorio is performed as part of a religious service.
b. An oratorio is the most secular of all vocal genres.
c. An oratorio uses a chorus and soloists, as well as instrumentalists.
d. Oratorios are staged, with elaborate sets.

43. Women in Music, p. 164


In the Baroque era, women were most able to be professional musicians
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
187
by:
a. playing an instrument.
b. singing.
c. making instruments.
d. composing music.
188 Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

44. Women in Music, p. 164


One of the most famous singers in Handel's operas was:
a. Hildegard of Bingen.
b. Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet.
c. Marie de la Guerre.
d. Francesca Cuzzoni.

45. George Frideric Handel, p. 161


Handel's most famous oratorio, which is frequently performed today, is:
a. Julius Caesar.
b. Water Music.
c. Rodelinda.
d. Messiah.

46. Messiah, p. 161


How does Messiah differ from other works of this genre?
a. Messiah uses chorus and soloists.
b. Messiah does not have characters acting out a story.
c. Messiah's text is taken from the Bible.
d. Messiah is not staged, but is presented in concert form.

47. Messiah,"There were shepherds," p.


162 "There were shepherds" is
a(n):
a. cantata.
b. aria.
c. recitative.
d. chorus.

48. Messiah, "There were shepherds," p. 162


What is the message to the shepherds in "There were shepherds"?
a. the birth of the Christ Child
b. the resurrection of Christ
c. the conception of the Christ Child
d. God's eternal reign

49. Messiah, "Glory to God," p.


162 "Glory to God" is a(n):
a. aria.
b. chorus.
c. recitative.
d. cantata.

50. Messiah, Chorus, p. 162


The Hallelujah Chorus is a good example of changing:
a. tempos.
b. rhythms.
c. meters.
d. textures.

51. Messiah, Chorus, p. 163


Itis customary for audiences to____ during a performance of the
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music
189
Hallelujah Chorus.
a. sing
b. clap
c. stand
d. sit
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music 190

52. The Church Cantata, p. 164


The important genre that was used in Lutheran services, which was very
much like a second sermon, is called a(n):
a. oratorio.
b. motet.
c. cantata.
d. chorale.
53. The Lutheran Chorale, p. 165
The preexisting melodies on which much of Lutheran church music is
based are:
a. plainchants.
b. religious arias.
c. paraphrases.
d. chorales.
54. The Lutheran Chorale, p. 165
The person who first organized congregational hymn singing in Protestant
churches was:
a. Johann Sebastian Bach.
b. George Frideric Handel.
c. Martin Luther.
d. Henry Purcell.
55. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 166
What characteristic does each of the sung portions of "Christ lag in
Todesbanden" share?
a. a gapped chorale tune
b. homophonic texture
c. monophonic texture
d. the ending word, "Hallelujah"
56. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden, " p. 166
Bach's cantata "Christ lag in Todesbanden" is comprised of:
a. an orchestral prelude (sinfonia) followed by several stanza
movements.
b. several arias and recitatives.
c. an overture, arias, and several choruses.
d. three movements, each with a gapped chorale tune.
57. The Organ Chorale, p. 167
A Lutheran organ composition incorporating a hymn tune is called a(n):
a. chorale.
b. chorale prelude.
c. sonata da chiesa.
d. organ fugue.
58. The Organ Chorale, p. 167
Another name for chorale prelude is:
a. organ chorale.
b. organ fugue.
c. trio sonata.
d. chorus.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music 191
59. Chorale Prelude, "Christ lag in
Todesbanden," p. 168 Bach's collection of
162 short chorale preludes is called:
a. The Art of Fugue.
b. Orgelbuchlein ("Little Organ Book").
c. The Well-Tempered Clavier.
d. Goldberg Variations.
192 Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music

Essay Questions

1. Words and Music, p. 154


Describe how a Baroque composer might have "painted" the following
words musically, to heighten musical expression: "rejoicing," "victory,"
"high." Refer to as many musical elements as you can in your answer.

2. Opera, p. 155 Describe the


spectacular elements of Baroque opera.

3. Opera, p. 155
Describe coloratura
singing.

4. Italian Opera Seria, p. 155 Define and


discuss the elements of Italian Baroque opera seria.

5. Italian Opera Seria, p. 155 Define libretto.


What is the term for one who writes libretti?

6. Recitative, p. 156
Describe what happens in an opera during a recitative. Refer to plot,
possible accompaniment styles, meter, melody, and form in your answer.

7. Recitative, p. 156 Compare and contrast secco


recitative and accompanied recitative.

8. The Castrato, p. 157 Define castrato. Briefly


describe the role, purpose, and lives of castrati.

9. Aria, p. 157
Define da capo. Use letters to diagram da capo form. What happens in the
last part of a da capo aria?

10. Recitative and Aria, p. 156 Distinguish between recitative, secco


recitative, accompanied recitative, and da capo aria.

11. Julius Caesar, p. 158 Is the plot of Julius Caesar accurate to the
historical account? Explain why or why not.

12. Julius Caesar, p. 158 How does the composer


treat emotional display in Julius Caesar?

13. Oratorio, p. 159 Describe the role and


importance of the choir in sacred Baroque music.

14. Oratorio, p. 160 Which secular vocal genre


influenced sacred Baroque vocal music? Explain.

15. Oratorio, p. 160 Define oratorio. List


the features of a typical oratorio.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music 193
16. George Frideric Handel, p. 160
Explain the impresario side of Handel's
musical career.
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music 194

17. George Frideric Handel, p. 160 Explain how Handel changed


the genre he composed in when the public's tastes changed.

18. Women in Music, p. 164


Briefly explain the career opportunities for women in the Baroque era.
How did music offer opportunities for women to work? What were the
advantages and disadvantages of such careers?

19. Women in Music, p. 164


Who was Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet? Why was her life unusual? What
did she do in music? Who was her sponsor?

20. Messiah, p. 161 How is Messiah different


from other works in this genre?

21. Messiah, p. 161 Describe


the source and story of Messiah.

22. Messiah, p. 162 Describe the


varied role of the chorus in Messiah.

23. The Church Cantata, p. 164


Distinguish between oratorio and church
cantata.

24. The Church Cantata, p. 164


Describe the church cantata. Compare and contrast the opera and the
church cantata in terms of function, setting, staging, purpose, and so
on.

25. The Lutheran Chorale, p. 165 Define chorale. Relate chorales to


Lutheran church music and religious Baroque compositions.

26. Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden," p. 165


Briefly explain the structure of Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in
Todesbanden." On what material is the work based?

27. The Organ Chorale, p. 167 Define chorale prelude. At what point
in the service might a chorale prelude be played?
Chapter 10 Baroque Vocal Music 195
28. Chorale Prelude, "Christ lag in
Todesbanden," p. 168 Define Orgelbuchlein.
Describe its contents and purpose.
C H A P T E R 11

Prelude
Music Enlightenment

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Prelude: Music and the


Enlightenment, p. 169 The Classical style
emerged in the century.
a. early seventeenth
b. mid-seventeenth
c. early eighteenth
d. mid-eighteenth

2. Prelude: Music and the


Enlightenment, p. 169 The Classical
style developed principally in:
a. Vienna.
b. Paris.
c. London.
d. Salzburg.

3. Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment, p. 169


Which ruler in the Classical era was known for his generous
encouragement of the arts?
a. Cosimo de' Medici
b. King John
c. Emperor Joseph II
d. Louis XIV

4. "
The Pursuit of
Happiness, " p. 171 The
eighteenth-century salon was
a(n):
a. opera house.
b. concert hall.
c. gathering in a home.
d. arts lecture in a public place.

5. "The Pursuit of Happiness, " p. 171


Which is a musical innovation of eighteenth-century Western society?
a. the opera house
b. the public concert
c. the oratorio
d. the cantata
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
Enlightenment 198

6. Art and Entertainment, p. 171


Music during the Enlightenment was meant to:
a. stir up strong emotions.
b. glorify God.
c. please and entertain.
d. enlighten the world with rational, intellectual polyphony.

7. Art and Entertainment, p. 172


The light, decorative, frivolous style of art and music that
developed during the mid-eighteenth century was called:
a. Rococo.
b. Baroque.
c. Viennese Classical style.
d. salon style.

8. Art and Entertainment, p. 172


A genre typical of the Rococo style is the:
a. sonata.
b. divertimento.
c. concerto.
d. chanson.

9. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera, p. 173


Rousseau contributed the articles on
music to the
a. Encyclopaedia Britannica
b. British Archives
c. French Encyclopedia
d. London Times

10. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera,


p. 173 In his writings, Rousseau
attacked the:
a. instrumental music of the Classical era.
b. idea of music for entertainment.
c. religious music of the Classical era.
d. operatic style of the Baroque era.

11. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera, p. 173


Rousseau desired:
a. more polyphony in symphonies.
b. more complex plots in opera.
c. simple characters singing "natural" music in opera.
d. mythical characters singing complex music in oratorios.

12. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera, p. 173


Thanks to Pergolesi, Rousseau, and Mozart, the most progressive style of
opera in the latter part of the eighteenth century was:
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
a. opera seria. Enlightenment 199
opera buffa.
French Baroque opera.
highly polyphonic opera.
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
Enlightenment 200
13. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera, p. 173
Opera buffet refers to__________ opera.
a. Italian comic
b. Italian dramatic
c. French Baroque
d. Florentine

14. Neoclassicism, p. 174


The influence of more austere classical subjects (Neoclassical art) is found
in the operas of:
a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
b. Franz Joseph Haydn.
c. Johann Christian Bach.
d. Christoph Willibald von Gluck.
15. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175
What was the result of the new sociology and economy of music in the mid-
eighteenth century?
a. the opera house
b. regular public concerts with subscription ticket sales
c. music in church services with subscription ticket sales
d. salon concerts with ticket sales

16. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175


Oxford, England, was the location of the first:
a. salon concert.
b. opera house.
c. concert hall.
d. cathedral concert.
17. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175
The rise of public concerts in the eighteenth century gave special impetus
to the creation of:
a. vocal music.
b. chamber music.
c. opera.
d. orchestral music.

18. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175


The eighteenth-century public concert included principally:
a. symphonies and concertos.
b. opera arias and recitatives.
c. chamber music.
cf. piano sonatas.

19. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175


Which new institution supported the development of orchestral music in
the eighteenth century?
a. the opera house
b. the church
c. the court
cl. the concert hall
Chapter 11 Prelude: Music and the
20. Style Features of Classical Music, p.Enlightenment
175 201
The two descriptions applicable to most Classical music are:
a. ornate and intellectually pleasing.
b. polyphonic and artificial.
c. full of "natural" simplicity and pleasing variety.
d. monophonic and melodically complex.
202 Chapter 11 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment

21. Style Features of Classical Music, p. 175


Which is true of Classical music?
a. The basic Classical orchestra had fewer instruments than the basic
Baroque orchestra.
b. Composers of Classical music tried to emulate the unvarying rhythms
of Baroque music.
c. Composers of Classical music worked extensively with dynamics to
add variety and
flexibility.
d. Classical themes tend to be less tuneful than Baroque themes.
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
22. Rhythm, p. 176 Enlightenment 203
In a movement of Classical will stay the same and the____ will
music, the be varied.
a. rhythms; meter
b. meter and tempo;
rhythms
C. rhythms and tempo; meter
d. meter; tempo and rhythms
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
Enlightenment 204
23. Dynamics, p. 176
Which is true of the use of dynamics in the Classical era?
a. Dynamics and gradual dynamic changes were specifically notated by
composers.
b. Dynamics were not notated by composers; they were improvised by
the performers.
c. Dynamics could change only from movement to movement within a
piece.
d. Dynamics were notated by composers but remained more or less
constant throughout
a piece.

24. Dynamics, p. 176


The Classical use of dynamics was reflected in the popularity of the new
instrument, the
, in the Classical era.
a. harpsichord.
b. French horn.
c. piano.
d. violin.
25. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p.
177 and brass
In the Classical orchestra, the instruments:
woodwind
a. were not specified.
section.
b. had clearly defined roles.
c. always played along with the
26. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p. 177
The woodwind section of a Classical orchestra consisted of:
a. one of each: flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon.
b. two of each: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and optional saxophones.
c. one of each: flute, clarinet, bassoon, and optional oboes.
d. two of each: flute, oboe, bassoon, and optional clarinets.

27. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p. 177


The function of the brass section in a Classical orchestra was to:
a. play along with the woodwind section.
b. play along with the string section.
c. support the main harmonies.
d. play special effects such as fanfares.
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
Enlightenment 205

28. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p. 178


The percussion section of a Classical orchestra included:
a. a bass drum.
b. two timpani.
c. timpani and cymbals.
d. a bass drum and cymbals.

29. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p. 178


The most versatile medium for Classical composers was the:
a. orchestra.
b. organ.
c. piano.
d. chorus.

30. Melody: Tunes, p. 178


Which were sometimes included in Classical symphonies?
a. plainchant melodies
b. popular songs
c. sonatas
d. choruses

31. Texture: Homophony, p. 178


The predominant texture of Classical music is:
a. monophony.
b. homophony.
c. imitative polyphony.
d. non-imitative polyphony.

32. Texture: Homophony, p. 179


What compositional practice by composers disappeared during the
Classical era?
a. writing harmony for its pleasing sonorities
b. distributing notes in chords among various instruments
c. using the continuo to suggest the harmony
d. developing greater subtlety in rhythm and harmony

33. Classical Counterpoint, p. 179


Which is true with regard to texture in Classical music?
a. By the time the Classical style had fully evolved, polyphony
had once again become the main texture used by composers.
b. Classical composers used a significant amount of monophony in
their music.
c. Polyphony was rejected completely by Classical composers.
d. Compared to Baroque composers, Classical composers
employed a delicate and unobtrusive sort of polyphony in their
music.

34. Classical Counterpoint, p. 179 In the Classical era,


206 Chapter 11 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment
counterpoint was used to create and was often found in
sections.
a. stability; homophonic
b. tension; slow
c. stability; development
d. tension; development
Music and the
Chapter 11 Prelude:
Enlightenment 207

35. Repetitions and Cadences, p. 180


How might a Classical composer help listeners become familiar with a
theme in a composition?
a. by repeating it right away
b. by setting it in imitation
c. by repeating it at the end of the work
d. by quoting popular tunes of the day

36. Repetitions and


Cadences, p. 180 How are
Classical themes "closed off"?
a. with one clear cadence
b. with multiple cadences
c. with a rest
d. with the beginning of the next theme

37. Classical Forms, p. 181


Which is not one of the standard Classical forms?
a. minuet form
b. sonata form
c. da capo form
d. rondo form

38. Classical Forms, p. 181


What was the result of the Classical practice of using standard forms?
a. More specialization occurred with Classical composers than those of
previous periods.
b. Fewer pieces were written since there was a limited number of
acceptable forms.
c. Music became less predictable for the listener.
d. Music became more predictable for the listener.

Essay Questions
1. Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment, p. 169
Identify when the Classical style was born, its city of greatest development,
and the ruler under whom it thrived.

2. "
The Pursuit of Happiness, " p. 171
Name two innovations of the Age of Enlightenment that had an impact on
the musical life of that era. Explain the effect of each.

3. Art and
Entertainment, p. 172
Briefly describe Rococo
style.

4. Art and Entertainment, p. 172


Briefly contrast the purpose of the arts in the Classical era with that of the
arts in the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods.

5. Art and Entertainment, p. 172 What was the purpose of a


208 Chapter 11 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment
divertimento? Briefly describe the character of a typical divertimento.

6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera, p. 173


What did jean-Jacques Rousseau think of Baroque opera? What
characteristics did he foster in Classical opera?

7. The Novel, p. 173


Which literary genre was closely tied to opera in the Classical era?
Briefly explain the relationship between opera and this type of
literature.
8. Neoclassicism, p. 174 With which eighteenth-century style
are the operas of Gluck associated? Why?

9. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175


Discuss how the development of the public concert during the Classical
era altered the social and economic nature of Western European art
music.

10. The Rise of Concerts, p. 175 Where could a


composer still be sure to earn a living in the Classical era?

11. Style Features of Classical Music, p. 175 Briefly describe


the two concepts considered essential to the Viennese Classical
style.

12. Rhythm, p. 176 Characterize the use of


rhythm by Viennese Classical composers.

13. Dynamics, p. 176 Briefly explain the two new ways in which
composers used dynamics in the Classical style.

14. Dynamics, p. 176 What instrument became a


favorite in the Classical period? Why?

1S. Tone Color: The Orchestra, p. 177


Compare and contrast the Classical orchestra with the Baroque orchestra.
How did the functions of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families
change?

16. Melody: Tunes, p. 178 Contrast the Baroque


approach to melody with the Classical approach.

17. Texture: Homophony, p. 178


What was the predominant texture of music in the Classical style? How
did it serve the expressive ideal of the Classical era?

18. Texture: Homophony, p. 179 Contrast the Classical


approach to harmony with that of Baroque composers.

19. Classical Counterpoint, p. 179


How was counterpoint viewed by Classical composers? What purposes
did these composers have in mind when they used counterpoint?

20. Repetitions and Cadences, p. 180


Why did Classical composers use repetition
in music?

21. Repetitions and Cadences, p. 180


Characterize transitional passages in
Classical music.
210 Chapter 11 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment
22. Repetitions and Cadences, p. 180 Briefly describe how
Classical composers made the ends of themes and phrases clear.

23. Classical Forms, p. 181


Briefly describe how the composer's use of set forms might influence the
listener's comprehension of the music.

10
7
C H A P T E R 12
The Symphony

Multiple-Choice Questions
Listening

1. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


Who composed Symphony No. 40 in G minor?
a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
b. Franz Joseph Haydn
c. Arcangelo Corelli
d. Antonio Salieri

2. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


The first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G in_________
minor is form.
a. rondo
b. sonata
c. theme and variations

3. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


Which best describes the character of the first movement of Symphony
No. 40 in G minor?
a. peaceful and serene
b. mystical and religious
c. agitated and struggling
d. triumphant, with a military flavor

4. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


The performing forces in the first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G
minor consist of:
a. strings, percussion, and continuo.
b. strings, brass, and continuo.
c. woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
d. strings and winds.

5. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


The opening texture of the first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G
minor is a(n):
a. free fugue.
b. spare monophonic presentation.
c. melody with homophonic accompaniment.
d. non-imitative polyphony.

10
7
213 Chapter 12 The Symphony

6. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


The mode of the first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G minor is:
a. minor throughout the movement.
b. minor in the beginning, but changes to major and modulates
several times, ending in minor.
c. major in the beginning, but changes to minor and modulates
several times, ending in major.
d. major throughout the movement.

7. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186


The meter of the first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G minor is:
a. simple duple.
b. simple triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

8. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


The composer of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
b. Johann Sebastian Bach.
c. Franz Joseph Haydn.
d. Ludwig van Beethoven.

9. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


The form of the first movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. rondo.
b. minuet.
c. theme and variations.
d. sonata.

10. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


The tempo of the first movement of Symphony No 95 in C minor is:
a. slow at the start, then fast.
b. fast at the start, then slow.
c. fast.
d. slow.

11. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


The first movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor has main themes.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

12. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


Which is true of the second movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor?
a. It is in minor mode throughout.
214 Chapter 12 The Symphony

b. It is in major mode throughout.


c. It begins in major mode, goes to minor, and
ends in major. cl. It begins in minor mode, goes to
major; and ends in major.

10
7
215 Chapter 12 The Symphony

13. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


Which best describes the overall character movement of Symphony
of the second No. 95 in
C minor?
a. varied and graceful
b. sad and grieving
c. majestic and grand
d. tormented and longing
216 Chapter 12 The Symphony

14. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 197


The form of the third movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. sonata.
b. theme and variations.
c. rondo.
d. minuet with trio.

15. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 197


The meter of the third movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. compound duple.
b. simple triple.
c. irregular.
d. simple duple.

16. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


The performing forces of the fourth movement of Symphony No. 95 in C
minor consist of:
a. strings, woodwinds, and piano.
b. continuo, strings, and percussion.
c. strings, continuo, and woodwinds.
d. strings, woodwinds, and brass.

17. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


The fourth movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is in form.
a. sonata
b. rondo
c. theme and variations
d. minuet

18. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


The meter of the fourth movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. simple duple.
b. compound duple.
c. simple triple.
d. compound triple.

19. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


Which of the main sections are similar in the fourth movement of
Symphony No. 95 in C minor?
a. the first and second sections
b. the second and third sections
c. the first and third sections
d. the third and fourth sections
Chapter 12 The Symphony
217

20. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


Which sections provide contrast to the other sections in the fourth
movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor?
a. the second and fourth sections
b. the second and fifth sections
c. the second and third sections
d. the third and fifth sections

Topics

21. The Symphony, p. 1 8 2 The major genre


developed by Classical composers is the:
a. string quartet.
b. opera.
c. oratorio.
d. symphony.

22. Movements of the Symphony, p. 182 The


first movement in most Classical symphonies is
generally:
a. a slow movement with beautiful, relaxing melodies.
b. the fastest, lightest movement.
c. in minuet form and triple meter.
d. a moderate or fast movement in sonata form that sometimes has a
slow introduction.

23. Movements of the Symphony, p. 183 The


second movement in most Classical symphonies is
generally:
a. a slow movement with beautiful, relaxing melodies.
b. the fastest, lightest movement.
c. in minuet form and triple meter.
d. a moderate or fast movement in sonata form that sometimes has a
slow introduction.

24. Movements of the Symphony, p. 1 8 3


The third movement in most Classical symphonies is generally:
a. a slow movement with beautiful, relaxing melodies.
b. the fastest, lightest movement.
c. in minuet form and triple meter.
d. a moderate or fast movement in sonata form that sometimes has a
slow introduction.

25. Movements of the Symphony, p. 183 The


last movement in most Classical symphonies is
generally:
a. a slow movement with beautiful, relaxing melodies.
b. the fastest, lightest movement.
218 Chapter 12 The Symphony

c. in minuet form and triple meter.


d. a moderate or fast movement in sonata form that sometimes has a
slow introduction.

26. Movements of the Symphony, p. 183


The slow movement of a Classical
instrumental work:
a. is in theme and variations form.
b. is in rondo form.
c. is in sonata form.
d. could be in a variety of classical forms.
27. Sonata Form, p. 183
Sonata form is to be the_______ form developed in the
considered Classical era.
a. most simple
b. most complex
c. least popular

28. Sonata Form, p. 183


The first movements of from the Classical era are in___
multimovement works form.
a. rondo
b. sonata
c. minuet

29. Sonata Form, p. 183


Another name for an A B A form with an exposition, a development,
and a recapitulation is form.
a. binary
b. rondo
c. sonata
d. theme and variations

30. Exposition, p. 184


What are the main elements of the exposition in sonata form?
a. first theme, bridge, second theme, ritornello
b. first theme, bridge, second theme, retransition
c. first theme, bridge, second theme, cadence theme
d. first theme, bridge, ritornello, cadence theme

31. Exposition, p. 184


In sonata form, the bridge:
a. establishes the tonic.
b. modulates to a new key.
c. develops earlier themes.
d. restates earlier themes in the tonic key.

32. Exposition, p. 184


In sonata form, which is true of the key in which the second theme is
heard in the exposition?
a. The second theme is heard in the tonic key.
Chapter 12 The Symphony
b. The second theme wanders through many 219
different keys in a fragmentary fashion.
c. The second theme always appears in a minor key.
d. The second theme is heard in a second key, to which the
music has modulated during the bridge section.

33. Development, p. 184


When themes are up, recombined, reorchestrated, extended, or played
broken contexts, in new musical
they are being:
a. stylized.
b. developed.
c. recapitulated.
d. bridged.
220 Chapter 12 The Symphony

34. Development, p. 185


What key(s) islare used during the development section in sonata form?
a. the tonic key
b. a second key, to which the music has modulated during the bridge
passage
c. many different keys
d. the relative major or minor key to the tonic

35. Development, p. 185


In sonata form, which section contains the most modulation?
a. the coda
b. the recapitulation
c. the exposition
d. the development

36. Recapitulation, p. 185


A late-eighteenth-century work in sonata form that starts in the key of C
major will end in the key of:
a. C major.
b. G major.
c. C minor.
d. G minor.

37. Recapitulation, p. 185


In sonata form, what is repeated in the recapitulation?
a. various themes from the development
b. the first theme followed by all the other elements of the exposition
c. only the second theme and cadence theme from the exposition
d. the coda

38. Recapitulation, p. 185


In sonata form, in what key is the second theme likely to be heard in the
recapitulation?
a. a second key, to which the music has modulated during the bridge
passage
b. the relative major or relative minor of the tonic key
c. the tonic key
d. many different keys

39. Recapitulation, p. 185


A coda:
a. often appears at the beginning of a movement.
b. is a crucial element of sonata form.
c. is never used in theme and variations form.
d. is a closing section of a movement.
The Symphony
Chapter 12
40. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, p. 186 221
The first movement of Symphony No. 40 in G minor has no:
a. exposition.
b. development.
c. recapitulation.
d. slow introduction.
Chapter 12 The Symphony
222

41. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, p. 189


The only one of Mozart's operas to be a success during his lifetime was:
a. The Magic Flute.
b. The Marriage of Figaro.
c. Don Giovanni.
d. Cosi fan tutte.

42. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, p. 189


While in Vienna, Mozart relied on____ for income.
a. opera ticket sales
b. teaching and concerts
c. the church
d. the patronage system

43. Classical Variation Form, p. 191


A typical form of the theme in theme and variations form is:
a. a a ' b b '
b. a a ' b c b c
c. I:a:II:b:l
d. a b

44. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 191


The first movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is:
a. a rondo.
b. in theme and variations form.
c. in sonata form.
d. in minuet form.

45. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 192


The second movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor shows Haydn's gift
for presenting:
a. natural, simple, beautiful melodies.
b. intricate rhythmic patterns.
c. complex variations on a theme.
d. polyphonic manipulation of thematic material.

46. Franz Joseph Haydn, p. 195


Haydn's career shows:
a. the limits of working for one patron.
b. the frustration of working in the shadow of the great Mozart.
c. a combination of the patronage system and the concert system.
d. a combination of working for the nobility and the church at the same
time.

47. Franz Joseph Haydn, p. 195


Which is true of most of Haydn's symphonies?
a. They are usually somber in character.
b. They usually include simple, cheerful melodies.
c. They are usually highly polyphonic and include complex melodies.
d. They usually have a religious theme.

48. Minuet Form, p. 195


Chapter 12 The
Symphony
223
Which dance type(s) from the Baroque suite survived into the Classical
era?
a. the gigue
b. the minuet
c. the bourree and minuet
d. the sarabande and minuet
224 Chapter 12 The Symphony

49. Minuet Form, p. 196


Typically, the third movement of a four-movement work in the
Classical era would be:
a. in sonata form.
b. slow and lyrical.
c. a minuet and trio.
d. in theme and variations form.
50. Minuet Form, p. 196
Traditionally, the_______, a three-movement genre, does not include a
minuet:
a. Classical concerto
b. Classical symphony
c. Classical sonata
d. string quartet
51. Minuet Form, p. 196
In the Classical era, four-movement works such as always
included a minuet.
a. concertos and symphonies
b. concertos and sonatas
c. symphonies and string quartets
d. rondos and sonatas
52. Minuet Form, p. 196
A Classical minuet:
a. is a fast movement with an exposition, a development, and a
recapitulation.
b. has one main theme with a series of variations.
c. has a recurring theme with contrasting material interspersed
between the statements of the theme.
d. is a moderately paced movement in triple meter.
53. Baroque and Classical Dance Form, p. 196
The section sandwiched between the minuet sections in a minuet is
called the:
a. rondo.
b. trio.
c. scherzo.
d. variation.

54. Baroque and Classical Dance Form, p. 197 Which lists the form of a
Classical minuet?
a. I: a :I I : ba ': I I : c d c ' : I a b a'
b. I:a:II:b:I I : c d : I a b
c. a a' b b' a a'
d. a a ' b b ' I I : c : l l d c d ' c ' a a ' b b '
55. Baroque and Classical Dance Form, p. 197
Which is true of minuets?
a. Classical minuets are more danceable than Baroque minuets.
b. Classical minuets are shorter and simpler than Baroque minuets.
c. Classical minuets are more extended than Baroque minuets.
Chapter 12 The
Symphony
225
d. The minuet was basically unchanged from the Baroque era to the
Classical era.

56. Baroque and Classical Dance, p. 197


Another term for Classical dance form is_ form.
a. simple triple
b. stylized
c. binary
d. ternary
226 Chapter 12 The Symphony

57. Rondo Form, p. 199


The mood of rondo-form movements is generally:
a. light and simple.
b. serious.
c. religious.
d. passionate and emotional.

58. Rondo Form, p. 199


The form diagrammed as AB A C A B A is__________form.
a. sonata
b. minuet
c. rondo
d. theme and variations

59. Rondo Form, p. 199


What happens in a rondo?
a. One theme is stated, then restated with variations.
b. One theme is repeated again and again, with contrasting episodes
interspersed.
c. Subject entries are interspersed with contrasting episodes.
d. Two or three themes are presented in the exposition, then
developed, then restated in the recapitulation.

60. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 199


The fourth movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor is in form.
a. sonata
b. minuet
c. rondo
d. theme and variations

61. Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, p. 200


What closes the fourth movement of Symphony No. 95 in C minor?
a. a cadenza
b. a coda
c. the recapitulation
d. the last variation

Essay Questions

1. The Symphony, p. 182


Which genre served as the centerpiece of Classical public concerts?
Why was it chosen for this role?

2. The Movements of the Symphony, p. 182 Explain


the movement plan for a typical symphony in the
Classical era.

3. Sonata Form, p. 183 What was the


attraction of sonata form for Classical composers?
Chapter 12 The
Symphony
4. Exposition, p. 183 227
What is the purpose of the exposition in sonata form? What happens,
harmonically speaking? Briefly describe a typical Classical exposition.
Refer to all four of the elements in an exposition. You may draw a diagram
as part of your answer.
228 Chapter 12 The Symphony

5. Development, p. 184
Briefly describe what happens to thematic material in the
development section in sonata form.

6. Development, p. 185 Define


as it relates to sonata form.
retransition

7. Recapitulation, p. 185
What is the purpose of the recapitulation in sonata form? Briefly describe a
typical recapitulation section.

8. Recapitula
tion, p. 185 Define
coda.

9. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, p. 186 Why is the name


of Ludwig von Kochel connected to the music of Mozart?

10. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, p. 189


Was Mozart successful as a composer in his own lifetime? How did he earn
a living at various times in his life?

11. Franz Joseph Haydn, p. 195


Describe Haydn's working situation with the Esterhazys. What types of
music did he compose there?

12. Franz Joseph Haydn, p. 195


Characterize the symphonies of Franz Joseph Haydn with respect to
purpose, mood, and melodies.

13. Franz Joseph Haydn, p. 195


Compare and contrast the way Mozart and Haydn treat sonata form in
terms of thematic contrast.

14. Minuet Form, p. 195 Which dance movement survived into the
Classical era? Give two reasons for its survival.

15. Baroque and Classical Dance Form, p. 197


What is the middle section of a Classical minuet
called? Why?

16. Baroque and Classical Dance Form, p. 197


Compare and contrast Baroque minuets and
Classical minuets.

17. Rondo Form, p. 199


Briefly describe the character and structure of a rondo. You may use
letters in your diagram. Explain where rondo form is often found in
multimovement Classical works.

18. Rondo Form, p. 199 Compare and


contrast rondo form and ritornello form.
C H A P T E R 13

Other Classical Genres

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3, p. 203


Who composed the Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3?
a. Francesca LeBrun
b. Ludwig van Beethoven
c. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
d. Franz Joseph Haydn

2. Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3, p. 203


This selection from Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3 is the:
a. third movement.
b. second movement.
c. first movement.
d. last movement.

3. Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3, p. 203


What rhythmic feature do you hear in the coda of the third movement
of the Sonata in F?
a. augmentation
b. isorhythm
c. compound meter
d. syncopation

4. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A,


K. 488, p. 206 Who composed Piano
Concerto in A?
a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
b. Franz Joseph Haydn
c. Arcangelo Corelli
d. Antonio Salieri

5. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206


The performing forces in the Piano Concerto in A consist of:
a. piano, strings, continuo, woodwinds, and brass.
b. piano, strings, and woodwinds.
c. piano, strings, continuo, and brass.
d. piano, strings, woodwinds, and percussion.
232 Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres

6. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206


What happens after the orchestral exposition in the first movement of the
Piano Concerto in A?
a. The full orchestra comes in.
b. The piano stops playing and the orchestra takes over.
c. The piano comes in and the orchestra has a secondary role.
d. The mode changes from major to minor.

7. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206 What happens in the


development section of the first movement of the Piano Concerto in A?
a. The meter shifts frequently.
b. The performing forces include trumpets.
c. The tempo fluctuates.
d. The orchestra and piano are in a dialogue.

8. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206


What is altered in the recapitulation of the first movement of the Piano
Concerto in A?
a. The entire orchestra plays the theme fugally.
b. The tempo changes from fast to faster.
c. The bridge remains in the tonic key.
d. The oboes alternate solos with the piano.
Other Classical Genres
233 Chapter 13
9. Piano Concerto, No. 23 in A, K.
488, p. 206 The first movement of the is in_________ form.
Piano Concerto in A
a. double-exposition sonata
b. theme and variations
c. rondo
d. minuet

10. Don Giovanni, "Ho


"
capito, p. 213 "Ho capito" is
from a(n):
a. Mass.
b. oratorio.
c. opera.
d. motet.

11. Don Giovanni, "Ho capito, " p. 213


Who composed "Ho capito"?
a. Franz Joseph Haydn
b. Antonio Salieri
c. Franz Schubert
d. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

12. Don Giovanni, " I-lo


"
capito, p. 213 "Ho capito" is
a(n):
a. aria,
b. chanson.
c. recitative.
d. arioso.
Other Classical Genres
234 Chapter 13
13. Don Giovanni, "I-lo capito, " p. 213
The larger work from which "Ho capito"
comes is called:
a. The Magic Flute.
b. Don Giovanni..
c. Messiah.
d. Cosi fan tutte.
235 Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres

14. Don Giovanni, p. 215


The first part of "Alfin siam liberati" is a(n):
a. duet.
b. arioso for two singers.
c. secco recitative.
d. accompanied recitative.
15. Don Giovanni, p. 215
The accompaniment voices in "Alfin siam
for the liberati" is a:
a. full orchestra.
b. piano.
c. harpsichord and

16. Don Giovanni, p. 214


"La ci darem la mano" is a(n):
a. secco recitative.
b. accompanied recitative.
c. duet.
d. arioso.

17. Don Giovanni, p. 215 The


meter of "La ci darem la mano"
is:
a. simple duple.
b. simple triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

Topics

18. The Sonata, p. 202


How many people are needed to play a Classical sonata?
a. one or two
b. two or three
c. four
d. a full orchestra

19. The Sonata, p. 202


The favorite featured instrument of the Classical sonata was the:
a. recorder.
b. piano.
c. organ.
d. harpsichord.

20. The Sonata, p. 203


How many movements does a Classical sonata generally have?
a. one
236 Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres
b. two
c. three
d. four
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 237

21. Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3, p. 204


The first movement of the Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3 is:
a. a slow theme and variations movement.
b. in A B A coda form.
c. in sonata form.
d. a minuet.

22. Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3, p. 204


The second movement of the Sonata in F, Opus 1, No. 3 is a:
a. slow theme and variations movement.
b. rondo.
c. fast sonata-form movement.
d. minuet.

23. The Classical Concerto, p. 205


Which describes the relationship between the soloist and the
orchestra in the Classical concerto?
a. The soloist 's part was more important.
b. The orchestral parts were more important.
c. The woodwinds and the solo part generally traded off the
thematic material.
d. The soloist and the orchestra were equally balanced in
importance.

24. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205


TheformdevelopedbyMozartforthefirstmovementofaconcertoiscalled form.
a. sonata
b. rondo
c. double-exposition
d. double-development

25. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205


In double-exposition form:
a. secondary key areas are replaced by cadenzas.
b. there are two expositions, the first for the orchestra, the
second for the soloist with the orchestra.
c. there are two expositions, the first for the soloist with
orchestra, the second for the orchestra.
d. there are two recapitulations.

26. Double-Exposition
Form, p. 205 In double-
exposition form:
a. the first exposition does not modulate, but the second one does.
b. the first exposition modulates, but the second one does not.
c. the modulation occurs during the statement of the second theme.
d. there are no bridge themes.

27. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205


Other Classical Genres
238 Chapter 13
In a Classical concerto, there is no___movement.
a. sonata form
b. minuet
c. rondo
d. theme and variations
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 239

28. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205


In the final section of the first movement of a Classical concerto, the
soloist improvises a solo passage called a:
a. coda.
b. ritornello.
c. cadenza.
d. recapitulation.

29. Piano Concerto No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206


The first movement of the Piano Concerto in A can be characterized as:
a. angry.
b. spiritual.
c. comical.
d. songful.

30. Piano Concerto No. 23 in A, K. 488, p. 206


For the Piano Concerto in A, the composer uses a reduced orchestra,
omitting:
a. oboes
b. cellos
c. clarinets
d. violas

31. The String Quartet, p. 209


A string quartet consists of:
a. one violin, two violas, and one cello.
b. two violins and two cellos.
c. two violins, one viola, and one cello.
d. one violin, one viola, one cello, and piano.

32. The String Quartet, p. 209


The string quartet has as many movements as the:
a. symphony.
b. Classical sonata.
c. dance suite.
d. Classical concerto.

33. The String Quartet, p. 209


In the Classical era, the string quartet was intended to perform in:
a. opera houses.
b. cathedrals.
c. large concert halls.
d. small, intimate gatherings.

34. The String Quartet, p. 209


A typical first movement of a Classical string quartet is:
Other Classical Genres
240 Chapter 13
a. in a moderate or fast tempo and in sonata form.
b. slow and lyrical.
c. a minuet.
d. a rondo.
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 241

35. The String Quartet, p. 209


Classical string quartets generally have__movements.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

36. The String Quartet, p. 210


Which of the following is true of the way Classical composers wrote for
the string quartet?
a. The violins were generally given the melody.
b. The cello was given the job of harmonic support, in the form of a
continuo line.
c. All four parts were interdependent, each reacting to musical
gestures by the others.
d. The inner voices were given harmony parts, not thematic material.

37. Opera Buffa, p. 210


The country that led the way in eighteenth-century comic opera was:
a. France.
b. Italy.
c. Germany.
d. England.

38. Opera Buffa, p. 210


Italian comic opera was called:
a. da capo opera.
b. arioso opera.
c. opera buffa.
d. ensemble opera.

39. The Ensemble, p. 211


An operatic number sung by two or more people is called a(n):
a. arioso.
b. buffa.
c. recitative.
d. ensemble.

40. The Ensemble, p. 211


All are characteristics of the ensemble in eighteenth-century opera
except:
a. Sentiments are presented more swiftly than in an aria.
b. Sentiments can change within one musical number.
c. Sentiments are fairly static and consistent within one musical
number.
d. Sentiments of a few characters can be presented simultaneously in
one musical number.

41. Don Giovanni, p. 212


Which accurately describes Don Giovanni?
a. tragic
b. tragic and comical
Other Classical Genres
242 Chapter 13
c. comical and mythical
d. mythical and tragic

42. Don Giovanni, "Ho capito, " p. 213


"Ho capito" is sung with fury and sarcasm by:
a. Masetto.
b. Don Giovanni.
c. Zerlina.
d. the Commandant.
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 243

43. Don Giovanni, p. 214


The recitative "Alfin siam liberati" is an attempt by Don Giovanni to:
a. escape the fires of hell.
b. convince the Commandant to allow him to marry Zerlina.
c. convince Zerlina to come to his villa.
d. escape the clutches of angry women.

44. Don Giovanni, p. 214


"La ci darem la mano" is an example of an eighteenth-century:
a. solo aria.
b. ensemble.
c. recitative.
d. opera buffa.

Essay Questions

1. The Sonata, p. 202 Define the genre sonata


in terms of possible performing forces.

2. The Sonata, p. 203 Briefly describe the plan of


movements in a typical Classical sonata.

3. The Classical Concerto, p. 205


Briefly summarize the movement plan of the typical Classical concerto.
Contrast this plan with that of the typical Classical symphony.

4. The Classical Concerto, p. 205


Briefly describe the roles of the soloist and the orchestra in the
Classical concerto. What is the nature of the balance between these
two forces?

5. Double-Exposition Form, p.
205 Draw a diagram of double-
exposition form.

6. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205 Compare


and contrast sonata form with double-exposition
form.

7. Double-Exposition Form, p. 205 Define


cadenza and place it in the structure of a
concerto.

8. The String Quartet, p. 209 List the


instruments (arid the number of each) in a string
quartet.

9. The String Quartet, p. 209


Briefly summarize the movement plan of a typical Classical string
quartet. Refer to tempos and forms in your answer.
Other Classical Genres
244 Chapter 13
10. Chamber Music, p. 210
Define and describe the genre chamber music. List three composers
associated with this genre.

1.1. Opera Buffa, p. 210


Describe the differences between Baroque opera seria and Classical opera
buffa.
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 245

12. Opera Buffa, p. 210 Why was opera buffa suited so well
to the cultural climate of the Classical era?

13. The Ensemble, p. 211


Define ensemble as it pertains to Classical opera. In which type of
opera are ensembles found?

14. The Ensemble, p. 211


Compare and contrast aria and recitative with ensemble, in terms of
performing forces, plot action, and presentation of emotions. You may
put your answer in table form if you wish.

15. Don Giovanni, p. 212 Briefly explain the combination of opera buffa
elements and tragic elements in Don Giovanni.

G L O B A L P E R S P E C T I V E S 4 Musical Form: Two Case Studies from Asia

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. "Etenraku," p. 219
"Etenraku" opens with the following instruments:
a. ryuteki, kakko, and tsuridaiko.
b. Biwa and sho.
c. gakuso and biwa.
d. gakuso and sho.

2. "Etenraku," p. 219
The form of "Etenraku" is characterized in three ways. One way is:
a. the use of fugal entries for contrast.
b. an ordered repetition of three different phrases that make up the
melody.
c. sections of homophony alternated with monophony.
d. changes in meter.
3. "Etenraku," p. 219
An important formal feature of "Etenraku" as well as of traditional Japanese
of much music is:
a. the use of fugal entries for contrast.
b. changes in meter.
c. a slowing of the tempo as the performance
proceeds.
4. "Etenraku," p. 220
Unlike much European Baroque music, "Etenraku" avoids:
a. a clearer marking of the meter as the performance proceeds.
b. quickening of the beat.
c. virtuosic playing.
d. repeating phrases.

5. I Lotring, "Bopong," p. 222


"Bopong" has a sixty-four-beat melody that is played through:
246 Chapter 13Other Classical Genres
a. three times.
b. four times.
c. five times.
d. six times.
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 247

6. I Lotring, "Bopong," p. 222


At the end of the sixty-four-beat cycle in "Bopong," a sounds.
a. xylophone
b. high-pitched flute
c. large gong
d. set of drums

7. I Lotring, "Bopong," p. 223


The closing melody in "Bopong" is:
a. played in unison by most of the gamelan.
b. a brittle-sounding gangsa.
c. meditative played by bamboo flutes.
d. sung by a trio of singers.

Topics

8. Japan, p. 217
The symphony orchestra first assumed a standarized makeup when it was
used to "glorify":
a. European courts.
b. Franz Joseph.
c. the Catholic Church.
d. Pope Marcellus.

9. Japan, p. 217
The court orchestra of Japan was established:
a. two thousand years before the symphony orchestra in Europe.
b. around one thousand years before the symphony orchestra in Europe.
c. at the same time as the symphony orchestra in Europe.
d. five hundred years after the establishment of the symphony orchestra
in Europe.

10. Japan, p. 217


Japan's traditional music for the court's ceremony and ritual is called
gagaku, from the Chinese characters that mean:
a. king's music.
b. royal music.
c. religious music.
d. elegant music.

11. The Japanese Togaku Orchestra, p. 218


Unlike European orchestras, the gagaku orchestra is dominated by:
a. strings.
b. percussion.
c. woodwinds.
d. brass.

12. The Indonesian Orchestra: Gamelan, p. 220


A traditional musical ensemble in Indonesia is called a:
Other Classical Genres
248 Chapter 13
a. symphony.
b. gamelan.
c. Bopong.
d. gongan.
Chapter 13 Other Classical Genres 249

13. The Indonesian Orchestra: Gamelan, p. 220


Gamelans may involve as few as____musicians.
a. forty
b. twenty
c. ten to twelve
d. three or four

14. The Indonesian Orchestra: Gamelan, p. 220


At the heart of the gamelan stands a great variety of:
a. aerophones.
b. chordophones.
c. idiophones.
d. gongs and metallophones.

15. Gamelan Pelegongan, p. 221


Gamelan Pelegongan is:
a. the gongsmith who creates the gongs and metallophones.
b. a type of Balinese orchestra.
c. a large array of gongs.
d. a quartet of small gongs.
16. Gamelan Pelegongan, p. 221
Gangsa is an umbrella term for:
a. sounds, construction, and names of metallophones in a gamelan.
b. texture.
c. orchestra.
d. an ancient form of a gamelan society.

17. Form in Gamelan Music, p. 221


The basic structural unit of a gamelan composition is known as the:
a. legong.
b. gangsa.
c. gongan.
d. ostinato.

Essay Questions

1. Japan, p. 217 Discuss the establishment of the court


orchestra in Japan and its influences.

2. Japan, p. 218 What makes the gagaku orchestras


different from European orchestras?

3. Japan, p. 218
Describe the tone color and the function of the following instruments:
ryuteki, sho, tsuridaiko, and gakuso.

4. "Etenraku," p. 21.9 Briefly discuss the three characteristics


of gagaku music that are heard in "Etenraku."
Other Classical Genres
250 Chapter 13
5. "Etenraku," p. 219 Describe how the mood of
"Etenraku" relates to the meaning of its name.
6. Balinese Gamelans, p. 220
What happened to the gamelan orchestra when Indonesia was under the
colonial rule of the Netherlands?

7. Gamelan Pelegongan, p. 221 How does the sound of the gamelan


orchestra differ from the sound of a European orchestra?

8. Form in Gamelan Music, p. 221


How did Classical composers like Mozart and Haydn create elaborate
musical forms, and how is that similar to or different from a composer for
the gamelan orchestra?

9. Form in Gamelan Music, p. 221 How is "stratified"


polyphony achieved in a gamelan composition?

10. "Bopong," p. 222 How is the


formal structure of "Bopong" organized?
C H A P T E R 14

eethoven

M ultiple -Choic e

Quest ions Listening

1. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


The first movement of Symphony No. S in C Minor begins, in the first two
measures:
a. loudly and emphatically.
b. moderately loud and flowing.
c. softly and mysteriously.
d. loudly with a syncopated rhythm.

2. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


The first movement of Symphony No. S in C Minor is dominated by a
repeated:
a. development.
b. violin solo.
c. exposition.
d. motive.

3. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


While the lyrical second theme occurs, what is happening in the
background of the first movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. menacing-sounding bassoons repeat
b. opening motive appears
c. imitative polyphony
d. energetic scales in the flutes

4. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


What do you hear in the recapitulation of the first movement of Symphony
No. S in C Minor that is unusual for this form?
a. an oboe cadenza
b. a short fugal section
c. a simple final variation of the theme
d. a repeat of the recapitulation

S. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


What gives the opening of the first movement of Symphony No. Sin C
Minor its "improvisational, primal quality "?
a. the fanfare of the bassoons
b. the use of polyphony
c. the use of three fermatas in the presentation of the opening motive
d. the use of the upper range of the woodwind section
Chapter 14 Beethoven 254

6. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


What is the form of the first movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. rondo form
b. theme and variations form
c. sonata form
d. minuet form

7. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


The performing forces in the first movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor
consist of:
a. strings, woodwinds, and percussion.
b. strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
c. strings, woodwinds, continuo, and brass.
d. strings, woodwinds, continuo, brass, and percussion.

8. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 234


Which comes closest to describing the tempo of the second movement of
Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. andante
b. allegro
c. grave
d. vivace

9. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 234


The second movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor is in form.
a. sonata
b. rondo
c. minuet
d. theme and variations

10. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 234


The meter of the second movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor is:
a. simple duple.
b. compound duple.
c. simple triple.
d. compound triple.

11. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 234


How many themes are handled in the second movement of Symphony No. 5 in
C Minor?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

12. Symphony No. S in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 234


With which musical element does the composer achieve the most
Chapter 14 Beethoven 255
contrast in the second movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. melody
b. texture
c. tone color
d. dynamics
Chapter 14 Beethoven 256

13. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


The meter of the third movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor is:
a. simple duple.
b. simple triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

14. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


Which is true about the second (b) theme in the third movement of
Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. It recalls the first movement of Mozart's Symphony No. 40.
b. It recalls the oboe cadenza of the first movement of this work.
c. It recalls the rhythmic motive of the first movement of this work.
d. It is very similar to the first theme of this selection.

15. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235 The middle


portion of the third movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor
includes:
a. a fugal section.
b. the development of the first two themes.
c. a cadenza.
d. variations on the first theme.

16. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


Which of the following is true about the end of the third movement of
Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. It ends with a conclusive, triumphant coda.
b. It ends with an oboe solo.
c. The recapitulation is repeated.
d. It continues right into the next movement of this work.

17. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


The meter of the fourth movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor is:
a. simple duple.
b. simple triple.
c. compound duple.
d. compound triple.

18. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


The fourth movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor is in form.
a. minuet
b. sonata
c. rondo
d. theme and variations

19. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


The tonality of the fourth movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor
Chapter 14 Beethoven 257
starts in:
a. major and ends in minor.
b. minor and ends in major.
c. major, has a brief section in minor, then ends in major.
d. minor, has a brief section in major, then ends in minor.
258 Chapter 14 Beethoven

20. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235 The


surprise in the fourth movement of Symphony No. 5 in C
Minor is:
a. the march theme in the beginning.
b. the oboe cadenza before the recapitulation.
c. the piano introduction of the development.
d. the appearance of the second theme of the scherzo movement before
the recapitulation.

21. Beethoven, String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237


The opening melody of the second movement of Beethoven's String Quartet
in F is:
a. long and lyrical.
b. short and quiet.
c. disjunct and very loud.
d. conjunct and serene.

22. Beethoven, String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237


The rhythmic feature of the second phrase in the opening melody of the
second movement of Beethoven 's String Quartet in F is:
a. a steady pulsing in duple meter.
b. a slower tempo.
c. a constant emphasis of the first beat.
d. a constant use of syncopation.

23. Beethoven, String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237


The tempo/meter of the second movement of Beethoven's String Quartet in
F is:
a. fast triple meter.
b. fast duple meter.
c. slow compound meter.
d. slow duple meter.

24. Beethoven, String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237 In the second


movement of the String Quartet in F, Beethoven creates contrast in his
use of:
a. disjunct melodies.
b. changing from triple meter to duple meter.
c. ascending scales.
d. irregular rhythmic patterns.

Topics

25. Beethoven, p. 227


From what condition did Beethoven suffer?
a. paralysis
b. deafness
c. blindness
d. mental illness
Chapter 14 Beethoven 259
26. Beethoven, p. 227
Which best describes the early-nineteenth-century concept of the artist,
as exemplified by Beethoven?
a. an artisan under the authority of the court
b. an artisan under the authority of the church
c. an inspired soul who suffers to deliver art to humanity
d. a socialite who caters to the desires of the aristocracy in artistic
matters
260 Chapter 14 Beethoven

27. Between Classicism and Romanticism, p. 227


Beethoven wrote music in both the___ style and the_______ style.
a. Classical; Romantic
b. Classical; Baroque
c. Baroque; Romantic
d. Romantic; Medieval

28. The French Revolution, p. 228


What European political figure inspired Beethoven in his composing the
Eroica Symphony?
a. Emperor Franz Joseph II
b. Napoleon Bonaparte
c. King George of England
d. Thomas Jefferson

29. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 229


With which genre is Beethoven most closely associated?
a. symphony
b. cantata
c. opera
d. oratorio

30. Ludwig van Beethoven, p. 230


Beethoven's performing instrument was the:
a. violin.
b. flute.
c. piano.
d. cello.

31. Ludwig van Beethoven, p. 230


Beethoven stopped performing because:
a. he gradually went blind.
b. his music was not popular.
c. the church did not approve of his work.
d. he became progressively deaf.

32. Ludwig van Beethoven, p. 230


According to most sources, which characterizes Beethoven's personality?
a. quiet and timid
b. fun-loving and health conscious
c. brusque and strong-willed
d. self-effacing and modest

33. Ludwig van Beethoven, p. 230


According to most sources, Beethoven's personal life was:
a. that of a stable family man.
b. somewhat chaotic and lonely.
c. violent and exciting.
d. dull, because music consumed his life.

34. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 230


All of the following are characteristics of Beethoven's symphonic
Chapter 14 Beethoven 261
compositional style except:
a. rhythmic drive
b. motivic consistency
c. disregard for Classical forms
d. psychological progression during a work
Chapter 14 Beethoven 262

35. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 229


Which musical characteristic of Beethoven's symphonies seems far
from the Classical style of Mozart and Haydn?
a. extravagance of ornamentation
b. fugal sections
c. strict adherence to harmonic formulas
d. rhythmic drive

36. The Scherzo, p. 231


The scherzo, a fast, triple-meter movement, evolved from the:
a. rondo.
b. minuet.
c. minuet-trio.
d. sonata.

37. The Scherzo, p. 231


The English word for scherzo is:
a. "running."
b. "dream."
c. "joke."
d. "story."

38. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 231


Which best describes the psychological progression of Symphony No. 5 in
C Minor?
a. a heroic struggle with fate, starting out stormily and ending
triumphantly
b. a romantic struggle with happiness at the end
c. a religious struggle between good and evil; starting out carefree and
ending tragically
d. the struggle of humanity against nature; pitting a soloist
against the forces of the orchestra

39. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235


What happens at the end of the third movement of Symphony No. 5 in C
Minor?
a. Trombones are heard for the first time.
b. The music reaches a loud cadence.
c. A transition passage leads directly into the fourth movement.
d. Woodwinds play variations on the theme

40. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 235 Which instrument is


not heard until the fourth movement of Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
a. clarinet
b. viola
c. French horn
d. trombone
Chapter 14 Beethoven 263
41. Beethoven's "Third Period," p. 237
Music scholars divide Beethoven's music into distinct style periods.
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five
134 Chapter 14 Beethoven

42. Beethoven's "Third Period," p. 237


Which is true of the style periods of Beethoven?
a. They progress from Classical to heroic to serene.
b. They progress from Classical to innovative to heroic.
c. They progress from Classical to serene to heroic.
d. They progress from innovative to Classical to religious.

43. Beethoven's "Third Period," p. 237


Beethoven composed mostly_____ in his last style period.
a. symphonies and concertos
b. piano sonatas and string quartets
c. operas
d. oratorios and Masses

44. String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237


The second movement of Beethoven's String Quartet in F is in
form.
a. scherzo
b. sonata
c. more than one
d. minuet
Chapter 14 Beethoven 265
4S. String Quartet in F, Op. 135, p. 237
The second movement of Beethoven's String to create a
Quartet in F uses of fast, skittering motion.
a. fast notes
b. syncopation
c. rapid harmonic changes
d. irregular meters

Essay Questions

1. Beethoven, p. 227 Briefly describe the image of


Beethoven that listeners get from his music.
Chapter 14 Beethoven 266
2. Beethoven, p. 227
Briefly describe the image of the artistic genius that evolved at the
beginning of the nineteenth century.

3. Beethoven, p. 227
Briefly explain the physical problem that afflicted age thirty, how he
Beethoven by this problem, and how it changed coped with
his career.

4. Between Classicism and Romanticism, p. 227


What two musical styles did Beethoven embrace? elements of each style
appear
5. The French Revolution, p. 228 Briefly explain the connection
between Napoleon and Beethoven' s Eroica Symphony.

6. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 229 With which genre is Beethoven


generally associated? Which work typifies the genre as a whole?
Chapter 14 Beethoven 267

7. Beethoven and the Symphony, p. 229 Name and discuss the three
main features that attract listeners to Beethoven's symphonies.

8. The Scherzo, p. 231 Define scherzo form. Use


letters to diagram its structure.

9. The Scherzo, p. 231


Compare and contrast the Viennese Classical minuet and trio form with
Beethoven's scherzo form. Use the third movement from Symphony No. 5
in C Minor or the second movement from the String Quartet in F as an
example.

10. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, p. 231


What musical elements do all of the movements of Symphony No. 5 in
C Minor have in common?

11. Beethoven's "Third Period," p. 237


Name all of the compositional style periods of Beethoven. Then
characterize each period and name one work Beethoven wrote during
each of the last two periods.

136
C H A P T E R 15

Prelude
Music after Beethoven: Romanticism

Multiple-Choice Questions

Music after Beethoven: Romanticism, p. 239


The term romantic was:
a. applied by music critics in the twentieth century.
b. used by writers of literature in the nineteenth century and
adopted by musicians.
c. applied only to music, not literature, of the nineteenth century.
d. applied only to literature, not music, of the nineteenth century.

2. Music after Beethoven: Romanticism, p. 239


The composer most responsible for elevating music to a new level
of respect during the Romantic era was:
a. Ludwig van Beethoven.
b. Franz Liszt.
c. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
d. Gustav Mahler.

3. Music after Beethoven: Romanticism, p. 239


Which is true of the relative status of music in the nineteenth
century?
a. Music was the most important of the arts.
b. Music became less and less important as a separate art form
because various art forms were combined.
c. Music rose to the same status as literature.
d. Music was the least important of the arts.

