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TEKNIK EKSPLOITASI GAS

BUMI
Jan Friadi Sinaga
This lecture will cover...
 Real gas laws and equation of states;
 Thermodynamics characteristics of natural gases, natural gas types
based on phase diagram;
 Initial gas in place, reserves and recovery factor; volumetric and
material balance methods;
 Gas condensate reservoirs;
 Real gas flow through porous media;
 Gas deliverability;
 Vertical and horizontal gas flow performance;
 Natural gas measurements and compressions;
 Optimum gas field development;
 Underground storage;
 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), Gas to
Liquid (GTL), Gas to Solid (GTS); unconventional gases (Coalbed
Methane and Gas Hydrates)
Our references...
1. Ikoku, C.U.: ―Natural Gas Reservoir
Engineering‖, John Willey, 1984
2. Katz, D.L. and Lee, R.L.: ―Natural Gas
Engineering‖ , McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company, 1990
3. Etc.
Rules
• This class consists of 16 meetings
(includes 2 evaluations)
• Minimum attendance: 13
• No more than 30 minutes late
• Keep calm and be quiet during the
sessions
Grading......
• Homework : 20% A : 80 - 100
• Quiz : 20% B : 65 - 79
C : 55 - 64
• Mid test : 30% D : 41 - 54
• Final test : 30% E : 0 - 40
For next week...
• Read Ikoku: Chapter 1 & 2
Introduction
• Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon
gases and impurities
– HC : Mostly a mixture of methane and ethane
– Impurities: CO2, H2S, N
Ideal Gas
Boyle’s Law
The Perfect Gas Laws
Boyle’s Law:
𝑉 ∝ 1/𝑃 or PV = Constant (1)

Charles’ Law (Gay-Lussac’s Law)


𝑉 ∝ 𝑇 or V/T = Constant (2)

o Rankine = (o R) = o F + 460)
o Kelvin = (o K) = o C + 273) (3)
According to Charles’Law, if the volume of a
given quantity of gas at constant pressure is
plotted as a function of the absolute
temperature, a straight line will result.
Step 1
(V1P1T1) (V P2 T1)
T1 = Constant

Step P2 = Constant
2
(V2P2T2)
P1V1 = P2V or V = P1V1/P2
V/T1 = V2/T2 or V = V2T1/T2

Eliminating V between these two equations gives

P1V1/P2 = V2T1/T2 or P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2


(4)

In other words, for a given weight of gas, PV/T =


constant
Avogadro’s Law
Under the same conditions of temperature
and pressure, equal volumes of all perfect
gases contain the same number of
molecules.
 Standard Conditions :
60o F and 14.7 Psia
If we combine Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law
with Avogadro’s Law and considers one
molecular weight of gas, eq. 4 becomes:
PV/T = R
R : constant, same value for all gases. For n
moles of gas this equations becomes
PV = nRT (5)
Wt
𝑃𝑉 = 𝑅𝑇 (6)
MW
Value of the Gas Constant

P V T n R
o 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
atm liters K 0.0821
𝑀𝑊
o 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
atm cc K 82.1
𝑀𝑊
psia cu ft o R 𝑙𝑏 10.72
𝑀𝑊
psfa cu ft o R 𝑙𝑏 1544
𝑀𝑊
1) Rework this table to
get the value of R for
each unit system!
Example
Four pounds of methane are placed in a tank at 60o
F. If the pressure on the tank is 100 psia what is the
volume of the tank?
PV = nRT

4
𝑛𝑅𝑇 16
𝑥10.72𝑥(460:60)
𝑉= = =13.95 cu ft
𝑃 100
n : lb moles
T :oR
P : psia
V : cu ft
The Density of a Perfect Gas
𝑊𝑡
Density =
𝑉

𝑊𝑡 𝑀𝑊𝑥𝑃
= = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝐷𝑔
𝑉 𝑅𝑇

𝐷𝑔 : lb/cu ft.
R : 10.72
N : lb moles
T :oR
P : psia
Gas Mixtures
𝑊𝑡𝑖
%𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑖 = 𝑥100
𝑊𝑡
𝑉𝑖
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 %𝑖 = 𝑥100
𝑉𝑖

