This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Molecules have specific geometric arrangement that may affect the property of the molecules into some extent. Similarities of the properties of molecules may also be attributed to this phenomenon. That is why it is necessary that we know how to predict the geometry of each individual molecules. We will use the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory as model to predict the geometry of a given molecule. VSEPR theory accounts for the geometric arrangements of electron pair around a central atom in terms of electrostatic repulsion between electron pairs. 1. Electron pairs should be occupying regions far for one anther so that repulsion may be avoided H I H-C-H is correct rather than I bonds H
H- C – H H H
notice the crowding effect and possible repulsion that may occur in the electron pairs of the C-H
2. Double bonds and triple bonds can be treated as single bonds. However, multiple bonds are more dense and occupy more space CO2 may be written as O=C- O, it can be treated as O-C- O
3. If molecules has two resonance structure they we can apply the VSEPR model to any of them O=C-O has a has resonance structure O-C= O so any one may be used and may be expressed as C-O-O following #2 4. With molecules which has bonding pairs or lone pairs, the molecules experiences 3 types of repulsive forces, a. Lone pair vs lone pair b. Lone pair vs.bonding pair c. bonding pair vs bonding pair Order of the repulsive force a>b>c Steps in identifying the geometry of molecules. Lets take the BeCl2 as example 1. Write the Lewis dot structure : : : :Cl:Be:Cl: or it may be written as :Cl –Be –Cl : : : : : : : : : :
2. Determine the central atom , and how many bonding pair/s central atom :Cl-Be-Cl: Bonding pairs; there are 2 bonding pairs
Notice that the bonding pairs of this molecules repel each other causing them to be opposite with each other forming a 1800 or straight line. the molecules of BeCl2 may be represented using the VSEPR formula AB2. You may observe that the geometric shape formed is bent. There are different models that may represent different molecules. In VSEPR model we assign letters designating the parts of molecules as formula: A= central atom B= bonding pairs U or E = lone pair or unshared electrons Using this representation. The table below shows the different models with their corresponding molecular geometry. : . the lone pair of sulphur may repel the bonding electrons of O-S bonds thereby forming a different orientation the will lessen overcrowding. let us use SO2 as example : : : O=S=O : : notice that there seem to be overcrowding in the upper region of the molecules due to the lone pairs of sulphur and oxygen as well as the O-S bonds. Formula AB2 AB3 AB4 AB5 AB6 Molecular geometry Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral Example BeCl2 BF3 CH4 PCl5 SF6 4. For molecules with lone pairs. lone pair central atom S S O O Bonding electrons O O which can be treated as single bonds . 1800 Be Cl Cl – Be – Cl Cl 3. SO2 is AB2U which means the central atom has 2 bonding pairs with one lone pair. this means that the central atom has two bonding pair. as 2 bonding pairs thus. due to this overcrowding. Thus.
Try this! Predict the molecular geometries of the following: 1.shaped Linear Square pyramidal Square Planar Example SO2 NH3 H2O SF4 ClF3 I3BrF3 XeF4 Note that in reality it is very hard to accurately predict the molecular geometry of the an atom whose central atom has several lone pairs. Formula AB2U AB3U AB2U2 AB4U AB3U2 AB2U3 AB5U AB4U2 Molecular geometry Bent Trigonal pyramidal bent Seesaw T. CHCl3 2. H3O+ . N2O 4. SnCl5 5.For molecules with lone pairs the table below may be useful to describe the formula as well as the molecular geometry of the molecule. ZnCl2 3.