4. Romanticism, p. 239
The Romantic movement in literature first arose in:
a. France and Austria.
b. Italy and Spain.
c. Belgium and the Netherlands.
d. England and Germany.

5. The Cult of Individual Feeling, p. 240


Who provided the Romantics with the ideal of the individual and was
considered
the ideological father of the French Revolution?
a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
b. Ludwig van Beethoven
c. Franz Schubert
d. Victor Hugo

136
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 271

6. The Cult of Individual Feeling, p. 240


Which describes the emotional goal of music in the nineteenth century?
a. a return to religious mysticism and spiritual values
b. light entertainment, with comedy reigning supreme
c. a search for freedom of individual emotional expression
d. artificial, intellectual entertainment; suppression of individual
emotions

7. Romanticism and Revolt, p. 241


Which is true of Romantic composers such as Beethoven, Liszt, and Verdi?
a. They avoided all involvement in political and social
revolution, feeling that music transcended politics.
b. They wanted to promote emotional expression without
disrupting the established social order.
c. People used their music to promote revolutionary
movements, but the composers did not associate themselves
with such movements.
d. As rebels against the social order, they associated
themselves with revolutionary and libertarian politics.

8. Romanticism and Revolt, p. 241


Which is true of the social revolution of the nineteenth century?
a. Class boundaries were personally crossed by composers such as Liszt.
b. From the start, the ruling class refused to accept the new emotional
music.
c. Composers such as Wagner refused to join the revolutionaries.
d. Composers failed to infiltrate the upper classes; this fueled a
rebellious, impassioned creative output.

9. Music and the Supernatural, p. 242


An early monument to supernatural Romanticism was the opera The Magic
Bullet by:
a. Franz Schubert
b. Carl Maria von Weber
c. Richard Wagner
d. Hector Berlioz

10. Artistic Barriers, p. 242


Which describes Romantic composers' view of form and genre?
a. Romantic composers did not allow form or genre to restrain
spontaneous creativity.
b. Romantic composers fought to maintain all the forms and genres of
the Classical era.
c. Romantic composers adhered strictly to genre but escaped the
restraints of Classical
forms.
d. Romantic composers adhered strictly to Classical forms but
272 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
escaped the restraints of strict genres.

11. Music and the Other Arts, p. 244


In the nineteenth century, which of the arts was believed to be the most
capable of expressing inner experience and emotion?
a. sculpture
b. theater
c. painting
d. music

136
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 273

12. Concert Life in the Nineteenth Century, p. 244


Increasingly, the focal point for the performance of Romantic music was
the:
a. concert hall.
b. court.
c, church.
d. chamber music salon.

13. Concert Life in the Nineteenth Century, p. 245


What musical genres became established on the concert stage by the
end of the nineteenth century?
a. operas and organ recitals
b. concertos and symphonies
c. lieder and string quartets
d. cantatas and masses

14. The Artist and the Public, p. 246


Which is true of the relationship between Romantic composers and the
public?
a. With the popularity of public concerts, composers and the
public saw eye to eye on what sort of music fit the Romantic ideal.
b. Popular performers and composers such as Liszt and Wagner
helped close the gap between the Romantic artist and the public.
c. Nineteenth-century audiences became more conservative and
more critical of innovative composers.
d. The music of innovative composers such as Liszt, Wagner, and
Mahler was embraced enthusiastically by a forward-looking public
in the nineteenth century.

15. The Artist and the Public, p. 246


The composer who started a music magazine to defend the music of the
Romantics against public indifference was:
a. Franz Liszt.
b. Robert Schumann.
c. Richard Wagner.
d. Gustav Mahler.

16. Style Features of Romantic Music, p. 246


The quality most prized by Romantic artists was:
a. conformity to musical forms and genres set up in the Classical era.
b. dislike for the Middle Ages.
c. the integrity of the expression of individual feeling.
d. the ability to cross over into artistic areas other than one's own.

17. Rhythm: Rubato, p. 246


The musical term applied to flexibility in rhythm is:
a. ritardando.
b. rallentando.
c. rubato.
d. accelerando.
274 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
18. Romantic Melody, p. 247
Which statement is false?
a. Romantic melodies have more regular phrase lengths than Classical
melodies.
b. Romantic melodies use a greater range of notes than Classical
melodies.
c. Romantic melodies have more sustained climaxes than Classical
melodies.
d. Romantic melodies have less regular rhythms than Classical
melodies.
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 275

19. Romantic Harmony, p. 248


Which statement is false?
a. Romantic melodies were longer and less predictable than in earlier
musical periods.
b. In Romantic music, harmony was enjoyed for its own sake and
was used for emotional expression.
c. In Romantic music, rhythm was treated more freely than before.
d. Romantic harmonies were clearer and more diatonic, and they
established a stronger sense of tonality than in earlier musical
periods.

20. Romantic Harmony, p. 248


What is chromaticism?
a. changing key in the middle of a composition
b. changing tone colors frequently in an orchestral composition
c. using irregular phrase lengths
d. using all twelve notes of the scale liberally

21. Romantic Harmony, p. 248


In which stylistic period was chromaticism used the most?
a. Baroque
b. Romantic
c. Classical
d. Renaissance

22. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


Romantic treatment of tone color included:
a. combining and blending different instrumental tone colors in
innovative ways.
b. keeping the sections of the orchestra distinct and clear.
c. giving the brass section the melody most of the time.
d. using more flexible instrumentation in orchestral scores: parts
could be played by any instruments.

23. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


Compared to the Classical orchestra, the typical Romantic orchestra was:
a. larger but had fewer different kinds of instruments.
b. larger and blended tone colors in new ways.
c. larger, adding instruments such as the piano to the continuo section.
d. smaller but had new stringed instruments.

24. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


The important new member of the Romantic orchestra was the:
a. concertmaster.
b. continuo player.
c. conductor.
d. moderator.

25. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


276 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
In nineteenth-century opera, the orchestra:
a. became less important as vocal lines became more important.
b. was reduced to a small group as opera houses became smaller.
c. became more important than the vocal lines; the voices now
accompanied the orchestra.
d. increased in importance, sometimes providing special effects
and overshadowing the voices.
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 277

26. Program Music, p. 249


Music without singing but derived from a poem, story, or other
literary source, is called:
a. Gesamtkunstwerk.
b. a romantic symphony.
c. thematic transformation.
d. program music.

27. Form in Romantic


Music, p. 250 Romantic
treatment of form was:
a. exact.
b. close to that of the Classical era.
c. free and spontaneous.
d. innovative but highly structured.

28. Miniature
Compositions, p. 250
Miniatures were usually
written for:
a. orchestra.
b. voice and piano or piano alone.
c. string quartets.
d. small opera companies.

29. Miniature Compositions, p. 250


Miniatures were generally heard:
a. as separate compositions.
b. as the third movement of a Romantic multimovement work.
c. as part of a sonata.
d. between opera acts or scenes.

30. Miniature Compositions, p. 251


Miniatures were given all of the following types of titles except:
a. general titles such as prelude or impromptu.
b. formal titles such as sonata or rondo.
c. poetic titles such as Why? or Woodland Sketches.
d. dance titles, such as mazurka or waltz.

31. Grandiose Compositions, p. 251


In composing a Romantic "grandiose " composition, composers created
works with:
a. more narrated sections.
b. more movements and increased performing forces.
c. small forms linked together.
278 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
d. more adherence to strict formal structures.

32. The Principle of


Thematic Unity, p. 252 Thematic
unity occurs:
a. within only one movement at a time.
b. when a composer uses the same themes in all movements of a
work.
c. mostly in theme and variations form.
d. only in the recapitulation section of sonata form.
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 279

33. The Principle of Thematic Unity, p. 252


The technique of having the same theme fragment reappear with some
sort of variation at loosely recurring intervals is:
a. thematic transformation.
b. theme and variations form.
c. program music.
d. rondo variation form.

34. The Principle of Thematic Unity, p. 252


All of the following are characteristic of thematic unity in Romantic
symphonic music except:
a. thematic transformation.
b. using the same themes in several symphonies.
c. using the same themes in all movements of one symphony.
d. use of different but vaguely similar themes in one work.

Essay Questions

1. Music after Beethoven: Romanticism, p. 239


Define the term romantic and give the source of the term. Explain who
applied it to this style period.

2. Music after Beethoven: Romanticism, p. 239 Briefly describe


the status of music in relation to the other arts in the nineteenth
century.

3. Romanticism, p. 239 When and where did the Romantic


movement begin and in which area of the arts?

4. The Cult of Individual Feeling, p. 240


Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau? Why is he important to the Romantic
movement in all the arts? What were his views on music and the
expression of feelings?

5. Romanticism and Revolt,


p. 241 Why were the Romantics
seen as rebels?

6. Romanticism and Revolt, p. 241


Briefly discuss the influence of the revolutionary political climate on
musical trends in the nineteenth century. Refer to two nineteenth-
century composers in your answer.

7. Music and the Supernatural, p. 241 Briefly discuss the


Romantic fascination with the supernatural and the macabre.

8. Music and the Supernatural, p. 242


How did composers such as Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, and
Hector Berlioz use the elements of music to summon up images of the
supernatural and macabre?

9. Artistic Barriers, p. 242 Why was


280 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
Shakespeare so popular with Romantic
composers?

10. Artistic Barriers, p. 243 Briefly describe the attitude embraced


by Romantic composers toward form and harmony.

11. Music and the Other Arts, p. 243


Briefly discuss how artists in the nineteenth century crossed the barriers
between literature, the visual arts, and music.
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 281

12. Music and the Other Arts, p. 243 Briefly


define Gesamtkunstwerk in terms of Wagner's
operas.

13. Music and the Other Arts, p. 244


How did Romantics view the expressive capability of music as compared
with the expressive capability of the other arts?

14. Concert Life in the Nineteenth Century, p. 245


Briefly explain why the concert hall became the most important place
for musical performance in the nineteenth century.

15. Concert Life in the Nineteenth Century, p. 245 Describe the


negative aspect of the institutionalization of concerts in the nineteenth
century.

16. The Artist and the Public, p. 246


Briefly describe the relationship between the concertgoer and the
composer during the nineteenth century. Did this relationship improve or
worsen as the twentieth century approached? How?

17. The Artist and the Public, p. 246 What was the
significance of the music magazine begun by Robert
Schumann?

18. Style Features of Romantic Music, p. 246 Name and


describe the two most highly valued qualities in Romantic creative
activity.

19. Rhythm: Rubato, p. 246


Define rubato. Briefly explain why it was an important element for Romantic
composers and performers.

20. Romantic Melody, p. 247


Briefly describe Romantic melody in terms of range, phrase lengths, use
of climax, and regularity of rhythm.

21. Romantic Melody, p. 247


Contrast Classical and Romantic
melody.

22. Romantic Harmony, p. 247


Briefly describe the way in which Romantic composers used harmony in
relation to melody and emotional expression.

23. Romantic Harmony, p. 248


Define chromaticism and briefly discuss why the Romantic composers
explored its use in their music.

24. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


Briefly describe the status of tone color among other musical elements
as used by Romantic composers.
282 Chapter 15 Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism
25. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248
Compare and contrast the Classical orchestra with the Romantic
orchestra. Which families of instruments underwent the most growth and
change?

26. The Expansion of Tone Color, p. 248


Compare and contrast the ways Classical composers and Romantic
composers used orchestral tone colors.
Chapter 1S Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism 283

27. Program
Music, p. 249
Define program music.

28. Program Music, p. 249 Briefly discuss how


program music deals with the problem of form.

29. Form in Romantic Music, p. 249 Briefly describe the


attitude of Romantic composers toward the use of form.

30. Miniature Compositions, p. 250


Briefly describe the nineteenth-century miniature composition. For what
media were miniatures usually written?

31. Miniature Compositions, p. 251 How did


miniature compositions deal with the problem of
form?

32. Grandiose Compositions, p. 251


Briefly explain the "grandiose" compositions of the Romantic era. Briefly
describe three ways in which these works are grandiose.

33. Grandiose Compositions, p. 252 How did


grandiose compositions deal with the problem of
form?
34. The Principle of Thematic Unity, p. 252
Briefly describe thematic transformation. How does this technique contribute
to thematic unity in a work?

144
C H A PT ER 16

The Early 6 ti

Multiple-Choice Questions
L i s t e n i n g

1. "Erlkonig," p. 255
Who composed "Erlkonig"?
a. Robert Schumann
b. Franz Schubert
c. Hector Berlioz
d. Richard Wagner

2. "Erlkonig," p. 255
"Erlkonig" is a:
a. da capo aria.
b. miniature composition.
c. grandiose composition.
d. recitative from an opera.

3. "Erlkonig," p. 255
The form of "Erlkonig" is______ form.
a. strophic
b. ABA
c. through-composed
d. rondo

4. "Erlkonig," p. 255
Flow many different "characters" do you hear in
"Erlkonig"?
a. one, plus the narrator
b. two, plus the narrator
c. three, plus the narrator
d. four, plus the narrator

5. "Erlkonig," p. 255
The performing forces in "Erlkonig" consist of:
a. three soloists and piano.
b. two soloists and piano.
c. one soloist, piano, and violin.
d. one soloist and piano.

144
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 287

6. "Erllconig," p. 255 Becauseof the piano accompaniment, it can


be said that the mood of Erllconig " is:
"

a. agitated.
b. loving.
c. restful.
d. victorious.

7. "Erlkonig," p. 255
What does the piano introduction to "Erllconig" bring to mind?
a. the gurgling of a restful stream
b. the spinning of a windmill
c. the crash of the ocean waves
d. the pounding of a horse's hooves

8. Dichterliebe, "Im wunderschonen Monat Mai, " p. 259


Who composed "Im wunderschonen Monat Mai"?
a. Franz Schubert
b. Richard Wagner
c. Frederic Chopin
d. Robert Schumann
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 288

9. Dichterliebe, "Im wunderschonen Monat Mai, " p.


259 The performing forces in "Im consist of________ vocal
wunderschonen Monat Mai " soloist(s) and
a. female; piano
b. male; orchestra
c. male; piano
d. two; piano

10. Dichterliebe, "Im wunderschonen


Monat Mai," p. 259 "Im wunderschonen
Monat Mai" is part of a(n):
a. opera.
b. song cycle.
c. oratorio.
d. Mass.

11. Dichterliebe, "Im wunderschonen


Monat Mai, " p. 259 The form of "Im
wunderschonen Monat Mai" is:
a. strophic.
b. da capo aria.
c. through-composed.
d. theme and variations.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 289

12. Dichterliebe, "Iin wunderschonen Monat Mai," p. 259


Which is true of the ending of "Im wunderschonen Monat Mai"?
a. The climax at the end gives the impression of love returned at last.
b. The lack of a harmonic resolution gives the impression of endless
longing and desire.
c. The quiet cadence gives the impression of peace and solitude.
d. The climax at the end gives the impression that the hero is
victorious over his rival suitor.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 290

13. Dichterliebe, "Die alten, bosen Lieder," p.


260 Who composed "Die alten, bosen
Lieder"?
a. Franz Schubert
b. Franz Liszt
c. Robert Schumann
d. Hector Berlioz

14. Dichterliebe, "Die alten, bosen Lieder," p. 260


Which best describes the prevailing mood of "Die alten,
bosen Lieder"?
a. cheerful, then gloomy at the end
b. sad, then downright frightening at the end
c. meditative, then suddenly cheerful and bright at the
end
d. anguished, then comforting at the end
15. Dichterliebe, "Die alten, bosen Lieder," p. 260
The form of "Die alten, bosen Lieder" is:
a. mostly strophic.
b. mostly sonata.
c. mostly through-composed.
d. a loosely arranged da capo aria.

16. "Der Mond kommt still gegangen," p. 263


Who composed "Der Mond kommt still gegangen"?
a. Robert Schumann
b. Clara Wieck Schumann
c. Franz Schubert
d. Frederic Chopin

17. "Der Mond kommt still gegangen," p. 263 "Der Mond


kommt still gegangen " is a(n):
a. miniature composition.
b. sonata.
c. character piece.
d. opera aria.

18. "Der Mond kommt still gegangen," p. 263


"Der Mond kommt still gegangen" is in___ form.
a. da capo, or A B A'
b. through-composed
c. theme and variations
d. modified strophic

19. "Der Mond kommt still gegangen, " p. 263


Which best describes the mood of "Der Mond kommt still
gegangen"?
a. angry
b. triumphant
c. pensive
d. whimsical
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 291
20. Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat, p. 265
Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat has in its opening idea a:
a. plain melody with a steady accompaniment.
b. quick running figure in the left hand.
c. series of ascending scales.
d. gentle, rhythmic rocking figure.
292 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

21. Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat, p. 265


The contrasting section of Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat is characterized
by:
a. a change in mode.
b. a short fugal section.
c. a change in meter.
d. a quick running note melody in the right hand.
"
22. Carnaval,Eusebius, " p.
265 Who composed
"Eusebius"?
a. Franz Schubert
b. Robert Schumann
c. Franz Liszt
d. Frederic Chopin

"Eusebius," p. 265
23. Carnaval,
Which best describes the mood of "Eusebius"?
a. introspective
b. angry
c. triumphant
d. sad and defeated

24. Carnaval, "Eusebius," p. 265


"Eusebius" is a:
a. lied.
b. movement from a piano sonata.
c. character piece.
d. grandiose Romantic composition.
"
25. Carnaval,Eusebius, " p. 265
The texture of
"Eusebius" is:
a. monophonic.
b. homophonic.
c. imitative polyphony.
d. non-imitative polyphony.

26. Carnaval,"Florestan, " p.


266 Who composed
"Florestan "?
a. Frederic Chopin
b. Franz Liszt
c. Robert Schumann
d. Franz Schubert

"Florestan, " p. 266


27. Carnaval,
Which best describes the mood of "Florestan"?
a. mysterious and macabre
b. explosive
c. peaceful, but with longing
d. controlled and restrained
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 293
"
28. Carnaval, "Florestan, p. 266
"
Florestan " is a:
a. movement from a piano sonata.
b. movement from a piano concerto.
c. character piece.
d. grandiose composition.
294 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

29. Nocturne in F-sharp, Op.


15, No. 2, p. 266 Who composed
the Nocturne in F-sharp?
a. Franz Schubert
b. Frederic Chopin
c. Robert Schumann
d. Franz Liszt

30. Nocturne in F-sharp, Op. 15, No. 2, p. 266


Which best describes the mood of Nocturne in F-sharp?
a. It starts out peacefully, becomes passionate, then ends
peacefully.
b. It starts out passionately, becomes soothing and peaceful in
the middle, and ends passionately.
c. It is triumphant and victorious throughout.
d. It is gloomy and mysterious throughout.

31. Nocturne in F-sharp, Op.


15, No. 2, p. 266 Nocturne in F-
sharp is a:
a. movement from a piano sonata.
b. program piano sonata.
c. movement from a piano concerto.
d. character piece.

32. Nocturne in F-sharp, Op. 15, No. 2, p. 266


Which technique do you hear in Nocturne in F-sharp?
a. decoration of the melodic line
b. syncopation in the bass line
c. isorhythm throughout
d. fugue in the middle section

33. Fantastic Symphony, p. 270


Who composed the Fantastic Symphony?
a. Franz Liszt
b. Hector Berlioz
c. Richard Wagner
d. Ludwig van Beethoven

34. Fantastic
Symphony, p. 270
Fantastic Symphony is
a(n):
a. opera.
b. song cycle.
c. program symphony.
d. concert overture.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 295
35. Fantastic Symphony, p. 273
Because of much of the orchestration, the mood of the fifth
movement of Fantastic Symphony can be described as:
a. grotesque and macabre.
b. serene and soothing.
c. spiritual and introspective.
d. passionate and romantic.
296 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

36. Fantastic Symphony, p. 273


The special effect of c o l legno in the violins that is heard toward the end
of the fifth movement of Fantastic Symphony is:
a. the technique of pizzicato.
b. the use of sharply accented notes.
c. the striking of the wood of the bow on the strings.
d. the light stamping of the violin section.

37. Fantastic Symphony, p. 273


Which is true of the fifth movement of Fantastic Symphony?
a. The meter and rhythm are consistent and steady throughout the
selection.
b. A plainchant melody is heard in this selection.
c. This selection is a programmatic concert overture.
d. This selection is a character piece for orchestra.

38. Fantastic Symphony, p. 273


All of the following are heard in the fifth movement of Fantastic Symphony
except:
a. a plainchant melody.
b. a fugal section.
c. an idee fixe.
d. a cadenza.

To p i c s

39. The Early Romantics, p. 254


Who was not a Romantic composer?
a. Robert Schumann
b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
c. Franz Schubert
d. Frederic Chopin

40. The Early Romantics, p. 254 Who had the


greatest influence on early Romantic composers?
a. Johann Sebastian Bach
b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
c. Ludwig van Beethoven
d. Franz Joseph Haydn

41. The Early Romantics, p. 254


Which of the other arts had the greatest influence on the early Romantic
composers?
a. sculpture
b. literature
c. painting
d. architecture

42. The Lied, p.


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 297
254 The English word
for lied is:
a. "song. "
b. "love."
c. "romance. "
d. "story."
298 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

43. The Lied, p. 254


The lied is a type of:
a. concert overture.
b. grandiose Romantic composition.
c. miniature Romantic composition.
d. opera aria.

44. The Lied, p. 254


The nineteenth-century German genre consisting of a musical setting
of a short poem for voice and piano is the:
a. song cycle.
b. lied.
c. concert overture.
d. character piece.

45. The Lied, p. 255


Which is true of lieder?
a. Lieder are usually sung a cappella.
b. Lieder are set to sacred texts.
c. The emotional expression in lieder leaves an impression of intimacy.
d. Lieder generally appears in parts of operas where plot action does
not move quickly.

46. "Erlkonig," p. 255


Who was the earliest master of the lied?
a. Robert Schumann
b. Ludwig van Beethoven
c. Franz Schubert
d. Johann Sebastian Bach

47. "Erlkonig," p. 256


What are the two basic forms of lieder?
a. theme and variations, and sonata
b. recitative and da capo aria
c. minuet and rondo
d. strophic and through-composed

48. "Erlkonig," p. 256


A song in which the musical sections do not follow the verses of poetry,
but are composed with new material from beginning to end, is said to
be:
a. through-composed.
b. strophic.
c. programmatic.
d. grandiose.

49. "Erlkonig," p. 256


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 299
In which form was "Erlkonig" composed?
a. strophic
b. through-composed
c. da capo aria
d. recitative
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 300

50. "Erlkbnig," p. 257


All of the following are true of "Erlkonig" except:
a. It is through-composed.
b. It is a song cycle.
c. It represents three characters and a narrator with one singer and a
piano.
d. The piano part is very descriptive.

51. Franz Schubert, p. 257


Schubertbeganhiscareerasa______________, then devoted his time to
a. performer; composition
b. librarian; singing
c. schoolteacher; composition
d. doctor; piano performance

52. Franz Schubert, p. 257


Schubert wrote nearly seven hundred:
a. lieder.
b. character pieces for piano.
c. opera arias.
d. string quartets.

53. The Song Cycle, p. 258


A song cycle is a(n):
a. group of four or more operas all unified by the same characters.
b. art song in German with several verses of poetry.
c. group of songs with a common poetic theme or unifying story.
d. form used in multimovement lieder where the same theme comes
back in each movement.

54. Dichterliebe, p. 259


Dichterliebe is a:
a. program symphony.
b. lied.
c. song cycle.
d. character piece for piano.

55. Dichterliebe, p. 259


Which is true of Dichterliebe?
a. The text of Dichterliebe is a narrative poem.
b. It is in through-composed form.
c. It includes the song "Erlkonig."
d. Its mood changes from cautious optimism to despair.

56. Robert Schumann, p. 262


Which statement is false?
a. Schumann's musical career was eclipsed by that of his wife, the
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 301
musically gifted Clara Wieck Schumann.
b. Schumann's performing career was cut short when he injured a
finger while trying to strengthen his fingers with a mechanical
device.
c. Schumann's career included founding and editing a music magazine.
d. Schumann's life and career were cut short by mental illness.
152 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

57. "Der Mond kommt still gegangen, " p. 263


Which musical element contributes most to the thoughtful mood of
"Der Mond kommt still gegangen"?
a. somewhat unusual chords in the harmony
b. insistent rhythmic figures
c. A-B-A form
d. voice and piano tone color
58. Clara Wieck263
Schumann, p. a great pianist in her time.
Which statement is recognized one of the greatest composers in
false? as her day. a great teacher in her
a. Clara Schumann wasrecognized time.
b. d.
Clara Schumann
Clara wasas
Schumann married one of her father's music students.

59. The Character Piece for Piano, p. 264


In the nineteenth century, what instrument was the most likely to be
composed for and played as a solo instrument?
a. piano
b. organ
c. violin
d. voice

60. The Character Piece


for Piano, p. 264 A character
piece is a:
a. composition for voice and piano.
b. miniature composition for piano.
c. grandiose composition for piano.
d. miniature composition for orchestra.

61. The Character Piece for Piano, p. 264


Chopin preferred genre titles for his character pieces like:
a. "March to the Scaffold."
b. "Venetian Boat Song."
c. "Etude."
d. "Eusebius."

62. The Character Piece for Piano, p. 264


Which statement about character pieces is false?
a. Character pieces were always connected to novels and literature.
b. Character pieces range from those meant for the beginning
student to those for the virtuoso performer.
c. Character pieces were composed for piano.
d. Character pieces all portrayed a definite mood or character.

63. Schubert, Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat,


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 303
p. 265 Franz Schubert's Moment Musical No. 2 in
A-flat is considered:
a. a lied.
b. a reflection of the Classical period.
c. a miniature.
d. a minuet.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 304

64. Carnaval
, p. 265 What
is Carnaval?
a. a song cycle
b. a set of character pieces
c. an opera
d. a lied

65. Carnaval, p. 265


Carnaval contains twenty pieces, each representing a different:
a. musical theme.
b. emotional state of the composer.
c. character at a masked ball.
d. character in the hero's opium dream.

66. Frederic Chopin, p. 267


Frederic Chopin did not compose:
a. piano concertos.
b. nocturnes.
c. symphonies.
d. mazurkas.

67. Frederic Chopin, p. 267


How did Chopin support himself?
a. He gave piano lessons and sold his music to publishers.
b. He was an organist and composer at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
c. He was supported by the successful writer George Sand.
d. He was one of the first pianists to support himself entirely by
concertizing throughout the world.

68. Frederic Chopin, p. 267


Chopin was most noted for composing:
a. symphonies.
b. lieder.
c. character pieces for piano.
d. religious choral music.

69. Nocturne in F-
sharp, p. 266 A "night
piece " is a:
a. lied.
b. song cycle.
c. program symphony.
d. nocturne.

70. Franz Liszt, p. 268


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 305
At the end of his career, Liszt turned to composing:
a. operas.
b. piano music.
c. religious music.
d. orchestral music.
306 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

71. Franz Liszt, p. 268


Which statement about Franz Liszt is false?
a. He was shy and reclusive.
b. He was recognized as a great composer of piano music in
his time.
c. He was recognized as a great pianist in his time.
d. He had a lot of charisma, like a present-day rock star.

72. Franz Liszt, p. 268


The composer________ is generally regarded as the most
flamboyant pianist of the Romantic era.
a. Robert Schumann
b. Franz Liszt
c. Hector Berlioz
d. Ludwig van Beethoven

73. Early Romantic Program Music, p. 268


Which is true of program music?
a. It relies on abstract musical elements for form.
b. It attempts to convey dramatic polarity in sonata form.
c. It refers to some non-musical idea such as a poetic or
literary work.
d. It includes a sung text.

74. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, p. 270


Which statement about Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is false?
a. She was an accomplished composer.
b. She was the sister of Felix Mendelssohn.
c. She was not a professional musician.
d. Her compositions were widely admired during her lifetime.

75. The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn, p. 269


What is a concert overture?
a. the purely orchestral selection at the beginning of an
opera
b. the term for the first piece in any concert of nineteenth-
century music
c. the first movement of a program symphony
d. an overture that is not connected to any following music,
such as an opera

76. The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn, p. 269


One of the most successful composers of concert overtures
was:
a. Frederic Chopin.
b. Franz Schubert.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 307
c. Felix Mendelssohn.
d. Robert Schumann.

77. The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn, p. 269


A concert overture such as the Hebrides Overture is in_ form.
a. through-composed
b. strophic
c. sonata
d. rondo
308 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

78. Hector Berlioz, p. 271


Which composer was most admired for his ability as an orchestrator?
a. Hector Berlioz
b. Frederic Chopin
c. Robert Schumann
d. Franz Liszt

79. Hector Berlioz, p. 271


Which statement about Hector Berlioz is false?
a. He was one of the first great conductors.
b. He studied medicine briefly before turning to composition.
c. He wrote treatises on orchestration and conducting.
d. He was a great pianist.

80. The Program Symphony:


Hector Berlioz, p. 269 The Fantastic
Symphony includes a(n):
a. violin soloist.
b. idee fixe.
c. chorus.
d. group of vocal soloists.