𝑛𝑖
𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒 %𝑖 = 𝑥100
𝑛𝑖

The mole fraction of the i-th component:


𝑛𝑖
𝑦𝑖 =
𝑛𝑖
Gas Mixtures
• The mole fraction represents the fraction of
molecules in the system of a given kind (i.e.
one mole of any gas contains the same
number of molecules.
• For example, suppose a system contains one
mole of CH4 and two moles of C2H6. In this
system the mole fraction of CH4 is 1/3 and
that of C2H6 is 2/3.
• It is also true that 1/3 of the molecules are
CH4 molecules and 2/3 are C2H6 molecules.
Relationship between Mole % and
Volume %
• If each gas in a mixture obeys Avogadro’s
Law, the volume of the i-th component
would be proportional to the number of
moles of the i-th component.
Vi ∞ ni or Vi = kni
k : proportionality constant
Relationship between Mole % and
Volume %
Substituting Vi to the definition of Volume

𝑉𝑖 𝑘𝑖 𝑛𝑖
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 %𝑖 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100
𝑉𝑖 𝑘𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖

= (Mole %)

Therefore, for gases which obey Avogadro’s Law,


volume% and mole % are equivalent.
Relationship between Weight %
and Mole % (or Volume %)
Relationship between Weight %
and Mole % (or Volume %)
The Concept of Apparent Molecular
Weight
• A gas mixture behaves as though it had a
definite molecular weight.
• The weight of gas mixture at 60o F and
14.7 psia is called the apparent molecular
weight.
• The gas mixture behaves as though it
were a pure gas whose molecular weight
was equal to the apparent molecular
weight.
The Concept of Apparent Molecular
Weight
AMW = ∑ (yi x MWi)

yi : the mole fractions of the i-th component in a gas


mixture.

EXAMPLE. Calculate the apparent molecular weight


of a gas mixture consisting of three moles of methane,
one mole of ethane and one mole of propane.

AMW = ∑ (yi x MWi) = 0.60 x 16 + 0.20 x 30 + 0.20 x 44 = 24.4


The Concept of Apparent Molecular
Weight
Component Mole
Fraction
Nitrogen (N2) 0.78
Oxygen (O2) 0.21
Argon (A) 0.01
Composition of Dry Air
AMW = 28.96 or 29
Specific Gravity of a Gas
• Specific gravity if defined as the ratio of the density
of a substance to the density of some standard
substance.
• In the case of liquids and solids, water is usually
taken as the standard reference material The
temperature and pressure of the reference
substance should always be specified (usually at
60o F and 1 atm).
• The standard reference material for gases is dry air
and its density is taken at the same temperature and
pressure for which the density of the gas is given.
Specific Gravity of a Gas
The specific gravity of a gas is defined as
𝐷𝑔
S. G. =
𝐷𝑎
For a perfect gas:
𝑀𝑊 𝑥 𝑃
𝐷𝑔 =
𝑅𝑇

Assuming that the gas and air are both perfect gases:
𝐷𝑔 𝑀𝑊 𝑥 𝑃/𝑅𝑇 𝑀𝑊
S. G. = = =
𝐷𝑎 𝐴𝑀𝑊𝑎 𝑥 𝑃/𝑅𝑇 29

If the gas are mixture:


𝐴𝑀𝑊
S. G. =
29
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
In a mixture of gases, each gas exerts a partial pressure
equal to the pressure it would exert if it alone were
present in the volume occupied by the mixture.

