Amoeba

Play it the Amoeba Way
A business plan Mobile Gaming Company

By: Gurpreet Singh BBA-FINAL
ROLL NO- 617240993

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. . . . . . . .1 Objectives .0 Market Analysis Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9 4. . . . . . . . . . 20 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. .7 Main Competitors . . . . . . . . .6 Projected Balance Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Break-even Analysis .3 Product Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Keys to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. .2 Management Team . . . . . . .5 Projected Cash Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .14 3. . . . 3 1. . . . . . . . . 9 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Indian Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. . . . . . 11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Conclusion 2 . . .8 Porter’s 5 force analysis 5. . .4 Billing Model 5. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Value Chain 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Distributing a Service 4. . . . . . . . . . . ……………. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Business Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Market Overview. . . .1 Business Model 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Marketing Strategy 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Marketing and Implementation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2 Future Sales Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Services . . . . . . 18 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Market Segmentation .1 Service Description . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Projected Profit and Loss . . . . . . . …. . . . .2 Key Financial Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 6. 15 7. . . . . . . . . .2 Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. .0Management Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Market Size 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………………………… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .3 Indian Consumer Behavior . . . . . . . . . . .0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Organizational Structure . . . 11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 15 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. . . . .1 Important Assumptions . . . . . . . . .5 Critical Success Factors 7. . . 9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Financial Plan . . . . . . 7 4.

Amoeba will broaden its coverage by opening own retail chains which will be providing mobile games to the end users. We offer Mobile Entertainment in the best possible way to the clients.SmackAll. Initial focus will be development of urban areas & later expanding to rural areas. Total high end service quality. the most significant being those companies who develops mobile games. The advantage of Amoeba over others is that it provides high. Mission Amoeba is a mobile gaming company providing high end single player & multiplayer games for existing and next-generation web-enabled mobile phones. Vision Our vision is to bring state of the art single player & multiplayer gaming to the world's most prevalent and rapidly growing personal computing platform – the cell phone. Having 20% of the market by 2015. Gameloft. We have an exclusive expert team for research on new innovations and development. 100 to 150. Objective 1.Airtel. We will cater only to high – end segment. the price of our games will range between Rs.Amoeba Introduction: Play it the Amoeba Way Amoeba is formed as a mobile gaming company specializing in developing & marketing mobile games. 2.level complete gaming solutions to the end users. Our development team provides a successful porting and testing solutions. Few of these are . Industry competition comes in several forms. Amoeba. These companies are generalist in nature & do not focus on particular niche market. In the future. Our primary focus will be service provider’s like. a Bangalore based company. It offers mobile network service providers. . Hutch. a value added service. 3 . Dhruva etc. owned by principal investors & principal operators. Cellufun. Bangalore was chosen as headquarter due to the availability of IT infrastructure in the city. and Reliance etc.

Management Summary The initial Management team depends on the founders themselves. Organizational Structure Amoeba will be managed by working partners. In the beginning we assume 3-5 partners: • The Organization has to be flat in the beginning. Services: “Amoeba” will offer high end games development expertise to all its clients and customers. development and hosting Multimedia Customized software 4 . with little back-up. we will take on graphic/editorial. The initial personal plan is still tentative. with each of the founders responsible for his own work and management. and so will offer its clients with adapted solutions at a reasonable cost. providing the expertise to the clients. an officer manager . Amoeba realizes the varying needs of business. sales and marketing team. Products/Services Description: • • • • Mobile Games Web Design. As we grow. Management Team The Amoeba business team requires a very high level of technical expertise which means that it will be not be easily leveragable in the common company mode in which partners run the business and make sales. one strong graphical person with good staff support. We are a extremely talented team of professionals that give us the flexibility to deliver customize solutions to our clients consistently. It should involve 3-5 partners. one strong marketing person . and a secretary. Partners will necessarily be involved in the fulfillment of the core business proposition. while associates fulfill. Later we will add more technical and sales team.

