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PURE TENSION Guide THIN-WALLED PRESSURED VESSEL

1) Assume intermediate column/JB Johnson CYLINDRICAL SPHERICAL


2) Check using ⁄ CIRCUMFERENTIAL
3) If ⁄ < 2, dims stays, governs design!
LONGITUDINAL
4) If ⁄ > 2, recomputed using Euler’s formula!
GOOD DESIGN
CASE 3 - (long column)
𝑡
Limiting Criteria :
𝐷𝑖

PURE COMPRESSION FOR JOINTED SEAM ; For a good design


PURE TORSION
( )

√ ( )
( )

( ) THICK-WALLED PRESSURE VESSEL

Hoop Stress on Inner Fiber


CASE 1 - (pure compression block)
( ) 𝑟𝑜 → 𝑟𝑖 𝑡

( )

IF L NOT GIVEN ASSUME 20D

IF NOT IN TABLE OF PROPERTIES USE Hoop Stress on Outer Fiber

POWER FORMULA ( )
CASE 2 - (intermediate column)

Formula T N
lb-ft rpm Longitudinal Stress
(HP)
Euler Formula (HP) kgf-m rpm
PINS n=1 (kW) kN-m rpm ( )
FIXED-PIN n=2 lb-in rpm
(HP)
( ) FIXED n=4 Computing for the thickness of the plate,
FREE-FIXED n=1/2

PURE BENDING Brittle [( ) ]

JB Johnson Formula
Ductile [( ) ]
𝜎𝑦 𝐿
* + 𝐵
𝜋 𝑛𝐸
VARIABLE STRESS ANALYSIS If BHN < 400 SHAFT DESIGN

*W/O STRESS CONCENTRATION b) For Cast Steel SHAFT UNDER PURE TORSION
𝑑
𝐾
Soderberg Equation (MyAn, Ductile) 𝐷
c) For Cast Iron
( )
d) For Nodular Iron

Goodman Equation (MuAn, Brittle)


SHAFT UNDER PURE BENDING
( )

Surface Factor (Fig AF5)

Assume machined if not specified.


( )
Size Factor
( ) SHAFT UNDER COMBINED BENDING & TORSION
First assumption : Size = 0.85
If range is 0.5”-2”, assumption stays.
( ) Otherwise, recomputed with size = 1
Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Ductile)

Endurance Strength
Axial ( )
Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Brittle)
* ( ) ( ) ( )+
Torsion

( )( )
Bending ( )
Equivalent Bending Moment Equivalent Torque
Vessel TYPES OF VARIABLE STRESSES
* ( )+ 𝑇𝑒 √𝑀 𝑇
1) Reversed

SHAFT UNDER VARIABLE COMBINED LOADS


FOR INDEFINITE LIFE BASIS

2) Repeated Equivalent Stress Theory


Axial/ Bending : ( )
Rotating Bending : ( )( )
Torsion : ( )( )
√( ) ( )
FOR DEFINITE LIFE BASIS
3)Fluctuating
Axial/ Bending : ( ) Equivalent Normal Stress
Rotating Bending : ( )( )
Torsion : ( )( )
( ) ( )
Endurance Limit ( )
( ) Equivalent Shear Stress
a) For Wrought Iron
If BHN < 400
( ) ( )
Shaft Design Using Code 2) PSME Code Empirical Formula for Machinery’s Handbook

1) ASME Code ( ) Diameter of Shaft

A. For commercial shafting 1) For allowable twist not exceeding 0.08⁰ per ft. length


***without keyway***
√ √

Where the allowable sharing stress are as follows:


In SI units (allowable twist 0.26⁰ per meter length)
A. For main power transmitting shafts
***with keyway***
√ √

B. For line shafts 2) For allowable twist not exceeding 1⁰ per 20D length

B. For shafts with definite specifications


√ √

***without keyway*** C. For small, short shafts, countershafts


3) For short, solid shaft, subject only to heavy transverse shear


For English units
Allowance for Keyways
A. For main power transmitting shafts Linear Deflection of Shafting

Maximum Distance
For bending torsion alone: √
1) For shafting subjected to bending action except its own weight

B. For line shafts


2) For shafting subjected to bending action of pulleys etc.


For combined stresses: √


C. For small, short shafts, countershafts
Design of Keys

√ Design Considerations
√( ) ( )
1) Determine the force acting on the key

( )
2) Determine the key dimensions

a. Choose the type of key to be used.


