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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the
United States, in office since January 20, 2017. Before entering politics, he was a
Donald Trump
businessman and television personality.

Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics
degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He took over
his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and
expanded it to involve constructing and renovating skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and
golf courses. Trump also started various side ventures, including branding and
licensing his name for real estate and luxury consumer products. He managed the
company until his 2017 inauguration. Trump also gained prominence in media and
entertainment. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, and
from 2003 to 2015 he was a producer and the host of The Apprentice, a reality
television game show. Trump owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty
pageants from 1996 to 2015. According to Forbes magazine, he was the world's
544th richest person as of May 2017, with an estimated net worth of $3.5 billion.
45th President of the United States
Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen
Incumbent
opponents in the primaries. Commentators described his political positions as
Assumed office
populist, protectionist, and nationalist. His campaign received extensive free media
January 20, 2017
coverage; many of his public statements were controversial or false. Trump won
the 2016 general election against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. He became Vice President Mike Pence
the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without Preceded by Barack Obama
prior military or government service, and the fifth to have won the election despite Personal details
losing the popular vote. His election and policies sparkednumerous protests.
Born Donald John Trump
In domestic policy, Trump appointed Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court. Citing June 14, 1946
security concerns, he ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim- New York City
majority countries; a revised version of the ban was implemented after legal Political party Republican (1987–
challenges. In December 2017, he signed tax reform legislation which cut rates and 99, 2009–11, 2012–
eliminated the Obamacare insurance mandate. In foreign policy, Trump withdrew present)
the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade pact and the Paris
Other political Democratic (until
Agreement on climate change, partially reversed the Cuban Thaw, pressured North
affiliations 1987, 2001–09)
Korea over the acceleration of theirmissile tests and nuclear weapons program, and
recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
Reform (1999–
2001)
After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey in 2017, the Justice Department Independent (2011–
appointed a special counsel to continue investigating links or coordination between 12)
the Trump campaign and Russian government in connection with Russian
Spouse(s) Ivana Zelníčková
interference in the 2016 electionsand related matters.
(m. 1977; div. 1992)
Marla Maples
(m. 1993; div. 1999)
Contents Melania Knauss
Family and personal life (m. 2005)
Ancestry and parents
Early life and education Children Donald Jr. · Ivanka ·
Family Eric · Tiffany ·
Religion Barron
Health
Parents Fred · Mary Anne
Wealth
Relatives Trump family
Business career
Real estate Residence White House
Branding and licensing (official/primary)
Legal affairs and bankruptcies
Trump Natl.
Side ventures
Foundation Bedminster
Conflicts of interest (summer)

Media career Mar-a-Lago (winter)


Books Trump Tower
Professional wrestling (private/secondary)
The Apprentice
Acting Alma mater The Wharton School
(BS in Econ.)
Public profile
Political image Occupation Real estate
Racial views
developer
Popular culture
Social media (The Trump
Organization)
Political career and affiliations up to 2015
Campaign contributions Television
2016 presidential campaign host/producer
Republican primaries (The Apprentice)
General election campaign
Political positions Net worth US$3.5 billion (May
Campaign rhetoric 2017)
White supremacist support
Awards List of honors and
Financial disclosures
awards
Sexual misconduct allegations
Election to the presidency Signature
Protests
Russia
Presidency Website White House
Transition website
First 100 days
Presidential Twitter
Domestic policy
Foreign policy Personal Twitter
Investigations
2020 presidential campaign
See also
Notes
References
Bibliography
External links

Family and personal life

Ancestry and parents


Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of Kallstadt in the Palatinate on his father's side, and from the Outer Hebrides
[1]
in Scotland on his mother's side. All of his grandparents and his mother were born in Europe.

Trump's paternal grandfather, Friedrich Trump, first emigrated to the United States in 1885 at the age of 16 and became a citizen in
1892. He amassed a fortune operating boom-town restaurants and boarding houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of
Canada during its gold rush.[2] On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and married her in 1902. The couple settled in New
York permanently in 1905.[3] Frederick died from influenza during the1918 pandemic.[4]

Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in The Bronx. Fred started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after
his father's death. Their company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, was primarily active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.
Fred eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments.[4][5] The company later became The Trump
Organization, after Donald Trump took over in 1971.[6]

Trump's mother Mary Anne was born in Tong, Lewis, Scotland. At age 18 in 1930, she emigrated to New York, where she worked as
a maid.[7] Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.
[7][8]

Trump's uncle John was an electrical engineer, physicist, and inventor. He worked as a professor at MIT from 1936 to 1973. During
.[9]
World War II, he was involved in radar research for the Allies and helped design X-ray machines that were used to treat cancer

Early life and education


Donald Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens,
New York City, the fourth of five children.[12] Trump grew up in Jamaica, Queens, and
attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he
enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents
[13][14]
discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission.

In 1964, Trump began his higher education at Fordham University.[10][15] After two years, he
transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, because it offered one of
the few real-estate studies departments in United States academia at the time.[15][16] In
addition to his father, Trump was inspired by Manhattan developer William Zeckendorf,
vowing to be "even bigger and better".[17] While at Wharton, he worked at the family
business, Elizabeth Trump & Son,[18] graduating in May 1968 with a Bachelor of Science in
Senior yearbook photo of
economics.[15][19][20] Trump in 1964 wearing the
uniform of his private
ietnam War.[21] While in college from 1964 to
Trump did not serve in the military during the V
boarding school, New York
1968, he obtained four student deferments.[22] In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based Military Academy[10][11]
upon a military medical examination, and in 1968 was briefly classified as fit by a local draft
board. In September of that year, he was given a medical deferment, which he later attributed
to heel spurs.[23] In 1969, he received a high number in the draft lottery, which gave him a low probability to be called to military
service.[23][24][25]

Family
Trump grew up with three elder siblings—Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth—as well as a younger brother named Robert. Maryanne
is an inactive Federal Appeals Courtjudge on the Third Circuit.[26]

Trump has five children by three marriages, as well as nine grandchildren.[27][28] His first two marriages ended in widely publicized
divorces.[29] He is the second divorced American president, afterRonald Reagan.
In 1977, Trump married his first wife, Czech model Ivana Zelníčková, at the Marble
Collegiate Church in Manhattan, in a ceremony performed by the Reverend Norman
Vincent Peale.[30][31] They had three children: Donald Jr. (b. 1977), Ivanka (b.
1981), and Eric (b. 1984). Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in
1988.[32] The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla
Maples.[33]

Donald Trump is sworn in as In October 1993, Maples gave birth to Trump's daughter, who was named Tiffany
president on January 20, 2017:
after high-end retailerTiffany & Company.[34] Maples and Trump were married two
Trump, wife Melania, son Donald Jr.,
son Barron, daughter Ivanka, son months later in December 1993.[35] They divorced in 1999,[36] and Tiffany was
Eric, and daughter Tiffany raised by Marla in California.[37]

In 2005, Trump married his third wife,


Slovenian model Melania Knauss, at Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Palm Beach,
Florida. The ceremony was followed by a reception at Trump's Mar-a-Lago estate.[38] In
2006, Melania became a United States citizen[39] and gave birth to a son, Barron.[40][41]
Melania became First Lady of the United States upon Trump's inauguration as president in
January 2017.[42]

Upon his inauguration as president, Trump delegated the management of his real estate
business to his two adult sons, Eric and Don Jr.[43] His daughter Ivanka resigned from The
Trump Organization and moved to Washington, D.C. with her husband Jared Kushner. She
serves as an assistant to the president,[44] and he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.[45]

Religion
Trump and his wife Melania
Trump's ancestors were Lutheran on his father's side in Germany[46] and Presbyterian on his at the Liberty Ball on
mother's side in Scotland.[47] His parents married in a Manhattan Presbyterian church in Inauguration Day
1936.[48] As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, and had
his Confirmation there.[31] In the 1970s, his family joined the Marble Collegiate Church (an
affiliate of the Reformed Church in America) in Manhattan.[49] The pastor at that church, Norman Vincent Peale, author of The
Power of Positive Thinkingand The Art of Living, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993.[50][49]
Trump, who is Presbyterian,[51][52] has cited Peale and his works during interviews when asked about the role of religion in his
personal life.[49]

Trump receives Holy Communion, but he has said that he does not ask God for forgiveness. He stated: "I think if I do something
wrong, I just try and make it right. I don't bring God into that picture ... I guess that [Communion] is a form of asking for
forgiveness".[53] On the campaign trail, Trump has referred to The Art of the Deal as his second favorite book after the Bible, saying,
"Nothing beats the Bible."[54] The New York Times reported that evangelical Christians nationwide thought "that his heart was in the
[55]
right place, that his intentions for the country were pure".