81. The Program Symphony: Hector Berlioz, p. 269


A program symphony is a(n):
a. through-composed symphony in which there is no recurrence of
thematic material.
b. Romantic symphony that is based on a program.
c. orchestral concert for which a list of the works to be
performed is handed out to the audience.
d. work for an instrumental soloist that is based on a program.

82. The Program Symphony: Hector Berlioz, p. 269


Program symphonies are in the category of:
a. grandiose compositions.
b. miniature compositions.
c. orchestral cycles.
d. Gesamtkunstwerk.

83. Fantastic Symphony, p. 273


All are included in the fifth movement of Fantastic Symphony except:
a. a Gregorian chant melody.
b. a fugal section.
c. a sonata form.
d. an idee fixe.

Essay Questions

1. The Early Romantics, p. 254


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 309
Which composer had the greatest influence on the early Romantic
composers? Explain this influence.

2. The Early Romantics, p. 254 Briefly explain the


influence of literature on early Romantic composers.
310 Chapter 16 The Early Romantics

3. The Lied, p. 254 Define lied. In what


country did the lied evolve?

4. Franz Schubert, p. 257


Name five of the genres in which Franz Schubert composed. In which of
these genres did he compose the most extensively?

5. Franz Schubert, p. 255


Who is considered the earliest master of the lied? Name two lieder by
this composer and ex-plain the mood, character, or story of each.

6. The Song Cycle, p.


258 Define song cycle and
name one.

7. Lied and Song Cycle, p.


259 Differentiate between lied
and song cycle.

8. Dichterliebe, p. 259 Name two lieder of Robert Schumann and


explain the mood, character, or story of each.

9. Robert Schumann, p. 262


Briefly explain Robert Schumann's connection with Romantic literature. In
your answer, refer to the influence of Romantic literature on his work and
describe his contribution to the literature of his time.

10. The Character Piece for Piano, p. 264


Briefly explain why the piano was so popular with nineteenth-
century composers and audiences.

11. The Character Piece for Piano, p. 264 Describe the


character piece for piano. Name two composers famous for such
pieces.

12. Carnaval, p. 265


In what genre are the sections of Carnaval? Name one selection from this
work and describe its mood.

13. Frederic Chopin, p. 267


Characterize the personality and music of Frederic Chopin. Which
national flavor is found in his music?

14. Nocturne in F-sharp, p. 266 Define nocturne. Name a


composer who gave this title to some of his works.

15. Franz Liszt, p. 268


Briefly describe the personality and works of Franz Liszt. What stylistic
change did he make at the end of his career?

16. Early Romantic Program


Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 311
Music, p. 268 Define program music
and name an example.

17. The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn, p. 270 Briefly


describe the musical abilities and careers of Fanny and Felix
Mendelssohn.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 312

18. The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn, p. 269 What is a


concert overture? Compare and contrast opera overtures with concert
overtures.

19. Early Romantic Program Music, p. 269 Differentiate


between program music, program symphony, and concert
overture.

20. Hector Berlioz, p. 271


How was the musical background of Hector Berlioz different from that of
most other composers before him?

21. Hector Berlioz, p. 271


Briefly describe the personality of Hector Berlioz. How did he channel
his emotions into at least one of his works?

22. Hector Berlioz, p. 271


In which musical element was Berlioz regarded as an innovator? What
were his contributions to literature on music?

23. Fantastic Symphony, p. 269


Define idee fixe. Then name a nineteenth-century work containing an idee
fixe and describe the idee fixe in this work.
Chapter 16 The Early Romantics 313
24. Fantastic Symphony, p. 270 Briefly
describe the program for Fantastic
Symphony.
C H A P T E R 17

Romantic Opera

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. Aida, "La fatal pietra," from Tomb Scene, Act


IV, scene ii, p. 280 Who composed "La fatal pietra"?
a. Richard Wagner
b. Georges Bizet
c. Giacomo Puccini
d. Giuseppe Verdi

2. Aida, "La fatal pietra, " from Tomb Scene, Act


IV, scene ii, p. 280 Which is true of the opening lines
of "La fatal pietra" from Aida?
a. They are sung as a duet.
b. They are sung in a monotone.
c. They are sung in a polyphonic texture.
d. They are part of the first aria.

3. Aida, "La fatal pietra," from Tomb Scene, Act


IV, scene ii, p. 280 "La fatal pietra" from Aida is a(n):
a. art song.
b. aria.
c. recitative.
d. arioso.

4. Aida, "La fatal pietra," from Tomb Scene, Act


IV, scene ii, p. 280 What is not heard in "La fatal
pietra" from Aida?
a. a chorus
b. a female soloist
c. a male soloist
d. the orchestra

S. Aida, "La fatal pietra," from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene
ii, p. 280 "La fatal pietra" is from a(n):
a. song cycle for voice and orchestra.
b. opera.
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 315

c. oratorio.
d. lied.
6. Aida, "La fatal pietra," from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene ii, p. 280
What are the moods portrayed in "La fatal pietra" from Aida?
a. gloomy, then surprised, then gloomy
b. macabre, then playful, then mystical
c. gloomy, then fearful, then happy
d. peaceful and content, then gloomy

7. Aida, "Morir! si pura e bella!" from Tomb Scene, Act IV,


scene ii, p. 280 Who composed "Morir! si pura e bella! "?
a. Giacomo Puccini
b. Giuseppe Verdi
c. Richard Wagner
d. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

8. Aida, "Morir! si pura e bella! " from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene
ii, p. 280 "Morir! si pura e bella!" from Aida is the first line
of a(n):
a. aria.
b. recitative.
c. arioso.
d. duet.

9. Aida, "Morir! si pura e bella!" from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene ii, p. 280
The performing forces in the section starting with "Morir! si pura e bella!"
from Aida consist of:
a. a soprano soloist, chorus, and orchestra.
b. two female soloists and orchestra.
c. two male soloists and orchestra.
d. a tenor soloist and orchestra.

10. Aida, " 0 terra addio" from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene
ii, p. 280 Who composed " 0 terra addio"?
a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
b. Giacomo Puccini
c. Giuseppe Verdi
d. Richard Wagner

11. Aida, " 0 terra addio" from Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene
ii, p. 280 The " 0 terra addio" section in Aida
includes:
a. a recitative and a lied.
b. a chorus and a duet.
c. two arias and an arioso.
d. a chorus along with a solo aria.

12. Aida, Tomb Scene, Act IV, scene ii, p. 280


The performing forces in the Tomb Scene of Aida consist of:
a. two vocal soloists and full orchestra.
b. three vocal soloists, a chorus, and a full orchestra.
c. two vocal soloists, a chorus, and the string and woodwind sections of
158
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 317

the orchestra.
d. two vocal soloists, a chorus, and full orchestra.

13. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287


Who composed The Valkyrie?
a. Richard Wagner
b. Giuseppe Verdi
c. Giacomo Puccini
d. Carl Maria von Weber
160 Chapter 17 Romantic Opera

14. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287


When the character Siegmund collapses in Sieglinde's house in the first
scene of The Valkyrie, we hear a leitmotiv in which there is a(n):
a. ascending scale melody in the trombones.
b. descending scale melody played by the cellos.
c. rhythmic pulsing in the timpani.
d. rising melody in the cellos.

15. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287 When Sieglinde enters in the first
scene of The Valkyrie, she bends over Siegmund and a leitmotiv is heard in
which:
a. the flute plays a flowing melody.
b. the melody rises in the cellos.
c. the melody rises and gently falls back in the violins.
d. the low brass repeat notes gently.

16. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287


In the first scene of The Valkyrie, as Sieglinde gives Siegmund a drink of
water and their eyes meet, a new leitmotiv is heard, written for the:
a. solo clarinet.
b. upper strings.
c. lower brass.
d. solo cello.

17. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287


In the first scene of The Valkyrie, when Sieglinde confesses her own "ill-
fate," a new melody occurs in the:
a. clarinets.
b. cellos and basses,
c. trombones.
d. bassoons.

18. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 287


What announces the return of Hunding in the first scene of The Valkyrie?
a. a baritone voice
b. the low strings
c. the low brasses
d. the timpani
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 319
Topics

19. Romantic Opera, p. 276


Which statement is false?
a. Many Romantic operas transcended artistic
barriers.
b. The Romantic era was a golden age of opera.
c. Romantic opera flourished only in Germany and drama in music,
Italy. not just
d. Romantic composers came to view opera as a
type of serious a vehicle for song, spectacle,
and entertainment.

20. Early Romantic Opera, p. 277


Romantic opera began to surface in_ in the
a. Austria; 1830s
21. Early Romantic Opera, p. 277
Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioacchino Rossini were all:
a. early Italian Romantic opera composers.
b. legendary singers of the bel canto era.
c. famous tenors in the nineteenth century.
d. owners of the most famous early opera houses.

22. Early Romantic Opera, p. 277


A style of opera developed by early Italian Romantic composers was
called:
a. rubato.
b. bel canto.
c. da capo aria.
d. canzona.

23. Gioacchino Rossini, p. 277


Gioacchino Rossini's opera buffa style was similar to that of:
a. Schubert.
b. Beethoven.
c. Berlioz.
d. Mozart.

24. Gioacchino Rossini, p. 277


Which was composed by Gioacchino Rossini?
a. The Barber of Seville
b. Norma
c. Lucia di Lammermoor
d. Aida

25. Gaetano Donizetti, p. 277


Gaetano Donizetti is considered:
a. a master of depicting the supernatural in his operas.
b. an expert conductor of his works.
c. a prolific composer of more than sixty operas.
d. a sharp critic of the bel canto style.

26. Gaetano Donizetti, p. 277


Which was composed by Gaetano Donizetti?
a. The Barber of Seville
b. Norma
c. Lucia di Lammermoor
d. Aida

27. Vincenzo Bellini, p. 277


Which is true of Vincenzo Bellini?
a. He used a light, folk-song style in his opera arias.
b. He was a composer of refined, highly expressive Romantic melodies.
c. He stressed the orchestra in his operas, sometimes overshadowing the
singers.
d. He was admired by Schubert for his melodic writing.

28. Vincenzo Bellini, p. 277


Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 321
Which is considered Vincenzo Bellini's finest opera?
a. The Barber of Seville
b. Norma
c. Lucia di Lammermoor
d. Aida
322 Chapter 17 Romantic Opera

29. Carl Maria von Weber, p. 277


Carl Maria von Weber was the founder of:
a. German Romantic opera.
b. verismo.
c. the bel canto style.
d. the arioso style.

30. Carl Maria von Weber, p. 277


Carl Maria von Weber's most important work is:
a. Tristan and Isolde.
b. Otello.
c. Don Pasquale.
d. Der Freischutz.

31. Carl Maria von Weber, p. 277


Unlike the Romantic Italian opera composers of his time, Carl Maria von
Weber:
a. is known for his charming opera buffa.
b. wrote primarily for the voice.
c. used supernatural subject matter in his opera.
d. developed new brass instruments to enrich the orchestral tone color.

32. Recitative and Aria: The Orchestra, p. 278


Which statement is false?
a. Verdi never wavered in his commitment to the human voice.
b. Verdi cared most about the dramatic quality of his operas.
c. Verdi's operas still employ secco recitative, although in a bel canto
style.
d. The orchestra plays a richer role in Verdi's operas than in those of
his predecessors.

33. Recitative and Aria: The Orchestra, p. 278


InVerdi'soperastheorchestraplaysagreaterrolein________________ and a lesser role in

a. ensembles; arias
b. recitatives; arias
c. ariosos; arias
d. ensembles; ballets

34. Giuseppe Verdi, p. 279


What three early operas of Verdi assured him international fame?
a. Il trovatore, La traviata, and Rigoletto
b. La traviata, Otello, and Falstaff
c. Otello, II trovatore, and Rigoletto
d. Rigoletto, II trovatore, and Falstaff

35. Giuseppe Verdi, p. 279


Many of Verdi's early operas were associated with:
a. ancient Greek myths and legends.
b. the Italian liberation movement.
c. Germanic myths and legends.
d. the Bible.
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 323
36. Giuseppe Verdi, p. 279
Verdi's last two masterpieces were:
a. La traviata and Otello.
b. Falstaff and Il trovatore.
c. Rigoletto and Otello.
d. Otello and Falstaff.
324 Chapter 17 Romantic Opera

37. Aida, p. 280


Aida was commissioned for:
a. a new opera house in Cairo.
b. the opening of the Panama Canal.
c. the birthday of Vittorio Emmanuele.
d. the Italian liberation movement.

38. Aida, p.
280 The setting of
Aida is:
a. Venice.
b. Rome.
c. Egypt.
d. Japan.

39. Aida, p. 282


The characters in the Tomb Scene of Aida include:
a. Aida, Radames, and Cio-Cio San.
b. Aida, Radames, and Amneris.
c. Aida, Radames, and Aeneas.
d. Aeneas, Aida, and Brangaene.

40. Aida, p. 282


What happens to Radames and Aida in the Tomb Scene?
a. They escape at the last moment.
b. Amneris has pity on them and releases them so they can sing their last
arias.
c. The chorus of priests rolls the stone away so that they can live.
d. They die in the tomb.

41. Aida, p. 282


How does the orchestra contribute to the sense of death at the end of
the Tomb Scene of Aida?
a. It forecasts doom with gloomy music, then provides hazy,
heavenlike music when the characters are leaving this world.
b. It provides ballet music for the festival of priests, then
illustrates the march to the scaffold and the fall of the ax vividly
with percussion instruments.
c. It reinforces the personality of each character with a leitmotiv.
d. It adds to the tension of the scene with a fugal section right
before the main characters die.

42. Wagner and Music Drama, p. 283


Many scholars say that, next to Beethoven, had the greatest
influence on nineteenth-century composers.
a. Richard Wagner
b. Giuseppe Verdi
c. Giacomo Puccini
d. Gioacchino Rossini
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 325
43. Wagner and Music Drama, p. 283
What were the two most important elements of Wagner's operatic style?
a. aria and recitative
b. predominance of the orchestra and bel canto style
c. the concept of Gesaintkunstwerk and the technique of leitmotiv
d. the use of leitmotiv and idee fixe
44. Wagner and Music Drama,
p. 285 Wagner was
particularly against:
a. leitmotivs.
b. arias.
c. the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk.
d. expanding the size and role of the orchestra in opera.

45. Richard Wagner, p. 284


Wagner's_________ was part of the larger work
a. The Rhinegold; Dichterliebe
b. The Ring of the Nibelung; Parsifal
c. Parsifal; The Ring of the Nibelung
d. The Rhinegold; The Ring of the Nibelung

46. Richard Wagner, p. 284


Wagner was as well known for his____ as he was for his operas.
a. piano transcriptions of operatic works
b. political views
c. lieder
d. moral views

47. The Total Work of Art, p. 285


Which term refers to a synthesis of many of the arts into one unified work
or "total work of art"?
a. leitmotiv
b. bel canto
c. music drama
d. Gesamtkunstwerk

48. The Total Work of Art, p. 285


What did Wagner call his new style of opera in the 1850s?
a. Gesamtkunstulerk
b. bel canto
c. music drama
d. leitmotiv

49. The Total Work of Art, p. 285


Who wrote the texts for Wagner's
operas? a. Hans von Biilow
h. Richard Wagner
c. Cosima Wagner
d. Arthur Schopenhauer

50. The Total Work of Art, p. 285


Which statement is false?
a. Wagner was a great conductor.
b. Wagner's career as a concert pianist enabled him to travel all over
Europe.
c. Wagner was a great orchestrator.
d. Wagner wrote many books and articles on his musical ideas.
Chapter 1 7 Romantic Opera
51.. Der Ring des Nibelungen, p. 287 327
Which statement about The Ring of the Nibelung is false?
a. It exhibits a classic emotional restraint.
b. It has an epic scope covering many generations.
c. It is a story of myth and the supernatural.
cl. It is a lengthy performance experience.
328 Chapter 17 Romantic Opera

52. Leitmotivs, p. 285


Leitmotivs are developed by means of:
a. theme and variation form.
b. thematic transformation.
c. ornamentation in the last section of a da capo aria.
d. imitative polyphony.

53. Leitmotivs, p. 285


Which allows a composer to show what a character is thinking even
though something else is being said in the text?
a. idee fixe
b. bel canto style
c. leitmotiv
d. Gesamtkunstwerk

54. Der Ring des Nibelungen, p.


287 The Ring of the Nibelung is
based on:
a. a play by Shakespeare.
b. a poem by Schopenhauer.
c. an original story by Richard Wagner.
d. Germanic or Norse legends.

55. Der Ring des Nibelungen, p. 287 Wagner. uses mythology in The Ring
of the Nibelung to reflect on modern life, the basic
theme being:
a. might makes right.
b. love occurs only after death.
c. greed and hunger for power bring moral decline.
d. the ends justify the means.

56. The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i p. 287


What is the relationship of the two protagonists in the opening of The
Valkyrie?
a. mother and son
b. wife and husband
c. cousins
d. brother and sister

5 7 . The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 288


What characterizes the singers' first scene of The
melodies in the Valkyrie?
a. lyrical song forms
b. free-formed declamation of the
words

58. The The Valkyrie, Act I, scene i, p. 288


What important role does the orchestra play in the first scene of The
Valkyrie?
a. By carrying the leitmotivs, it conveys the psychological depth of
Chapter 1 7 Romantic Opera
the characters and their feelings. 329
b. It merely provides accompaniment for the singers.
c. It repeats the leitmotivs in exactly the same way while the
singers echo and transform them.
d. It remains restrained at all times, allowing the singers to be more
emotionally expressive.
330 Chapter 17 Romantic Opera

Essay Questions

1. Romantic Opera, p. 276


Describe the change in the purpose of opera from the eighteenth
century to the nineteenth century.

2. Early Romantic Opera, p. 277


Where did Romantic opera first develop? Who was one of the first
composers in this new style?

3. Early Romantic Opera, p. 277


What does b e l c a n t o mean? Briefly describe this Romantic style. How did
it affect the role of the human voice in Italian opera?

4. Gaetano Donizetti, p. 277


Who was Gaetano Donizetti? Briefly describe his compositional style
and name one opera he composed.

5. Vincenzo Bellini, p. 277


Who was Vincenzo Bellini? Briefly describe his compositional style
and name one opera he composed. Which musical element did he
treat with an especially Romantic flair?

6. Carl Maria von Weber, p. 277


What were the main contributions of Carl Maria von Weber to early
Romantic opera? How is his compositional style different from the
styles of Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini?

7. Verdi and Italian Opera, p. 278


Why was Verdi considered the dominant composer in nineteenth-century
opera, as opposed to Wagner?

8. Verdi and Italian Opera, p. 278


How did Verdi view drama in opera? What sorts of characters did he
include in his operas? How did he handle emotional expression?

9. Recitative and Aria: The Orchestra, p. 278 Describe the


relationship between the vocal lines and the orchestra in the operas of
Verdi.

10. Recitative and Aria: The Orchestra, p. 278


Compare and contrast the recitatives of Verdi with those of earlier
Italian composers of Romantic opera.

11. Recitative and Aria: The


Orchestra, p. 280 Briefly describe
the style of Verdi's arias.

12. Giuseppe Verdi, p. 279


Briefly describe the political views of Giuseppe Verdi. How was Verdi
viewed by his fellow Italians? Name one opera in which his political
views are evident.

13. Aida, p. 280 Name the three main characters in A i d a and briefly
Chapter 1 7 Romantic Opera
describe the plot and location of the opera. 331

14. Aida, p. 280


Briefly describe the events of the Tomb Scene o f A i d a . Discuss how the
drama is heightened with musical elements such as dynamics, orchestral
tone colors, and the use of the chorus in the final duet.
Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 332

15. Wagner and Music Drama, p. 283


Describe some of Richard Wagner's innovations and explain why they had
far-reaching effects on composers for many years.

16. Richard Wagner, p. 284


Briefly describe the personality and political views of Richard Wagner.
How did he get along with other people? Refer to Mendelssohn and King
Ludwig II of Bavaria in your answer.

17. Richard Wagner, p. 284 What is the


significance of Bayreuth with regard to Wagner's
operas?

18. Wagner and Music Drama, p. 283 Briefly


describe Wagner's views on French and Italian
opera.

19. The Total Work of Art, p. 285 Define Gesamtkunstwerk. Briefly


describe how Wagner worked with this concept in his operas.

20. The Total Work of Art, p. 285 What sort of


material did Wagner use for the story lines of his
operas?

21. The Total Work of Art, p. 285 Discuss the growing


role of the orchestra in both German and Italian opera.

22. Leitmot
ivs, p. 285
Define leitmotiv.

23. The Valkyrie, p. 287


Name the four parts of Der Ring des Nibelungen and The Valkyrie's place in
the music drama cycle.

24. The Valkyrie, p. 288


Chapter 17 Romantic Opera 333
Outline and describe three primary features of Wagner's music
dramas. Refer to examples from The Valkyrie in your answer.

25. The Valkyrie, p. 288 Briefly describe the


events of Act I, scene i of The Valkyrie.
C H A P T E R 18

The Late Romantics

Multi ple- Choic e

Question s Listening

1. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and


Juliet, p. 295 Who composed Romeo
and Juliet?
a. Gustav Mahler
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
c. Modest Mussorgsky
d. Johannes Brahms

2. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


How many main themes are heard in the Overture-Fantasy Romeo and
Juliet?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

3. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


In the slow introduction in Romeo and Juliet, the Hymn theme is heard in
the:
a. low clarinets and bassoons.
b. organ.
c. cellos and basses.
d. French horns and tubas.

4. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


The full a b a statement of the Love theme in Romeo and Juliet is joined
by:
a. the timpani.
b. a "sighing" motive in the French horns.
c. the Hymn theme in the English horn.
d. the harp.

5. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


What instruments are added to enhance the mood of the most
agitated theme in Romeo and Juliet?
a. violins and cellos
b. English horn and violas
c. flute and oboe
d. cymbals and timpani
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 336

6. Pictures at an Exhibition, p. 300


Who composed Pictures at an Exhibition?
a. Modest Musorgsky
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
c. Alexander Borodin
d. Richard Wagner

7. Pictures at an Exhibition, p. 300


What element in the first piece of Pictures at an Exhibition helps to depict
the composer walking through an art gallery?
a. emphatic accents of the trumpet
b. a steady beat with pauses
c. alternating meters that create an unpredictable emphasis in the beat
d. a folk melody played by a clarinet

8. Pictures at an Exhibition, p. 300


The grotesque character of the piece "Gnomus" is musically depicted
through:
a. deceptive cadences.
b. ascending scalelike figures.
c. a waltzlike rhythmic pattern.
d. dissonance and a lurching rhythm.

9. Pictures at an Exhibition, p. 300


What image does the composer evoke in the last and longest piece
of Pictures at an Exhibition?
a. a troubadour, through the use of a lyrical flute melody
b. a solemn procession, through the use of a slow steady beat
c. Russian nationalism, through the inclusion of folk instruments
d. the heavy jaws of a nutcracker, through a slapping stick in the
orchestra

10. Violin Concerto in D, Op.


Who composed the Violin
7 7 , p. 305
Concerto in D?
a. Gustav Mahler
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
c. Johannes Brahms
d. Modest Musorgsky

11. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 7 7 , p. 305


The third movement of Violin Concerto in D opens with the violin playing the
theme in:
a. isorhythms.
b. double stops.
c. a free improvisation.
d. imitation with the orchestra.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 337

12. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, p. 305


In the third movement of the Violin Concerto in D, the rondo's second
contrasting episode is a(n):
a. lyrical theme played by the solo violin.
b. ascending scale theme by the solo violin.
c. short cadenza.
d. marchlike transformation of the A theme.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 338

13. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral


March," p. 309 Who composed
Symphony No. 1?
a. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
b. Modest Musorgsky
c. Gustav Mahler
d. Johannes Brahms

14. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


What familiar tune is quoted in the third movement of Symphony No. 1,
but in an unusual harmonic context?
a. "Happy Birthday"
b. "Frere Jacques "
c. "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star"
d. "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow"

15. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


At the end of section 3 of the third movement of Symphony No. 1:
a. the clarinets evoke a dance band.
b. the oboes play a folk melody.
c. the flutes play two new phrases.
d. the violins erupt in a passionate outburst.

16. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


What characterizes the orchestration style you hear in the third movement
of Symphony No. 1?
a. Tone colors are well blended in a typically Romantic fashion.
b. One instrumental family of the orchestra is always being
featured as a group at any given moment.
c. Many different instruments have solos, but never for long, giving a
kaleidoscopic effect.
d. The string section carries the melody, and the other
instrumental families provide harmonic support.

17. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


What percussion instrument ends the third movement of Symphony No. 1?
a. gong
b. cymbals
c. snare drum
d. triangle

Topics

18. Romanticism and Realism, p. 293 What


characterizes the focus of the arts from the
1850s on?
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 339

a. an increased interest in realism


b. an increased interest in the
supernatural
c. an increased interest in ancient Greek
myths
d. a return to religious themes

19. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295


An orchestral work composed in one
movement with called a:
a. Romantic symphony.
b. program symphony.
c. concert overture.
d. symphonic poem.

a free form and with a program


is
340 Chapter 18 The Late Romantics

20. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295


Who started the idea of the symphonic poem?
a. Johannes Brahms
b. Hector Berlioz
c. Gustav Mahler
d. Franz Liszt

21. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295


In which category is a symphonic poem different from a concert overture?
a. the performing forces
b. the number of movements
c. form
d. tone color

22. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295


Hamlet, Les Preludes, and Orpheus are all symphonic poems composed by:
a. Franz Liszt.
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
c. Richard Strauss.
d. Johannes Brahms.

23. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, p. 296


Swan Lake, The Nutcracker, and Sleeping Beauty are all ballets composed by:
a. Franz Liszt.
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
c. Richard Strauss.
d. Johannes Brahms.

24. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


Romeo and Juliet is a(n)_________, but the composer called it a(n)
a. symphonic poem; overture-fantasy
b. overture to a ballet; symphonic poem
c. concert overture; overture-fantasy
d. program symphony; symphonic poem

25. Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet, p. 295 Tchailcovsky's Romeo and Juliet opens
with:
a. the hymnlike theme.
b. the idee fixe for Juliet.
c. the soaring love theme.
d. the agitated vendetta theme.

26. Nationalism, p. 298


What is characteristic of all nationalistic music?
a. the use of dissonant harmonies
b. the use of religious subject matter
c. the use of major and minor modes
d. the use of the folk music of each country

27. Nationalism, p. 298


The rise of nationalism in music was a reflection of:
a. people joining choral societies.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 341

b. people making music in their houses.


c. people cherishing their distinctive
artistic heritage. ci. an amateur music-
making public.
342 Chapter 18 The Late Romantics

28. Nationalism, p. 299


Which is an example of a country that produced Romantic nationalist
music?
a. Germany
b. Russia
c. Italy
d. France

29. Nationalism, p. 298


What characterizes the music of nationalist composers?
a. rebellion against the traditional harmony and form of European
Romantic composers
b. following in the path of the German Romantic composers in
terms of harmony and form
c. following in the path of Italian Romantic composers in
terms of opera, but not orchestral music
d. following in the path of Wagner in terms of chromaticism,
but following French composers of grand opera

30. Exoticism, p. 299


The opera Carmen, written by the French composer George Bizet
and set in Spain, is an example of:
a. nationalism in music.
b. the blending and erasing of the unique qualities of nations.
c. exoticism in music.
d. political music.

31. The Russian Kuchka, p. 299


The term kucbka refers to:
a. a Russian dance form.
b. the "Mighty Five," a close group of Russian nationalist composers.
c. a conservative Russian political movement.
d. a Russian folk song form.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 343
32. The Russian Kuchka, p. 300
The Russian kushka included:
a. Tchaikovsky, Borodin, and Rimsky-
Korsakov. Musorgsky, Tchaikovsky,
b. and Balakirev. Tchaikovsky, Balakirev,
and Rimsky-Korsakov. Musorgsky,
c. Borodin, and Rimsky-Korsakov.
d.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 344

33. Modest Musorgsky, p. 302


Modest Musorgsky's music reflects:
a. a polished skill as an orchestrator.
b. an intense nationalism.
c. his aristocratic origins.
d. a sunny disposition.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 345

34. Pictures at an Exhibition, p. 302 Pictures


at an Exhibition is considered:
a. a theme and variations.
b. a song cycle.
c. program music.
d. a concert overture.