1 1 Source: Informa telecoms and media 5 .8bn. The global mobile phone entertainment is expected to double over the next 5 years reaching $38. The Asian Contribution of the total entertainment revenue is expected to reach 37% by 2011.Technology: Amoeba will maintain the latest Mobile platforms capabilities that include: • • • • • Brew J2ME Symbian Microsoft Windows Mobile Palm Source Product Portfolio: • • • • • • • • • • Bollywood Games Sports Games Games with religious themes Advert games (games which are based on a storyline developed around a brand. It is estimated that mobile games and mobile video which together represented 25% of the total entertainment revenues in 2006 will increase to 50% in the next 5 years.1bn by 2011. for brand promotion) Localized International Games for the Indian market Games with Indian theme intended for a global audience Social awareness games (games developed and distributed in order to create awareness about certain social issues) Crosswords Dictionary Geographical contours games Market Analysis Summary Market Overview: Strong growth and innovation in the wireless communications industry has led to the emergence of the wireless entertainment market. In the year 2006 the mobile entertainment market generated world wide revenues of $18. unprecedented growth in the number of wireless subscribers and deployment of nextgeneration wireless networks are responsible for the enormous growth being experienced in the wireless entertainment market. Of this music and images dominated the revenues accounting for around 64% of the total revenues. Factors such as the rapidly increasing availability of multi-media capable phones.

Dhruva Interactive.ROMs and played on a PC. This is where the Indian game developers with their world-class quality and game development experience step in. India has excellent programmers and the rapid growth of the market is adding to the allure. while there are another 100 odd small game developers with 5 to 10 seats. 2. Paradox and Mobile2Win develop for a range of platforms such as PC. Video games that use dedicated consoles to play the game. Mobile gaming will dominate the market with its share in the total Indian gaming market (from the developers' perspective) expected to increase from 53 percent in 2005 to 68 percent by 2009. It is expected to witness a CAGR of 78 percent and reach USD 300 million by 2009. 40 lakhs – 1 crore). Nintendo's Game Cube and Microsoft's Xbox. In animation and as well as in gaming. The console and PC based online gaming are separate non-competitive markets although Indian companies produce games for both worlds.e. with that number expected to rise to 5. Another overlapping segment has opened up with the advent of online functionality in the computer and video games market. Indian companies are aggressively developing games in all these three segments.4 million in 2007. India has carved a niche for itself even in the console market dominated by giants like Sony's Play station 2. Computer games that are delivered on disks or CD. With online connectivity. 3. Key Segments in Indian Market: Outsourcing to India in this sector can be divided into three broad segments: 1. console. Leading Indian game companies like India games. Console games are more action 2 Source: Nasscom study of India mobile industry 6 . a number of Indian companies are changing their business model and are moving from an outsourcing to a co-production model. Reason enough for major publishers and studios to look at outsourcing development. The game industry is under increasing pressure to reduce development time and the cost of production. Key services currently outsourced in gaming include production and testing activities.2 Why Mobile Gaming in India? A typical game title today takes around 24 months to make and will have a production budget of 4 -10 million (i. data can be updated constantly by downloading content. Nearly 1.5 million people in the United States played games online using their Play station 2 or Xbox console in 2003. making the game fresh and relevant through out the season.Indian Market Overview: The market for gaming development in India was estimated at USD 30 million in 2005. Wireless games market that is dominated primarily by games played on mobile phones. which are dedicated to developing for the wireless. The Indian market has 4 to 6 large game development companies with 50 seats and more. wireless and online.

Big names such as AOL. Almost half (48%) would prefer to get their games over-the-air (OTA) while 31% would prefer them over-the-internet (OTI).9 minutes. If given an opportunity to trial a game before buying it. MSN and Yahoo are joining the likes of Shockwave and RealNetworks to offer online gaming communities. Another small sector is that of Advergames. with titles delivered via download or streaming technologies rather than on a disk. Nokia’s next generation mobile gaming option is preferred (68%) over its Java 2D (14%) and 3D (17%) counterparts. board games and quizzes. Quality of graphics (93%) and good game play (89%) are key motivators when considering mobile games to purchase. week sent to get and Java which 7 . Only 15% prefer to pay by the level. often based on puzzles. 23% play multiplayer games on their mobile phones everyday while33% play at least once a but not everyday. on media like kiosks. 43% would prefer to trial two to three games per week as opposed to only one (15%).oriented and graphics heavy while PC based games tend to focus on role-playing and first person viewpoints. Paying for a full game outright (49%) is a more popular option than paying by subscription (36%). 89% are interested in sending demos of games to friends while 92% are likely to trial games by friends. Quality of graphics (93%) and quality of sound (91%) are the most important features when deciding to play Nokia’s next generation mobile games. the following characteristics were observed in the Indian market. 87% prefer to play at home followed by playing while traveling/commuting (62%) while waiting (41%). where companies look at enhancing their brand image by employing games to hook the user to a particular brand. • • • • • • • • • • The vast majority of Indian respondents (96%) play mobile games at least once a week with the average session lasting 38. These games are not restricted to the Net and can be deployed offline. Indian Consumer Behavior: As derived from the survey done by Nokia on various parameters in the Indian market on mobile gaming. Online only games tend to be simple. Typically. Indian companies cater to online only game sites as well.

