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Ivan Savić, Miomir Jovanović

Mechanical Engineering Faculty University of Niš, Chair for Transport and Logistics, Niš, Serbia

magiva@magiva.com, miomir@masfak.ni.ac.rs

Abstract— Domestic light industry in recent years has been II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE

using small overhead cranes with short spans and low OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

capacity, from 500 to 2000 kg. These are light duty cranes

(ISO 4301), with span up to 10 m, simple geometry, compact

drives, and with electric remote controls. Such cranes are The basis of lightweight construction design is always

cheap due to their small geometry of cross section, which is obtained by optimal solution. In this case, a quick method

why they are commercially and scientifically current. One to synthesis of the basic geometry main girder for small

example for optimal synthesis of light single girder overhead cranes was sought. From the condition of simplicity and

cranes is shown in this work. Experience with VBA is so quick selection of the main girder geometry, the optimum

positive that the work recommended the simplicity of the synthesis was performed with scanning methods in area of

process for generating the optimal girder. The basis of solutions with searching at least geometry of the cross

technical solutions is a geometric generator for box girders

section of the main girder. Today, this allows process

used to set the potential solutions. By filtering, content table

of girder cross section are reduced to optimal solutions. efficiency of the PC because for a few seconds, in real

time, it can generate thousands of solutions and choose the

Keywords— light single girder crane, light constructions, most suitable one.

optimisation of girder cross section, VBA, MS Excel The mathematical model for optimization of main

girder dynamic synthesis was developed using the basic

I. INTRODUCTION criteria for structural resistance from bend of the girder.

For generating of the girders geometrical parameters,

In modern industrial practice appear light hanging and selection optimal of them, with using limitation

cranes (suspension cranes), which are characterized by functions for given nominal parameters, are used VBA

capacity (payload) of 80/125/250/500/1000/1600/2000 kg, (Visual Basic for Applications) in MS Excel. Beside this,

span in the range of 4 to 8 m (2.5 to 13 m), lift speed up to Excel is used for filtering solutions generated on the basis

16 m/min and horizontal velocity from 5 to 40 m/min [11]. of imposed optimization criteria, strength and stability of

The light hanging cranes are characterized by the steel the construction and geometry limitations.

but also aluminium alloy (Alcon) which significantly The task was general, for single girder / double box

reduce mass and lead to the forms of tiny cross section of girder crane designs with predefined spans, load capacity

girders. and light class of operating and geometry limitations.

These cranes meet the criteria of DIN 15018 H1 B3 These cranes are used in light industry (e.g. Automotive

but are characterized by greater elasticity of major girders and Aerospace Industry) and at the desired height for

given with quotient L/fstat=350. indoor operations. Characteristic of this system is its

modular design, which makes it possible to meet a wide

variety of customer requirements with ease.

Fig.1 Single girder light crane [11] Fig.2 Double girders light crane [11]

For the objective function, FC was a chosen mass of The moments of inertia are given by eq. (5) and (6):

B H (B 2 ) (H 2

main carrier of the single girder crane, which reduces the 2

H

3 3

problem to the search for minimal surfaces for basic

Ix c [cm 4 ] . (5)

contours of the box cross section A1, the minimum 12 12 2

number of transverse stiffeners carrier (NDF, surface A2

and thick delta) and the minimum area of cross section of

Iy

B H (H 2 ) (B 2

3 3

c3

[cm 4 ] . (6)

ribs for stiffening of vertical and horizontal sheets against 12 12 12

buckling A3. Through independent geometry parameters z,

it is possible to set the objective function in the eq. (1): The moments of resistance are given by eq. (7):

FC z A1 z L NDF A2 z A3 L . (1) Ix Iy

Wx [cm 3 ] ; Wx [cm 3 ] . (7)

H B

Here, the optimization parameters are designated

according to the Fig.3: 2 2

z 1 H , z 2 B , z3 … zn NDF . Cross-section area is given by eq. (8):

Common input data for synthesis are: a 1.05 -

Ast B H ( B 2 c [cm 2 ] . (8)

coefficient operating class for the Second Operating Class;

1.15 - dynamic coefficient only for freight; Number of stiffening membranes is given by eq. (9):

doz 16 [kN/cm ] - permitted stress; B [cm] - with of

2

L

ndf . (9)

cross section of the box girder, and used values are: 1.5 H

B [10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40] ; H [cm] - height

Continuous load of the carrier, where

of the cross section of the box girder, and used values are:

7.85 10 [kN/cm ] and E 20600 [kN/cm ] , is

-5 3 2

H [10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40] ; [cm] - sheet

given by eq. (10):

thickness box girder: [0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8,1, 1.2] ; Q [kg ]

- load crane: Q [500, 1000, 1500, 2000] ; L [cm] - span of qu B H ( B 2 ) ( H 2

the crane: L [400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000] . n df (10)

) [kN/cm ].