35. Other Nationalists, p. 303


Smetana and Dvorak were nationalist
composers from:
a. Russia.
b. Bohemia.
c. Romania.
d. Yugoslavia.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 346

36. Other Nationalists, p. 303


Grieg and Sibelius represented their
countries, in nationalistic music.
a. Sweden; Norway
b. Norway; Denmark
c. Finland; Norway
d. Norway; Finland
37. Other Nationalists, p. 303
Ralph Vaughan a(n)_________
Williams was composer.
a. Classical
b. English nationalist
c. English
and_________ respectively,
38. Other Nationalists, p. 303
Which would you least associate with
nationalism in music?
a. the kushka
b. Antonin Dvorak
c. Slavonic Dances
d. Johannes Brahms

39. Responses to Romanticism, p. 302


Which important late Romantic
composer responded to the
unbridled emotionalism of
Romanticism with a return to a
Viennese Classicism?
a. Johannes Brahms
b. Gustav Mahler
c. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
d. Ludwig van Beethoven

40. Responses to Romanticism, p. 302


Which late Romantic composer
responded to late Romanticism with
a bittersweet nostalgia for lost
innocence?
a. Johannes Brahms
b. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
c. Gustav Mahler
d. Ludwig van Beethoven
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 347

41. The Renewal of Classicism: Brahms, p. 304


In which typical Romantic genre did Brahms compose?
a. opera
b. ballet
c. miniature
d. cantata
42. The Renewal of Classicism: Brahms, p. 304
The lifelong model for Brahms was:
a. Johann Sebastian Bach.
b. Ludwig van Beethoven.
c. Robert Schumann.
d. Richard Wagner.

43. Johannes Brahms, p. 304


What great Romantic-era composer was a musical friend of Johannes
Brahms?
a. Georges Bizet
b. Robert Schumann
c. Johann Strauss
d. Richard Wagner

44. Johannes Brahms, p. 304


Brahms composed in many genres, but did not write any:
a. choral music.
b. songs.
c. solo piano works.
d. program symphonies.

45. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, p. 305


Brahms's Violin Concerto in D was composed for:
a. Joseph Joachim.
b. Clara Schumann.
c. Franz Liszt.
d. Niccolo Paganini.
46. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, p. 305
With regard to form, Brahms's Violin Concerto in D is more than
Romantic.
a. Renaissance
b. Baroque
c. Classical
d. modern

47. Gustav Mahler, p. 308


The musical activities of Gustav Mahler include all except that of:
a. conductor.
b. composer.
c. musical administrator.
d. concert pianist.

48. Gustav Mahler, p. 308


348 C hapt er 18 The
Late Romantics
Gustve Mahler wrote in most Romantic genres except:
a. orchestral song cycles.
b. program symphonies.
c. operas.
d. symphonies including solo vocalists and chorus.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 349

49. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


An important feature of Mahler's musical style is:
a. a return to Classical forms.
b. the use of counterpoint tied to momentary solos in the orchestra.
c. a balance of brass and woodwinds in his orchestrations.
d. a devotion to homophony.

S0. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


Symphony No. 1 started out as a(n)__ and became a(n)
a. symphonic poem; program symphony in four movements
b. opera; song cycle with orchestra
c. concert overture; symphonic poem
d. symphonic poem; program symphony in five movements

51. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 310 The third movement of


Symphony No. 1 is:
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 350

a. in sonata form.
b. a dance scene.
c. a funeral march.
d. in a major mode.

52. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 310


In the third movement of Mahler's
Symphony No. 1, a
a. first; lyrical trio
b. third; parody of dance music
c second; funeral march.
d. second; parody of dance music

the_________ section contains


Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 351

Essay Questions

1. The Late Romantics, p. 293


In what condition did Romanticism live on in the last half of the
nineteenth century? Why? Refer to the year 1848 in your answer.

2. Romanticism and Realism, p. 293


Briefly describe the growing trend of realism in the arts in the latter
part of the nineteenth century. How did music fit into this trend? What
purpose did music serve?

3. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295 Define


symphonic poem. Explain who started this genre, when, and
why.

4. Late Romantic Program Music, p. 295


Compare and contrast symphonic poem, concert overture, and program
symphony. Name an example of each genre.

5. Romeo and Juliet, p. 295


How many themes does Romeo and Juliet have? Name and briefly describe
each theme and explain how Tchaikovsky uses the orchestra to evoke the
mood of each.

6. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, p. 296 Was


Tchaikovsky a Russian nationalist composer?
Explain.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 352

7. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, p. 296 Briefly describe two facets of


Tchaikovsky's musical career and name three of his compositions that
are still famous today.

8. Nationalism, p. 298
Define nationalism as it pertains to late Romantic music. Refer to musical
sources and other characteristics in your answer.

9. Nationalism, p. 299
What three countries were not associated with the nationalist movement
in Romantic music? Explain.

10. The Russian I<uchka, p. 299 Name the country


of the kuchka and three of the composers involved.

11. Other Nationalists, p. 303


Name four countries besides Russia in which nationalism flourished in
the late nineteenth century. Name one composer from each of these
countries and name one composition by each composer.

12. Responses to Romanticism, p. 302


Briefly describe the two responses to Romantic music in the late
nineteenth century. Name one composer for each response.

13. The Renewal of Classicism: Brahms, p. 303


Briefly characterize the musical style of Johannes Brahms. In which
genres and forms did he compose? Which genres did he avoid? Why?
Who was his musical model?

14. Johannes Brahms, p. 304


Briefly explain the friendships Johannes Brahms had with the
Schumann family and Joseph Joachim. Describe one result of each
friendship in the musical career of Brahms.

15. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, p. 305


Discuss the style of Brahms's Violin Concerto in D. How do the first and
last movements confirm the style? Refer to the form of these movements
and the character of the last movement in your answer.

16. Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, p. 305 Define double stop. Name a
composition that requires the performer to play double stops.

17. Romantic Nostalgia: Mahler, p. 306


Briefly characterize the musical style of Gustav Mahler with regard to
Romantic nostalgia, orchestration, use of the voice, and messages
evoked by his music.

18. Gustav Mahler, p. 308 Briefly describe the various


facets of the musical career of Gustav Mahler.

19. Gustav Mahler, p. 308


Name two genres in which Mahler composed, then name two of his
works in each of these genres.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 353

20. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 309


Briefly explain how the third movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 1 is a
personal lament. Briefly describe the relationship between this work and
some of Mahler's earlier vocal music.
354 Chapter 18 The Late Romantics

21. Symphony No. 1, " Funeral March, " p. 310


Explain the possible source of the march music in the third movement of
Mahler's Symphony No. 1.

22. Symphony No. 1, "Funeral March," p. 310


Describe the form of the third movement of Mahler's Symphony No.
1 and name the Classical form to which it bears a resemblance.

23. Orchestral Music in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth


Centuries, Chapters 8-18 How does nineteenth-century orchestral
music differ from eighteenth-century orchestral music? Refer to
forms, genres, and orchestration in your answer.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 5 Musical Drama Worldwide

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Japanese Drama, p. 315


In Japan, one of the three main traditions of musical drama is the
bunraku, which is a:
a. puppet theater.
b. drama steeped in Zen Buddhist philosophy.
c. drama with many singers.
d. musical drama accompanied by different percussion instruments.
2. Japanese Drama, p. 314
Which was particularly prized by the elite shogun and samurai culture of
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
a. bunraku
b. kabuki
c. noh
d. nagauta

3. Performing Kabuki Theater, p. 315


The musical forces in kabuki are particularly:
a. complex.
b. simple.
c. limited.
d. numerous.

4. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p. 315


The nagauta, which accompanies dance, is also known as:
a. a singing actor.
b. offstage orchestra.
c. "long song. "
d. concert master.

5. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p.


315 Dojoji is the name of:
a. the king of ancient Japan.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 355

b. a double reed instrument.


c. a set of drums.
d. a kabuki play.
6. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p.
315 from Dojoji is a complex______ carried
The main melody in Nagauta by
Music
the singer and the_________
a. polyphony; bunraku
b. homophony; kabuki
c. heterophony; shamisens
7. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p. 315
In Nagauta Music from Dojoji, the singer pauses in:
a. part 2.
b. part 3.
c. part 4.
d. part 5.

8. Beijing Opera Songs, p. 317


Beijing opera songs are like the arias of Italian opera in that:
a. new text is written to old music.
b. they are performed unaccompanied.
c. they are interspersed with choral ensembles.
d. they are the musical heart of the drama.
9. The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, p. 317
The Prince Who Changed into a Cat is known as one of most_________of Beijing
the operas.
a. famous
b. little known
c. tragic

10. The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, p. 317


In The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, there are______ stringed instruments.
a. forty
b. twenty-two
c. eleven
d. three

11. The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, p. 317


The interaction of the singer with the string instruments is:
a. homophonic.
b. heterophonic.
c. monophonic.
d. polyphonic.

Essay Questions

1. Musical Drama Worldwide, p. 314 Discuss briefly the connection


between music and drama, and music's contribution to drama.
356 Chapter 18 The Late Romantics

2. Japanese Drama, p. 314 Itemize and describe


the main traditions of musical drama in Japan.

3. Performing Kabuki Theater, p. 315 Describe the musical forces in


kabuki, their function in the music drama and stage placement.
Chapter 18 The Late Romantics 357

4. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p. 315 What famous genre of music is


involved in kabuki? What is it called and what is its function?

5. Nagauta Music from Dojoji, p. 315 Describe the musical flow of


events from part 1 through part 5 in the nagauta music.

6. Beijing Opera Songs, p. 317


Discuss how Chinese arias are composed and whether the method is
different from or similar to Italian opera.

7. The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, p. 317


List the string instruments in The Prince Who Changed into a Cat, how they are
played, and their interaction with the singer.
C H A P T E R . 19

Prelude
Music and Modernism

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Looking Forward and Looking Back, p. 320


The chief composers associated with the early phase of modernism,
Debussy, Stravinsky, and Schoenberg, were at the forefront of
modernism in music, the_______________________________________
a. Blue Rider group
b. Apaches
c. Symbolists
d. avant-garde

2. The Response of Modernism, p. 323 Which


musical elements were questioned in the modernist
movement?
a. melody, rhythm, and tone color
b. melody, harmony, and tonality
c. harmony, tonality, and tone color
d. harmony, rhythm, and tonality

3. The Response of Modernism, p. 323


The Apaches:
a. were a group of artists and intellectuals, including the composers
Stravinsky and Ravel.
b. is the title of an opera by Ravel.
c. were a group in Paris including Claude Debussy and several
symbolist poets.
d. were artists, including Schoenberg, who put out a magazine called
The Blue Rider.

4. Literature and Art before World War I, p. 324


What is a way in which Stravinsky departed from the Romantic style?
a. He wrote only atonal music.
b. He refused to use any meters.
c. He used mechanistic rhythms as opposed to rubato.
d. He wrote no works for large orchestra.
5. Impressionists and Symbolists, p. 325
Which artistic movement took its inspiration from Wagner's leitmotivs?
a. impressionism
b. symbolism
c. expressionism
d. cubism
Music and
Chapter 19 Prelude:
Modernism 360

6. Impressionists and Symbolists, p. 325


Which composer was sometimes called an impressionist and sometimes a
symbolist?
a. Arnold Schoenberg
b. Anton Webern
c. Claude Debussy
d. Igor Stravinsky
7. Expressionists and Fauves, p.
327 The composers Stravinsky were associated with_____ and
and Bartok suggested in sometimes
their works.
a. impressionism; atonality
b. serialism; consonance
c. minimalism; rubato
d. expressionism; violence
8. Modernist Music before World War I, p. 328
Modernist composers before World War I changed their approach to:
a. rhythm and harmony.
b. melody, rhythm, and tone color.
c. melody, harmony, and tonality.
d. tone color and rhythm.

9. Modernist Music before World War I, p. 328


Modernist composers after World War II changed their approach to:
a. tone color and rhythm.
b. melody, harmony, and tonality.
c. tonality, melody, and tone color.
d. tonality and harmony.

10. Experiment and Transformation: Melody, p. 329


All of the following characterize a modernist approach to melody except:
a. exaggeration and distortion of folk music.
b. the use of long, sweeping, inspired melodies.
c. disconnection of the notes in a melody.
d. suggestion of melody, but no clear tunes.

11. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329


The five-note scale playable on the black keys of the piano is called the
_______________________________________________________________________ scale.
a. pentatonic
b. whole-tone
c. quarter-tone
d. octatonic

12. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329


The scale in which the octave is divided into six equal intervals is the
Music and
Chapter 19 Prelude:
Modernism 361
_____________________________________________________________________ scale.
a. pentatonic
b. whole-tone
c. quarter-tone
d. octatonic
Music and
Chapter 19 Prelude:
Modernism 362

13. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329


The scale in which eight pitches are made to fit into the octave by
alternating whole steps and half steps is the scale.
a. pentatonic
b. whole-tone
c. quarter-tone
d. octatonic

14. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329


The scale that uses the entire chromatic scale as well as the pitches
that come halfway between each pair is the scale.
a. pentatonic
b. whole-tone
c. quarter-tone
d. octatonic

15. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329


The composer who originated serialism was:
a. Arnold Schoenberg.
b. Richard Wagner.
c. Igor Stravinsky.
d. Bela Bartok.

16. "The Emancipation of Dissonance, " p. 330


Schoenberg's reference to "the emancipation of dissonance" meant
emancipation from the need to:
a. be free.
b. serve homophony,
c. dominate.
d. resolve to consonant chords.

17. "The Emancipation of Dissonance," p. 330


Atonal music is music in which no_____can be found.
a. harmonic contrast
b. tonal center
c. incoherence
d. points of imitation

18. "The Emancipation of


Dissonance, " p. 330 In the early
twentieth century, harmony:
a. became more consonant.
b. became more dissonant.
c. became less important.
d. stressed resolution once again.

19. "The Emancipation of Dissonance, " p. 330


The feeling of centrality or focus toward a particular pitch is related to
Music and
Chapter 19 Prelude:
a. tonality Modernism 363
b. texture.
c. rhythm
d. dissonance
364 Chapter 19 Prelude: Music and Modernism

20. "Emancipation of Dissonance," p. 330


Some atonal music, on careful listening, can
a. have a regular harmonic pulse.
b. hover around a general harmonic set of progressions.
c. have a definite tonal center.
d. evoke a slight sense of tonality.

21. "Emancipation of Dissonance," p. 330


Around 1900, some conservative composers referred to melody, harmony,
and tonality as:
a. the "holy trinity" of music.
b. metaphors for the dramatic aspect of music.
c. sacred elements in music.
d. crucial for the flow of form.

Essay Questions

1. Progress and Uncertainty, p. 321


Describe some of the events and scientific discoveries that shook the late
nineteenth century's confidence in the idea of progress. What effect did
these events have on music, literature, and the arts?

2. The Response of Modernism, p. 323


Discuss the concepts in the visual arts, literature, and music that were
questioned by modernists in the early twentieth century.

3. Literature and Art before World War I, p. 324


Name or describe three groups of people in the arts before World War I
and cite at least one composer member of each.

4. Literature and Art before World War I, p. 324


Was early twentieth-century music responsive to public opinion? Was
emotional expression to an audience important to early twentieth-
century composers? Explain.

5. Literature and Art before World War I, p. 324 Contrast


Stravinsky's use of rhythm and attitudes with that of nineteenth-
century music.

6. Impressionists and Symbolists, p. 325 Briefly discuss


the best-known visual arts movement dating from the
1870s.

7. Impressionists and Symbolists, p. 325


With which nineteenth-century composer were symbolist poets
fascinated? Why? Which technique of this composer intrigued them
most?

8. Impressionists and Symbolists, p. 325


With which movement in the visual arts is Debussy most often
associated? Explain. Name the other artistic movement with which he
Music and
Chapter 19 Prelude:
Modernism
is also sometimes associated and explain why. 365

9. Expressionists and Fauves, p. 327 Define


as an early twentieth-century artistic
e xpre ssioni sm
movement.

10. Modernist Music before World War I, p. 328


Composers focused on certain musical elements before World War I and
on other musical elements after that war. Name the elements stressed
in each era.
11. Experiment and Transformation: Melody, p. 328
Briefly describe the interdependent relationships among the
developments of melody, harmony, and tonality.

12. Experiment and Transformation: Melody, p. 328


Name three composers who contributed to the disintegration of
melody in the early part of the twentieth century. How did they
contribute to this change?

13. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329 Name and briefly


describe three new kinds of scales used by composers after 1900.

14. New Horizons, New Scales, p. 329 Define serialism.


What musical element can be serialized in a composition?

15. "The Emancipation of Dissonance," p. 330 Explain what


Schoenberg meant when he spoke of "the emancipation of
dissonance."

16. "
The Emancipation of Dissonance, " p. 330
Briefly trace the shift from tonality to atonality in terms of the use of
dissonance and chromaticism from the nineteenth century to the
twentieth century. What was meant by "the holy trinity"?
C H A P T E R 20
The Twentieth Century:
Early Modernism

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p.


332 Who composed Clouds?
a. Igor Stravinsky
b. Charles Ives
c. Arnold Schoenberg
d. Claude Debussy

2. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332


What instrument introduces a that occurs many times
"haunting" motive throughout Clouds?
a. flute
b. French horn
c. bassoon
d. English horn

3. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332 The


performing forces in Clouds consist of:
a. strings and woodwinds.
b. strings and brass.
c. strings, woodwinds, brass, and
4. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332
What mood is created by the clarinets' and bassoons' descending chords of
Clouds?
a. triumphant and military
b. angry and violent
c. busy and intense
d. dreamy and vague

5. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332


The Cloud theme in Clouds is represented in the beginning by:
a. parallel chords moving downward.
b. a cadenza in the flute.
c. a diatonic scale at the end of the theme.
d. clear modulations throughout.
370 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

6. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332


Which texture(s) do you hear in Clouds?
a. monophony and homophony
b. homophony
c. monophony and polyphony
d. homophony and polyphony

7. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages),


p. 332 Which musical element is the
clearest in Clouds?
a. form
b. tone color of solos
c. motivic development
d. rhythm and meter

8. The Rite of Spring: Part


I, p. 336 Who composed The
Rite of Spring?
a. Bela Bartok
b. Luciano Berio
c. Igor Stravinsky
d. Claude Debussy

9. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336


The Rite of Spring is a(n):
a. opera.
b. symphony.
c. symphonic poem.
d. ballet.

10. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336


The opening theme of The Rite of Spring is played by the:
a. bassoon, in the highest part of its range.
b. alto flute.
c. oboe.
d. trombone, in the highest part of its range.

11. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336


The performing forces in The Rite of Spring consist of:
a. woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
b. strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
c. strings, woodwinds, and brass.
d. strings, woodwinds, percussion, and choir.

12. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336 What instruments seem


Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 371
to dominate the first minute of The Rite of Spring?
a. strings
b. brass
c. woodwinds
d. percussion
372 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

13. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336 The rhythms and tempo of "The
Game of Abduction" in The Rite of Spring seem to create
a mood that is:
a. peaceful and pastoral.
b. religious.
c. intellectual and restrained.
d. violent, surging, and frantic.

14. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336


What do you hear at various times in the "Round Dances of Spring" of The
Rite of Spring?
a. musique concrete
b. a tone row
c. fragmented folk songs
d. a passacaglia

15. The Rite of Spring: Part I, p. 336


What is heard at the end of the "Round Dances of Spring" of The Rite of
Spring?
a. a short return of the slow introduction theme in the bassoon
b. a sequence of the three folk songs
c. a loud rhythmic passage with irregular accents
d. a tender, lyrical cadenza

16. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340


Who composed Pierrot lunaire?
a. Claude Debussy
b. Alban Berg
c. Igor Stravinsky
d. Arnold Schoenberg

17. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 8 "Night," p. 341


The performing forces in "Night" in Pierrot lunaire consist of:
a. voice, bass clarinet, and piano.
b. voice, cello, and piano.
c. voice, cello, bass clarinet, and piano.
d. voice, two violas, and piano.

18. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 8


"Night," p. 341 "Night" in Pierrot
lunaire is:
a. atonal.
b. in a major mode.
c. in a minor mode.
d. based on the octatonic scale.

19. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 8 "Night," p. 341


Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 373

In "Night" in Pierrot lunaire, the image of "giant black butterflies" from the
poem is evoked by the:
a. muted trumpet.
b. the use of sprechstimme.
c. frantic clarinets.
d. lowest instruments of the ensemble.
374 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

20. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 18 "The Moonfleck,"


p. 341 The vocal technique heard in "The Moonfleck"
in Pierrot lunaire is:
a. Sprechstimme.
b. vocalise.
c. Singspiel.
d. pizzicato.

21. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 18 "The Moonfleck," p. 341


The performing forces in "The Moonfleck" in Pierrot lunaire consist of:
a. voice, piano, and woodwinds.
b. voice, piano, and strings.
c. voice, piano, woodwinds, and strings.
d. voice, piano, percussion, and woodwinds.

22. Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21, No. 18 "The


Moonfleck," p. 341 The texture of "The
Moonfleck" in Pierrot lunaire is:
a. monophony.
b. homophony.
c. homophony, then monophony.
d. polyphony.

23. Wozzeck, Act III,


Scene iii, p. 344 Who
composed Wozzeck?
a. Charles Ives
b. Alban Berg
c. Arnold Schoenberg
d. Claude Debussy

24. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iii, p. 344


Wozzeck is a(n):
a. opera.
b. song cycle.
c. symphony.
d. Mass.

25. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iii, p. 344


The performing forces in Act III, scene iii o f Wozzeck consist of:
a. full orchestra and ragtime piano.
b. voices, full orchestra, and ragtime piano.
c. voices, banjo, piano, and full orchestra.
d. full orchestra and voices.

26. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iii, p. 344


Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 375

27. Wozzeck,Act III, Scene iii, p.


344 of Act III of Wozzeck, but
What seems disturbingly out of place contributes to
in scene iii the mood and setting?
a. the voice
b. the string melody
c. the French horn melody
d. the piano part
28. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iii, p. 344
Because of the murder in the previous scene, the mood of scene iii of
Act III of Wozzeck is:
a. confused, shocking.
b. peaceful, content.
c. triumphant, victorious.
d. gleeful, happy.

29. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iii, p. 345


In scene iii of Act III of Wozzeck, what compositional device is heard?
a. a short chant
b. spoken dialogue
c. a flute and soprano duet
d. a "master rhythm," a kind of ostinato in many different tempos

30. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iv, p. 345


As the drama proceeds, the mood of scene iv of Act III of Wozzeck
changes from_____________________________________________________________
to_________________________________________________________________________
a. shrieking sprechstimme; emotionally lamenting music in the
orchestra
b. light and cheerful; macabre and spooky
c. lamenting; peaceful and contented
d. victorious and happy; peaceful and contented

31. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iv, p. 345 In scene iv of Act III of
Wozzeck, when the orchestra plays alone after the voices stop,
the compositional style changes from___ to_________
a. fugal; homophonic
b. atonal; late Romantic
c. late Romantic; atonal
d. impressionist; expressionist

32. Wozzeck, Act III, Scene iv, p. 345


The innovative vocal technique heard in scene iv of Act III of Wozzeck
is:
a. Singspiel.
b. vocalise.
c. Sprechstimme.
d. isorhythm.
376 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism
33. Second Orchestral Set, second movement: "The
Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People's Outdoor Meeting, " p.
351
Who composed "The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People's Outdoor
Meeting"?
a. Aaron Copland
b. Leonard Bernstein
c. Charles Ives
d. George Crumb
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 377

34.Second Orchestral Set, second movement: "The Rockstrewn


Hills Join in the People's Outdoor Meeting," p. 351
The performing forces in "The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People ' s
Outdoor Meeting " consist of:
a. strings, woodwinds, and piano.
b. strings, woodwinds, and percussion.
c. a choir, strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
d. strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion, and piano.

35.Second Orchestral Set, second movement: "The Rockstrewn


Hills Join in the People's Outdoor Meeting," p. 351
Which is true of "The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People's Outdoor
Meeting"?
a. The meter is constant and stable.
b. Themes are stated in their entirety, then varied.
c. Themes are generally rudely interrupted by the trombones or
drums and are rarely heard in their entirety.
d. The accompaniment never intrudes on the themes, but always
assumes a secondary role.

To p i c s

36. The Twentieth Century: Early


Modernism, p. 331 The first phase of
avant-garde music emerged in:
a. Paris and Vienna.
b. London and Paris.
c. Berlin and London.
d. Paris and Milan.

37. The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism, p. 331


The first phase of avant-garde music lasted from:
a. 1850 to 1874.
b. 1874 to 1890.
c. 1890 to 1914.
d. 1914 to 1945.

38. The Twentieth Century: Early


Modernism, p. 331 Three of the leading first-
phase modernist composers were:
a. Stravinsky, Debussy, and Schoenberg.
b. Mahler, Stravinsky, and Debussy.
c. Mahler, Schoenberg, and Stravinsky.
d. Manet, Mondrian, and Braque.

39. Debussy and Impressionism, p. 331


Which statement about Debussy is false?
a. Like the Romantics, he searched for new ways to express emotion in
music.
b. His orchestral sound was very similar to Mahler's.
c. His tone colors avoid the usual heavy sonorities of the Romantic era.
378 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism
d. He developed new rich harmonies and new tone colors for orchestra
and piano.

40. Debussy and Impressionism, p. 331


What characterizes Debussy's use of tone color?
a. serialized combinations of tone colors
b. one family of the orchestra featured at a time
c. heavy, rich, Romantic sonorities
d. subtle, blended, mysterious shades of tone colors
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 379

41. Debussy and Impressionism, p. 331


What characterizes Debussy's treatment of melody?
a. clear themes based on major or minor scales
b. symmetrical themes built on tidy phrases reminiscent of the Classical
era
c. fragmented themes and motives based on exotic scales
d. no identifiable themes, melodies, or motives; atonality

42. Claude Debussy, p. 334


The two nonmusical influences on Debussy's style were:
a. symbolist poetry and impressionist painting.
b. symbolist poetry and expressionist painting.
c. German Romantic literature and impressionist painting.
d. Neoclassical literature and cubist painting.

43. Claude Debussy, p. 334


Debussy's enduring contributions to twentieth-century music were in the
areas of:
a. chamber music and piano music.
b. ballet and sonatas for stringed instruments.
c. piano music and orchestration.
d. music criticism and serialism.
380 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

44. Claude Debussy, p. 334


Debussy wrote music criticism. views concerning_____ music
In it, his were clear.
a. positive; Italian vocal
b. negative; German
c. positive; German
d. negative; American
381 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

45. Three Nocturnes, Clouds (Nuages), p. 332


The nationality of the composer of Clouds is:
a. German.
b. French.
c. Hungarian.
d. Russian.

46. Three Nocturnes, p.


332 Debussy's Three
Nocturnes are titled:
a. C l o ud s, F e st i v al s, and Si re ns.
b. Clouds, Si re ns, and P i e rrot .
c. Clouds, Game s, and Si re ns.
d. Clouds, P e l l e as, and Me l i sande.

47. Three Nocturnes, Clouds, p. 332


The haunting, recurring English horn motive in Clouds is based on
a(n):
a. tone row.
b. octatonic scale.
c. pentatonic scale.
d. major scale.

48. Three Nocturnes, Clouds, p. 333


Debussy's approach to musical form in Clouds is:
a. to give homage to Classical forms.
b. to compose in simple, easily perceived structures.
c. to use sequences.
d. to shrink from clear formal outlines.
382 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

49. Stravinsky: The Primacy of Rhythm,


p. 334 The first ballet by
Stravinsky was:
a. T h e F i re b i rd .
b. Petrushka.
c. T h e R a k e ' s P ro g re s s .
d. T h e R i t e o f S p r i n g.

50. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339


Stravinsky was influenced early in his career by:
a. Gustav Mahler.
b. Ludwig van Beethoven.
c. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
d. Modest Mussorgsky.
51. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339
The major works of Stravinsky's early period were:
a. ballets.
b. operas.
c. symphonies.
d. lieder.
52. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339
Which American musical style caught
Stravinsky's ear? a. opera
j
h azz
c. folk
d. rock
53. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339
The artistic movement that came about after World War I and that
signified a rejection of Romantic emotionality and a return to the
styles of earlier composers was:
a.
expressionism.
h . symbolism.
c. Neoclassicism.
d. serialism.
54. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339
For a time Stravinsky composed in the__ style.
a. Renaissance
b. neomedieval
c. impressionist
d. Neoclassical
55. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339
Toward the end of his career, Stravinsky wrote music in the style.
a. Classical
b. Romantic
c. serialist
d. impressionist
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 383
56. The Rite of Spring, p. 336
The premier of T h e R i t e o f S p r i n g was famous for:
a. lovely, graceful dancing. h. the riot by the audience.
c. thunderous applause.
d. the first audience sing-along.
384 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

57. The Rite of Spring, p. 336


The events in The Rite of Spring involve:
a. a walk in the woods in springtime.
b. primitive fertility rites.
c. a fairy tale about a magic spring with healing waters.
d. true stories about life under the czar.

58. The Rite of Spring, p. 338


One of the devices used by the composer in The Rite of Spring is:
a. serialism.
b. Sprechstimnae.
c. the octatonic scale.
d. ostinato.

59. The Rite of Spring, p. 338


A repeating figure that serves to unify works by composers such as
Stravinsky and Debussy is called a(n):
a. passacaglia.
b. ground bass.
c. ostinato.
d. leitmotiv.