Trump has had associations with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called
his "closest spiritual confidant".[56] In 2015, he received a blessing from Greek Orthodox priest Emmanuel Lemelson[57] and in
2016, he released a list of his religious advisers, including James Dobson, Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, and others.[58] Referring to
his daughter Ivanka's conversion to Judaism before her marriage to Kushner, Trump said: "I have a Jewish daughter; and I am very
honored by that."[59]

Health
Trump does not drink alcohol; this decision arose in part from watching his older brother Fred Jr. suffer from alcoholism that
contributed to his early death in 1981.[60][61] He also said that he has never smoked cigarettes or consumed drugs, including
marijuana.[62]

In 2016, Trump's personal physician, Harold Bornstein, issued a medical report that showed Trump's blood pressure as well as liver
and thyroid function to be in normal ranges.[63][64] It also showed that he is overweight and takes statins to lower his cholesterol
level.[64] In January 2018, Trump was examined by White House physician Ronny Jackson, who deemed him in excellent health,[65]
although his weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended. A cardiac assessment revealed no medical issues.[66]
Several prominent physicians who have not examined Trump have commented that his weight, lifestyle, and test results do not
indicate excellent health.[67] Trump requested to undergo a cognition test, and passed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment with a
score of 30/30.[68]

Wealth
Trump said that he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his
father.[70] He appeared on the initial Forbes 400 list of wealthy individuals in 1982 with an
estimated $200 million fortune, including an "undefined" share of his parents' estate.[71]
During the late 1980s he became a billionaire,[72] and he made the Forbes World's
Billionaires list for the first time in 1989,[73] but he was absent from the Forbes 400 list
following business losses from 1990 to 1995; he reportedly borrowed from his siblings' trusts
in 1993.[71] His father's estate, valued at more than $20 million, was divided in 1999 among
[74][75]
Trump, his three surviving siblings, and their children.

When Trump announced his candidacy for the presidency on June 16, 2015, he released a one-
page financial summary that stated a net worth of $8,737,540,000.[76] The following month,
he filed a 92-page Federal Election Commission (FEC) financial disclosure form[77] and
declared his net worth was "in excess of ten billion dollars".[78] In his presidential
announcement speech, he said his wealth would make him less indebted to large campaign Trump International Hotel
donors.[79][80] Forbes called his net worth estimate "a whopper", setting their own estimate at Las Vegas, with gold infused
[81][82] glass[69]
$4.1 billion in 2015. Trump's 2015 FEC disclosure reported $362 million in total
income for the year 2014.[78]

After Trump made controversial remarks about illegal immigrants in 2015, he lost business contracts with several companies; this
reduced his Forbes estimate by $125 million.[83] Consumer boycotts and reduced bookings may have further affected his brand value
during the presidential campaign.[84][85][86] Trump's 104-page FEC disclosure in May 2016[87] still claimed a total wealth over
$10 billion, unchanged from 2015.[77] The release of the Access Hollywood tapes in October 2016 put further pressure on his
brand,[88] but real estate experts predicted a positive rebound from becoming president.
[89]

In its 2017 billionaires' ranking,Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $3.5 billion (544th in the world, 201st in the U.S.)[90] making
him one of the richest politicians in American history. These estimates fluctuate from year to year, and among various analysts. In
July 2016 Bloomberg News had pegged his wealth at $3 billion, calling it an increase thanks to his presidential nomination,[91]
whereas Forbes had ranked him 324th in the world (113th in the U.S.) with $4.5 billion just a few months earlier.[92] The
discrepancies among these estimates and with Trump's own figures stem mainly from the uncertain values of appraised property and
of his personal brand.[93]

Business career

Real estate
In 1968, Trump began his career at his father's real estate development company, Elizabeth
Trump & Son, which, among other interests, owned middle-class rental housing in New York
City's outer boroughs.[94][95] During his undergraduate study, Trump joined his father Fred in
revitalizing the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, boosting
the occupancy rate from 66% to 100%.[96][97]

When his father became chairman of the board in 1971, Trump was promoted to president of
the company and renamed it The Trump Organization.[6][98] In 1973, he and his father drew
wider attention when the Justice Department contended that the organization systematically
discriminated against African Americans who wished to rent apartments. The Department
alleged that the Trump Organization had screened out people based on race and not low
income as the Trumps had stated. Under an agreement reached in 1975, the Trumps made no
admission of wrongdoing and made the Urban League an intermediary for qualified minority The distinctive façade of
applicants.[99][100] His adviser and attorney during (and after) that period wasRoy Cohn, who Trump Tower, the
headquarters of The Trump
responded to attacks by counterattacking with maximum force, who valued both positive and
Organization, in Midtown
negative publicity, and who Trump emulated.[101] Manhattan

Manhattan developments
In 1978, Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by purchasing a 50% stake in the financially troubled Commodore Hotel.
The purchase was largely funded by a $70 million construction loan that was jointly guaranteed by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel
chain.[102] When the remodeling was finished, the hotel reopened as the Grand Hyatt Hotel, located next to Grand Central
Terminal.[103][104]

Also in 1978, Trump finished negotiations to develop Trump Tower, a 58-story, 202-meter (663-foot) skyscraper in Midtown
Manhattan, which The New York Times attributed to his "persistence" and "skills as a negotiator".[105] To make way for the new
building, a crew of undocumented Polish workers demolished an old Bonwit Teller store, including art deco features that had initially
been marked for preservation.[106] The building was completed in 1983 and houses both the primary penthouse condominium
residence of Trump and the headquarters of The Trump Organization.[107][108] Architectural critic Paul Goldberger said in 1983 that
he was surprised to find the tower's atrium was "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in New York in some
years".[109][110] Trump Tower was the setting of the NBC television show The Apprentice and includes a fully functional television
studio set.[111]

In 1980, a general contractor who was unconnected to Trump began repairs on


Central Park's Wollman Rink. Despite an anticipated two-and-a-half year
construction timeframe, the repairs remained incomplete in 1986. Trump took over
the project and completed it in three months for $1.95 million, which was $775,000
less than the initial budget. He operated the rink for a year and gave most of the
profits to charity and public works projects[112] in exchange for the rink's
concession rights.[113]

In 1988 Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for a record-setting


$407 million and appointed his wife Ivana to manage its operation.[114] Trump
Central Park's Wollman Rink after
the Trump renovation invested $50 million to restore the building, which he called "the Mona Lisa".[115]
According to hotel expert Thomas McConnell, the Trumps boosted it from a three-
star to a four-star ranking and sold it in 1995, by which time Ivana was no longer
involved in the hotel's day-to-day operations.[116]

In 1994, Trump got involved with the refurbishing of the Gulf and Western Building on Columbus Circle. The former office building
was remodeled with design and structural enhancements to become a luxury residential and hotel property.[117][118] When the job
was finished, Trump owned commercial space in a 44-story mixed-use tower (hotel and condominium) that he named Trump
International Hotel and Tower.[119]
In 1996, Trump acquired the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, which was a vacant seventy-one story skyscraper on Wall Street that
had briefly been the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1930. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was
renamed the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street.[120]

In 1997, he began construction on Riverside South, which he dubbed Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson
River. The project encountered delays the following year because a subcontractor had to replace defective concrete.[121][122] He and
the other investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for $1.8 billion in 2005 in what was then the biggest residential sale in
the history of New York City.[123]

From 1994 to 2002, Trump owned a 50% share of the Empire State Building. He would have renamed it "Trump Empire State
[124][125]
Building Tower Apartments" if he had been able to boost his share.