3. Outsourced projects from the global players (publishers). The domestic demand comprises 20% of this business and this share is expected to grow 30% by 2010.com/sunnews/success/general/javaEconomy.pdf 8 .sun. 4. a large no of these games are being developed in India and the country is slowly becoming an outsourcing hub for global wireless mobile gaming market.Source: Nielsen Entertainment Survey . Market Size: 1. Games development contracts from handset manufacturers Games development contracts from Carriers. The Indian Mobile development industry is a $100mn business with an annual growth rate of 100%. 2. Not only these. 3 Source: http://in. Retail customers across the globe and India (in particular).

Payments can be made through Credit cards or can be billed in the Consumer’s Mobile Service Account. The games can be directly downloaded through EGDE and GPRS technologies. Cell Phone Retailers: We have tied up leading Mobile phone Retail Chains like The Mobile Store . This advancement in the handsets is expected to keep growing at the rate of 20%. After the Trial period the games can be purchased from our website. The games developed here are as requested by the provider. We offer 3D graphic games which take the Gamers to the next level of Gaming. So we have a good consumer base to target. and installed in the handsets. 3G. Website Games can also be directly downloaded through our website. sport players. This makes our market very lucrative. players under 10 and the teenagers. Market Segmentation: High End Mobile Handset Market: Mobile Handsets supporting features like Edge. We have games targeted at business executives as well as elder age group. So our target consumers are casual players both male and female. 9 .The no of cell phone subscribers in 2006 was around 128 million among which 35 – 40% handsets were gaming capable. Reliance Web World. WiFi. CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION Handset Manufacturers: We look forward to enter into an agreement with the handset manufacturers to offer 7 day trial versions of our Games. Service Providers – Hutch We offer our Games to be downloaded through GSM and CDMA Service Providers website. and high end Symbian and Windows Mobile Platforms. action gamers. and Sangeetha where our games can be installed directly in the Consumer’s handsets. Target Customers: Not every game appeals to every player.

developers and operators. developers and operators globally. SD is team of 50+ engineers with a presence both in India and USA. Today. 10 . Small Device is the leading Mobile Porting and QA Solutions provider for publishers. SD SMART .The value chain: Main Competitors: Small Device was founded in early 2001 by industry veterans from US and India.SD's proprietary porting process enables publishers and developers to port java games and applications to a wide range of handhelds cost effectively and quickly efficiently. catering to global publishers.

Dhruva’s product development and publishing initiatives are focused on the emerging Indian market. In the last 6 years. Dhruva has built an excellent pedigree and reputation as a high quality provider of outsourced game development services to the global games industry and is considered among the Top 5 leading providers of such services. when in December 1998. Over the years. 11 . Dhruva’s mobile division is an award winning developer of innovative mobile games and the PC games division is seeding the growth of PC gaming in India with casual. creating and publishing high quality games with mass-market appeal in India’s contemporary social and cultural context.Dhruva Interactive has pioneered game development in India and is the country’s oldest and most experienced game developer. Forza Motorsport (Xbox). Dhruva was the first company from India to be signed on for developing a title by a major international games publisher. most recent work being: Project Gotham Racing 3 (X360). multiplayer titles. Asterix & Obelix XXL2: Mission Las Vegum (PS2). Infogrames Entertainment commissioned Dhruva to develop the PC version of their hit title ‘Mission: Impossible’. Battlefield: Modern Combat (X360). Dhruva has contributed to the development of over 15 blockbuster games. Dhruva was established in 1997 and is today in its 10th year in business.

They are equally excited about developing a 2006 international Best Platform Game winner for an international publisher and winning awards for the world's first vernacular language learning tool for the mobile again in 2006. That makes us the only Indian wireless company to consecutively win top awards for its products. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: As the industry is booming. Its development centers are based in India with services including development of mobile games and applications for mobile phone devices that support Java platform (J2ME). musicians and content providers could bargain for a higher compensation. we are in the business of making every sure-shot Aha! a WOW! experience. publishers. 12 . Trinket Media Limited Trinket Media develops compelling content for the mobile phone market place. this would form as a basis for bargaining power of gamers to squeeze the price offered in the market by Amoeba. the developers.A unique blend of youthful enthusiasm and mature professionalism Tinfo Mobile is an ideation to creation mobile innovation company. They also have a range of applications from content creation tools to high score server and game credit recharge technologies. Blitz Technology Solutions The company is specialized in mobile game development. They specialize in both games development for Java enabled handsets and tools development to enable content licensees and owners to exploit this exciting new media. year after year. Tinfo Mobile is a small team of people with offices in India. Other competitors are • • • • Cellufun Cosmic Games Gameloft Instantcom Porter’s 5 Force Analysis: 1. After all. Bargaining power of Buyers: 30% to 40% of the mobile games available in the market are free downloads. 2. animators.