60. The Rite of Spring, p. 338


Which statement about The Rite of Spring is false?
a. It has a primitive quality.
b. It has some complex rhythms, with irregular meters.
c. It was composed for a ballet.
d. It was based on a symbolist poem.

61. The Rite of Spring, p. 338


The Rite of Spring does not include:
a. a tone row.
b. irregular, shifting meters.
c. Russian folk music.
d. use of the extreme high and low ranges of instruments.

62. Expressionism, p. 339


The expressionist musical style took root mainly in:
a. Germany and Austria.
b. France and Italy.
c. England and France.
d. Hungary and Russia.

63. Expressionism, p. 340


The leading expressionist composer was:
a. Claude Debussy.
b. Igor Stravinsky.
c. Arnold Schoenberg.
d. Alban Berg.
64. Expressionism, p. 340
The main contribution of expressionist composers was:
a. a return to intellectual compositional approaches.
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 385

b. the breakdown of tonality.


c. their innovative orchestration technique.
d. a return to Classical forms.
386 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

65. Expressionism, p. 340


Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg are often
referred to as: a, the Fauves.
b. impressionists.
c. the Apaches.
d. the Second Viennese School.
66. Arnold Schoenberg, p. 343
Arnold Schoenberg was a very creative composer who also expressed
himself through:
a. acting.
b. books on conducting.
c. literary criticism.
d. painting.

67. Arnold Schoenberg, p. 343


Which statement about Schoenberg is false?
a. He was a great teacher, in Europe and then at UCLA.
b. He was the first impressionist composer.
c. He was the inventor of serialism.
d. He was part of the Second Viennese School.
68. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340
Which statement about Pierrot lunaire is false?
a. It includes poems written by Schoenberg himself.
b. It uses a Neoclassical style.
c. It features Sprechstimme.
d. It uses an unconventional ensemble.
69. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340
A combination of song and speech is called:
a. Sings piel.
b. ostinato.
c. impressionism.
d. Sprechstimme.

70. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340


In what genre is Pierrot lunaire?
a. song cycle
b. opera
c. oratorio
d. symphonic poem

71. Schoenberg and Serialism, p. 347


The two famous pupils of Schoenberg were:
a. Claude Debussy and Igor Stravinsky.
b. Anton Webern and Alban Berg.
c. Anton Webern and Claude Debussy.
d. Charles Ives and Alban Berg.
72. Schoenberg and Serialism, p. 346
Arnold Schoenberg invented a method that guarantees that no one
pitch in the chromatic scale is more important than the others. This
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 387
method is called:
a. the twelve-tone system (serialism).
b. Neoclassicism.
c. ostinato.
d. Sprechstimme.
388 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

73. Schoenberg and Serialism, p. 346


Schoenberg'swayofimposingorderon"emancipated"elementsofmusicresultedin
a. atonality
b. expressionism
c. the twelve-tone system (serialism)
d. chromaticism

74. Schoenberg and Serialism, p. 346


The composers of the Second Viennese School believed that the
chromaticism of Wagner had led them to:
a. the advent of electronic music.
b. the advent of aleatoric music.
c. the breakdown of tonality.
d. a revival of eighteenth-century harmonic practices.

75. Schoenberg and Serialism, p. 347


Webern'smusicis____________, whereas Berg 's music is
a. boisterous and grandiose; quiet and concise
b. brief and concentrated; slightly Romantic yet atonal
c. Neoclassical; aleatoric
d. atonal yet slightly Romantic; quiet and concise

76. Wozzeck, p . 343


Alban Berg's opera Wozzeck can generally be thought of as:
a. Wagnerian in its use of leitmotivs.
b. avoiding the use of leitmotivs.
c. owing its musical style to Webern.
d. retaining both recitatives and arias from the nineteenth century.

77. Wozzeck, p. 343


Alban Berg based his opera Wozzeck on:
a. descriptions of ancient fertility rites.
b. fragments of a play by Georg Buchner.
c. a series of poems by Albert Giraud.
d. a story that he wrote himself.

78. Modernism in America: Ives, p. 349


Which statement about Charles Ives's compositional style is false?
a. He wrote music for pianos tuned to quarter tones.
b. He quoted American folk songs and popular music in his
compositions.
c. He was the first important American nationalist composer.
d. He used mostly consonant harmonies.

79. Charles Ives, p. 349


Which statement about Charles Ives is false?
a. He was born in the South, where he was deeply moved by African-
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 389
American music.
b. He had jobs in insurance and as a church organist.
c. He developed unique mystical notions about music that were
related to New England transcendentalism.
d. Ile believed that all kinds of music and all musical experiments are
equally valid.
390 Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism

80. Second Orchestral Set, second movement: "The Rockstrewn Hills


Join in the People's Outdoor Meeting," p. 351
Ives's orchestral sets can be thought of as:
a. popular opera overtures.
b. casual piano concertos.
c. informal symphonies.
d. light songs with orchestral accompaniment.

81. Ives, The Unanswered Question, p. 352


Charles Ives's The Unanswered Question is novel because of:
a. its reflections of transcendentalism.
b. its three distinct, independent levels of music.
c. the presence of a trumpet solo
d. the use of non-imitative polyphony in the woodwinds.

Essay Questions

1. The Early Twentieth Century, p. 331


Where and when did avant-garde music get its start? Name three early
leading composers of this era and style.

2. Debussy and Impressionism, p. 331


Briefly compare and contrast the orchestral compositional styles of
Claude Debussy and Gustav Mahler, particularly in light of the cities
in which they practiced their art.

3. Debussy and Impressionism, p. 331


With which musical element was Debussy most innovative in terms of his
orchestral music? In which other genre was Debussy innovative?

4. Claude Debussy, p. 334 Briefly describe


Debussy's reaction to the music of Wagner.

5. Debussy, Three Nocturnes, p. 332 Name each of the Three


Nocturnes by Debussy and briefly describe the mood of each.

6. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339 Briefly describe


two influences on the music of Igor Stravinsky.

7. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339 Define Neoclassicism and name


a composer who wrote music in this style.

8. Igor Stravinsky, p. 339 Name three


different styles in which Stravinsky composed.

9. The Rite of Spring, p. 338


Define ostinato. Name one twentieth-century work that makes use of this
technique, and name the work's composer.

10. The Rite of Spring, p. 338 Briefly characterize Stravinsky's use of folk
melodies, rhythm, and ostinato in The Rite of Spring.
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 391
11. Expressionism, p. 339
Where and when did expressionism take root in music? Who was the
leading composer in this style?
12. Expressionism, p. 339 Briefly
describe the expressionist style in
music.

13. Arnold Schoenberg, p. 343


Name and define the compositional technique invented by Schoenberg
that served to organize pitches in atonal music.

14. Arnold Schoenberg, p. 343


Name three of Schoenberg's compositions and briefly describe one of the
following for each: the style, an innovative musical technique used, or
the story behind the composition.

15. Arnold Schoenberg, p. 343 Name three


facets of Schoenberg's career besides
composing.

16. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340 Briefly describe the


character of Pierrot in Pierrot lunaire.

17. Pierrot lunaire, p. 340 Name and define the innovative


vocal technique featured in Pierrot lunaire.

18. Wozzeck, p. 343 Briefly describe two ways in which


Wozzeck can be considered Wagnerian.

19. Wozzeck, p. 344 Briefly


relate the story of Wozzeck.

20. Wozzeck, p. 345


Name the innovative vocal technique used in Wozzeck. Briefly describe
how it adds to the drama and mood of the opera.

21. Charles Ives, p. 349 Briefly explain what Charles Ives


thought was the most important thing about music.
Chapter 20 The Twentieth Century: Early Modernism 393
22. Charles Ives, p. 349
Briefly explain three ways in which Charles Ives was not a typical
American composer of his time.
C H A P T ER 21

Alternatives Modernism

Multiple-Choice Questions
Listening

1. Piano Concerto in G, p. 356


Who composed Piano Concerto in G?
a. Claude Debussy
b. Maurice Ravel
c. Sergei Prokofiev
d. Aaron Copland

2. Piano Concerto in G, p. 356


Piano Concerto in G was composed
in the:
a. 1910s.
b. 1920s.
c. 1930s.
d. 1940s.

3. Piano Concerto in G, p. 356


The first movement of Piano Concerto in G opens with a:
a. lively, folklike tune played by the piccolo.
b. dreamy chord progression in the string section.
c. romantic torch song played by a solo trumpet.
d. blues melody played by the piano.

4. Piano Concerto in G, p. 356


The second and third themes heard in the first movement of Piano
Concerto in G are reminiscent of:
a. patriotic marches.
b. blues and jazz.
c. atonal music.
d. Classical techniques.

5. Piano Concerto in G, p. 356


The end of the first movement of Piano Concerto in G is:
a. in a waltz tempo.
b. a dreamlike sequence in the clarinet.
c. signaled by an oboe and flute duet.
d. a long series of parallel chords.
Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 396

6. Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360


Who composed Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta?
a. Bela Bartok
b. Maurice Ravel
c. Sergei Prokofiev
d. Aaron Copland
7. Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360
Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta was composed in the:
a. 1910s.
b. 1930s.
c. 1950s.
d. 1970s.
8. Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360
The second movement of Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta is in
________________________________________________________________________ form.
a. rondo
b. through-composed
c. arch
d. sonata
9. Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360
The second movement of Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta opens
with:
a. pizzicato strings.
b. bowed strings.
c. piano articulating octaves.
d. a triple-meter dance tune.

10. Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360


The development of the second movement of Music for Strings,
Percussion, and Celesta is introduced by the:
a. strings.
b. timpani.
c. piano.
d. celesta.
11. Appalachian Spring, p. 363
Who composed Appalachian Spring?
a. Charles Ives
b. Claude Debussy
c. Maurice Ravel
d. Aaron Copland
12. Appalachian Spring, p. 363
Section 5 of Appalachian Spring ("Simple Gifts") is in____ form.
a. sonata
b. rondo
c. theme and variations
Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 397
d. through-composed

13. Alexander Nevsky, p. 368


Who composed Alexander Nevsky?
a. Dmitri Shostakovich
b. Sergei Prokofiev
c. Igor Stravinsky
d. Sergei Raclunaninov
Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 398

14. Alexander Nevsky, p. 368


Alexander Nevsky was composed in
the:
a. 1910s.
b. 1920s.
c. 1930s.
d. 1940s.

15. Alexander Nevsky, p. 368


What breaks the ominous mood in the opening of Cantata 5 of Alexander
Nevsky?
a. drum rolls by the timpani
b. scraping noises from the violas
c. a battle call played by a muted trombone backstage
d. a rising motive in the cellos

16. Alexander Nevsky, p. 368


What is heard just before the armies meet at the climax of Cantata 5 of
Alexander Nevsky?
a. a chorus singing a homophonic phrase
b. a three-note motive from the trumpet and tuba
c. a melody of staccato eighth notes
d. a series of ominous drum rolls

Topics

17. Twentieth-Century Traditionalism, p. 353


In the early twentieth century:
a. atonal compositions were the norm.
b. serialized compositions were the norm.
c. most composers wrote in the style of Igor Stravinsky.
d. there was no compositional norm.

18. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Who was the leading Italian opera composer after Verdi?
a. Giacomo Puccini
b. Georges Bizet
c. Gioacchino Rossini
d. Pietro Mascagni

19. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Which is an opera by Puccini?
a. Elektra
b. Aida
c. Salome
d. La Boheme

20. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 399
Which statement about Puccini's compositional style is false?
a. He avoided the modernist techniques being used by his
contemporaries.
b. He was able to incorporate certain modernist techniques for
striking effects.
c. His melodies could stand comparison with those of his countryman
Verdi.
d. He made a careful study of Japanese and Chinese music for use in
two of his operas,
Madame Butterfly and Turandot.
400 Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism

21. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Which statement about Richard Strauss is false?
a. He evolved from Neoclassical to modernist in his style.
b. He evolved from modernist to Neoclassical in his style.
c. He sometimes used Greek myths in his operas.
d. He was the leading modernist composer in the 1890s.

22. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354 Who composed the opera Der
Rosenkavalier?
a. Igor Stravinsky
b. Richard Strauss
c. Johann Strauss
d. Giacomo Puccini

23. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


What pair of operas of Richard Strauss still have the power to shock
audiences?
a. Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni
b. Tannhauser and Lohengrin
c. Der Rosenkavalier and Erwartung
d. Salome and Elektra

24. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Which statement about Richard Strauss is false?
a. He pulled back from modernism with his opera Der Rosenkavalier.
b. He wrote some sensational symphonic tone poems.
c. He was the brother of Johann Strauss, "The Waltz King."
e. His opera Elektra sometimes verges on atonality.

25. Maurice Ravel, p. 355


Maurice Ravel's harmonic language is reminiscent of the music of:
a. Wagner.
b. Debussy.
c. Puccini.
d. Strauss.

26. Maurice Ravel, Piano Concerto in G, p.


356 Maurice Ravel's Piano Concerto in G
is a tribute to:
a. American jazz.
b. his mother's Basque roots.
c. southern France.
d. city life in Paris.

27. Bela Bartok, p. 359


Bela Bartok had many careers. He was a composer as well as a(n):
a. painter.
b. journalist.
c. economist.
d. codirector of the Budapest Academy of Music.

28. Bela Bartok, p. 359


Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 401
Which style did Bartok embrace?
a. expressionism
b. nationalism
c. serialism
d. impressionism
402 Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism

29. Copland, Appalachian Spring, p. 363


Appalachian Spring is a(n):
a. opera about colonial days in America.
b. ballet about a pioneer celebration in Pennsylvania.
c. piano concerto including jazz themes.
d. religious work for chorus and orchestra.

30. Aaron Copland, p. 363


What composition by Aaron Copland is a ballet score?
a. A Lincoln Portrait
b. The Red Pony
c. Appalachian Spring
d. El salon Mexico

31. Aaron Copland, p. 364


Which statement about Aaron Copland is false?
a. He was greatly influenced by Igor Stravinsky.
b. He was a great promoter of American music and started a
Composers' Alliance.
c. He was a great avant-garde innovator and was not
interested in writing music "for the people."
d. His style was eclectic; he sought inspiration from American
music of all kinds.

32. The Rise of Film Music, p. 366


Pianists' or organists' improvisations for silent films of the 1910s
and1920s were often based on:
a. folk music.
b. published catalogues of Romantic musical repertoire.
c. opera music from the Baroque era.
d. the avant-garde, modernist composers of the day.

33. The Rise of Film Music, p. 366


Matching music to onscreen action or situations is similar to:
a. word painting techniques.
b. program music.
c. the use of isorhythms.
d. Wagner's use of leitmotivs.

34. Composers for Film: Prokofiev, p. 366


Composers who have devoted their careers to film music include:
a. Sergei Eisenstein and Francis Ford Coppola.
b. Nino Rota and John Williams.
c. Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel.
b. Richard Strauss and Giacomo Puccini.

35. Composers for Film: Prokofiev, p. 366


Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 403
Two important American composers who contributed to film music
are:
a. Max Steiner and Nino Rota.
b. Charles Ives and Max Steiner.
c. Kurt Weill and Sergei Eisenstein.
d. Aaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein.
36. Music and Totalitarianism, p. 367
European modernist composers in Nazi and Stalinist Russia were
Germany considered:
a. folk heroes.
b. employees of the state.
c. elitist.
37. Music and Totalitarianism, p.
367 In Nazi Germany, the of_________ and_________ were
musical works promoted.
a. Bartok; Weill
b. Schoenberg; Berg
c. Berlioz; Mahler
d. Beethoven; Wagner
38. Music and Totalitarianism, p. 367
In the Soviet Union, the most famous composer to suffer state
oppression was:
a. Dmitri Shostakovich.
b. Bela Bartok.
c. Igor Stravinsky.
d. Alexander Borodin.

39. Sergei Prokofiev, p. 369


Much of Prokofiev's music can be characterized as:
a. a modernist exploration of atonality.
b. having clear tonality and using Russian folk themes.
c. relying on frequently changing meters.
d. an elegant style, influenced by his years in Vienna.
Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 404

40. Alexander Nevsky, p. 368


The soundtrack of Alexander Nevsky refashioned by Prokofiev as a(n)__ for
was concert performances.
a. opera
b. ballet
c. piano concerto
d. cantata
Chapter 21 Alternatives to Modernism 405

Essay Questions

1. Twentieth-Century Traditionalism, p. 353


List and briefly describe the various ways composers embraced or reacted
against modernism in the early twentieth century.

2. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Who was Verdi's successor in Italian opera? Was this successor able to
incorporate modernist techniques? Name one technique he used.

3. Opera in the Early Twentieth Century, p. 354


Who was the most important composer of German operas after 1900? In
which other genres did this composer write? Briefly characterize the sort
of plot material this composer chose for one of his most shocking operas,
Elektra.

4. Maurice Ravel, p. 355


Compare and contrast the musical contributions and significance of
Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy.
5. Maurice Ravel, Piano Concerto in G,
p. 356 Describe Maurice Ravel' s connection
with American jazz.

6. Bela Bartok, p. 359 Name three


different facets of the career of Bela BartOk.

7. Bela Bartok, p. 359


What was Bartok's opinion of the Nazis? What did this mean for him in
terms of performing and publishing his music?

8. BartOk, Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, p. 360


What makes Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta resemble a
Classical-style symphony? Describe the second movement to support your
answer.

9. Aaron Copland, p. 364


Name one composition teacher and one composer who each influenced
the work of Aaron Copland.

10. Aaron Copland, p. 364


Briefly describe Aaron Copland's philosophy of the purpose of music in
general and American music in particular.

11. Aaron Copland, p. 364


Name three genres in which Aaron Copland composed. Name one of his
compositions for each genre.

12. Copland, Appalachian Spring, p. 363 Briefly describe


the setting and events of Copland's Appalachian Spring.

13. The Rise of Film Music, p. 366


Discuss the influence of Romantic-era music on film music. Name two
composers for film, and name one film score composed by each.

14. Music and Totalitarianism, p. 367


Briefly analyze the oppression that modernist composers suffered in
totalitarian regimes during the first half of the twentieth century. List
three composers who were affected.
15. Sergei Prokofiev, p. 369
Discuss Prokofiev's compositional style in relation to those of modernist
composers of the first phase of modernism.
C H A P T E R 22

The Late Twentieth Century

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. Five Orchestral Pieces, IV, p. 374


Which is true of the fourth of Webern's Five Orchestral Pieces?
a. It uses a large orchestra to produce masses of sound.
b. It is in sonata form.
c. It is concise and atonal.
d. It is predictable and repetitive.

2. Lux aeterna, p. 377


Who composed Lux
aeterna?
a. Arnold Schoenberg
b. Anton Webern
c. Alban Berg
d. Gyorgy Ligeti

3. Lux aeterna, p. 377


The performing forces in Lux aeterna consist of:
a. organ and several vocal soloists.
b. many voices: some soloists, the rest singing together.
c. a flute, a recorder, and many voices.
d. many voices: some soloists, the rest singing together, and
mnusique concrete.

4. Lux aeterna, p. 377


Which is fairly clear in Lux aeterna?
a. tone color
b. form
c. the text
d. rhythm

5. Lux aeterna, p. 377


Which provides contrast m Lux aeterna?
a. the changes in sections of text accompanied by sudden
tempo changes
b. sudden changes of key or modality
c. gradual changes in tone color matching the text changes
d. addition or subtraction of ranges of pitches to the sound
clusters
410 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century

6. Poeme electronique, p. 379


Who composed Poeme electronique?
a. George Crumb
b. Edgard Varese
c. Anton Webern
d. John Cage

7. Poeme electronique, p. 379


In Poeme electronique many interesting sounds are heard, including:
a. a harpsichord.
b. a celesta.
c. a solo soprano.
d. a violin.

8. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382


Who composed Music for 18 Musicians?
a. John Adams
b. George Crumb
c. John Cage
d. Steve Reich

9. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382


The performing forces in Music for 18 Musicians include, among others:
a. a vibraphone, two clarinets, and four singers.
b. recorded nature sounds and strings.
c. piccolo, violin, viola, and cello.
d. musique concrete, flutes, and piccolo.

10. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382


The Introduction of Music for 18 Musicians features:
a. a canon between the four voices.
b. lingering harmony over a regular, repeating pulse.
c. a pizzicato duet between violinist and cellist.
d. music concrete sounds.

11. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382


In section 1 of Music for 18 Musicians, a melodic theme is built up first by
the_________________________________________________________________________
then by the________________________________________________________________
a. vibraphone; bass clarinet
b. violin; cello
c. xylophone; violin
d. clarinets; voices

12. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382 In section 1 of Music for 18 Musicians,


Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 411
changes in the theme's pitch level are cued by the:
a. voices.
b. clarinets.
c. vibraphone.
d. cello.
412 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century
13. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385 Song 1
of From the Grammar of Dreams begins with a(n):
a. orchestral section.
b. violin solo.
c. soprano voice.
d. small group of players.

14. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


Which do the performers demonstrate throughout From the Grammar of
Dreams?
a. wide, leaping melodies to a regular rhythmic pulse
b. many unorthodox vocal techniques
c. coloratura technique reminiscent of the Baroque
d. a return to a bel canto style

15. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


What can be heard in Song 3 of From the Grammar of Dreams?
a. a panting rhythm
b. a blueslike harmony
c. a dance rhythm
d. imitative polyphony

16. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


In Song 4 of From the Grammar of Dreams, the rhythm in the return of A'
evokes a:
a. sense of unease.
b. light playfulness.
c. beating heart.
d. sense of brilliant triumph.

17. El Nino, "Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar, " p. 390


Who composed El Nino?
a. John Cage
b. Charles Ives
c. John Adams
d. George Crumb

18. El Nino, "Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar,"


p. 390 In "Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar," the
singer and chorus:
a. alternate lines of poetry in the beginning.
b. sing each stanza together.
c. use unorthodox vocal techniques.
d. compete with the orchestra.

19. El Nino, "Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar," p. 390


Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 413
In "Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar," a___ contributes to a sense of conflict.
a. short fugue section
b. baritone solo
c. brief section of electronic music
d. skittery, staccato melody by the violin
414 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century
20. El Nino, "When Herod Heard, " p. 390
In "When Herod Heard, " the "speech " by the Three Wise Men (three
countertenors) is introduced by:
a. loud brass.
b. a bassoon playing near the top of its range.
c. pizzicato strings.
d. the chorus.

21. El Nino, "Woe unto Them That Call Evil Good," p. 390
In "Woe unto Them That Call Evil Good," a conflict can be heard
between:
a. the chorus and the baritone.
b. the baritone and the countertenors.
c. the chorus and the mezzo-soprano.
d. the orchestra and the chorus.

.Vopics

22. Modernism in Music: The Second Phase, p. 372


Which musical elements, besides pitch, are most commonly
serialized?
a. rhythm and dynamics
b. tempo and meter
c. texture and melody
d. tone color and dynamics

23. New Sound Materials, p. 372


Post World War II composers were intent on:
a. exploring the modernist music techniques of Debussy.
b. searching for new sound materials.
c. developing more possibilities with the standard Romantic
orchestra.
d. discarding serialism in favor of Neoclassicism.

24. New Sound Materials, p. 372


Which of these sound techniques existed before the post-World War II
era?
a. multiphonics for woodwind players
b. the use of "nonmusical" noises
c. electronically produced sound
d. plucking stringed instruments instead of bowing them

25. New Sound Materials, p. 372


Which family of the orchestra underwent the most growth and
innovation in the post World War II era?
a. strings
b. woodwinds
c. percussion
d. brass
Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 415
26. Electronic Music, p. 373
Which cannot generate sound?
a. the human voice
b. an electronic sound synthesizer
c. an electric guitar
d. electronic recording equipment
416 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century

27. Electronic Music, p. 373


The use of recorded sounds from life is called:
a. symbolism.
b. serialism.
c. musique concrete.
d. synthesizing.

28. Electronic Music, p. 374


Electronically produced sound can be generated by a:
a. synthesizer.
b. speaker.
c. voice.
d. piano.

29. Electronic Music, p. 374


In electronic music, it is possible to eliminate the:
a. audience.
b. performer.
c. composer.
d. publisher.

30. Chance Music, p.


375 Another term for
chance music is:
a. dice music.
b. symbolism.
c. musique concrete.
d. aleatoric music.

31. Chance Music, p. 375


An example of aleatoric music is:
a. instructing the performer to place his or her hands inside the lid
of the piano and strum or strike the strings.
b. throwing dice to determine the order of sections to be performed in a
composition.
c. using a synthesizer to produce sounds.
d. using the twelve tones of the chromatic scale in a fixed order.

32. Gyorgy Ligeti, p. 376


Gyorgy Ligeti is considered:
a. an aleatoric composer.
b. a part of the postwar avant-garde.
c. a strict serialist.
d. a modernist nationalist.

33. Lux aeterna, p. 377


Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 417
'
In Lux aeterna, Ligeti s use of pitches results in:
a. a chantlike texture.
b. imitative polyphony.
c. pulsing harmonies.
d. slowly moving sound complexes.
418 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century

34. Edgard Varese, p. 379 Varese was known


as an innovative composer in the area(s) of:
a. bebop and blues.
b. rhythm and electronic music.
c. vocal techniques such as Sprechstimme.
d. orchestral tone color and melody.

35. Modernist Music and Architecture, p. 378


The first performance of Poeme electronique by Varese included:
a. piano, seven wind instruments, 425 loudspeakers, and voice.
b. only a tape player and 425 loudspeakers.
c. a tape player, 425 loudspeakers, and the projection of colored
lights and images.
d. live voices, a tape player, a piano, and a film being projected in a
pavilion.

36. John Cage, p. 380


The father of chance music is:
a. John Cage.
b. Philip Glass.
c. William Billings.
d. George Crumb.

37. 4'33", p. 380


John Cage 's 4'33" consists of:
a. an atonal fugue based on a twelve-tone row.
b. any sounds and silences occurring in the performance hall.
c. a combination of several different styles of jazz into one
"serious" work.
d. chance music played by stringed instruments.

38. Minimalism, p. 381 Music in which simple melodies, motives,


and harmonies are repeated many times and change in small
increments over long periods of time is called:
a. aleatoric music.
b. expressionism.
c. minimalism.
d. serialism.

39. Minimalism, p. 381


Which aspect of modernist experimentation did minimalists
continue?
a. the presentation of long, slowly changing musical blocks of time
b. the inclusion of quotations of past musical repertoire
c. the use of n zusique concrete
d. serialism of elements that include rhythm and dynamics
Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 419
40. Steve Reich, p. 382 With which
musical style is Steve Reich associated?
a. serialism
b. minimalism
c. tonal music
d. chance music
420 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century
41. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382
The sound of Music for 18 Musicians is reminiscent of:
a. a concerto grosso.
b. the gamelan orchestras of Indonesia.
c. chamber music.
d. Chinese opera.

42. A New Expressionism, p. 385


Ancient Voices of Children was which composer's response to the Vietnam War?
a. John Adams
b. Steve Reich
c. George Crumb
d. Kaija Saariaho

43. Kaija Saariaho, p. 385


Which statement about Kaija Saariaho is false?
a. She is a European composer born after World War II.
b. She composes in a neoromantic style.
c. She combines live performers with electronic music.
d. She is especially interested in vocal music, particularly the soprano
voice.

44. Kaija Saariaho, p. 385


Kaija Saariaho 's special interest is composing:
a. "music for the state."
b. impressionist music.
c. vocal music.
d. Finnish nationalist music.

45. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


From the Grammar of Dreams consists of songs set to the words of:
a. Sylvia Plath.
b. George Crumb.
c. Psalm 50.
d. Kaija Saariaho.

46. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


From the Grammar of Dreams is a:
a. stage play.
b. cycle of five songs.
c. minimalist work.
d. chance piece.

47. Back to the Future, p. 387


One characteristic of postmodern compositions is:
a. a return to strict Classical forms.
b. a self-conscious and free mixing of many different styles and
techniques.
c. an avoidance of all earlier styles and genres.
d. great restraint in emotional expression.

48. El N i no, p. 388


John Adams's El N i no is a return to an older genre:
Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 421
a. the oratorio.
b. the Mass.
c. the cantata.
d. the opera.
422 Chapter 2 2 The Late Twentieth
Century
49. El Nino, p. 388
The model for El Nino was:
The Late Twentieth
423 Chapter 2 2
Century
a. the music of
minimalism.
b. Bach's Magnificat.
c. the Korean War.
d. Handel's Messiah.

50. El Nino, p. 388


Which can be found in the
text of
a. traditional folk songs El Nino?
b. poems by Sylvia Plath
c. Bible passages and Spanish and Mexican female poets
poems by
d. fragments of a German
play
The Late Twentieth
424 Chapter 2 2
Century
Essay Questions

1. Modernism in Music: The Second Phase, p. 372 Name two musical


trends that composers followed after World War II. Briefly explain them.

2. New Sound
Materials, p. 372 Define
multiphonics.

3. New Sound Materials, p. 372


Briefly explain the new sound sources discovered and used by composers
in the post-World War II era.

4. Electronic Music, p. 373


Define musique concrete. Contrast musique concrete with electronically generated
sounds in music.