In 2001, Trump completed Trump World Tower, which was across from the headquarters of the United Nations. For a while, the
structure was the tallest all-residential tower in the world.[126] In 2002, Trump acquired the former Hotel Delmonico, which was
[127]
renovated and reopened in 2004 as theTrump Park Avenue; the building consisted of 35 stories of luxury condominiums.

Palm Beach estate


In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida for under
$8 million.[128] The home was built in the 1920s by heiress and socialite Marjorie
Merriweather Post, who envisioned the house as a future winter retreat for American
presidents.[129]

Trump's initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he was able to get the
property at the much lower price by purchasing Jack C. Massey's beachfront
property for $2 million[130] and threatening to build a house on it that would block
Mar-a-Lago's ocean view. In addition to using the estate as a home, Trump also Mar-a-Lago in June 2009
turned it into a private club open to everyone who could afford the initiation fee of
$100,000 plus annual dues.[131]

In 1986, Trump acquired a foreclosed 33-story, twin-tower condominium complex in nearby West Palm Beach for $40 million. Auto
CEO Lee Iacocca invested in three of the condos.[132] Trump spruced up the complex's public areas and heavily promoted the
ficult, and the deal turned out to be unprofitable.[133]
property for years, but selling the units proved dif

Atlantic City casinos


New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, and Trump went to Atlantic City, New Jersey the following year in order to explore
how he might get involved in a new business venture. Seven years later, Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino opened there; the
project was built by Trump with financing from the Holiday Corporation, which also managed the operation.[134] Renamed "Trump
Plaza" soon after it opened, it was at the time the tallest building in Atlantic City.[135] The casino's poor financial results exacerbated
disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corp., which led to Trump's paying $70 million in May 1986 to buy out their interest in
the property.[136][137] Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for
$320 million; when completed in 1985, that hotel and casino became Trump Castle, and Trump's wife Ivana managed that property
until 1988.[138][139]

Also in 1988, Trump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal, then halfway through construction, through a complex
transaction with television host and entertainer Merv Griffin as well as the resort and casino company Resorts International.[140] The
Taj opened in April 1990 and was built at a total cost of $1.1 billion, which at the time made it the most expensive casino
ever.[141][142] The project was financed with $675 million in junk bonds[143] and was a major gamble by Trump.[144] The project
underwent debt restructuring the following year,[145] leaving Trump with 50% ownership.[146] He also sold his 282-foot (86 m)
megayacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy
gamblers.[147][148]
In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed
ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary,
Indiana.[149] THCR purchased Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent bankruptcy
restructuring in 2004 and 2009, leaving Trump with 10% ownership in the Trump
Taj Mahal and other Trump casino properties.[150] From mid 1995 until early 2009,
he served as chairman of the publicly-traded THCR organization—which was
renamed Trump Entertainment Resorts—and served as CEO from mid 2000 to mid
2005.[151]

Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in During the 1990s, Trump's casino ventures faced competition from Native American
Atlantic City gaming at the Foxwoods casino located on an Indian reservation in Connecticut,
where it was exempt from the state's anti-gambling laws. Trump stated in 1993 that
the casino owners did not look like real Indians to him or to other Indians.[152]
Subsequent to that well-publicized remark about the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, Trump became a key investor backing the
Paucatuck Eastern Pequots, who were also seeking state recognition.[153]

Golf courses
The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and resorts in the United States and around the world. According to Golfweek,
Trump owns or manages about 18 golf courses.[154] His personal financial disclosure with the FEC stated that his golf and resort
[77][87] while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.
revenue for the year 2015 was roughly $382 million, [91]

In 2006, Trump bought 1,400 acres (570 ha), including the Menie Estate in
Balmedie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and created a golf resort there.[155] Scottish
supporters emphasized potential economic benefits, and opponents emphasized
potential environmental harm to a Site of Special Scientific Interest
(SSSI).[156][157][158] A spokesperson for the golf course has said 95% of the SSSI is
untouched.[159] A 2011 independent documentary, You've Been Trumped, chronicled
the golf resort's construction and struggles.[160] In 2015, an offshore windfarm being
built within sight of the golf course prompted a legal challenge by Trump, which Turnberry Hotel and golf course in
was dismissed by the U.K. Supreme Court.[161] In the wake of the 2008 recession, Ayrshire, Scotland
Trump greatly scaled back development of this property, and as of December 2016
Scottish officials were pushing for completion of the far larger development as
originally approved.[162]

In April 2014, Trump purchased the Turnberry hotel and golf resort in Ayrshire, Scotland, which hosted the British Open four times
between 1977 and 2009.[163][164] After extensive renovations and a remodeling of the course by golf architect Martin Ebert,
Turnberry was re-opened in June 2016.[165]

Hotels outside New York


In the late 2000s and early 2010s, The Trump Organization expanded its footprint beyond New York with the co-development and
management of hotel towers in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City, Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-
branded buildings in Dubai,Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.[166]

Branding and licensing


Trump has marketed his name on a large number of building projects that are owned and operated by other people and companies. He
has also licensed his name for various commercial products and services. In doing so, he achieved mixed success for himself, his
partners, and investors in the projects.[167] In 2011, Forbes' financial experts estimated the value of the Trump brand at $200 million.

[168]
Trump disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about $3 billion.[168] According to
an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than 50 licensing or management deals
involving Trump's name, which have generated at least 59 million dollars in revenue for his
companies.[169]

Legal affairs and bankruptcies


As of 2016, Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 3,500 state and federal
legal actions. He or one of his companies was the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in
1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against
gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a
defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases
where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.[170][171]

Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but his hotel and casino businesses have been
declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks
and owners of stock and bonds.[172][173] Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy,
they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek Trump International Hotel
in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for and Tower in Chicago
trimming debt.[174][175]

The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal
(1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino
Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).[176][177] Trump said, "I've used the laws of this country to pare debt ...
We'll have the company. We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, it's like
on The Apprentice. It's not personal. It's just business."[145]

A 2016 analysis of Trump's business career by The Economist concluded that his "... performance [from 1985 to 2016] has been
mediocre compared with the stock market and property in New York", noting both his successes and bankruptcies.[178] A subsequent
analysis by The Washington Post concluded that "Trump is a mix of braggadocio, business failures, and real success", calling his
.[179]
casino bankruptcies the "most infamous flop" of his business career

Side ventures
After Trump took over the family real estate firm in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization, he greatly expanded its real estate
operations, and also ventured into numerous other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for
[180]
several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.

Sports events
In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals—an American
football team that played in the United States Football League (USFL)—from oil
magnate J. Walter Duncan. The USFL played three seasons during the spring and
summer. After the 1985 season, the organization folded due to continuous financial
difficulties, despite winning an antitrustlawsuit against the NFL.[181]

After the Generals folded, Trump remained involved with other sports; he operated
golf courses in several countries.[181] At the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, he hosted
several boxing matches, which included Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight Trump watching a baseball game in
championship fight against Michael Spinks.[182] He also acted as a financial advisor Citi Field, July 2009

[183]
to Mike Tyson.[183] In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create
an American equivalent of European races such as theTour de France or the Giro d'Italia.[184]

Miss Universe
From 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of theMiss Universe pageants.[185][186] The Miss Universe pageants includeMiss USA
and Miss Teen USA, and his management of this business involved his family members; for example, daughter Ivanka once hosted
Miss Teen USA. Trump hired the first female president of the Miss Universe business in 1997.[187] He became dissatisfied with how
[188][189]
CBS scheduled the pageants, and took both Miss Universe and Miss USA to NBC in 2002.

In his 2015 U.S. presidential campaign kickoff speech, Trump made statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from
Mexico. NBC then decided to end its business relationship with him and stated that it would no longer air the Miss Universe or Miss
USA pageants on its networks.[190] In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization and became
.[191]
its sole owner for three days. He then sold the entire company to the WME/IMG talent agency

Trump University
Trump University was a for-profit education company that was founded by Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan
Spitalny. The company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500 and $35,000 per course.[192][193][194] In 2005,
New York State authorities notified the operation that its use of the word "university" was misleading and violated state law. After a
second such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the "Trump Entrepreneurial Institute".[195] Trump was
[196]
also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.