𝑅𝑇
𝑃 = 𝑛𝑖
𝑉

𝑅𝑇
𝑃𝑖 = 𝑛𝑖
𝑉
ni : mole of component i
Pi : partial pressure of component i
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

𝑃𝑖 𝑛𝑖
= = 𝑦𝑖 or 𝑃𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖 𝑥 𝑃
𝑃 𝑛𝑖

The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture is


given by the product of its mole fraction and
the total pressure.

ni : mole of component i
Pi : partial pressure of component i
NON-PERFECT GASES
• Actual gases approach perfect gas behavior
at high temperatures and low pressures.
• In a perfect gas the molecules are assumed
to be negligible volume (compared to the
volume of the gas) and to exert no attractive
forces on one another.
• Van der Waals equation attempts to modify
the general gas law so that it will be
applicable to non-perfect gases.
The Behavior of Non-Perfect
Gases
The equation for one mole of a single, pure gas:

𝑎
𝑃+ 2 𝑉 − 𝑏 = 𝑅𝑇
𝑉

• a/V2 accounts for the attractive forces between the


molecules
• The constant b represents the volume of the
molecules, and it is subtracted from V since the
actual volume of space available to the gas is less
than the overall volume of the gas.
The Behavior of Non-Perfect
Gases
𝑎
𝑃+ 2 𝑉 − 𝑏 = 𝑅𝑇
𝑉

• When V is large (at low pressure and high


temperatures), it is obvious that Van der
Waals’ equation reduces to the general
gas law
PV = RT
The Behavior of Non-Perfect Gas

• P in atm, V in liters, T in o K, and R =


0.08205
The Behavior of Non-Perfect Gas
• If n moles of gas are involved, the equation
becomes:
𝑛2 𝑎
𝑃 + 2 𝑉 − 𝑛𝑏 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑉
• The values of constants a and b can also be
estimated from critical data (a = 3PoVo2 and b =
Vo/3; Po and Vo are the critical pressure and
critical volume respectively.
The Compressibility Factor
• For an imperfect gas one can write the
general gas law in the form:
PV = ZnRT
Z is known as the compressibility factor (at T
& P)
For a perfect gas, Z = 1
For an imperfect gas, Z > 1 or Z<1,
depending on the pressure and temperature.
Typical plot of the Z factor as a function
of pressure at constant temperature
Law of Corresponding States: At the same
reduced temperature and pressure, all HC
have the same value of Z.
𝑃 𝑇
𝑃𝑅 = and 𝑇𝑅 =
𝑃𝑐 𝑇𝑐
Tc is the critical temperature
Pc is the critical pressure
Table 5. Physical properties of the
Constituents of Natural Gas
Fig. 9. Z factors for pure
hydrocarbon gases as a
function of reduced pressure
and temperature. (Brown et.
al., 1948)
Example
Calculate the volume of 10 lb of ethane at 145o F and 1068 psia.

The critical pressure for ethane is 712 psia and its critical temperature
is 549o R (Table).

𝑃 1068 𝑇 460 + 145


𝑃𝑅 = = = 1.50 𝑇𝑅 = = = 1.10
𝑃𝑐 712 𝑇𝑐 549

From Figure 9, Z is found to be 0.460 at this reduced temperature and


pressure. Therefore,

10
𝑍𝑛𝑅𝑇 0.460𝑥 𝑥10.72𝑥(460 + 145)
𝑉= = 30 = 0.930 𝑐𝑢 𝑓𝑡
𝑃 1068
Fig. 10. Z factor for
natural gases
(Standing and Katz,
1942)
Gas Mixtures
Pseudo-critical pressure = 𝑃𝑐 = 𝑦𝑖 𝑥𝑃𝑐𝑖

Pseudo-critical temperature = 𝑇𝑐 = 𝑦𝑖 𝑥𝑇𝑐𝑖


Example
Example: A gas consists of 16 lb of methane and 7 1/2 lb of ethane.
Calculate Z at 0o F and 1000 psia.

n of methane = 1 mole
n of ethane = 0.25 mole
Mole fraction of methane and ethane = 0.80 and 0.20 respectively.
Pc for methane = 673
Pc for ethane = 712
Tc for methane = 344o R
Tc for ethane = 549o R
𝑃𝑐 = 𝑦𝑖 𝑥𝑃𝑐𝑖 = 0.8𝑥673 + 0.2𝑥712 = 680.8 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎
𝑇𝑐 = 𝑦𝑖 𝑥𝑇𝑐𝑖 = 0.8𝑥344 + 0.2𝑥549 = 385.0𝑜 𝑅
𝑃 1000 𝑇 460
𝑃𝑅 = = = 1.47 and 𝑇𝑅 = = =1.19
𝑃𝑐 680.8 𝑇𝑐 385