5. Electronic Music, p. 374 What are some of


the musical capabilities of the synthesizer?

6. On the Boundaries of Time, p. 374


Compare and contrast the way Anton Webern uses the time elements of
music with the way Terry Riley uses them.

7. Chance Music, p. 375 Define aleatoric music. Describe a


possible example of this style of composition.

8. Gyorgy Ligeti, p. 376


Briefly describe how Ligeti has contributed new sonorities and new ways
of dealing with time in twentieth-century music.

9. Gyorgy Ligeti, p. 376 Briefly explain


Ligeti' s innovative approach to pitch.

10. Gyorgy Ligeti, p. 377 How


does Ligeti approach meter and
rhythm?

11. Lux aeterna, p. 377


Is it important that the text be clearly understood in L u x aeterna? Why or
why not? What is the source of the text?
Chapter 22 The Late Twentieth Century 213

12. Edgard Varese, p. 379


Briefly explain the approach Edgard Varese took to rhythm and sonority.
What was his reaction to the introduction of electronic composition
equipment?

13. John Cage, p. 380


Briefly describe the musical of John Cage. Name two nonmusical
philosophy this philosophy. influences on

14. 4'33", p. 380


Briefly explain how 4 '33" is
music.
15. Minimalism, p. 381
Does minimalism conform to modernist compositional techniques? If so,
how, and if not, why not?

16. Music for 18 Musicians, p. 382 How does Reich's Music for 18
Musicians demonstrate characteristics of minimalism?

17. From the Grammar of Dreams, p. 385


Briefly describe how I<aija Saariaho sets the words of Sylvia Plath.
Choose two songs from the song cycle From the Grammar of Dreams to
illustrate your answer.

18. Back to the Future, p. 387


Discuss briefly the state of current compositional practice, including
three contributing tendencies.
19. El N i no, p. 388 Briefly compare and contrast
Adams's El Nino and Handel's Messiah.

214
C H A P T E R 23

Multiple-Choice Questions

Listening

1. "If You Ever Been Down" Blues, p. 398 The two famous
artists featured in "If You Ever Been Down " Blues are:
a. Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong.
b. Mamie Smith and Scott Joplin.
c. Bessie Smith and Duke Ellington.
d. Louis Armstrong and Miles Davis.

2. "If You Ever Been Down" Blues, p. 398


What instrument plays a solo for an entire twelve-bar blues
stanza in "If You Ever Been Down " Blues?
a. piano
b. clarinet
c. bass
d. trumpet

3. "If You Ever Been Down" Blues, p. 398


What happens in between lines of text in "If You Ever Been Down "
Blues?
a. The trumpet and clarinet play short breaks.
b. The drums play a solo.
c. The piano plays a long solo.
d. The trumpet echoes the text.

4. "Conga Brava," p. 402


Who composed Conga Brava?
a. George W. Thomas and Sippie Wallace
b. Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman
c. Duke Ellington and Juan Tizol
d. Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong

5. "Conga Brava," p. 402


What solo instrument plays in the introduction of Conga Brava?
a. guitar
b. saxophone
c. trumpet
d. trombone

214
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 429

6. "Conga Brava," p. 402


In which part of Conga Brava do you hear a Latin beat?
a. during the saxophone improvisation
b. during the reed choir section
c. during the trombone solo
d. during the brass choir section

7. "Out of Nowhere," p. 406


What is the style of Out of Nowhere?
a. blues
b. swing
c. ragtime
d. bebop

8. "Out of Nowhere," p. 406


What instruments are featured in solos in Out of Nowhere?
a. trumpet, saxophone, and piano
b. trombone, saxophone, and piano
c. trumpet, trombone, and piano
d. trumpet, clarinet, and saxophone

9. Bitches Brew,
407 Bitches Brew contains
p.
elements of styles.
a. baroque and jazz
b. jazz and rock
c. rock and folk
d. romantic and rock

10. Bitches Brew, p. 407 Besides the electric bass guitar, what
other electric instrument is heard in this excerpt
of Bitches Brew?
a. amplified violin
b. amplified tenor saxophone
c. electric piano
d. electric vibraphone

11. Bitches Brew, 407


p.
Bitches Brew features:
a. Miles Davis on trumpet.
b. Sippie Wallace on drums.
c. Dizzy Gillespie on trumpet.
d. Duke Ellington on piano.

12. Prelude No. 1, p. 410


Who composed Piano Prelude
No. 1?
in America: Jazz and Beyond
430 Chapter 23 Music
a. Aaron Copland
b. George Gershwin
c. Dukc Ellington
d. Leonard Bernstein

214
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 431

13. Prelude No. 1, p. 410


What is the genre of Piano Prelude No. 1?
a. miniature
b. tone poem
c. ballet
d. symphony

14. Prelude No. 1, p. 410 What element borrowed from jazz is


heard in the main theme of Piano Prelude No. 1?
a. a pentatonic scale
b. a blues scale
c. an octatonic scale
d. a chromatic scale

1S. Prelude No. 1, p. 410


Which rhythmic characteristic do you hear in Piano Prelude No. 1?
a. ostinatos
b. metrical modulation
c. syncopation
d. serialized rhythms

16. Prelude No. 1, p. 410


What is the main style influence in Piano Prelude No. 1?
a. Renaissance music
b. rock
c. blues
d. jazz

17. West Side Story, p. 412


Who composed West Side
Story?
a. Duke Ellington
b. Leonard Bernstein
c. Aaron Copland
d. Stephen Sondheim

18. West Side Story, p. 412


For which dance was this first quiet selection from West Side Story
written?
a. cha-cha
b. mazurka
c. conga
d. waltz

19. West Side Story, Meeting Scene, p. 413


In the Meeting Scene, the romantic moment is enhanced by the:
a. timpani solos.
b. lyrical soprano solo.
c. violin solos.
J. guitar line.

20. West Side Story, "Cool," p. 413


432 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
What rhythmic device is heard in "Cool"?
a. isorhythm
b. syncopation
c. metrical modulation
d. serialized rhythms
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 433

21. We s t
S i d e S t o r y, "Cool," p. 413
What American jazz style is heard in "Cool"?
a. ragtime
b. twelve-bar blues style
c. a big band "swing" style
d. a New Orleans "Dixieland" style

To p i c s

22. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 392


The first American composer, according to most sources, was:
a. Aaron Copland.
b. Charles Ives.
c. Benjamin Franklin.
d. William Billings.

23. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 392


A genre of eighteenth-century American sacred music is the:
a. anthem.
b. oratorio.
c. Mass.
d. motet.

24. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 392


An early American inventor and diplomatic figure of the eighteenth
century who tried composing was:
a. Benjamin Franklin
b. Louis Moreau Gottschalk
c. Aaron Copland
d. Stephen Foster

25. The Cultivated Tradition, p. 392


Americans tended to import the classical music of in the nineteenth
century.
a. France
b. England
c. Italy
d. Germany

26. The Cultivated Tradition, p. 393


Which statement about Amy Beach is f a l s e ?
a. She was the first American woman to compose a symphony.
b. She was the first known female American conductor of an orchestra.
c. She was a fine concert pianist.
d. She composed a piano concerto and a piano quintet.

27. Music in the Vernacular, p. 394


StephenCollinsFosterwrote_____________, and John Philip Sousa wrote
434 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
a. symphonies; piano sonatas
b. songs; church music
c. church music; woodwind chamber music
cl. songs; marches
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 435

28. African American Music, p. 395


What characteristic of African music is still used in African American
church music today?
a. the pentatonic scale
b. complex rhythmic patterns
c. call and response singing
d. use of the piano

29. African American Music, p. 395


What is the term for a religious folk song that came into being
outside any established church?
a. fuguing tune
b. spiritual
c. call and response
d. hymn

30. Jazz: The First Fifty Years, p. 396


The two key features of jazz performance style are:
a. improvisation and highly developed syncopation.
b. call and response.
c. ragging and improvisation.
d. improvisation and breaks.

31. Jazz Syncopation, p. 397


The rhythm section of a jazz ensemble includes:
a. trumpet.
b. clarinet.
c. piano.
d. trombone.

32. Jazz Syncopation, p. 397


When the accents are moved slightly ahead of the beat, the effect is
called:
a. metrical modulation.
b. beat syncopation.
c. back beat.
d. isorhythm.

33. Ragtime: Scott Joplin, p. 399


Who was the leading composer of ragtime in the early 1900s?
a. William Billings
b. Stephen Foster
c. Duke Ellington
d. Scott Joplin

34. Ragtime: Scott Joplin, p. 399


"To rag" means:
a. the right hand of the piano plays on the beat while the left
in America: Jazz and Beyond
436 Chapter 23 Music
hand plays syncopated rhythms.
b. the left hand of the piano plays on the beat while the right
hand plays syncopated rhythms.
c. to sing in a "rough" vocal style.
d. to swing the rhythm.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 437

35. The Blues, p. 397


The blues emerged around:
a. 1860.
b. 1920.
c. 1880.
d. 1900.

36. The Blues, p. 397


Which statement about the
blues is false?
a. The blues is sometimes called "twelve-bar blues."
b. The mood of the blues is often lonely, troubled, or depressed.
c. The form is generally a a b, repeated for various verses.
d. The left hand of the pianist plays on the beat while the right
hand plays syncopated rhythms.

37. " I f Yo u Ever Been Down " Blues, p. 397


What is the form of a blues song such as "If You Ever Been Down"?
a. theme and twelve bars of variations
b. a b a a b a and so on
c. a a b a a b and so on
d. rondo form

38. "I f You Ever Been Down " Blues, p. 397 Sippie Wallace was primarily known for:
a. gospel and blues singing, and songwriting.
b. her symphony and piano concerto.
c. innovative jazz compositions using dissonance.
d. ragtime piano playing.

39. "I f You Ever Been Down " Blues, p. 397


Gospel music evolved at the same
time as:
a. fuguing tunes.
b. the Mass and the motet.
c. ragtime and blues.
d. swing.

40. Louis Armstrong, p. 400


What is Louis Armstrong best known for?
a. the ability to switch from trumpet to saxophone
b. imaginative breaks and variations on the trumpet
c. prolific compositions for Broadway
d. improvisational skill at the piano

41. New Orleans Jazz, p. 399


In a typical early jazz band, the melody instruments included a:
a. string bass.
b. banjo.
c. tuba.
d. clarinet.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 439
220 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond

42. New Orleans Jazz, p. 399


Collective improvisation in early jazz was called:
a. ornamentation.
b. ragtime.
c. jamming.
d. an interlude.

43. New Orleans Jazz, p. 399


What was the first important center of jazz?
a. Los Angeles
b. New Orleans
c. Chicago
d. New York

44. New Orleans Jazz, p. 401 The earliest recordings of jazz, lasting
only three minutes each, were referred to by people in the recording
business as:
a. race records.
b. black records.
c. African-American records.
d. compact discs.

45. Swing, p. 401


Big bands were made up of_____ players.
a. three to four
b. five to seven
c. about twelve
d. ten to twenty-five
46. Swing, p.
401
Big band jazz is called:
a. bebop.
b. swing.
c. blues.
d. ragtime.

47. "Conga Brava," p. a dance rhythm of______


402 "Conga Brava" origin.
includes
a. Afro-Cuban
b. Mexican
48. Duke Ellington, p. 403
Which statement about Duke Ellington is false?
a. He composed music for, arranged music for, and conducted his own
jazz band.
b. He was recognized as one of America's most important composers
during his lifetime.
c. He went commercial and wrote "Top 40" hits.
d. He wrote religious music later in his career.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 441

49. Bebop, p. 406


What characterizes bebop?
a. ten to twenty members in the band
b. little opportunity for improvisation
c. origins in black American churches
d. combos featuring virtuosic improvisation

50. "Out of Nowhere," p. 407


"Out of Nowhere" is representative of:
a. big band swing.
b. gospel.
c. bebop.
d. blues.

51. Bitches Brew, p.


408 Fusion is a
combination of:
a. swing and ragtime.
b. jazz and rock.
c. atonal and tonal music.
d. blues and rock.

52. Bitches Brew, p. 408


Which statement about Miles Davis is false?
a. He played in bebop style throughout his career.
b. He favored high squeals at times in his improvisations.
c. He worked with Charlie Parker early in his career.
d. He worked with many different jazz artists, changing his style many
times.

53. Jazz in the Concert Hall, p. 409


George Gershwin was known for:
a. including jazz in "serious " compositions.
b. writing atonal music that had popular appeal.
c. his successful big band tours and recording career.
d. his orchestral conducting career and television programs.

54. Jazz in the Concert Hall, p. 409


A composition of George Gershwin's that imports jazz and blues styles
into the concert hall genres is:
a. A Poet's Love.
b. Sonata for Jazz Quintet.
c. Requiem.
d. An American in Paris.

55. Piano Prelude


442 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
No. 1, p. 410 Piano
Prelude No. 1 is:
a. in sonata form.
b. in variation form.
c. in a simple A B A' form.
d. a scherzo.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 443

56. The American Musical, p. 410


One of the main sources of American popular music in the form of
musical theater around 1900 was:
a. south Chicago.
b. Broadway in New York City.
c. Bourbon Street in New Orleans.
d. Market Street in San Francisco.

57. The American Musical, p. 410


Light operas of the nineteenth century containing spoken dialogue, light
tunes, and dancing were called:
a. ragtime.
b. shows.
c. operettas.
d. music dramas.

58. The American Musical, p. 411


The most important American composer of operettas was:
a. John Philip Sousa.
b. Arthur Sullivan.
c. Stephen Foster.
d. Victor Herbert.

59. Musical Comedy and Popular Song, p. 411


The two leading composers of early American musical comedy were:
a. Duke Ellington and Sippie Wallace.
b. Jerome Kern and George Gershwin.
c. Aaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein.
d. Amy Beach and Steve Reich.

60. Musical Comedy and Popular Song, p. 411


One of the early hits in American musical comedy of the 1930s was:
a. The Mikado.
b. Babes in Toyland.
c. The Bat.
cl. Of Thee I Sing.

61. West Side Story, p. 412


West Side Story includes three outstanding a moving story, music,
features: great and:
a. a powerful epilogue.
b. avant-garde techniques in
orchestration.
c. superb dances.
62. West Side Story, p. 412
The plot of West Side Story bears a resemblance to which of Shakespeare's
plays?
a. Romeo and Juliet
444 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
b. A Midsummer Night's Dream
c. Henry V
d. Macbeth
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 445

63. West Side Story, p. 412


Which technique was used by Bernstein in West Side Story?
a. Sprechstimme
b. thematic transformation
c. theme and variations
d. serialism

64. West Side Story, p. 414


Which Baroque form is used in "Cool" from West Side Story?
a. binary form
b. minuet form
c. fugue
d. concerto grosso ritornello form
65. Rock: The First Fifty Years,
p. 416 an appropriation of_____ by white
Early Rock is described by some musicians.
as
a. gospel
b. bebop

Essay Questions

1. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 391 How did the


Puritans' views on music affect the beginning of American
music?

2. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 392 Define


fuguing tunes. Name one composer who wrote some fuguing
tunes.

3. Early American Music: An Overview, p. 392 Define


anthem and briefly explain how anthems relate to fuguing
tunes.

4. The Cultivated Tradition, p. 392 Briefly describe the state of music


in America in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

5. Music in the Vernacular, p. 394


Name two composers of early American popular music. Briefly describe
their musical styles and musical activities.

6. African American Music, p. 395 Briefly describe Antonin


Dvoiak 's attitude toward early African American music.

7. Jazz: The First


Fifty Years, p. 396 Define
improvisation.

8. Jazz: The First Fifty Years, p. 397


446 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
Name the three styles of jazz, in chronological order, from its beginnings
to just after World War II.

9. Ragtime: Scott Joplin, p. 399 Define ragtime.


Name one composer famous for ragtime music.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 447

10. Jazz Syncopation, p. 397


Name the typical instruments in the rhythm section of an early jazz
ensemble. Briefly explain the function of the rhythm section.

11. Jazz Syncopation, p. 397 Name four instruments most likely


to be playing the melody in an early jazz ensemble.

12. Jazz Syncopation, p. 397


What is beat syncopation? Contrast beat syncopation with regular
syncopation. Which instruments in an early jazz ensemble would be
most likely to play beat syncopation?

13. The Blues, p. 397 Define blues in


terms of its form, origin, and mood.

14. Louis Armstrong, p. 400 Briefly describe


the musical contributions of Louis Armstrong.

15. Louis Armstrong, p. 400 How did Louis Armstrong


react to the commercialization of jazz in the 1930s?

16. " I f You Ever Been Down" Blues, p. 398 Briefly


describe the musical contributions of Sippie
Wallace.

17. The
Blues, p. 397
Define gospel
music.

18. New Orleans Jazz, p. 399 Briefly describe


the makeup of a typical New Orleans jazz band.

19. New Orleans Jazz, p. 399 What was the


approach to improvisation in New Orleans jazz?

20. New Orleans Jazz, p. 401 Briefly


describe two outcomes of the recording of early
jazz.

21. Swing, p. 401 Briefly describe


the makeup of a typical big band.

22. Swing, p. 401


Briefly describe the style of composition and performance called swing.
Refer to improvisation in your answer.

23. Duke Ellington, p. 403


Briefly describe the main features of the musical career of Duke Ellington.
What musical style influenced his early compositions? What kind of
ensemble did he compose for and organize? For what other media and
genres did Ellington compose?

24. Bepop, p. 406 Define bebop. Contrast the New


448 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
Orleans, swing, and bebop styles.

25. Jazz after Bebop, p. 407 Briefly


describe some of the elements of avant-garde
jazz.

26. Miles Davis, p. 407 Which instrument did Miles


Davis play? Which jazz movement did he lead?
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 449

27. Miles Davis, p. 408 Which musical


styles were combined to form fusion jazz?

28. Jazz in the Concert Hall, p. 409 Briefly describe the


career of George Gershwin and name three of his major works.

29. Jazz in the Concert Hall, p. 409


How were George Gershwin's musical aspirations different from those
of other composers of musicals?

30. Musical Comedy and Popular


Song, p. 411 Define musical comedy and
contrast it with operetta.

31. Musical Comedy and Popular Song, p. 411 Name the


two most important composers of early American musical
comedy.

32. The Musical After 1940, p. 412 Briefly


describe the change in musicals after World
War II.

33. West Side Story, p. 412


Summarize the plot of West Side Story. Then briefly describe the similarity
between West Side Story and a certain play by Shakespeare.

34. West Side Story, p. 414


Name a compositional technique used in West Side Story, and give an
example of how this adds to the drama of the work.

35. Rock: the First Fifty Years, p. 415 Briefly describe


two ways in which technology is important to rock music.

36. After the 1960s, p. 419 Briefly describe how music videos
have influenced a shift in emphasis in popular music.

37. Trends Since 1980: Punk, Rap, and


Post-Rock, p. 421 Briefly explain three
important elements of rap.

38. Trends Since 1980: Punk, Rap, and Post-Rock, p. 420


Compare and contrast rock and rap with country, folk, and vocal jazz.
Refer to the relative importance of lyrics and melody in your answer.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 6 African D r u m m i n g

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. African Drumming, p. 404


450 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
Who is performing the African drumming selection?
a. a minstrel from the Sudan
b. a drum ensemble from Benin
c. a gourd-trumpet orchestra from the Sudan
d. a chorus of Mbuti pygmies
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 451

2. African Drumming, p. 404


Which is true of African drumming?
a. It is always done as a solo.
b. It swings similarly to American jazz.
c. It fulfills a variety of social and religious functions.
d. It accompanies stage dramas.

3. African Drumming, p. 404


Drumming is associated with the religions of:
a. West Africa.
b. the South Afrikaners.
c. Hungarian gypsies.
d. Bali gamelans.

4. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 404


The rhythms heard in the African drumming selection can be said to:
a. be distinctively regular.
b. be connected to some European traditions.
c. have staggered entrances on pitched timpani-like instruments.
d. show complex rhythms not found in European traditions of the
nineteenth century.

5. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 405


The function of the other drums, aside from the main drum, in the drum
ensemble of Benin is to:
a. provide countermelodies.
b. play with the main drum softly.
c. play a variety of different rhythms.
d. play in triple meter constantly.

6. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 405


When the main drum and the other drums are playing together in the
drum ensemble of Benin, more complex and varied rhythms result,
including:
a. staggered entrances in counterpoint.
b. extensive syncopation.
c. long periods of silence in contrast.
d. irregular main pulse of the main drum.

7. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 405


What contributes to the special richness and vitality of the African drum
ensemble piece?
a. blurring of the main pulse
b. extensive homophony in the foreground
c. consistency of the main pulse
d. overlapping of various rhythmic patterns with the main pulse
452 Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond
8. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 405
The overlapping of several rhythmic formulas at once is called:
a. polyrhythm.
b. polyespressivo.
c. rhythm weaving.
d. periodic ostinato.
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 453

Essay Questions

1. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 404 How is the almost "swing"


rhythm effect created between the drums in African drumming?

2. Syncopation and Polyrhythms, p. 405


Define polyrhythm in regard to West African
drumming.

3. A Closer Look, p. 405


Note that one ensemble drummer plays with a timbre that is more
wooden-sounding in the higher register. Describe what this drummer
plays in relation to the main drum.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 7 Global Music

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Global Music, p. 422


An Andean chorus singing church polyphony with Quechua words and
Incan instruments as accompaniment demonstrates:
a. pride.
b. ambition.
c. a complex mix of cultures.
d. homophony.

2. Complexities and Globalism, p. 422


The growth of technology and music has encouraged two opposing
tendencies. The first is a tendency toward_________________________while
the second is a tendency toward___________________________________
a. homogenization; localizing music-making
b. differentiation; extreme polyphony
c. slow growth; more uniformity
d. pasteurization; internationalism

3. South African Choral Song:


Isicathamiya, p. 423 Isicathamiya is
known as a:
a. prehistoric musical form.
b. South African vocal tradition.
c. way of accompanying South African music.
d. syncopation to a main beat.

4. South African Choral Song: Isicathamiya, p. 423


A famous singing group that has brought isicathamiya to a worldwide
audience is:
a. Henry Blacksmith Quartet.
b. South African Choral Allstars.
c. Ladysmith Black Mambazo.
d. Ladysmith Black Adder.
5. South African Choral Song: Isicathamiya, p. 423
The first recording stars of the local Zulu singing scene were Solomon
Linda and the Evening Birds. Their greatest hit, "Mbube," was known to
English-speaking listeners as:
a. "The Lion Sleeps Tonight."
b. "The Lion King."
c. "Walking With the Lion."
d. "The Lion in Hiding. "

Essay Questions

Refer to 9. p. 29
1. p. 25 10. p. 30
2. p. 26 11. p. 32
3. p. 26 12. p. 32
4. p. 27 13. p. 33
5. p. 27 14. p. 33
6.1. p.
a; 28
p. 15. p. 33
37
7. p. 28 16. p. 35
8.2. p.
c; 29
p. 17. p. 34
37
3. b; p. Interlude B: Musical Instruments Multiple-Choice
37
Questions
4. b; p.
37 c; p. 40
5. a; p. c; p. 40
d; p. 41
b; p. 41
c; p. 42 b ; p . 4 1
c; p. 45
d; p. 45
c; p. 46

Essay Questions

Refer to 6. p. 40
1. p. 37 7. p. 41
2. p . 3 7 8. p. 42
3. p. 38 9. p. 45
4. p. 39 10. p. 47
5. p. 39

Chapter 4: Musical Form and Musical Style


Multiple-Choice Questions

1. b; p. 48 6. b; p. 50
2. a; p. 48 7. c; p. 51
3. d; p. 50 8. a; p. 50
4. c; p. 49 9. c; p. 51
5. b; p. 49 10. d; p. 52

Essay Questions
Chapter 23 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond 455

Refer to p.
Chapter 5: The Middle Ages
1. p. 48 50 2,
p.48 p. Multiple-Choice Questions
3. p. 49 48
4. p. p. 50 48
5. p. p. 48
5
6. p. 49
1. d; p. 61 48. c;p. 60
2. b; p. 61 49. a;p. 61
3. c; p. 61 50. a;p. 61
4. d; p. 62 51. b;p. 61
5. b; p. 62 52. b;p. 62
6. c; p. 62 53. a;p. 63
7. b; p. 63 54. d; p. 63
8. a; p. 63 55. a; p. 63
9. d; p. 63 56. b; p. 63
10. a; p. 63 57. d; p. 63
11. d; p. 63 58. b; p. 63
12. c; p. 63 59. a; p. 63
13. b; p. 66 60. d; p. 63
14. a; p. 66 61. c; p. 64
15. d; p. 66 62. b; p. 64
16. b; p. 66 63. a; p. 64
17. d; p. 66 64. b; p. 64
18. c; p. 66 65. c; p. 64
19. a; p. 66 66. c; p. 64
20. a; p. 66 67. d; p. 66
21. a; p. 68 68. a; p. 65
22. b; p. 68 69. a; p. 66
23. c; p. 68 70. d; p. 66
24. b; p. 68 71. c; p. 66
25. d; p. 68 72. b; p. 66
26. c; p. 68 73. c; p. 66
27. a; p. 70 74. c; p. 67
28. d; p. 70 75. b; p. 67
29. c; p. 70 76. d; p. 68
30. a; p. 70 77. b; p. 68
31. a; p. 58 78. d; p. 68
32. b; p. 58 79. c; p. 70
33. c; p. 58 80. a; p. 70
34. d; p. 58 81. b; p. 70
35. c; p. 58 82. d; p. 70
36. b; p. 59 83. c; p. 70
37. a; p. 60 84. b; p. 70
38. d; p. 60 85. a; p. 70
39. c; p. 60 86. c; p. 70
40. b; p. 60 87. d; p. 70
41. a; p. 60 88. b; p. 70
42. c; p. 60 89. a; p. 70
43. b; p. 60 90. b; p. 70
44. a; p. 60 91. b; p. 71
45. c; p. 60 92. c; p. 71
46. d; p. 60 93. d; p. 71
47. b; p. 60 94. b; p. 71
Answer Key 457

Essay Questions 43. a; p. p. 83


80 a; p. 88
Refer to 11. p. 44. c; p. p. 84
1. p. 58 12. 65 81 b; p.
2. p. 5 9 13. p. 88
66
p. 65
3. p. 59 14.
p. b; p. p. 85
4. p. 60 15. 67 81 b; p.
5. p. 60 16. p. 66 89
p.
6. p. 61 17. 67 d; p. p. 86
7. p. 63 18. 81 c; p. 89
p.
8. p. 64 19. 68 p. 67 p. 87
9. p. 64 20. p. d; p. d; p.
10. p. 64 81 89
p. 68 p. 88
b; p. a; p. 89
81 p. 89
p. 69 c; p. 89
b; p. p. 90
82 d; p.
p. 70 91
d; p. p. 91
82 c; p. 92
p. 71 p. 92
a; p. 83 d; p.
p. 72 92
b; p. p. 93
83 b; p.
p. 73 91
c; p. 83 p. 94
p. 74 c; p. 91
d; p. p. 95
84 a; p. 91
p. 75 p. 96
c; p. 84 c; p. 91
p. 76 p. 97
d; p. b; p.
84 91
p. 77 p. 98
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 1: Sacred Chant
a; p. 85 d; p.
Multiple-Choice Questions p. 78 92
b; p.
85
p. 79
c; p. 85
p. 80
a; p. 86
p. 81
b; p.
87
p. 82
c; p. 87
458 Answer Key

1. b; p. 73 5. b; p. 74 Essay Questions
2. a; p. 73 6. b; p. 74
3. a; p. 73 7. c; p. 75 Refer 16. p. 82
4. d; p. 74 8. d; p. 75 to p. 83
Essay Questions 1. p. 17. p. 84
2. p. p. 85
Refer to 3. p. 73 3. p. 18. p. 86
4. p. D. 86
1. p. 73 4. p. 74
5. D. 77 19. p. 87
2. p. /3 5. p. /4 6. p. p. 88
7. p. 20. p. 89
Chapter 6: The 8. p. p. 89
9. p. 21. p. 89
Renaissance Multiple- 10. p. p. 90
Choice Questions 11. p. 22. p. 92
12. p.
p. 92
1. a; p. 78 22. c; p. 89 13. p. 23. p. 92
2. b; p. 78 23. b; p. 91 14. p.
3. d; p. 78 24. a; p. 91 15. p.
81
4. c; p. 78 25. b; p. 91
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 2 : M u s i c
5. c; p. 78 26. a; p. 92
and Early European Colonialism
6. a; p. 83 27. c; p. 92
7. d; p. 83 28. d; p. 92 Multiple-Choice Questions
8. d; p. 83 29. c; p. 77
9. a; p. 83 30. b; p. 77 1. d; p. 93 5. c; p.
10. b; p. 83 31. a; p. 77 94
11. a; p. 83 32. d; p. 77 2. c; p. 93 6. c; p.
94
12. c; p. 83 33. a; p. 77
13. d; p. 85 34. b; p. 77 3. a; p. 93 7. a; p.
94
14. b; p. 87 35. d; p. 78
4. b; p. 93
15. d; p. 87 36. c; p. 78
16. d; p. 87 37. c; p. 79 Essay Questions
17. c; p. 87 38. b; p. 80
18. d; p. 87 39. b; p. 80 Refer to
19. a; p. 89 40. c; p. 80 1. p. 93
20. b; p. 89 41. b; p. 80 2. p. 93
21. d; p. 89 42. d; p. 80

p.
3. 93
4. p.
5. p.
94
Answer Key 459

Chapter 7: The Early Baroque 12. p. 101 19. p.