In 2013, New York State filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false
statements and defrauded consumers.[195][197] In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to
Trump University; they named Trump personally as well as his companies.[198] During the presidential campaign, Trump criticized
presiding Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel, alleging bias in his rulings because of his Mexican heritage.[199][200] Shortly after Trump won the
presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases, whereby Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any
wrongdoing.[201][202]

Foundation
The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation[203] that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving
away proceeds from the bookTrump: The Art of the Deal.[204][205] The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than
Trump,[206] who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.
[206]

The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups.[207] In
2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical
Center Foundation ($100,000), the New York–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the
Clinton Foundation ($100,000).[208][209] From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of
WWE, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007.[206] Linda McMahon later became
Administrator of the Small Business Administration.[210]

In 2016, The Washington Post conducted investigations that revealed how the charity had committed several potential legal and
ethical violations; those violations included alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion.[211] After beginning an investigation into
the foundation, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the Trump Foundation that it was allegedly in violation of New
York laws regarding charities and ordered it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York.[212][213][214] A Trump
spokesman called the investigation a "partisan hit job".[212] In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late
December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with [his] role as
President."[215] According to an IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intends to shut down and distribute its assets (about
$970,000) to other charities. However, a spokesperson for the New York Attorney General's office said the foundation cannot legally
[216]
shut down until an ongoing investigation of the charity is completed.
Conflicts of interest
There were questions about how Trump would avoid conflicts of interest between his work in the White House and his business
activities. At a press conference on January 10, 2017, Trump said that he and his daughter Ivanka would resign all roles with The
Trump Organization, while his two adult sons Don Jr. and Eric would run the business with chief financial officer Allen
Weisselberg.[217]

Trump retained his financial stake in the business.[218] His attorney Sheri Dillon[219] said that before the January 20 inauguration,
Trump would put those business assets into a trust, which would hire an ethics advisor and a compliance counsel. She added that The
Trump Organization would not enter any new foreign business deals, while continuing to pursue domestic opportunities.[220] As of
April 2017, Trump companies owned more than 400 condo units and home lots in the United States, valued at over $250 million in
total ($200,000 to $35 million each).[221]

Media career

Books
Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987 was Trump: The Art of the Deal, co-written by Tony
Schwartz,[222][223][224] who is sometimes called a ghostwriter of that book.[225] It reached number 1 on The New York Times Best
Seller list, stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list for 48 weeks.[225] According to The New Yorker, "The
book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, making him an emblem of the successful tycoon."[225] Trump's
[226]
published writings shifted post-2000, from generally memoirs about himself, to books giving advice about finance.

Professional wrestling
Trump is a World Wrestling Entertainment fan and a friend of WWE chairman Vince McMahon. In 1988 and 1989, he hosted
WrestleMania IV and V at Boardwalk Hall and has been an active participant in several of the shows.[227] He appeared at
WrestleMania VII in 1991 and WrestleMania XX in 2004.[228] He cornered Bobby Lashley at 2007's WrestleMania 23, who pinned
McMahon's Umaga in a match called "The Battle of the Billionaires", with each mogul's hair on the line.[227] In 2013, he was
inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame at Madison Square Garden for his contributions to the promotion. He
made his sixth WrestleMania appearance the following night at WrestleMania 29.[229] As president, Trump appointed WWE CEO
.[230]
Linda McMahon to his Cabinet as Administrator of the Small Business Administration

The Apprentice
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The
Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a high-level management job in one of
Trump's businesses, and were successively "fired" and eliminated from the game. During the
first year of the show, Trump earned $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000 for the first
season), but following the show's initial success, he was paid $1 million per episode.[231]
The Apprentice was nominated for an Emmy Award in 2004 and 2005.[232] In 2007, Trump
received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to television on The

Trump was awarded a star on Apprentice.[167][233]


the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Along with British TV producer Mark Burnett, Trump was hired as host of The Celebrity
in 2007, during the height of
the popularity of The Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities. While Trump and
Apprentice. Burnett co-produced the show, Trump stayed in the forefront, deciding winners and "firing"
losers. International versions of The Apprentice franchise were co-produced by Burnett and
Trump.
On February 16, 2015, NBC announced that they would be renewing The Apprentice for a
15th season.[234] On February 27, Trump stated that he was "not ready" to sign on for another
season because of the possibility of a presidential run.[235] Despite this, on March 18, NBC
announced they were going ahead with production.[236] On June 29, after widespread
negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign announcement speech, NBC released a
statement saying, "Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding
immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."[237] Actor
and former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger replaced Trump as host for the
fifteenth season.[238] Trump is still credited as an executive producer for the show
.[239]

Acting
[240] He played an oil Trump with former NBA
Trump has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television series.
basketball player Dennis
tycoon in The Little Rascals,[241] and had a singing role at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards Rodman during the Celebrity
in 2006.[242] Trump is a member of the Screen Actors Guild and receives an annual pension Apprentice, March 2009
of more than $110,000.[243][244]

Public profile

Political image
Presidential approval ratings for Trump have shown him to be the least popular U.S. president in the history of modern opinion
polling as of the first ten months of the term.[245][246][247] A Pew Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a
median of just 22% has confidence in Trump to do the right thing when it comes to international affairs". This compares to a median
of 64% rate of confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama. Trump received a higher rating in only two countries: Russia and
Israel.[248] An August 2017 POLITICO/Morning consult poll found on some measures "that majorities of voters have low opinions
of his character and competence".[249]

False and misleading statements


As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks.[250][251][252] Trump uttered "at least one
false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office according to The New York Times,[250] and 1,318 total in his
first 263 days in office according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post,[253] which also wrote,
"President Trump is the most fact-challenged politician that The Fact Checker has ever encountered ... the pace and volume of the
[251]
president's misstatements means that we cannot possibly keep up."

Racial views
Trump has a history of making racially-charged statements and taking actions perceived as racially motivated.[254][255][256][257] In
1975, he settled a lawsuit brought by the United States Department of Justice in 1973 alleging housing discrimination against black
renters.[95][258][259] In 1989, he was accused of racism for insisting that a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping
a white woman in the Central Park jogger case even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence. He continued to maintain this
position as late as 2016.[260]

Trump played a leading role in "birther" conspiracy theories that had been circulating since President Obama's 2008 presidential
campaign.[261][262] Beginning in March 2011, he publicly questioned Obama's citizenship and eligibility to serve as
president.[263][264][265] Although the Obama campaign had released a copy of the short-form birth certificate in 2008,[266] Trump
demanded to see the original "long-form" certificate.[263] He mentioned having sent investigators to Hawaii to research the question,
but he did not follow up with any findings.[263] He also repeated a debunked allegation that Obama's grandmother said she had
witnessed his birth in Kenya.[267][268] When the White House later released Obama's long-form birth certificate,[269] Trump took
credit for obtaining the document, saying "I hope it checks out."[270] His official biography mentions his purported role in forcing
Obama's hand,[271] and he has defended his pursuit of the issue when prompted, later saying that his promotion of the conspiracy
made him "very popular".[272] In 2011, he had called for Obama to release his student records, questioning whether his grades
warranted entry into an Ivy League school.[273] He also claimed in his 2011 CPAC speech that Obama's classmates "don't know who
he is".[274] When asked in 2015 whether he believed Obama was born in the United States, he said he did not want to discuss the
matter further.[275][276] In September 2016, he publicly acknowledged Obama's birthplace, and said that the rumors had been started
by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign.[264]

Trump launched his 2016 presidential campaign with a speech in which he described Mexican immigrants as criminals and
rapists.[277][278] Later, his comments about a Mexican-American judge were criticized as racist.[279] During his first year as
president, comments he made following a Charlottesville, Virginia rally were seen as implying a moral equivalence between the
white supremacist marchers and those who protested them.[280] In the aftermath of widespread condemnation of his response, Trump
stated in prepared remarks that "racism is evil".[281][282] In a January, 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation
with Congressional leaders, Trump reportedly used the term "shithole countries" to refer to African countries, El Salvador, and Haiti.
Trump's remarks were condemned as racist worldwide as well as by Democratic and several Republican members of Congress in the
U.S.[283][284][285] He has denied multiple times that he is racist; he has said that he is the "least racist person there is".
[286]