L

Vertical and horizontal forces are given by eq. (2): The main criterion of synthesis is given with the

Q 9.81 Fy lowest frequencies of period T, eq. (11) and with period of

Fy [kN ] ; Fx [kN ] . (2) oscillation settling time t, eq. (18):

1000 10

0.5

Maximum bending moments in the xy and xx qu L4

T 2 [ s] . (11)

directions are given by eq. (3): 96 E I g

x

Fy L Fx L

M fmaxxy [kNcm ] ; M fmaxxx [kN/cm] .(3) The limits functions Gi are defined from known

4 4

conditions previously applied in optimization of the

Torsion torque is M t 0 , and the resulting force and weight. So it is in terms of strength-section, due to the

its components are given by eq. (4): complex effects of bending, torsion and shear, a function

limitation G 1 [kN / cm 2 ] is given by eq. (12):

Fy Fx

Fry ; Frx ; Fr Frx2 Fry2 . (4) 1

2 2

M

2

Mt

22

fV M fH F

G1 3 y r . (12)

b0

H/4

b0

b0

given by eq. (13):

0.5

H

P

2

M fV H

2

2 ha sa 2 Ix

G2 . (13)

2

Mt

2

Fr

1.8 A I I y

st x

c

y

sa

B

Fig.3 Common geometry of the open box-shaped girder cross section. y H / 22 B / 22 [cm] . (14)

The requirement of permissible bending stiffness of The last condition is given to the complex buckling

the carrier G3 is largely empirical, eq. (15) and eq. (16), stress G7 [kN / cm 2 ] , eq. (26):

where q u [kg / cm 3 ] unit weight and m [kN / cm 3 ]

specific weight of material: G7 u0 (1 z0 ) 2 x02 z z0 x0 . (26)

f

u ; q u 2B H L m (15)

1 y III. ALGORITHM OF SEARCHING

G3

400 L L doz

Optimization is initiated by running the program-

1 Fy L

3

5 q u L4 macros in Excel written in VBA, which calculates all

y1 ; y2 ; y u y1 y2 . (16) possible variants in the selected domain parameters of the

48 E I x 384 E I x

cross section as well as their to function limitations.

Conditions of geometric constraints G4 and G5 , are Excel allows using data filters as tools application

restrictions. The program all stores results in one page

given by eq. (17) and eq. (18):

Excel workbook. The first row defines a "header" that

G4 H B 0 , (17) marks the column in which is the calculated value.

Selecting the first row and clicking on the main menu of

G5 H 2 B 0 . (18) Excel>Data>Filter, activates command for involvement of

column filtering with the specified conditions.

Using the lowest frequency 1/ T and logarithmic Conditions for the desired function limitations are activated

decrement of damping s , which is a function of by choosing Text Filter from the drop-down menu and

entering seeking limit value of limitation function.

ratio H / L , we can calculate the settling time t which was

Thus modelled the process of selection solutions,

introduced as an additional constraint function G6 - underwent optimization of crane families of 500 kg with a

condition of the dynamic settling down of settling time of oscillations defined in the chosen - the

oscillations G6 10s , wherein ymax yu and ymin 0.05 requested interval.

mm, is given by eq. (19): With the algorithm such as this, all solutions are

immediately generated in the complete diapason of range

y and capacity (payload). The additional selection criteria

ln max from Excel, which is a software function, extracts only

G6 t min [s] .

y

(19) requested individual solutions. This means that in this way

all of the optimal solutions were found, so it can be

The Euler buckling stress is given by eq. (20) and proceeded with the creation of catalogue, as is usually

coefficient of the case for 1 and stress ratio max/min recommended by the crane manufacturers themselves.

k 23.9 : Ulazni podaci

Nazivni (B, H, )

podaci

2 (L,Q,PK)

100

e 1.898 [kN/cm 2 ] . (20)

Generisanje

geometrije

Critical stresses are given by eq. (20):

n=1÷N

k e ; k e . (21) Analiza napona

i dinamičkih

sila

Coefficients and k are given by eq. (21):

L 4 EXCEL TABELA

; k 5.34 . (22)

ndf

Ograničenja

G=?

i

Gi ...