From Figure 10 the value of Z is found to be 0.645


Notes:
This method which is based on the Law of
Corresponding States should not be applied
with confidence to gases which contain
relatively large amount of non-hydrocarbon
gases.
• To apply the above method to mixtures, it is
necessary to know the gas composition in
order to calculate the pseud-criticals.
• If data on the composition are not available, it
is still possible to approximate a value for Z if
the specific gravity of the gas is known.
• This method is not as accurate as the
preceding method and should not be
employed if the composition of the gas
mixture is known.
SG vs pseudo-critical pressure
SG vs pseudo-critical temperature
Example
Estimate the Z factor for a 0.800 SG gas at
1390 psia and 98o F.

From figures 11 and 12 the pseudo-critical pressure


and temperature are found to be 662 psia and 413o R
respectively. The pseud-reduced pressure and
temperature are:
𝑃 460:98
𝑃𝑅 = = 2.1 and 𝑇𝑅 = = 1.35
𝑃𝑐 413
The Z factor is obtained from Figure 10 and found to
be 0.72.
Calculate the pressure of 15 lb of ethane in
a one cu ft tank at temperature of 140o F.
𝑃𝑉 𝑃𝑥1
𝑍= = = 0.00031𝑃
𝑛𝑅𝑇 0.5𝑥10.72𝑥(460 + 140)
If this equation if plotted on Figure 7 a straight line, through the
origin, results whose slope is 0.00031. The required is given by
the point of intersection of this straight line and the curve of Z
versus P at a temperature of 140o F. The required pressure in
this case would be 1265 psia.
Compressibility
factors for
ethane, (Brown
et. al.,1946)
More example
Calculate the pressure of 0.333 moles of a gas mixture in a one cu ft
tank at a temperature of 190o F if the pseudo-critical temperature and
pressure of the mixture are 500o R and 700 psia, respectively.

650
𝑇𝑅 = = 1.30
500
𝑃
𝑃𝑅 = or 𝑃 = 700𝑃𝑅
700
𝑃𝑉 700𝑃𝑅 𝑥1
𝑍= = = 0.302𝑃𝑅
𝑛𝑅𝑇 0.333𝑥10.72𝑥(460 + 190)

When Z = 0.302 PR is plotted on Figure 10 this straight line intersects Z


versus PR for TR = 1.30 at PR =2.2. Consequently, P = 2.2x700 = 1.540
psia. A similar method of solution can be employed to calculate the
temperature of a gas at a given pressure and volume.
Kompresibilitas Isothermal Gas
• Definisi

• Derivatif dievaluasi pada T konstan = TA dan


tekanan P = PA
Kompresibilitas Isothermal Gas
Berapakah Cg pada (PA, TA)?
Kompresibilitas Isothermal (Cg)
Kompresibilitas Isothermal
• Dengan persamaan gas ideal
Kompresibilitas Isothermal
• Dengan persamaan gas real
Faktor Volum Formasi Gas
• Volume gas pada kondisi reservoir yang diperlukan
untuk menghasilkan 1 scf gas di permukaan.

• Satuan res bbl/scf


Faktor Volum Formasi Gas
PR #1
• Buat ringkasan (tulis tangan) mengenai
perhitungan cadangan gas dengan
metode:
– Volumetrik
– Material Balance
– Pressure Decline Curve p/z