Potential New Entrants: Cell phone service providers like Airtel. Mobile2win. 4. Threat from substitutes like specialized video game devices Developers. Musicians Compensation Dhruva. effect and more. Threat of Substitutes: Specifically designed Video games that cannot be used as phones could be a substitute. However these Video games would provide a real time gaming experience to gamers thereby it could be a substitute to Mobile Games. Mobile2Win. Vodafone and others might want to enter the mobile gaming segment considering the potential that it offers. India Games Free Download available in the Mkt Service Providers entering into the Mobile Gaming Industry 13 . 5. Paradox.3. Phones may have limitations in terms of sound. Publishers. Indiagames. Rivalry among competing Sellers: Already established players like Dhruva. Paradox are posing a threat to Amoeba. This could pose a threat as these well established companies could exercise their financial power to dominate the industry.

Amoeba plans to strengthen its business model and eventually evolve it as a sustainable model to follow. The objective of the marketing strategy will be to: 1.700000 to RS.150. We expect this business to contribute 30 .40% of our total revenue. the target market base eventually gets a bit spread.65000. The company website enables us to reach an infinitely large retail consumer base. In a month the revenue is projected to be in the range of Rs. The total revenue in a month only from downloads is expected to be in the range of Rs. We expect downloads in a day to be around (including all the channels) 400 to 500 initially. Marketing Media: The company will primarily use print media and web as the major means of promotion. We decide to have the launch at some IT gaming fest where lots of enthusiastic gamers come including the business and software professionals. Create an interest for the games developed by Amoeba 3. With more emphasis on business from the telecom providers and subsequently from the web. Position Amoeba as a premium high quality game developer and hence establish it as Brand Marketing Plan: The launch: The company decides to launch with great pomp and show. This launch will be followed by a press conference. Cost of a game download will be priced in the range of Rs. so driven by our corporate objective we will adopt an aggressive marketing strategy.100 to Rs.Business Model: Since we follow a mixed business model (outsourced and co production). Our collaboration with the telecom providers and handset manufacturers to build games for them and the domestic market (Indian) gives us the flexibility to work and generate revenues on our own. Create an awareness about Amoeba as a mobile game provider 2. The company will develop its web portal where it will 14 . We expect this model to generate 5 -10% of the total revenue.55000 to Rs. Chip and Dataquest will not only advertise our products but will also offer demo versions of some games. Magazines like Digit. In the beginning of our business and also in later years we will continue to develop games for third party.800000 Marketing Strategy: Amoeba is a new company in the mobile game business. Pricing: The company is aiming to skim the market by its aggressive pricing strategy.

This “trusted source” for billing is very important for the end user. Banners and Posters: The company plans to use this medium of communication to cater a mass awareness. malls. These competitions which will have cash rewards. Sponsorship: Sponsoring college events and IT fest in major cities where we have a large consumer base will give the company the kind of awareness it seeks. • 15 . The website will also provide information about the games that are in the development phase and will soon be launched. requirements. This will also serve as a platform to interact with the end users. Carriers as a promotional partner: The telecom service providers will serve as the promotional partners of the company. Audio and Visual Promotions: Short ads about the games will be aired on radio FM channels. visual ads will be shown in theaters attracting a large pool of customers. price and locations where it is available. promotional offers and club membership privileges will be an effective way to attract and generate interest in Amoeba and its offerings (games). Also the postpaid bills and vouchers will carry games pictures and descriptions at the back. company showrooms. Online games competitions: This will not only give the games a live experience of the games but also help us to create a scintillating effect among the target customers. It will also use the portal to provide the games a platform to download the games.show all its existing games with their features. These posters containing games snapshots. facilitating impulse purchases. Relatively low price: a game price is generally low. Billing Model: We will follow one or more of the following billing models: • Charge to phone bill: consumers can put their game purchases on their phone bills and therefore do not need to enter credit cards or other personal information. gaming centers. descriptions will be put at Mobile outlets. SMS send by the carriers promoting our games will be sent to all its subscribers.