Tangential stress under loads is given by eq. (23):

Rešenja

a Fy

EXCEL TABELA

[kN/cm 2 ] . (23)

Safety level at buckling is given by eq. (24):

1.35 ; 1.35 . (24)

G1

Fy

For case k x0 2 ; k z0 0.6 F0 [9], normal stress is

4

given by eq. (25);

k x 0 F0 k z 0 F0

x0 [kN / cm 2 ] ; z0 [kN / cm 2 ] . (25) Fig.4 Algorithm of the girder cross section optimization and excel table

2

2 of the girders cross section extracted data

TABLE I PARAMETER VALUES OBTAINED BY OPTIMIZATION

L H B Ast G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7

[cm] [cm] cm] [cm2] [kN/ 10-3 10-3 [cm] [cm] [s] [kN/

cm2] [kN/ cm2]

2

cm ]

400 16 14 50.1 2.35 0.55 1.90 2 -12 1.58 14.2

500 18 16 58.1 2.21 0.54 1.82 2 -14 2.60 13.33

600 20 16 62.1 2.41 0.54 1.70 4 -12 4.00 14.57

700 20 18 66.1 2.41 0.54 1.44 2 -16 6.37 14.55

800 25 16 72.1 2.62 0.53 1.55 9 -7 6.87 15.97

900 25 18 76.1 2.54 0.54 1.32 7 -11 9.56 15.40

1000 30 18 86.1 2.39 0.52 1.48 12 -6 9.8 14.45

IV. CONCLUSION

with crane and imparting dynamic constraints. In this way,

the settling time can be reduced to the satisfactory limits

or could affect on the characteristics of carriers. These are

requirements that modern trends in machine place in front

of crane manufacturers to satisfy customer and operation

Fig.5 Screeen shots of the VBA screen

requirements.

The paper is a part of the research performed within

The program obtained 16800 variants and c81 variants the project TR 35049, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.

meet the conditions of which was chosen one The paper is also a part of the doctoral studies of the

representative for each step of the girder span. With time authors. The authors would like to thank the Ministry of

the number of variants is reduced to 7 that are shown in Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

the two diagrams in Figures Fig.6 and Fig.7. Values

obtained by the program are given in the tables for the REFERENCES

parameter by which optimization was performed. [1] M.M.Гохберг, Металические конструкции подјемно

транспортних машини, Машино-строение, Ленинград,

1968.

[2] C.Timošenko, M.J.Gere, Theory of Elastic Stability,

McGraw Hill, Tokyo, 1961

[3] JUS.M.D1.020, JUS.U.E7.121/1986. DIN 15018

[4] А.В.Вершински, Технологичност и носуша способност

кранових металоконструкции, Машиностроение,

Москва, 1984.

[5] F.Kurt, Stahlbau-Band I,II, VEB, Berlin, 1982.

[6] R.Mijajlović, M.Jovanović, Z.Marinković i dr.,

Optimizacija noseće konstrukcije industrijskih dizalica i

istraživanja tačnijih metoda proračuna mehanizama,

Institut MF Niš, 1982/1986.

Fig.4. Optimal geometry for the dynamic settling frequency interval at

10sec. [7] R.Mijajlović, M.Jovanović, Prilog optimizaciji glavnih

nosača mostnih dizalica, 11. Savetovanje o transportnom

mašinstvu, SMIETS, Beograd, 1990.

[8] M.Jovanović, Izbor optimalnih tankozidnih nosećih

struktura dizalica, 30. Godina Mašinskog fakulteta Niš,

1990.

[9] N.Babin, J.Vladić, N.Brkljač, R. Šostakov, Metalne

konstrukcije u mašinstvu, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu -

Fakultet tehničkih naukaNovi Sad, 2012.

[10] F.Kurth, Stahlbau Band 1, Berechnung und Bemessung

der Elemente von Stahlkonstruktionen, Veb Verlag

Technik Berlin, 1985.

[11] Demag KBK light crane system, www.demagcranes.com

interval span box-girder.

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