Tugas dinilai berdasarkan kelengkapan dan


kerapian penulisan!
Kuis
1. Hitunglah PR (reduced pressure) dan TR (reduced temperature) dari
10 lb ethana pada 1xxoF dan 10xxo psia.
2. Hitunglah PR (reduced pressure) dan TR (reduced temperature)
untuk suatu campuran gas yang terdiri dari 35 lb methana 20 lb
ethana dan 15 lb propana, pada suhu 60o F and 10xx psia.
Note: XX = dua angka terakhir NIM Anda
ESTIMATION OF GAS RESERVES
• Natural gas reservoir
– Exist wholly as a vapor phase at P ≤ Pi
– Do not undergo phase change upon pressure
reduction
– Constant composition fluid
– Gp
– Non-associated gas, associated gas,
dissolved gas
Reserve Estimation Methods
• Volumetric Equation
• Material Balance Equation
• Straight Line MBE (Havlena & Odeh)
• Pressure Decline Curve (P/z)
GAS IN PLACE BY VOLUMETRIC
EQUATION
Data:
• Reservoir rock volume (VB)
• Reservoir pore volume (ϕ)
• Initial gas saturation (1 – Swi)
• Volume ratio (Bgi)
GAS IN PLACE BY VOLUMETRIC
EQUATION
Contoh 1
Perkirakan Isi Awal Gas di tempat untuk reservoir dengan
luas 2550 acre, ketebalan 50 ft, porositas 20%, saturasi air
20%, temperatur reservoar 186 oF dan tekanan 2651 psia.
Jawab:

(2561)(520)
𝐺 = (43560)(2550)(50)(0.2)(1 − 0.2)
(0,880)(14.7)(646)
𝐺 = 146588 𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐶𝐹
MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION
Asumsi:
• Reservoir dianggap sebagai model satu tanki yang
mempunyai volume tetap
• Perubahan tekanan yang terjadi akan disebarkan
secara merata ke seluruh reservoir
• Data PVT tersedia dan mewakili untuk reservoir
yang bersangkutan
• Data sejarah produksi dan tekanan tersedia
• Perubahan saturasi air sisa terhadap tekanan, dan
perubahan porositas terhadap tekanan selama
terjadinya penurunan tekanan reservoir dapat
diabaikan
𝒎 𝒑 = 𝒎𝒊 − 𝒎
𝒏𝒑 = 𝒏𝒊 − 𝒏

The gas volumes are proportional to masses and moles (constant composition)
Material Balance Eq
Misalkan 𝑉𝑖 = volume (bbl) hidrokarbon pada tekanan 𝑝𝑖 ,
sejumlah 𝐺𝑝 (scf) gas dan 𝑊𝑝 (STB) air telah diproduksi di
permukaan, sejumlah 𝑊𝑒 (bbl) air telah masuk ke dalam
reservoir, dan volume gas sisa di reservoir adalah 𝑉 (bbl).

𝑽𝒊 = 𝑽 + 𝑾 𝒆 − 𝑾 𝒑 𝑩 𝒘
Atau 𝑽 = 𝑽𝒊 − 𝑾 𝒆 + 𝑾 𝒑 𝑩 𝒘

𝑉𝑖, 𝑉, 𝑊𝑒, 𝑊𝑝 𝐵𝑤 : Res bbl


𝐵𝑤 : bbl/STB
RESERVES AND RESERVOIR
PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS
• Gas in place:
– Comparison with other fields
– Volumetric estimation
– Decline Curve

• Recoverable reserves
– Abandonment pressure
Volumetric Estimates
Volumetric reservoir (no water influx or water production):
For closed gas reservoir:
For water-drive reservoirs:
Example 1.2

Data:
Area = 640 acres
Net effective pay, h = 30 ft
Porosity = 15%
Interstitial water saturation, Swi = 30%
Initial pressure, Pi = 3000 psia
Reservoir temperature = 150 oF
Abandonment pressure, Pa = 500 psia
Gas S.G = 0.60
Base T & P = 60oF and 14.65 psia
Estimate gas reserve!
Step 1 – Calculation of Bgi, z, Tpc, Ppc

Ppc = 668 psia


Tpc = 385oR
z = 0.83 (grafik
Standing & Katz)
Step 2 – Calculation of recovery factor, Eg
Step 3 – Calculation of reserve in scf/acre-ft

Final Step – Calculation of the estimated reserve


Recap
𝐺 𝐵𝑔 ;𝐵𝑔𝑖 :𝑊𝑒 :𝑊𝑝 𝐵𝑤
𝐺𝑝 =
𝐵𝑔

w/o water influx:

𝑍𝑏 𝑇𝑏 𝑉𝑖 + 𝑊𝑝 𝐵𝑤 𝑃𝑖 𝑃
𝐺𝑝 = 5.615 ( − )
𝑃𝑏 𝑇 𝑍𝑖 𝑍

𝐺 𝐵𝑔 − 𝐵𝑔𝑖
𝐺𝑝 =
𝐵𝑔
Metode Straight Line MBE
(Havlena & Odeh)
𝐺𝑝 𝐵𝑔 = 𝐺 𝐵𝑔 − 𝐵𝑔𝑖
Metoda P/Z versus Gp
• Prinsip kesetimbangan massa atau mol gas
• Data: Gp, P
• pV = Z n RT

• Vi = G Bgi
Metoda P/Z versus Gp

• Tf = temperatur formasi
• Pi = tekanan awal reservoar
• Tsc = temperatur pada keadaan standar
• Psc = tekanan pada keadaan standar
Metoda P/Z versus Gp
• Plot P/Z vs Gp 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟:
𝑃 𝑃𝑖 𝐺𝑝
= (1 − )
𝑍 𝑍𝑖 𝐺
Metoda P/Z versus Gp
• Dengan perembesan air:

We = C ∑ QD ΔP
C = konstanta perembesan air
Metoda P/Z versus Gp
• Plot (GpBg + WpBw)/(Bg-Bgi) vs C ∑ QD ΔP/(Bg – Bgi)

G, We
Latihan
Tentukan Isi Awal Gas di tempat pada suatu reservoar gas yang
tertutup, dimana reservoar tersebut telah berproduksi sebanyak 500
MMSCF. Tekanan reservoir telah turun menjadi 2800 psia dari tekanan
awal 3000 psia. Temperatur reservoar adalah 150 oF dan spesifik
gravity gas 0.60
Asumsi:
Pada P = 3000 psia & SG = 0.60, Z = 0.88
Pada P = 2800 psia & SG = 0.60, Z = 0.85
𝐺 𝐵𝑔 − 𝐵𝑔𝑖
𝐺𝑝 =
𝐵𝑔

0.00504 𝑥 𝑍 𝑇
𝐵𝑔 = , bbl/scf
𝑃
Untuk P = 3000 psia,

0.00504𝑥0.88𝑥(150 + 460)
𝐵𝑔 = = 0.000902 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑆𝐶𝐹
3000
Untuk P = 2800 psia,

0.00504𝑥0.85𝑥(150 + 460) 𝑏𝑏𝑙


𝐵𝑔 = = 0.000933
2800 𝑆𝐶𝐹
Isi Awal Gas Di tempat:

𝐺𝑝 𝐵𝑔 500,000,000𝑥0.000933
𝐺= =
𝐵𝑔 − 𝐵𝑔𝑖 0.000933 − 0.000902
𝐺 = 15𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐶𝐹
Volumetric Gas Material Balance

 "Dry Gas" Material Balance: Normally Pressured Reservoir Example


 Volumetric reservoir — no external energy (gas expansion only).
 p/z versus Gp yields unique straight-line trend.
 Linear extrapolation yield gas-in-place (G).
Gas MBE Abnormally-Pressured Reservoir

 "Dry Gas" Material Balance: Abnormally Pressured Reservoir Example


 Volumetric reservoir — no water influx or leakage.
 p/z versus Gp yields unique quadratic trend (from approximated MBE).
 Quadratic extrapolation yield gas-in-place (G).
Gas MBE "Water Influx" Case

a. Gas Material Balance Plot: p/z vs. Gp — simulated b. Gas Material Balance Plot: p/z vs. Gp — simulated
performance. Note effect of aquifer permeability on performance. Note effect of displacement efficiency
field performance. (Ep).

 Gas Material Balance: Water Drive Gas Reservoir


 Pressure (hence p/z) is maintained during production via communication with an
unsteady-state aquifer (this study).
 From: Unsteady-State Performance of Water Drive Gas Reservoirs, Agarwal
(Texas A&M Ph.D., 1967).
Concept: p/z vs. Gp — Water Influx Case

 Simulated Performance: Agarwal Dissertation (1967)


 Recovery is a function of production rate, Ep, and kaquifer.
 p/z vs. Gp performance appears to be cubic (i.e., f(Gp3)).