If then, square. Otherwise, flat key.

b. Determine the key dimensions.

c. Determine the length of the key using elementary failure


analysis. a. Bolt Fail in compression

Failure Analysis

1. Key fails in shear

***Induced stress: shearing stress

3) Hub Fails

a. Hub fails in shear

2) Key fails in compression


4) Shaft Fails
***Induced stress: compressive or bearing stress

( )

Design of Couplings

Failure Analysis

1) Key Fails

a. Shearing

b. Compression

2) Bolt Fails

a. Bolt Fail in shear


FLEXIBLE TRANSMITTING MATERIALS 4. Compute for adjusted rated hp/belt Torque Developed ROLLER CHAINS

V-BELTS 1. Estimation Formula for Chain Pitch


( )( ) Power Transmitted by the Belt

from 17.5, from 17.6 ( )
Maximum Tension
Use larger value. 5. Compute the number of belts required

√ ( ) 2. Recommended Min. No. of Teeth Smaller


Speed of Belt for Maximum Power Sprockets
( ), Use Std L from 17.3

Open Belt
FLAT BELTS @Absolute Maximum Power
( )
( )
Belt Tension Ratio
( ) ( ) Belt Speed
%Slip mentioned
+ big pulley, - small pulley ( ) ( )
3. Compute for Pitch Diameter and Outside
Crossed Belt Diameter
%Slip not mentioned
( ) [ ( )]
( )
( )
( )
For a Good Design
4. Compute for No. of Strands
Design Considerations If no ; SI unit, otherwise English
By Formula:
1. Compute Design hp Installation of Idler Pulley

( ) [ ]
( ) Hp/strand:
* +* + ( )
Add 0.2 for continuous, wet [ ]
Subtract 0.2 for intermittent, seasonal ( )( )( )
Initial Tension in the Belt, [ ] ( )
2. Choose belt section (ABCDE) ( )
Rated Capacity of Leather Belts Choose lower value.
Neglecting centrifugal tension:
Table 17.3, Figure 17.4
( ) ( )( )( )( ) By Table:
3. Compute the rated hp/belt Considering centrifugal tension:

Rated Capacity of Rubber Belts Assume different no. of strands so that hp rating on
[ ( ) ]( ) But in actual practice: ACA tables is greater than computed hp/strand.
√ √ √
5. Compute for Chain Length and Center
a,c,e from 17.3
Distance
assume %slip=0 if not given Net Belt Pull/Net Belt Tension, F
from 17.4
( ) For indefinite life:

( )

Traction Drive Application:

6. Compute for Chain Speed


Assume bending effect if not given

7. Compute for Chain Pull

For safe design,

Silent Chain or Inverted Tooth Chain

1. Hp/in of width

[ ]
( )

2. Chain width

3. Length of Chain
( )

WIRE ROPES

Considering bending effect:

( )

Considering fatigue failure:

( )( )
( )( )
SPRINGS BRAKES CLUTCHES
Cone Clutch
Coil Ends Actual (N) Solid Length Free Length Pure Translation Uniform Pressure (New Clutch) Uniform Wear (Old Clutch)
Plain n nd+d np+d 𝐸 𝑚𝑣 𝑑
( ) [ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑
Ground n nd np
Squared n+2 nd+3d np+3d 𝐷
Pure Rotation 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑
S&G n+2 nd+2d np+2d
( )( ) 𝐹𝑎
( ) 𝐸 𝐼𝜔 𝑇 𝑓( ) (𝑟 )
Mean Diameter of the Coil 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 𝑓
( )[ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝐷 𝑑
Potential Energy ( ) 𝑇 𝑓( )
Combination 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼
𝐸𝑃 𝑚𝑔( )
Spring Index Spring Rate of Spring Constant Wear Constant
𝐹
𝑘 Heat to be Dissipated during Braking ( ) ( )
𝛿
𝐻𝐺 𝑚𝐶∆𝑇
Shear Stress on Spring Wahl’s Stress Factor Force to Engage the Clutch 𝐹𝑁 =𝐹𝑎 /𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼
𝐶 Braking Torque
𝐾 ( ) ( )
𝐶 𝐶 𝐸 𝐹𝑇 (𝜋𝑑𝑁𝑡)