13. p. 101 20. p.
Period Multiple-Choice Questions 14. p. 101 21. p.
1. a ; p. 9 7 4 4 . c ; p. 9 8 15. p . 102 22. p.
16. p. 102 23. 108
p.
2. b; p. 9 7 4 5 . a ; p. 9 9
17. p. 105 24. p.
3. c ; p. 9 7 4 6 . c ; p. 9 9 1 8 . p. 1 0 6 25. p.
4. d; p. 9 7 47. a ; p. 9 9 111
5. c ; p. 9 7 48. b; p. 9 9
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 3: Ostinato Forms
6. d; p. 9 7 4 9 . d; p. 9 9
7. c ; p. 9 7 5 0 . a ; p. 100 Multiple-Choice Questions
8. c ; p. 9 7 51. c ; p. 101
9. a ; p . 9 7 5 2 . d; p. 101 1. d; p. 112 5 . b; p. 113
10. d; p. 102 5 3 . b; p. 101 2. c ; p. 112 6. a; p. 113
11. a ; p. 102 5 4 . c ; p. 101 3. c ; p. 112 7 . d; p. 113
12. b; p. 1 0 2 5 5 . a ; p. 1 0 2 4. a ; p. 112 8 . b; p. 113
13. a ; p. 102 56. c ; p. 102
Essay Questions
14. b; p. 102 57. b; p. 102
15. d; p. 102 58. d; p. 102
R e f e r to 3 . p. 112
16. c ; p. 106 59. b; p. 102
1. p. 11 2 4 . p. 113
17. b; p. 106 60. d; p. 102
2. p. 112 5 . p. 113
18. d; p. 106 61. c ; p. 102
19. b; p. 106 6 2 . a ; p. 102
20. c ; p. 106 6 3 . c ; p. 103 Chapter 8: P r e l u d e :
21. a ; p. 106 6 4 . b; p. 103 The Late Baroque Period
22. d; p. 106 6 5 . d; p. 105 Multiple-Choice Questions
23. b; p . 106 6 6 . c ; p . 105
24. c ; p. 106 6 7 . b; p. 106 1. c ; p . 116 16. a ; p. 124
25. d; p. 109 6 8 . c ; p. 107 2. a ; p. 116 17. c ; p. 125
26. c ; p. 1 0 9 6 9 . a ; p. 1 0 8 3. b; p. 116 18. b; p. 126
27. a ; p. 109 7 0 . c ; p. 108 4. d; p. 11 6 1 9 . c; p. 126
28. d; p. 109 71. b; p. 108 5. a ; p. 116 2 0 . d; p. 126
29. c ; p. 109 7 2 . d; p. 108 6. b; p. 117 21. a ; p. 127
30. d; p. 109 7 3 . c ; p. 108 7. d; p. 117 2 2 . b; p. 127
31. a ; p . 109 74. b; p. 108 8. c ; p. 118 23. c; p. 127
32. b; p. 109 7 5 . a ; p. 108 9. b; p. 118 24. b; p. 128
33. a ; p. 9 5 7 6 . c ; p. 108 10. a ; p. 119 2 5 . d; p. 128
34. c ; p. 9 5 7 7 . d; p. 108 11. c ; p. 120 2 6 . d; p. 129
35. d; p. 9 5 7 8 . b; p. 108 12. b; p. 122 2 7 . c; p. 129
36. a ; p. 9 6 7 9 . a ; p. 109 13. d; p. 123 2 8 . b; p. 129
37. b; p . 9 6 8 0 . c ; p . 109 14. c ; p. 123 29. a; p. 130
38. d; p. 9 7 81. a ; p. 109 15. b; p . 123
39. b; p. 9 7 8 2 . b; p. 109
40. c ; p. 9 7 8 3 . b ; p. 1 0 9 Essay Questions
Essay Questions 1. p.
2. p.
Refer to 9 . p. 122
Refer to 6. p. 97 3. p.
1. p. 9 5 p. 97 4. p.
10. p. 122
2. p. 9 5 7. p. 97 5. p. 11. p. 122
p. 98 6. p. 12. p. 123
3. p. 9 5
8. p. 99 7. p. 13. p. 123
4. p. 9 5
p. 100 8. p. 14. p. 123
5. p. 9 6 9. 120 15. p. 125
460 Answer Key

16. p. 126
17. p. 126
Answer Key 461

18. p. 126 25. p. Chapter 10: Baroque Vocal


19. p. 127 26. p.
20. p. 127 27. p. Music Multiple-Choice Questions
21. p. 127 28. p.
31. a; p. 157
22. p. 127 29. p.
23. p. 128 30. p. 32. a; p. 157
24. p. 128 33. c; p. 157
34. b; p. 157
Chapter 9: Baroque 35. d; p. 157
Instrumental Music Multiple- 36. c; p. 157
37. b; p. 159
Choice Questions
1. c; p. 22. d; p. 38. d; p. 159
134 150 39. b; p. 159
2. c; p. 23. b; p. 40. a; p. 160
134 150 41. c; p. 160
3. d; p. 24. c; p. 42. c; p. 159
134 150 43. b; p. 164
4. d; p. 25. a; p. 44. d; p. 164
134 150 45. d; p. 161
5. a; p. 26. c; p. 46. b; p. 161
134 133 47. c; p. 161
6. b; p. 27. a; p. 48. a; p. 162
138 133 49. b; p. 162
7. a; p. 28. c; p. 50. d; p. 162
138 133
51. c; p. 163
8. b; p. 29. d; p.
52. c; p. 164
138 133
53. d; p. 165
9. c; p. 30. b; p.
138 134 54. c; p. 165
10. a; p. Essay 55. d; p. 166
139 56. a; p. 166
11. a; p. Questions 57. b; p. 167
139
Refer to
12. c; p.
139 15. p.
1. p.
13. c; p. 2. p. 16. 160
139 3. p. 17. p.
14. d; p. 4. p. 18. 160
139 5. p. 19. p. 160
15. a; p. 6. p. 20. p.
139 7. p. 21. 1
16. b; p. 8. p. 22. 6
139 9. p. 23. 4
17. c; p. 10. p. 24. p.
146 139 25. 1
18. d; p. 26. 6
149 27. 4
19. b; p. 28. p.
146
20. a; p.
150
21. b; p.
150
462 Answer Key

1. b; p.
158
2. d; p.
158
3. c; p.
158
4. a; p.
31. b; p. 21. a; p. 158
134 146 5. b; p.
22. b; p. 158
1. a; p.
134 147 6. d; p.
23. c; p. 161
2. b; p.
134 148 7. c; p.
24. a; p. 162
3. a; p.
136 148 8. c; p.
25. b; p. 162
4. c; p.
136 148 9. d; p.
26. c; p. 162
5. c; p.
136 149 10. c; p.
27. a; p. 162
6. c; p.
137 150 11. b; p.
28. b; p. 162
7. b; p.
138 150 12. b; p.
162
8. c; p.
139
13. d; p.
162
9. c; p.
140
14. a; p.
11. p. 165
10. d; p. 140
140
15. c; p.
12. p. 166
11. b; p. 143
143 16. d; p.
13. p. 165
12. a; p. 143 1. p.
143 14. p. 2. p.
13. c; p. 140 3. p.
143 4. p.
15. p.
14. d; p. 142 5. p.
142 6. p.
16. p.
15. a; p. 7. p.
145
142 8. p.
17. p. 9. p.
16. b; p. 145
144 10. p.
18. p. 11. p.
17. d; p. 147 12. p.
145 19. p. 13. p.
18. c; p. 148 14. p.
146 20. p. 160
19. a; p. 149
147 21. p.
20. b; p. 150
146
Answer Key 463

Chapter 11: Prelude:


Music and the Enlightenment
Multiple-Choice Questions

1. d; p. 6. p.
169 7. p.
2. a; p. 8. p.
169 9. p.
3. c; p. 10. p.
169 11. p.
175
4. c; p.
171
5. b; p.
171
6. c; p.
171
7. a; p.
172
8. b; p.
172
9. c; p.
173
10. d; p.
173
11. c; p.
173
12. b; p.
173
13. a; p.
173
14. d; p.
174
15. b; p.
175
16. c; p.
175
17. d; p.
175
18. a; p.
175
19. d; p.
175
Essay Questions

Refer to

1. p.
2. p.
3. p.
4. p.
5. p.
464 Answer Key

21. d; p. 42. b; p.
182 189
22. d; p. 43. c; p.
182 191
20. c; p. 36. b; p. 23. a; p. 44. c; p.
175 180 183 191
21. c; p. 37. c; p. 24. c; p. 45. a; p.
175 181 183 192
22. b; p. 38. d; p. 25. b; p. 46. c; p.
176 181 Refer 183to p. 195
189
23. a; p. 1. 26. d;
p. p. 47.
p. b; p.
195
176 2. 183
p. p. 195
195
24. c; p. 3. 27. d;
p. p. 48.
p. b; p.
195
176 12. p. 4. p.
183 p. 195
195
176 5. 28. b;
p. p.
25. b; p. 49.
p. c; p.
197
177 13. p. 6. p.
183 p. 196
197
176 7. 29. c;p.p. p. a;
199
26. d; p. 50. p.
177 14. p. 8. p.
183 p. 196
199
176 9. 30. c;p.p.
27. c; p. 51. c; p.
177 15. p. 186
184
177 Chapter 13: Other Classical
28. b; p. 31. b; p.
178 16. p. 184
178 Genres Multiple-Choice Questions
29. a; p.
178 17. p.
30. b; p. 178
178 18. p.
31. b; p. 179
178 19. p.
32. c; p. 179
179 20. p.
33. d; p. 180
179 21. p.
34. d; p. 180
179 22. p.
180
35. a; p.
180 23. p.
181
Answer Key 465

1. .91 ; 1 a; p.
2. a; p d; p. 11. b p . 203 a;
3. . ; .
191 2 p. 203
4. 1 1
c; p. 191 . d; p
8 p 9
5. 3 .
6 . 9
6. . 2
7. b; p 4
1 17. b 0
8. . . 3
9. 1 . ; 5
8 a; p
1 9 p . .
0. 6 1 . 6 2
c; p 12. c 1 . 0
. ; 9 7 6
1 9 .
8 b; p
p 18. a 8 .
6 . ; . 2
d; p p 9 0
. 1 . . 6
1 9 1 1
8 c; p
1 9 0 .
6 13. a 9 .
c 2
; 19. c 1 0
; ; 1
p 6
p p . d; p
. . . 1
1 .
1 2 2
8 1 9 .
6 0
9 9 1 6
b; p 1 20. a 3 c; p.
. 14. d ; . 206 a;
1 ; p 1 p. 206
8 . 4 c; p
p 1 . .
. 9 2
Chapter 12: The 9 1
Symphony Multiple- 1 3
9
6
Choice Questions d; p
7
a .
15. b 2
;
; 1
p
. 3
p
1 a; p
.
8 .
6 2
1
c; p 1
9
. 3
7
1 b; p
16. d
466 Answer Key

. 15. d; p. 215 c; c; b; p
16. p. 214 p. .
2 17. a; p. 215 20 2
1 18. a; p. 5 0
3 19. 202 b; 5
c; p 20. b; p. p. c; p
. 21. 202 20 .
22. c; p. 5 2
2 23. 203 a; p 0
1 24. c; p. . 5
5 25. 204
26. b; p. 204 2
27. d; p. 205 0
28. 5
Answer Key 467

29. d; p. 206 37. b; p.


30. a; p. 206 38. 210
31. c ; p. 209 39. c; p.
32. a; p. 209 40. 210
33. d; p. 209 41. d; p.
34. a; p. 209 42. 211
35. d; p. 209 43. c; p.
36. c ; p. 210 44. 211
b; p.
Essay Quest i ons

Ref er to 8. p.
1. p. 202 9. 209
2. p. 203 10. p.
3. p. 205 11. 209
4. p. 205 12. p.
5. p. 205 13. 210
6. p. 205 14. p.
7. p. 205 15. 210
p.
6. p.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 4: Musi cal Form : 7. 229
Tw o C ase S tu di es f rom Asi a p.
8.
Mul t i pl e-C hoi ce Quest i ons 9. 229
1 p.
0. 231
11 p.
468 Answer Key

13. b; p. 235 30. c; p. 230


14. c; p. 235 31. d; p. 230
15. a; p. 235 32. c; p. 230
16. d; p. 235 33. b; p. 230
17. a; p. 235 34. c; p. 230
18. b; p. 235 35. d; p. 229
19. c; p. 235 36. b; p. 231
20. d; p. 235 37. c; p. 231
21. b; p. 237 38. a; p. 231
22. d; p. 237 39. c; p. 235
23. a; p. 237 40. d; p. 235
24. c; p. 237 41. b; p. 237
25. b; p. 227 42. a; p. 237
26. c; p. 227 43. b; p. 237
27. a; p. 227 44. a; p. 237
29. a; p.
229
Essay Questions

1. a; p. 219 1. a; p.
2. b; p. 219 231
3. d; p. 219 2. d; p.
4. c ; p. 231
220 10. d; p. 3. b; p.
5. a; p. 217 231
222
11. c; p. 4. a; p.
6. c ; p. 218 231
222 5. c; p.
12. b; p.
7. a; p. 220 231
223 6. c; p.
13. d; p.
8. a; p. 220 231 18. a; p. 247
217 14. d; p. 19. d; p. 248
9. b; p. 20. d; p. 248
217 21. b; p. 248
22. a; p. 248
Ref er to 6. p.
23. b; p. 248
1. p. 220
7. p.
24. c; p. 248
217 25. d; p. 248
2. p. 221
8. p. 26. d; p. 249
218
221 27. c; p. 250
3. p. 28. b; p. 250
218
29. a; p. 250
4. p. 219
30. c; p. 251
5. p. 219
31. b; p. 251
b; p 32. b; p. 252
Chapter 33. a; p. 252
.
14: 2
Beethoven 3
1
Multiple- .
Choice Questions a; p
Answer Key 469

Ref er to
1. p. 227
2. p. 227
3. p. 227
4. p. 227
5. p. 228

1. b; p. 239
2. a; p. 239
3. c ; p. 239
4. d; p. 239
5. a; p. 240
6. c ; p. 240
7. d; p. 241
8. a; p. 241
9. b; p. 242
10. a; p. 242
11. d; p. 244
12. a; p. 244
13. c ; p. 245
14. c ; p. 246
15. b; p. 246
16. c ; p. 246 Chapter 15: Prel u de:
17. c ; p. 246 Music after Beethoven:
Romanticism
Mul ti pl e- C hoi c e Quest i ons

Essay Quest i ons


470 Answer Key

Essay Questions
61. c; p. 259 73. c; p.
Refer to 18. p. 246 268
1. p. 239 19. p. 62. a; p. 259 74. d; p.
2. p. 239 20. p.
270
3. p. 239 21. p.
4. p. 240 22. p. 63. c; p. 265 75. d; p.
5. p. 241 23. p. 269
6. p. 241 24. p. 64. b; p. 265 76. c; p.
7. p. 241 25. p. 269
8. p. 242 26. p. 65. c; p. 265 77. c; p.
9. p. 242 27. p. 269
10. p. 243 28. p. 66. c; p. 267 78. a; p.
11. p. 243 29. p. 271
12. p. 243 30. p. Essay Questions
13. p. 244 31. p.
14. p. 245 32. p. Refer to 13. p. 267
15. p. 245 33. p.
1. p. 254 14. p. 266
16. p. 246 34. p.
17. p. 246 2. p. 254 15. p. 268
3. p. 254 16. p. 268
4. p. 257
Chapter 16: The Early Romantics Multiple-Choice Questions
17. p. 270
5. p. 255 18. p. 269
6. p. 258 19. p. 269
7. p. 259 20. p. 271
8. p. 259 21. p. 271
9. p. 262 22. p. 271
10. p. 264 23. p. 269
11. p. 264 24. p. 270

Chapter 17: Romantic


Opera Multiple-Choice
1. d; p. 280
Questions 23. d; p.
277
2. b; p. 280 24. a; p.
277
3. c; p. 280 25. c; p.
277
4. a; p. 280 26. c; p.
277
5. b; p. 280 27. b; p.
277
6. a; p. 280 28. b; p.
277
7. b; p. 280 29. a; p.
277
8. c; p. 280 30. d; p.
277
9. d; p. 280 31. c; p.
277
10. c; p. 280 32. c; p.
278
471 Answer Key
1. b; p 6
2. . 0 2
3. 2 d; p 6
4. 5 . 5
5. 5 c; p
6. b; p 2 .
7. . 6 2
8. 2 0 6
9. 5 c; 5
10 5 p. b; p
. c; p 26 .
11 . 0 2
. 2 b; p 6
12 5 . 5
. 5 c; p
13 2 .
c; p
. 6 2
.
14. 2 3 6
as. 5 a; p 6
16. 5 . b; p
d; p .
17. . 2 2
2 6 6
18. 5 3 6
5 d; c; p
19. a; p. p. .
255 26 2
20. d; p 3 6
. c; p 6
21. 2 . b
5 ;
22. 5 2 p
d; p 6 .
23. 3 2
.
2 d; p 6
24. . 6
5
9 a
25. c; p. 2 ;
259 6 p
26. b; p. 5 .
259 a; p 2
27. a; p . 6
. 6
28. 2 2
5 6
29. 9 5
b; p b; p
30. .
.
2
5 2
9 6
c; p 5
. a; p
2 .
472 Answer Key

31. 47. d; p. 266 c; p. 255


32. 48. a; p. 266 d; p. 256
33. 49. b; p. 270 a; p. 256
34. 50. c; p. 270 b; p. 256
35. 51. b; p. 257
a; p. 273
36. 52. c; p. 257 a; p.
c; p. 273
37. 53. 257
38. 54. b; p. 273
d; p. 273 c; p. 258 c;
39. 55. p. 259
40. 56. b; p. 254
c; p. 254 d; p. 259 a;
41. 57.
p. 262
42. 58. b; p. 254
a; p. 263
43. 59. a; p. 254
44. 60. b; p. 263
c; p. 254
45. a; p. 259
b; p. 254
46. b; p. 259
c; p. 255
A n swer I Cey 2 3 7

45. d; p. 52. b; p. p. 302


284 285 Refer to 12
p. 303
46. b; p. 53. c; p. .
1. p. 304
p. 13
284 285
2. p. 305
p. 14
47. d; p. 54. d; p. 3. p. 305
p. 15
285 287 4. p. 306
p. 16
48. c; p. 55. c; p. 5. p. 308
p. 17
285 p.
6. p. 308 18
Essay Questions
p.
7. p. 309 19
Refer 13. p. 8. p. 310
p. 20
1. to p. 280 9. p. 310
p. 21
2. p. 14. p. 10. Chapters
p. 8- 22
3. p. 280 11. p. 23
4. p. 303 .
15. p.
5. p. 283 G LO BA L
6. p. P ERS P E CTI V ES 5:
16. p. Musical
7. p.
284
8. p. Drama
9. p.
17. p.
10. p. 284 Worldwide
11. p. 18. p. Multiple-
12. p. 283
19. p. Choice
279
285 Questions
Chapter 18: The Late Romantics
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. a; p. 315 7.
b; p. 315
2. c; p. 314 8.
d; p. 317
3. a; p. 315 9.
a; p. 317
4. c; p. 315 10.
d; p. 317
5. d; p. 315 11.
b; p. 317
6. c; p. 315
474 Answer Key
1. b; p. 2 Essay
28. b; p. 299
295 9
29. a; p. 298 Questions
2. c; p. 8
30. c; p. 299
295 31. b; p. 299 Refer to
3. a; p. 32. d; p. 300 b; p. 1. p. 315
295 302 2. p. 314
33.
4. b; p. 34. c; p. 300 3. p. 315
295 35. b; p. 303
5. d; p. 36. d; p. 303
295 1. d; p.
37. b; p. 303 320
6. a; p. 38. d; p. 303
300 39.
2. b; p.
a; p. 302 323
7. c; p. 40. c; p. 302
300 41. 3. a; p.
c; p. 304 323
8. d; p. 42. b; p. 304
300 43. 4. c; p.
b; p. 304 324
9. b; p. 44.
d; p. 304 5. b; p.
300 45.
a; p. 305 325
10. c; p. 46.
47.
c; p. 305 6. c; p.
305 d; p. 308
48. 325
11. b; p. c; p. 308
305 49. 7. d; p.
50. b; p. 309 a; p. 327
12. a; p. 309
305 51. 8. c; p.
52. c; p. 310 328
13. c; p. d; p. 310
309 9. a; p.
14. b; p. 328
309 10. b; p.
15. c; p. 329
309 11. a; p.
16. c; p. 329
309
17. a; p.
309 Chapter 19: Prelude:
18. a; p. Music and Modernism
293 Multiple-Choice Questions
19. d; p.
295
20. d; p.
295
21. b; p.
295
22. a; p.
295
23. d; p.
296
24. a; p.
295
25. a; p.
295
26. d; p.
298
27. c; p.
4. p. 315 13. d 9 15. a; p. 330
5. p. 315 ; 14. c 329 19. a; p.
6. p. 317 ; 16. d; p. 330
7. p. 317 p p 330 20. d; p.
. . 17. b; p. 330
3 330 21. a; p.
12. b; p. 3 2 330
18. b; p.
329 2 9
476 Answer Key

Essay Questions 77. b; p. 343 80. c; p. 351


Refer to 78. d; p. 349 81. b; p. 352
79. a; p. 349
1. p. 321 9. p.
2. p. 323 10. p. Essay Questions
3. p. 324 11. p. Refer to 12. p. 339
4. p. 324 12. p.
5. p. 324 13. p. 1. p. 13. p.
6. p. 325 14. p. 2. p. 14. p.
7. p. 325 15. p. 3. p. 15. p.
8. p. 325 16. p. 4. p. 16. p. 340
330 5. p. 17. p. 340
6. p. 18. p.
Chapter 20: The Twentieth Century:
7. p. 19. p.
Early Modernism 8. p. 20. p. 345
Multiple-Choice Questions 9. p. 21. p. 349
10. p. 338 22. p. 349
1. d; p. 332 39. b; p. 11. p. 339
331
2. d; p. 332 40. d; p. Chapter 21: Alternatives to Modernism
331
Multiple-Choice Questions
3. c; p. 332 41. c; p.
331
4. d; p. 332 42. a; p. 1. b; p. 21. a; p.
356 354
334
2. c; p. 22. b; p.
5. a; p. 332 43. c; p. 354
356
334 23. d; p.
3. a; p.
6. a; p. 333 44. b; p. 356 354
334 4. b; p. 24. c; p.
7. b; p. 333 45. b; p. 332 356 354
8. c; p. 336 46. a; p. 332 5. d; p. 25. b; p.
9. d; p. 336 47. b; p. 356 355
332 6. a; p. 26. a; p.
10. a; p. 336 48. d; p. 360 356
333 7. b; p. 27. d; p.
11. b; p. 336 49. a; p. 334 360 359
12. c; p. 336 50. c; p. 339 8. d; p. 28. b; p.
13. d; p. 336 51. a; p. 360 359
339 9. a; p. 29. b; p.
14. c; p. 336 52.b; p. 339 360 363
15. a; p. 336 53.c; p. 339 10. b; p. 30. c; p.
16. d; p. 340 54.d; p. 339 360 363
17. c; p. 341 55.c; p. 339 Essay Questions
31. c; p.
364
18. a; p. 341 56.b; p. 336
19. d; p. 341 57.b; p. 336 Refer to 8. p.
20. a; p. 341 58.d; p. 338 1. p. 9. 360
353 10. p. 3
21. c; p. 341 59.c; p. 338
2. p. 11. 64
22. d; p. 341 60.d; p. 338 p.
354 12.
23. b; p. 344 61. a; p.
13. 364
338 3. p.
354 14. p.
24. a; p. 344 62. a; p. 339 364
4. p. 15.
25. b; p. 344 63. c; p. 340 p.
26. c; p. 344 64. b; p. 340
27. d; p. 344 65. d; p. 340
28. a; p. 344 66. d; p.
343
29. d; p. 345 67. b; p.
343
30. a; p. 345 68. c; p. 340
31. b; p. 345 69. d; p. 340
32. c; p. 345 70. a; p. 340
33. c; p. 351 71. b; p.
347
34. d; p. 351 72. a; p. 346
35. c; p. 351 73. c; p. 346
36. a; p. 331 74. c; p.
346
37. c; p. 331 75. b; p.
347
38. a; p. 331 76. a; p. 343
478 Answer Key
Answer Key
239
480 Answer Key
1. c; p. 3
26.
Chapter 22: The Late Twentieth
Century Multiple-Choice Questions
374 7 27.
2. d; p. 2 28.
377 29.
3. b; p. 30.
377 31.
4. a; p. 32.
377 33.
5. d; p. 34.
377 35.
6. b; p. 36.
379 37.
7. c; p. 38.
379 39.
8. d; p. 40.
382 41.
42.
9. a; p.
43.
382
44.
10. b; p. 45.
382
46.
11. d; p. 47.
382 48.
12. c; p. 49.
382 50.
13. c; p.
385
14. b; p.
385
15. d; p.
385
16. c; p.
385
17. c; p.
390
18. a; p.
390
19. d; p.
390
20. b; p.
390
21. a; p.
390
22. a; p.
372
23. b; p.
372
24. d; p.
372
25. c; p.
d; p. c; p 3
373 . 8
5 13. a; p. 40. b; p. 400
c; p.
b 410 41. d; p. 399
373 3
a; p. 374 8 ; 14. b; p. 42. c; p. 399
5 p 410 43. b; p. 399
b; p. 374
d; p. b; p . 15. c; p. 44. a; p. 401
. 3 410
375 45. d; p. 401
b; p. 8 16. d; p. 46. b; p. 401
375 3 7 410 47. a; p. 402
b; p. 8 a 17. b; p. 48. c; p. 403
376 5 ; 412
p 49. d; p. 406
d; p. 377 b; c; p 18. a; p.
. 50. c; p. 407
p. 379 . 412
3 51. b; p. 408
c; p. 378 19. c; p.
3 8 413
52. a; p. 408
a; p.
380 8 8 20. b; p. 53. a; p. 409
b; p. 5 d; p 413 54. d; p. 409
380 a; p . 21. c; p. 55. c; p. 410
c; p. . 3 413 56. b; p. 410
381 8 22. d; p. 57. c; p. 410
3 8 392 58. d; p. 411
a; p.
8 c; p 23. a; p. 59. b; p. 411
381
5 . 392 60. d; p. 411
b; p. 3
382 b; p 24. a; p. 61. c; p. 412
. 8
b; p. 392 62. a; p. 412
8
382 25. d; p. 63. b; p. 412
392
26. b; p.
393
482 Answer Key
10. p.
Essay 377
Questions p. 420
p. 377
Refer to p. 421
1. p. p. 379
2. p. p. 422
3. p. p. 380
4. p.
p. 423
5. p.
p. 380
6. p.
7. p. p. 424
8. p. p. 381
9. p. p. 425
376 p. 382
p. 426
1. a; p. 398 p. 385
2. d; p. 398 p. 427
3. a; p. 398 p. 387
4. c; p. p. 428
402 S. d; p. 388
p. 402
6. c; p. 402
d; p.
406
a; p. 4
06
b; p.
407
c; p. Refer to 20. p.
407 1. p. 21. 401
a; p. 2. p. 22. p.
407 3. p. 23. 401
b; p. 4. p. 24. p.
410 5. p. 25. 401
6. p. 26. p.
7. p. 27. 403
8. p. 28. p.
9. p. 29. 406
10. p. 30. p. 407
11. p. 31. p.
12. p. 32. 40
Chapter 23: Music in 13. p. 33. 7
America: Jazz and 14. p. 34. p.
Beyond 15. p. 35. 408
Multiple-Choice Questions 16. p. 36.
17. p. p. 409
18. p. 37. p.
19. p. 38. 40
399
484 Answer Key

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 6: African Drumming GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES 7: Global Music


Multiple-Choice Questions Multiple-Choice Questions
5. a; p. 423
1. b; 5. c; It. c; p. 422
p. p. 2. a; 6. b; p. 424
404 405 p. 7. d; p. 424
2. c; 6. b; 422
p. p. 3. b;
Essay Questions Essay Questions
3. p. 423
Refer to 2. p. Refer to
1. p. 404 40 It. p. 422 4. p. 424
5 2. p. 422
5. p. 424