Trump's racially insensitive statements[258] have been condemned by many observers in the U.S. and around the world,[287][288] but
accepted by his supporters either as a rejection of political correctness[289][290] or because they harbor similar racial
sentiments.[291][292] Numerous studies and surveys have shown that, since his ascendance in the Republican Party, racist attitudes
and racial resentment have become more significant than economic factors in determining voters' party allegiance.[292][293]
T is racist.[294]
According to an October 2017 POLITICO/Morning Consult poll, a plurality of 45% of voters thinkrump

Popular culture
Trump has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on
Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Garrison. The Simpsons
episode "Bart to the Future", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a future Trump presidency. A
dedicated parody series calledThe President Show debuted in April 2017.[295]

Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show on talk radio.[296] Trump
also had his own daily talk radio program called Trumped!, from 2004 to 2008.[297][298][299] Since the 1980s, Trump's wealth and
lifestyle have been a fixture ofhip hop lyrics,[300] his name quoted by more than 50 artists.[301]

Social media
Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined
Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily
on Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's
Twitter activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as president. Many of the assertions tweeted by Trump have been
proven to be false.[302][303][304][305] Two-thirds of Americans dislike his "use of Twitter", according to a July 2017 ABC
News/Washington Post poll.[306]

Political career and affiliations up to 2015


Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over the years. Trump was a Democrat prior to 1987;[307] Trump
registered as a Republican in Manhattan.[308] In 1987 Trump vaguely expressed interest in running for the presidency when he spent
almost $100,000 to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers. In his view at that time, "America should stop paying
to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves".[309] The advertisements had also advocated for "reducing the budget
deficit, working for peace in Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union."[310] After
rumors of a presidential run, he was then invited by Democratic senators Jim Wright and John Kerry, and Arkansas congressman
Beryl Anthony Jr., to host a fundraising dinner for Democratic Congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony told The New
York Times that "the message Trump has been preaching is a Democratic message". Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump
denied he was a candidate and said, "I believe that if I did run for President, I'd win."[310] According to a Gallup poll in December
[311][312]
1988, Trump was the tenth most admired person in America.

In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential
election.[313][314] A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic
nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support.[315] Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but still went on to win
the Reform Party primaries in California and Michigan.[316][317] After his run, Trump left the party due to the involvement of David
Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani.[313]

Trump also considered running for president in 2004.[318] From 2001 to 2008, Trump identified himself as a Democrat, but, in 2008,
he endorsed RepublicanJohn McCain for president. In 2009, he officially changed his party registration to Republican.[319]

Trump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012 election, and
made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference
(CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is credited for helping kick-start his political
career within the Republican Party.[320][274]

A Wall Street Journal / NBC News poll released in March 2011 found Trump
leading among potential contenders; he was one point ahead of former
Massachusetts GovernorMitt Romney.[321] A Newsweek poll conducted in February
2011 showed Trump within a few points of incumbent president Barack Obama, Trump speaking at the Conservative
with many voters undecided in the November 2012 general election for Political Action Conferencein 2011
president.[322] In the 2012 Republican primaries, Trump generally had polled at or
below 17 percent among the crowded field of possible candidates; an exception was
[323]
a PPP poll in April 2011 that put him at 26%; howeverhis support dropped in a few weeks after that to 8%.

Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice.[324][325][326] On
May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election, while also saying he would have become the
president of the United States, had he run.[324] In December 2011, Trump became an independent for five months before returning to
the Republican Party.[327][328] In February 2012, Trump endorsed Romney for president.[329]

In 2013, Trump was a featured speaker at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC),[330] where he spoke out against
illegal immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection",
.[331][332]
and advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security

Trump spent over $1 million in 2013 to research a possible run for president.[333] In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated
a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. In response to the memo, Trump said
that while New York had problems and that its taxes were too high, running for governor was not of great interest to him.[334] A
February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election.[335] In
February 2015, Trump told NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The Apprentice, as he mulled his political
future.[336] When asked in 2015 which of the last four presidents he prefers, Trump picked Democrat Bill Clinton over the
Republican Bushes.[337][338]

Campaign contributions
According to a New York state report, Trump circumvented corporate and personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s—although
no laws were broken—by donating money to candidates from 18 different business subsidiaries, rather than donating primarily in his
own name.[339][340] Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to gain
[339][341]
favor with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from friends.
Trump has made contributions to campaigns of both Republican Party and Democratic Party candidates, with the top ten recipients of
his political contributions being six Democrats and four Republicans.[342] After 2011, his campaign contributions were more
favorable to Republicans than to Democrats.[343]

2016 presidential campaign


On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United
States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump drew attention to illegal
immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt, and Islamic
terrorism, which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also
announced his campaign slogan, "Make America Great Again".[344]

Republican primaries
In the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, Trump entered a field of 17 Trump campaigning in Laconia, New
Hampshire, on July 16, 2015
major candidates who were vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the
largest presidential field in American history.[345]

Trump participated in eleven of the twelve Republican debates, skipping only the January 28 seventh debate, which was the last
debate before primary voting began on the first of February. The debates received historically high television ratings, which increased
the visibility of Trump's campaign.[346] Republican leaders were hesitant to support him. They doubted his chances of winning the
.[347][348]
general election and feared that he could harm the image of the Republican Party

By early 2016, the race had focused on Trump and U.S. Senator Ted Cruz.[349] On Super Tuesday, Trump won the plurality of the
vote, and he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump became poised to win the
Republican nomination.[350] After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016—which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and
John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns—RNC Chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican
nominee.[351] With 14,015,993 votes, Trump broke the all-time record in the history of the Republican Party for winning the most
primary votes. He also set the record for the largest number of votes cast against the front runner.[352] He won a total of 1441
delegates (58.3% of the total) and 44.9% of the vote versus 25.1% for the runner
-up, Cruz.

General election campaign


After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump shifted his focus to the general election. Trump began campaigning
against Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016.

Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead
narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email
controversy.[353][354][355]

On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his running mate.[356] Four days later on July
19, Trump and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention.[357] The list of
convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the other prior nominees did not
attend.[358][359]

Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech that was inspired by Richard Nixon's 1968
acceptance speech.[360] The historically long speech was watched by nearly 35 million people and received mixed reviews, with net
[361][362][363]
negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.

On September 26, 2016, Trump and Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate, which was held at Hofstra University in
Hempstead, New York and moderated by NBC News anchor Lester Holt.[364] The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential
debate in United States history.[365] The second presidential debatewas held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The
beginning of that debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of
Trump making sexually explicit comments, which Trump countered by referring to
alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the debate, Trump had
invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference.
The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada,
Las Vegas. Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election,
regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined
Trump gives the thumbs up as his democracy.[366][367]
running mate Mike Pence approves
at the Republican National
Convention, July 20, 2016 Political positions
Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free
trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall
along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change
regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and
replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax
code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the
campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme
vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries[368] to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military
action against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant(ISIL, also known as ISIS or IS).

Media have described Trump's political positions as populist,[369][370] and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his
economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation,[371] consistent with Republican Party policies,
along with significant infrastructure investment,[372] usually considered a Democratic Party policy.[373][374] According to political
writer Jack Shafer, Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free
media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.[375][376]

Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time.[377][378][379] Politico has described his positions as
"eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory",[379] while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his
campaign.[380]

Campaign rhetoric
In his campaign, Trump said that he disdained political correctness; he also stated
that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims
of adverse media bias.[381][382][383] In part due to his fame, and due to his
willingness to say things other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is
gaining ground automatically provides a compelling news story, Trump received an
unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency,
[384]
which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.

Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of


Trump rally in the U.S. Bank Arena,
false statements compared to other candidates.[385][386][387] At least four major
Cincinnati, Ohio, on October 13,
publications—Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and the Los
2016
Angeles Times—have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements.[388]
NPR said that Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive.[389]
Lucas Graves, an assistant professor of journalism and mass communication at the University of Wisconsin–Madison,[390] opined
that Trump "often speaks in a suggestive way that makes it unclear what exactly he meant, so that fact-checkers have to be really
[391]
careful to pick things that reflect what the speaker was clearly trying to communicate."
Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and
where puffery abounds.[392] Trump has called his public speaking style "truthful hyperbole", an effective political tactic that may,
however, backfire for overpromising.[392] Martin Medhurst, a Baylor University professor of communication and political science,
analyzed Trump's frequently usedrhetorical devices, such as catchy slogans, hyperbole, insinuations, andpreterition.[393]

White supremacist support


The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy,[394] due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and
immigration.[395][396] Trump personally condemned the alt-right in an interview after the election.
[397]

During the campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists.[398][399][400] He retweeted open racists,[401][402] and
repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union,
saying that he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists.[403][404] In a
subsequent interview he said that he had been given a "bad earpiece", and that he had disavowed Duke the day before.[405][406] In
August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon—the executive chairman of Breitbart News—as his campaign CEO; the website was
described by Bannon as "the platform for the alt-right."[407] According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for
bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream.[408]

Financial disclosures
In compliance with FEC regulations of all presidential candidates, Trump published a 92-page financial disclosure form in 2015.[77]
He did not release his tax returns,[409] which was contrary to usual practice by every presidential candidate since Gerald Ford in
1976.[410] Although it is tradition to do so, presidential candidates are not required by law to release their returns,[411] and Trump's
refusal to do so led to speculation that he was hiding something.[412] Trump said that his tax returns were being audited, and his
lawyers had advised him against releasing the returns.[413][414] However, no law prohibits release of tax returns during an audit.[415]
Tax attorneys differ about whether such a release is wise legal strategy.[416] Trump has told the news media that his tax rate was none
[417][418][419]
of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible".

In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings as part of Trump's 1995 tax return were leaked to a reporter from The New York
Times. They show that, using allowed deductions for losses, Trump claimed a loss of $916 million that year. During the second
presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was
applied.[420] He said that he did use the tax code to avoid paying taxes.
[421][422][423]

On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MSNBC's Rachel Maddow. The
two pages showed that Trump paid $38 million in federal taxes and had a gross adjusted income of $150 million.[424][425] The White
House confirmed the authenticity of the 2005 documents and stated: "Despite this substantial income figure and tax paid, it is totally
illegal to steal and publish tax returns."[424][425]

Sexual misconduct allegations


A total of 19 women have accused Trump of sexual misconduct as of December 2017.[426] Trump and his campaign have denied as
of October 2016 all of the sexual misconduct accusations, which Trump has called "false smears", and alleged a conspiracy against
him.[427][428][429]

Two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about forcibly kissing
and groping women.[430][431][432] The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were
preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. "I just start kissing them," Trump said, "I don't even wait. And when you're a star,
they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab them by the pussy."[433] During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to
seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily."[433] These statements were recorded several months after Trump
[433][434]
married his third and current wife, Melania, who was pregnant at the time.
Trump's language on the tape was described by the media as "vulgar", "sexist", and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident
prompted him to make his first public apology during the campaign,[435][436] and caused outrage across the political
spectrum,[437][438] with many Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some urging him to quit the
race.[439] Subsequently, at least 15 women[440] came forward with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted
kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media coverage.[441][442] In his two public statements in response to the controversy,
Trump responded by alleging that Bill Clinton, former president of the United States and husband of Trump's Democratic rival
[443]
Hillary Clinton, had "abused women" and that Hillary had bullied her husband's victims.

Election to the presidency


On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral
votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and
227 respectively, after defections on both sides.[444] Clinton
conceded the election in the early hours of November 9. Trump
then delivered his victory speech, which was conciliatory in
contrast with some of his previous rhetoric.[445][446]

Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than


Clinton, making him the fifth person to be elected president
while losing the popular vote.[447][nb 1] Clinton finished ahead
by 2.1 percentage points, with 48.04% of the vote and 2016 electoral vote results
65,844,954 votes to 46.09% of the vote and 62,979,879 votes,
with neither candidate reaching a majority
nationwide.[450][451]

Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset, as polls consistently showed Hillary Clinton leading nationwide and in
most battleground states, while Trump's support had been underestimated throughout his campaign.[452] The errors in some state
polls were later partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while
underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters.[453]

Trump won ME-02 and 30 states including the perennial swing states of Florida, Iowa. He also won Ohio and Clinton's "blue wall"
states of Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and
the District of Columbia. Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with
control of both chambers of
Congress.

Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after adjusting for inflation.[454] He is also the first president without prior
government or military service.[455][456][457] Of the 43[nb 2] previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not held
elective office but had served in the Cabinet, andthree had never held public office but had been commanding generals.[457]

Protests
Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice-
versa both inside and outside the venues.[459][460][461] Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in
opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that these were "professional protesters,
incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have
passion for our great country."[462][463]

In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which
gathered 2,600,000 people worldwide,[464] including 500,000 in Washington alone.[465]

Russia
Trump's connections to Russia were intensely scrutinized by the media.[466][467]
During the campaign, Trump repeatedly praised Russian President Vladimir Putin as
a strong leader.[468][469] Former Director of National Intelligence James Clapper
said that Russia's interference in the election "cast doubt on the legitimacy" of
Trump's electoral victory,[470][471] and both Michael Hayden and Michael Morell
have expressed their belief that Trump is a "useful fool...manipulated by Moscow"
[472]
and an "unwitting agent of the Russian Federation".

Women's March in Washington on


Presidency January 21, 2017, a day after the
inauguration

Transition
Two days after the election, Trump
had his first-ever meeting with
outgoing president Barack Obama
to discuss plans for an orderly
transition of power. The New York
Times said "It was an extraordinary
show of cordiality and respect
Putin and Trump, July 7, 2017
between two men who have been
Outgoing President Obama and
President-elect Trump meet in the political enemies and are stylistic
Oval Office on November 10, 2016, opposites."[473] The BBC stated that "their antipathy was barely concealed" in
two days after the election. "awkward photos" of the meeting.[474]

Pre-inauguration events
On December 7, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year".[475] In an interview on The Today Show, he said he was honored by
the award, but he took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America."[476][477] On
December 13 he was named Financial Times Person of the Year.[478] In December 2016, Forbes ranked Trump the second most
powerful person in the world, after Vladimir Putin and before Angela Merkel.[479]

White House appointments


New Jersey Governor Chris Christie led Trump's transition team until November 11, 2016, when Vice President-elect Mike Pence
took over.[480] In the White House, Trump chose RNC chairman Reince Priebus as White House Chief of Staff;[481] he was replaced
by retired Marine GeneralJohn F. Kelly on July 28, 2017.[482] He appointed his campaign CEO Steve Bannon as White House Chief
Strategist;[483] Bannon resigned on August 18, 2017 and no replacement has been named.
[484]

Cabinet-level nominations
Trump's cabinet nominations included Alabama SenatorJeff Sessions as Attorney General,[485] financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary
of the Treasury,[486] retired Marine Corps General James Mattis as Secretary of Defense,[487] and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson
as Secretary of State.[488] Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, for
example neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development,[489] and South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley
as Ambassador to the United Nations.[490]

While most of Trump's nominees were approved by the GOP majority in the Senate, the confirmation of education reform activist
Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education[491] required Vice President Pence to cast a rare tie-breaking vote, the first in a Cabinet
nominee's Senate confirmation.[492]
Most cabinet members were unable to take office on Inauguration Day because of delays in the formal confirmation process. Part of
the lateness was ascribed to delays in submitting background-check paperwork, and part to obstructionism by Senate Democrats.[493]
The last Cabinet member, Robert Lighthizer, took office as U.S. Trade Representative on May 11, 2017, more than four months after
his nomination.[494]