Power Needed by the Brake Mean Diameter of Clutch


Deflection of Spring Energy Absorbed by the Spring
𝐸
𝐸 𝐹𝛿 𝑘𝛿 𝑃
𝑡
Simple Band Brake
Mean Friction Diameter of Clutch
Spring under Impact Load (Potential Energy) Clockwise Rotation Counter Clockwise
( ⁄ ) 𝐹𝑎 𝐹 (𝑎⁄𝑏)
( )
Torque Equation Disc Clutch
( )( ) Uniform Pressure (New Clutch) Uniform Wear (Old Clutch)
Spring under Kinetic Energy Source 𝑇 𝐹𝑇 (𝑟)
𝑑
[ ] 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑
Differential Band Brake Counter Clockwise 𝐷
Clockwise Rotation 𝐹 (𝑎) 𝐹 (𝑏) 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝑃𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝐷 𝑑
Parallel Connected Springs ( ) ( ) 𝐹𝑎
Concentric Springs 𝑏 𝑐 ( )( ) 𝑇 𝑓𝐹𝑎 (𝑟𝑓 )
Equal 𝐷 𝑑
𝐹 𝐹𝑜 𝐹𝑖 [ ]( ) 𝑇 𝑓𝐹𝑎 (𝑁𝐶 )
𝛿𝑜 𝛿𝑖 Self-Energizing or Self-Locking Brakes ( )
Series Springs Unequal
𝐹 𝐹𝑜 𝐹𝑖
𝛿𝑜 𝛿𝑖 𝑒 Designing the Band
𝐹 𝑏𝑟𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥
LEAF SPRINGS
Flexural Stress on Spring
Block or Shoe Brakes 𝐹𝑓 𝐹𝑇 𝜇𝐹𝑁
( ) 𝑓𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝜇′
𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃

Deflection of Spring Bearing Pressure on the Shoe


𝐴𝑏 𝑤( 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃)
( )
FLYWHEEL THREADED FASTENERS Formula from Machinery’s Handbook
Volume of Rim Rim Speed a) Working Stress of Bolts
𝜋𝐷𝑚 𝑁 Stress Area ( )
𝑣
Specific Weight ( ) b) Power and Torque Transmitted by a Single Set Screw
Angular Speed
𝜋𝑁
𝜔 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

POWER SCREW
Solving for the Rim Weight
Torque Required to Raise Load by Square Threaded Screws
( )
Kinetic Energy Stored in Flywheel
For Lowering the Load
( )

Mass Moment of Inertia,


Pitch

Energy Released by the Flywheel


Lead
( ) ( ) ( )( ) Bolt Stress Area ( )
a) American National Thread and United Thread Series ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
Linear Velocity
1. ( ) b) Metric Thread Series
( )
Lead Angle
2. ( ) Strength Consideration

Torque Required to Turn the Screw (Any Thread),


Coefficient of Fluctuation
a) Raising the Load
° 𝑆𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑
[ ] ° 𝐴𝑐𝑚𝑒 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑
° 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑜𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑙 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑
Coefficient of Steadiness ° 𝐵𝑢𝑡𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑇 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑
b) Lowering the Load

Application Energy Line [ ]

Torque Required to Overcome Collar Friction,


Total Torque Required to Operate the Screw, Face Width Stress Concentration

( ) ( ) °

Output Power of Screw, ( ) ( ) °


Length of Action
( ) ⁄ ( ) ⁄
Input Power of Screw, If not given, assume :
Steady Load
Velocity Ratio
8-10 hrs/day
Efficiency of Power Screw, Enclosed

Contact Ratio

a) For Square Thread NOTE:


( ) If both gears were to be made of the same material, only the weaker
Lewis Equation pinion would have to be considered.
( )( ) If pinion and gear were made of different material, the weaker gear is
to be considered which is the one with the smallest product of and .
b) For Acme Thread, ° For a good design,
( ) Velocity Factor For a good design,

( )( ) Case 1 – ordinary industrial gears


[ ]
SPUR GEARS
Center Distance
Case 2 – accurately cut gears
[ ]
Circular Pitch
Case 3 – precision gears cut
[ ]

Diametral Pitch Tangential Force from hp

Module Dynamic Loads on Gear Teeth

( )

Base Pitch
Design of Spur Gears for Wear

( )( )
Base Circle

Dynamic Stress
Backlash