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Formulas for MACHINE DESIGN 1 AND 2 COMPILATION CREDITS TO THE OWNER

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2) Check using ⁄ CIRCUMFERENTIAL

3) If ⁄ < 2, dims stays, governs design!

LONGITUDINAL

4) If ⁄ > 2, recomputed using Euler’s formula!

GOOD DESIGN

CASE 3 - (long column)

𝑡

Limiting Criteria :

𝐷𝑖

PURE TORSION

( )

√ ( )

( )

CASE 1 - (pure compression block)

( ) 𝑟𝑜 → 𝑟𝑖 𝑡

( )

POWER FORMULA ( )

CASE 2 - (intermediate column)

Formula T N

lb-ft rpm Longitudinal Stress

(HP)

Euler Formula (HP) kgf-m rpm

PINS n=1 (kW) kN-m rpm ( )

FIXED-PIN n=2 lb-in rpm

(HP)

( ) FIXED n=4 Computing for the thickness of the plate,

FREE-FIXED n=1/2

JB Johnson Formula

Ductile [( ) ]

𝜎𝑦 𝐿

* + 𝐵

𝜋 𝑛𝐸

VARIABLE STRESS ANALYSIS If BHN < 400 SHAFT DESIGN

*W/O STRESS CONCENTRATION b) For Cast Steel SHAFT UNDER PURE TORSION

𝑑

𝐾

Soderberg Equation (MyAn, Ductile) 𝐷

c) For Cast Iron

( )

d) For Nodular Iron

SHAFT UNDER PURE BENDING

( )

( )

Size Factor

( ) SHAFT UNDER COMBINED BENDING & TORSION

First assumption : Size = 0.85

If range is 0.5”-2”, assumption stays.

( ) Otherwise, recomputed with size = 1

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Ductile)

Endurance Strength

Axial ( )

Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Brittle)

* ( ) ( ) ( )+

Torsion

( )( )

Bending ( )

Equivalent Bending Moment Equivalent Torque

Vessel TYPES OF VARIABLE STRESSES

* ( )+ 𝑇𝑒 √𝑀 𝑇

1) Reversed

FOR INDEFINITE LIFE BASIS

Axial/ Bending : ( )

Rotating Bending : ( )( )

Torsion : ( )( )

√( ) ( )

FOR DEFINITE LIFE BASIS

3)Fluctuating

Axial/ Bending : ( ) Equivalent Normal Stress

Rotating Bending : ( )( )

Torsion : ( )( )

( ) ( )

Endurance Limit ( )

( ) Equivalent Shear Stress

a) For Wrought Iron

If BHN < 400

( ) ( )

Shaft Design Using Code 2) PSME Code Empirical Formula for Machinery’s Handbook

A. For commercial shafting 1) For allowable twist not exceeding 0.08⁰ per ft. length

√

***without keyway***

√ √

In SI units (allowable twist 0.26⁰ per meter length)

A. For main power transmitting shafts

***with keyway***

√ √

B. For line shafts 2) For allowable twist not exceeding 1⁰ per 20D length

√ √

3) For short, solid shaft, subject only to heavy transverse shear

√

For English units

Allowance for Keyways

A. For main power transmitting shafts Linear Deflection of Shafting

Maximum Distance

For bending torsion alone: √

1) For shafting subjected to bending action except its own weight

√

√

C. For small, short shafts, countershafts

Design of Keys

√ Design Considerations

√( ) ( )

1) Determine the force acting on the key

( )

2) Determine the key dimensions

If then, square. Otherwise, flat key.

analysis. a. Bolt Fail in compression

Failure Analysis

3) Hub Fails

4) Shaft Fails

***Induced stress: compressive or bearing stress

( )

Design of Couplings

Failure Analysis

1) Key Fails

a. Shearing

b. Compression

2) Bolt Fails

FLEXIBLE TRANSMITTING MATERIALS 4. Compute for adjusted rated hp/belt Torque Developed ROLLER CHAINS

( )( ) Power Transmitted by the Belt

⁄

from 17.5, from 17.6 ( )

Maximum Tension

Use larger value. 5. Compute the number of belts required

Speed of Belt for Maximum Power Sprockets

( ), Use Std L from 17.3

√

Open Belt

FLAT BELTS @Absolute Maximum Power

( )

( )

Belt Tension Ratio

( ) ( ) Belt Speed

%Slip mentioned

+ big pulley, - small pulley ( ) ( )

3. Compute for Pitch Diameter and Outside

Crossed Belt Diameter

%Slip not mentioned

( ) [ ( )]

( )

( )

( )

For a Good Design

4. Compute for No. of Strands

Design Considerations If no ; SI unit, otherwise English

By Formula:

1. Compute Design hp Installation of Idler Pulley

⁄

( ) [ ]

( ) Hp/strand:

* +* + ( )

Add 0.2 for continuous, wet [ ]

Subtract 0.2 for intermittent, seasonal ( )( )( )

Initial Tension in the Belt, [ ] ( )

2. Choose belt section (ABCDE) ( )

Rated Capacity of Leather Belts Choose lower value.

Neglecting centrifugal tension:

Table 17.3, Figure 17.4

( ) ( )( )( )( ) By Table:

3. Compute the rated hp/belt Considering centrifugal tension:

⁄

Rated Capacity of Rubber Belts Assume different no. of strands so that hp rating on

[ ( ) ]( ) But in actual practice: ACA tables is greater than computed hp/strand.