• Store open 24/7: gamers can purchase. download and play games whenever and wherever they want. Purchase an authorization for the use of game for a defined time period. The stores will have a unique combination of games and handsets to choose from. Subscription model will suit the company’s need in the current growing scenario. For example: Models Type One Time Purchase Model Description Pay a one time price for unlimited play. Authorization for access to a product for a set time or number of gaming sessions. Normally beginning from the time of the initial purchase. The same mechanism that facilitates the purchase has various options. along with stores like Mobile Store Critical Success Factors: We understand that these are the major areas that are unique to cell phone game development and success. We also plan to enter in to agreements with existing mobile retail chain outlets from the handset manufacturers like Nokia. when addressed will result in our success are 1. Future sales strategy: In the wake of intense competition Amoeba plans to open new venues of revenue generation. Excellence in fulfilling the promise and developing visibility to generate new games will help us succeed in the market. Motorola. Purchase an authorization for a single gaming session. While some critical issue that. These stores will not only provide them with a wide range of games and applications but also guide the consumers on technology and mobile handsets/devices. Samsung etc. This makes purchasing of games very easy. Purchase an authorization for use of the game for either a set time or number of sessions. Porting 16 . Time Defined Usage Defined Subscription Multi-pack Free Trials Pay for Play As the business will grow the company may follow on or the other billing model. Purchase an authorization for use of a number of products for an unlimited or time defined period. We plan to launch a chain of retail stores which will serve as a one stop destination store for all mobile game lovers. Sony. Agree to pay a monthly recurring charge for access to content.

Below are the most relevant requirements that every development studio and QA department should consider during the game’s production lifecycle. Options/Settings allows users to change the game-play variables such as difficulty and sound/vibrate on or off. But due to today’s ever increasing technological and financial challenges of designing and building a game that will capture a user and bring them back for the repeat purchase. By developing a porting strategy from day one will help us to ensure that the applications generate the profits that they deserve. This type of functionality would depend on the depth of the game such as an RPG or Action Adventure where each would have multiple levels. Save/Load Game allows the user to save their current progress and begin again from the point of exit at a later time. The same principal applies to many other forms of software on many other hardware platforms. Usability testing starts with consistency. Development cycle time Cost of Development The number of devices it can run on Making the game available to all Functionality and ease of usability To make that product available on many handsets and many carriers in order to establish a market presence we will follow a very aggressive and attention seeking marketing strategy.2. Certification: A game will be considered “defect free” on any platform and on any environment once it passes functional testing. With that said every game should have a variation of the following. • New Game/Start allows the user to immediately start the game play with a minimum number of clicks to begin. This ensures ease of use for the user during the play of a new game as well as a low learning curve for subsequent games that user might purchase. 6. • 17 . by means of strong technical abilities and passion towards the business will be able to address satisfactorily. 4. etc. 3. A far as the development cycle of a game and the number of devices our game can run on is concerned we. Menu Options Menu items should be clear and concise and relate to the game’s overall purpose. 5. usability as well as functional testing becomes critical. “Action” keys perform the same task through each advancing level. “Soft-keys” display the correct wording relevant to the key’s action.

Therefore. but the core options should always be available. canvas sizes. make use of it. and grammar/punctuation/spelling issues: • Canvas size: The game should fill every possible pixel the phone is capable of displaying. with all strategies falling in place we will hope to achieve the set targets emerge as a big player in the mobile gaming industry in the coming years. Limitations to development: The following limitations are there which challenges our abilities to grow. splash screens. Common Issues The three most common issues that arise during final QA include memory allocation problems.• Help/Instructions tells the user how to play the game and what keys perform the necessary actions of the game. and gives any background information about the game that isn’t apparent to the user. • Other menu options are encouraged when needed such as High Score. Soft-keys When soft-keys aren’t necessary they shouldn’t be made visible to the user. 18 . users should be able to toggle the vibration and sound of any game from within the game’s main menu structure (Options/Settings) as well as during game-play. Sound & Vibrate Sound and vibration within games add to the experience and at times can enhance the overall game-play. Community Login. Quit/Exit ends the game. • Device limitations • Business model fluctuation • Bandwidth constraints Conclusion: All said and done. If there’s real estate. However. As a company we wish to keep our learning curve always up and grow within limitations. When soft-keys are available their function should be clearly labeled and intuitive. This is true during loading screens. etc. and so forth. due to the fact that the device is first and foremost a phone neither sound nor vibrate may be appropriate when in a public setting. For example this can be accomplished through the use of a pause menu or quick keys such as the hash or asterisk key. A good example would be “Pause”.