First 100 days


Trump was inaugurated as the nation's 45th president on Friday, January 20, 2017. In
his first week as president, Trump signed six executive orders. His first order as
president set out interim procedures in anticipation of repeal of thePatient Protection
and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). That same week, Trump withdrew the United
States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, re-instated the Mexico City Policy,
reopened the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, and
signed an executive order to begin planning, designing, and constructing a wall
along the U.S. border with Mexicoand reinforce border security.[495]
Chief Justice John Roberts
administers the oath of office to
On January 31, Trump nominated U.S. Appeals Court judgeNeil Gorsuch, described
Donald Trump as his family looks on.
as a solid conservative, to fill the vacancy left on the Supreme Court by the death of
Justice Antonin Scalia eleven months earlier.[496] The Senate confirmed the
nomination on April 7 with a 54–45 vote, after Republicans invoked the "nuclear option" which allowed confirmation by a simple
majority.[497][498]

Domestic policy

Economy and trade


Trump identifies as a "free trader", but says that trade must be "reasonably fair".[499] He has often been called a
protectionist[500][501][502] because of his criticism of NAFTA,[503][504] the Trans-Pacific Partnership(TPP),[505] and his proposal to
significantly raise tariffs on Chinese and Mexican exports to the United States.[506][507] He has also been critical of the World Trade
Organization, threatening to leave unless his proposed tariffs are accepted.[508][509] However, Trump has been very keen to support a
"fair" post-Brexit trade deal with the United Kingdom,[510] which Trump says would be "good for both sides".[511]

Trump's campaign tax plan called for levelling the corporate tax rate to 15%,
eliminating various business loopholes and deductions,[371] and reducing the
number of brackets for personal income tax: the top rate would be reduced from
39.6% to 25%, a large "zero bracket" would be created, and the alternative minimum
tax and estate tax (which currently applies to individual estates over $5.45 million or
[512] Trump's comments
$10.9 million per married couple) would both be eliminated.
about the minimum wage have been inconsistent.[513][514][515]

In December 2017, the Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which cut
the corporate tax rate to 21%, lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax Trump speaking to automobile
workers in Michigan, March 2017
credit, doubled the estate tax threshold to $11.2 million, and limited the state and
local tax deduction to $10,000.[516] The reduction in individual tax rates ends in
2025. While people would generally get a tax cut, those with higher incomes would see the most benefit.[517][518] Households in the
lower or middle class would also see a small tax increase after the tax cuts expire. The bill is estimated to increase deficits by $1.5
trillion over 10 years.[519][520] In February 2018, Trump praised the bill for increasing pay for millions, after announcements of
bonuses from many companies. These bonuses have been criticized by the bill's opponents as publicity stunts,[517] and the pay
[521]
increases have been attributed to low unemployment.
Education
Trump has stated his support for school choice and local control for primary and secondary schools.[522] He opposes the Common
Core State Standards Initiative for primary and secondary schools,[523] and has called it "a disaster" that must be ended.[524] He has
stated he would abolish all or part of theDepartment of Education.[525]

Energy and climate


Trump's energy policy advocates domestic industrial support for both fossil and renewable energy sources in order to curb reliance on
Middle-Eastern oil and possibly turn the U.S. into a net energy exporter.[526] His appointed advisers favor a less regulated energy
market and, because they do not considerclimate change a threat, see no need for immediate action.[527]

Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change.[528][529] In 2012, he said that global warming was a hoax invented by the
Chinese, but later said that he was joking.[530][531] He has called the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a "disgrace" and has
threatened to cut its budget.[532] Trump pledged to eliminate the Clean Power Plan[533] and withdraw from the Paris Climate
Agreement, which calls for reductions in carbon emissions in more than 170 countries.[534] On June 1, 2017, he announced the
withdrawal, making the United States the only large nation to opt out.[535]

Government size and deregulation


Trump's early policies have favored deregulation and a smaller federal government. He signed a Congressional Review Act
disapproval resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall.[536] During his first six weeks in office, he abolished ninety federal
regulations.[537][538]

On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze, which allows for exceptions, primarily for jobs
deemed vital for national security or public safety reasons.[539][540] The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability
Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs.[541] Unlike some past freezes, the
current freeze bars agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving.[541] A week later Trump signed Executive
Order 13771, which directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue.[542][543]
Harvard Law professor Jody Freeman said that the order would do no more than slow the regulatory process, because it did not block
rules required by statute.[544] On February 24, 2017, Trump ordered the agencies to create task forces to determine which regulations
are deemed burdensome to the U.S. economy.[545] Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying that the
ganized, well-funded interest groups.[546]
bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-or

Health care
In 1999, Trump told Larry King Live that "I believe in universal healthcare."[547] Trump's 2000 book, The America We Deserve,
argued strongly for a single-payer healthcare system based on the Canadian model,[548] and has voiced admiration for the Scottish
National Health Service.[547][549][550] Trump says he aims to streamline the Department of Veterans Affairs, get rid of backlogs and
waitlists, and upgrade relevant facilities.[551] On his first Monday in office, Trump issued a federal hiring freeze on the VA.[552]

During his campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Obamacare.[553][554] Shortly after taking office, he urged
Congress to repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the United States House of Representativesvoted to repeal the ACA.[555] Over
the course of several months' effort, however, the Senate was unable to pass any version of a repeal bill.[556] Trump has expressed a
desire to "let Obamacare fail", and the Trump administration has cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced
[557][558][559] The tax reform Trump signed into law at the end of his
funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment.
first year in office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate that was a major element of the Obamacare health
[560][561][562]
insurance system; this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.

Immigration
Trump's immigration policies were a topic of intense discussion during the
campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United
States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for
it.[563] He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United
States,[564] and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies".[565] He
said that deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security
threats.[566]

Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump made a controversial proposal
Trump conferring with Vice President
to ban Muslim non-citizens from entering the United States until stronger vetting
Mike Pence and Secretary of
systems could be implemented.[567][568][569] He later restrained the proposed ban to Homeland Security John F. Kelly,
countries with a "proven history of terrorism".[570][571][572] January 25, 2017

On January 27, 2017, Trump signed


Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and
denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for
90 days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning and took
effect immediately.[573] Confusion and protests caused chaos at many airports,[574]
as travelers were detained on arriving in the United States or barred from boarding
U.S.-bound planes.[575] The administration then clarified that visitors with a green
card were exempt from the ban.[576][577]

Trump signing Executive Order On January 30, Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice
13769 at the Pentagon as Vice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order and was promptly
President Mike Pence and Secretary
dismissed.[578] She was replaced as acting Attorney General by Dana Boente, who
of Defense James Mattis look on,
agreed to enforce the order.[579] Multiple legal challenges were filed against the
January 27, 2017
order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its
implementation.[580][581]

On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed
priorities for Christian minorities.[582][573] Again federal judges in Hawaii, Maryland, and Virginia blocked its implementation.[583]
On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide
[584] The court scheduled full hearings in October
relationship with a person or entity in the United States." .[584]

On September 24, 2017, the temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645, which permanently restricts travel
from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, and certain
Venezuelan officials.[585] These provisions were slated to take effect on October 18,[585] and the Supreme Court cancelled the
hearing that was planned for October 10.[586] On October 17, a federal judge in Hawaii blocked the new restrictions, except for
North Korea and Venezuela.[587] On October 24, 2017, the Supreme Court dismissed a March appeal as moot, while expressing "no
views on the merits" of the case.[588] On December 4, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect, while
legal challenges continued in lower courts.[589] On January 19, the Supreme Court announced that it would hear a challenge to the
[590]
travel ban; the ruling would probably be issued in late June 2018.