√ √ √

5. Compute for Chain Length and Center

a,c,e from 17.3

Distance

assume %slip=0 if not given Net Belt Pull/Net Belt Tension, F

from 17.4

( ) For indefinite life:

( )

Assume bending effect if not given

1. Hp/in of width

[ ]

( )

2. Chain width

3. Length of Chain

( )

WIRE ROPES

( )

( )( )

( )( )

SPRINGS BRAKES CLUTCHES

Cone Clutch

Coil Ends Actual (N) Solid Length Free Length Pure Translation Uniform Pressure (New Clutch) Uniform Wear (Old Clutch)

Plain n nd+d np+d 𝐸 𝑚𝑣 𝑑

( ) [ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑

Ground n nd np

Squared n+2 nd+3d np+3d 𝐷

Pure Rotation 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑

S&G n+2 nd+2d np+2d

( )( ) 𝐹𝑎

( ) 𝐸 𝐼𝜔 𝑇 𝑓( ) (𝑟 )

Mean Diameter of the Coil 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 𝑓

( )[ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝐷 𝑑

Potential Energy ( ) 𝑇 𝑓( )

Combination 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼

𝐸𝑃 𝑚𝑔( )

Spring Index Spring Rate of Spring Constant Wear Constant

𝐹

𝑘 Heat to be Dissipated during Braking ( ) ( )

𝛿

𝐻𝐺 𝑚𝐶∆𝑇

Shear Stress on Spring Wahl’s Stress Factor Force to Engage the Clutch 𝐹𝑁 =𝐹𝑎 /𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼

𝐶 Braking Torque

𝐾 ( ) ( )

𝐶 𝐶 𝐸 𝐹𝑇 (𝜋𝑑𝑁𝑡)

Deflection of Spring Energy Absorbed by the Spring

𝐸

𝐸 𝐹𝛿 𝑘𝛿 𝑃

𝑡

Simple Band Brake

Mean Friction Diameter of Clutch

Spring under Impact Load (Potential Energy) Clockwise Rotation Counter Clockwise

( ⁄ ) 𝐹𝑎 𝐹 (𝑎⁄𝑏)

( )

Torque Equation Disc Clutch

( )( ) Uniform Pressure (New Clutch) Uniform Wear (Old Clutch)

Spring under Kinetic Energy Source 𝑇 𝐹𝑇 (𝑟)

𝑑

[ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑

Differential Band Brake Counter Clockwise 𝐷

Clockwise Rotation 𝐹 (𝑎) 𝐹 (𝑏) 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑

Parallel Connected Springs ( ) ( ) 𝐹𝑎

Concentric Springs 𝑏 𝑐 ( )( ) 𝑇 𝑓𝐹𝑎 (𝑟𝑓 )

Equal 𝐷 𝑑

𝐹 𝐹𝑜 𝐹𝑖 [ ]( ) 𝑇 𝑓𝐹𝑎 (𝑁𝐶 )

𝛿𝑜 𝛿𝑖 Self-Energizing or Self-Locking Brakes ( )

Series Springs Unequal

𝐹 𝐹𝑜 𝐹𝑖

𝛿𝑜 𝛿𝑖 𝑒 Designing the Band

𝐹 𝑏𝑟𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥

LEAF SPRINGS

Flexural Stress on Spring

Block or Shoe Brakes 𝐹𝑓 𝐹𝑇 𝜇𝐹𝑁

( ) 𝑓𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝜇′

𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃

𝐴𝑏 𝑤( 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃)

( )

FLYWHEEL THREADED FASTENERS Formula from Machinery’s Handbook

Volume of Rim Rim Speed a) Working Stress of Bolts

𝜋𝐷𝑚 𝑁 Stress Area ( )

𝑣

Specific Weight ( ) b) Power and Torque Transmitted by a Single Set Screw

Angular Speed

𝜋𝑁

𝜔 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

POWER SCREW

Solving for the Rim Weight

Torque Required to Raise Load by Square Threaded Screws

( )

Kinetic Energy Stored in Flywheel

For Lowering the Load

( )

Pitch

Lead

( ) ( ) ( )( ) Bolt Stress Area ( )

a) American National Thread and United Thread Series ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

Linear Velocity

1. ( ) b) Metric Thread Series

( )

Lead Angle

2. ( ) Strength Consideration

Coefficient of Fluctuation

a) Raising the Load

° 𝑆𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑

[ ] ° 𝐴𝑐𝑚𝑒 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑

° 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑜𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑙 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑

Coefficient of Steadiness ° 𝐵𝑢𝑡𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑

b) Lowering the Load

⁄

Application Energy Line [ ]

Total Torque Required to Operate the Screw, Face Width Stress Concentration

( ) ( ) °

Length of Action

( ) ⁄ ( ) ⁄

Input Power of Screw, If not given, assume :

Steady Load

Velocity Ratio

8-10 hrs/day

Efficiency of Power Screw, Enclosed

Contact Ratio

( ) If both gears were to be made of the same material, only the weaker

Lewis Equation pinion would have to be considered.

( )( ) If pinion and gear were made of different material, the weaker gear is

to be considered which is the one with the smallest product of and .

b) For Acme Thread, ° For a good design,

( ) Velocity Factor For a good design,

[ ]

SPUR GEARS

Center Distance

Case 2 – accurately cut gears

[ ]

Circular Pitch

Case 3 – precision gears cut

[ ]

√

Diametral Pitch Tangential Force from hp

( )

√

Base Pitch

Design of Spur Gears for Wear

( )( )

Base Circle

Dynamic Stress

Backlash

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