Social issues
Trump is conservative, describes himself as pro-life, and opposes abortion except for cases of rape, incest, and circumstances
endangering the health of the mother.[591] He has said that he is committed to appointing justices who would try to overturn the
ruling in Roe v. Wade.[592] He personally supports "traditional marriage"[530] but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex
marriage a "settled" issue.[592]
Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general,[593][594] although
his views have shifted over time.[595] Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical
marijuana.[596] He favors capital punishment,[597][598] as well as the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods of
torture.[599][600]

Foreign policy
Trump has been described as non-interventionist[601][602] and nationalist.[603] He
has repeatedly stated that he supports his foreign policy "America First".[604] He
supports increasing United States military defense spending,[603] but favors
decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region.[605] He says
America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources
toward domestic needs.[602] As a candidate he questioned whether he, as president,
would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members,[606] and
suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance.[607]
President Trump together with other
As president he has reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO.[608] leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in
Italy
In order to confront the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Trump in 2015 called
for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground
troops.[609] In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the
region,[610] a position he later retracted.[611]

During his campaign and as president, Trump repeatedly said that he wants a good
relationship with Russia.[612][613] Trump has pledged to hold a summit meeting
with Vladimir Putin.[614] He added that Russia could help the U.S. in fighting ISIS
militants.[615] On April 7, 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian
airfield in retaliation for theKhan Shaykhun chemical attack.[616]
Trump arriving in Saudi Arabia, May
2017
Israel
Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Trump has stated the importance of being
a neutral party during potential negotiations, while also having stated that he is "a big fan of Israel".[617] During the campaign he said
he would relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem from its current location, Tel Aviv.[618] On May 22, 2017, Trump was the
first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip, visiting Israel, Italy, the Vatican, and
Belgium.[619] Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and warnings
from world leaders. Trump added that he would initiate the process of establishing a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem.[620] The United
Nations General Assemblycondemned the move by adopting a resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment
gency session on December 21, 2017.[621][622]
of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem" in an emer

Relations with Cuba


On June 16, 2017, Trump announced that he was cancelling the Obama administrations dealswith Cuba, while also expressing hope
that a new deal could be negotiated between Cuba and the United States.[623][624] On November 8, 2017, the Trump administration
tightened the rules on trade with Cuba, thus undoing Obama administration's loosening of restrictions. These changes are "intended to
steer economic activities away from the Cuban military, intelligence and security services"; they limited individual visits to
Cuba.[625]

North Korea
North Korea became a major issue in mid-2017. During the campaign and the early months of his presidency, Trump had hoped that
China would help to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions and missile tests.[626] However, North Korea accelerated their missile
and nuclear tests, leading to increased tension.[626] In July, the country tested two long-range missiles identified by Western
observers as intercontinental ballistic missiles, potentially capable of reaching Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland.[627][628] In
August, Trump dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that further provocation against the U.S. will be met
with "fire and fury like the world has never seen."[629] North Korean leader Kim Jong-un then threatened to direct the country's next
missile test toward Guam. Trump warned Kim of strong retaliation if North Korea attacked Guam or U.S. allies.[630] In January
2018, South Korean president Moon Jae-in praised Trump's tough stance toward the North, stating that Trump deserved "big" credit
for his efforts in facilitating talks between North and South Korea.[631]

War in Afghanistan
Under the Trump administration, U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan have increased from 8500 to 14000, as of January 2017.[632]
Trump announced this troop increase in August 2017; this was a change from his pre-election position which was critical of further
involvement in Afghanistan.[633] U.S. officials said then that they aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in
January 2018, however, Trump spoke against talks with the Taliban.[634]

Investigations

Russian interference
In January 2017, American intelligence agencies—the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National
Intelligence—jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor
the election of Trump.[635][636] In March 2017, then FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our
counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That
includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government,
and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."[637] Later, in testimony to the Senate
Intelligence Committee on June 8, he affirmed he has "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, adding "they did it with
purpose and sophistication".[638]

One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovich
win the Ukrainian presidency.[639] Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and
political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials.[640][641] Russian agents were overheard during the
campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump.[642] Members of Trump's campaign and later his White
House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election.[643] In a
December 29, 2016 conversation, Flynn and Kislyak discussed the recently imposed sanctions against Russia; Trump later fired
[644]
Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions.

Dismissal of James Comey


On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey. He attributed the action to recommendations from Attorney General
Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein,[645] which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's
emails.[646] On May 11, Trump stated that he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing"[647] and that he had intended to fire
Comey earlier.[648]

According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the
investigation into Michael Flynn.[649] In March and April, Trump had told Comey that the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud"
impairing his presidency,[650] and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation.[651] He also asked DNI
Dan Coats and NSA Director Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with
Russia during the 2016 election.[652] Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal.[653] Comey
eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself.[650][654] In a statement
on Twitter Trump implied that he had "tapes" of conversations with Comey, before later stating that he did not in fact have such
tapes.[655]

Special counsel
On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former Director of the FBI, to serve as
special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). In this capacity, Mueller oversees the investigation into "any links
and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any
matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation".[656] Trump called the Special Counsel investigation "the single
[657]
greatest witch hunt of a politician in American history!"

The Washington Post reported that days after Comey's dismissal the special counsel had started investigating whether Trump had
obstructed justice.[658] Trump's lawyer Jay Sekulow stated that he had not been notified of any such investigation.[659][660] ABC
News later reported that the special counsel is gathering preliminary information about possible obstruction of justice but has not
launched a full-scale investigation.[661] In June 2017, a close friend of Trump said that Trump was considering terminating Mueller's
appointment,[662][663] and in January 2018 The New York Times reported that Trump ordered Mueller to be fired after learning that
Mueller was investigating possible obstruction of justice, but backed down after White House Counsel Don McGahn said he would
quit.[664] Trump called the report "fake news".[665][666]

In January 2018, The Washington Post reported that Mueller wants to interview Trump about the removal of Michael Flynn and
James Comey.[667] Trump has expressed a willingness to do the interview; according to The New York Times, some of his lawyers
rump to testify if Trump refuses.[668]
have warned against doing so. Mueller can subpoena T

Impeachment efforts
In July 2017, Congressman Brad Sherman (D-CA) introduced an article of impeachment.[669][670] In November 2017 six other
Democratic representatives introduced five articles of impeachment citing "obstruction of justice", "violation of the foreign
emoluments clause", "violation of the domestic emoluments clause", "undermining the independence of the federal judiciary," and
"undermining the freedom of the press".[671]

In December 2017, an impeachment resolution was put to a vote. Introduced by Congressman Al Green (D-TX), it comprised two
articles of impeachment titled "Associating the Presidency with White Nationalism, Neo-Nazism and Hatred" and "Inciting Hatred
and Hostility".[672] It was defeated 364 to 58.[673]

2020 presidential campaign


Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency.[674] This
transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one.[675] Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a
campaign rally in Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office.[676] By February 1, 2017, the
campaign had already raised over $7 million.[677]

See also
List of honors and awards received by Donald T
rump

Notes
1. Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000,
and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g.
John Quincy Adams trailed
in both the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no-one had a majority in the electoral
college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), andSamuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing
plurality).[448][449]
candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a
2. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.[458]

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Bibliography
Blair, Gwenda (2005). Donald Trump: Master Apprentice. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-7510-1.
Blair, Gwenda (2015a). Donald Trump: The Candidate. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-2937-1.
Blair, Gwenda (2015b) [First published 2001]. The Trumps: Three Generations That Built anEmpire. Simon & Schuster.
ISBN 978-1-5011-3936-9.
Gallup, George, Jr. (1990). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1989. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8420-2344-3.
Pacelle, Mitchell (2001).Empire: A Tale of Obsession, Betrayal, and the Battle for an American Icon. John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 978-0-471-23865-2.
Kranish, Michael; Fisher, Marc (2017) [First published 2016].Trump Revealed: The Definitive Biography of the 45th
President. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5011-5652-6.
Light, Larry (2012). Taming the Beast: Wall Street's Imperfect Answers to Making Money
. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-
1-118-08420-5.
Payment, Simone (2007).Donald Trump: Profile of a Real Estate Tycoon. Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4042-1909-0.
Trump, Donald J.; Schwartz, Tony (2009) [First published 1987].Trump: The Art of the Deal. Random House. ISBN 978-
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Wooten, Sara (2009). Donald Trump: From Real Estate to Reality TV. Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-2890-6.

External links
President Trump's profile at the White House
President Trump on Twitter (official)
Donald Trump on Twitter (personal)
Donald J. Trump for President campaign website
"Donald Trump collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
"Donald Trump collected news and commentary". The Wall Street Journal.
Donald Trump appearances on C-SPAN
Donald Trump on the Internet Archive
Donald Trump at the Internet Movie Database
WWE Profile

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