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A and B structures - Cold Agglutination - IgM produced as a primary immune response (for example against an infectious agent) cross-reacts with erythrocytes of the host under cold conditions. When IgM in the blood reaches a certain concentration it binds to the erythrocyte membrane and forms agglutinates (Heier et al., 1992). These complexes may obstruct vessels. - Antoni A and Antoni B, Verocay bodies - Tryptan Blue? - rosettes, pseudorosettes, psammoma bodies - Joest-Degen inclusion bodies (Bornavirus) - von Meyenburg complexes - oncocytoma - carcinoid, carcinosarcoma - granular cell tumor - tangible body macrophage - Gamma-Gandy Body - Gemistocytic Astrocyte - Varocay Bodies - Tomacula - chilium (epidydimis)
Cyclooxygenase expression in cancer? Amyloid Types Diseases to look up - Rathke s pouch cysts/clefts - Deciduoma - Deciduosarcoma
Functions of: - intestinal-trefoil factor - trefoil factor family protein-1 - mucins 1,2,4,5AC, 5C, 6 - profiling - lactoferrin - enteric ß-defensin - MCP-1/2 - Gro-a - GRO-g - Mx proteins -
- IL-1a - IL-1B - IL-2 - IL-6 - IL-8 - IL-10 - IL-15 -
- CK5 - CK6 - CK7
basal epithelia, myoepithelium, mesothelium hyperproliferation-related keratin; squamous epithelia with high cell turnover (suprabasal); SCCs many glandular and transitional epithelia; - adenocarcinoma of lung, breast, ovary, cervix, bile duct, TCC, pancreas, oncocytoma? - absent from SCC, adenocarcinoma of colon, ovary (mucinous), hepatocytes, prostate, kidney - CK8 cuboidal and columnar epithelia - CK14 basal keratinocytes - CK16 hyperproliferation-related keratin; squamous epithelia with high cell turnover (suprabasal); SCCs - CK18 cuboidal and columnar epithelia - CK19 - CK20 - CD1a - CD1b - CD1c -
ganglion nerve bodies and fibres of the gastrointestinal myenteric plexus.CD8 co-receptor for MHC class I restricted antigen recognition.CD11a/Leukocyte Function-Associated protein (LFA1) .expression restricted to B-cells . some cases of Mycosis Fungoides.CD20 .CD16 NK cells.B cells. granulocytes1 and myeloid sarcoma. . B-cells of germinal centres and mantle zones stain strongly..CD11b (Cbi receptor) granulocytes.zinc-dependent cell membrane metalloprotein which participates in the postsecretory processing of neuropeptides5. inactivating inflammatory and vasoactive peptides7. mature monocytes and macrophages . majority of T-cells. neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The staining is characteristically membrane plus a paranuclear focus associated with the Golgi apparatus.CD45 (LCA) almost all haematolymphoid cells: T lymphocytes. It is widely distributed in kidney. Leukaemic myeloid and monocytic cells. intra-abdominal desmoplastic round cell tumour (2/2).3. the Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin's disease. CD10 is a marker for germinal centre cells and their derivative lymphomas .CD22 . macrophages. rep orts that NCAM positive carcinomas are more aggressive than NCAM negative carcinomas. mesotheliomas. with scattered cells staining in the interfollicular areas2. true histiocytic neoplasms.haemopoietic stem cell marker. not PG-M1). Using the polyclonal antibody. B lymphocytes ( in cryostat sections only). mainly T cells. suppressor and cytotoxic T cells. macrophages.CD5 Thymocytes. CD35 shows similar staining of FDCs. neutrophils (KP1. NK-like T cell lymphomas. granulocytes. granulocytes. granulocytes. not maturing erythrocytes and megakaryocytes . intra-abdominal fibromatosis (0/2) .CD28 . small intestines. but it is usually focal and weak. at a low level by NK cells .tau protein . NK cells.CD57 myelin-associated glycoprotein is present on Schwann cells. most B cell lymphomas. Lower rates of positivity are seen in ALL. Some T-cell lymphomas. About 5% of B-cell lymphomas show positivity. synovial cells (PG-M1. neurofibromas (0/2)1. .CD15 Mature granulocytes. melanomas1 . gastrointestinal stromal tumours. some cases of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia. monocytes. Some T lymphocytes show weak staining. very broad expression . . promyelocytes stain variably and normal myeloblasts are negative.transmembrane protein mediating the endocytosis of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes. Activated lymphocytes. particularly in the large cell component or associated with large cell transformation. About 50% of B cell lymphoblastic lymphomas are CD20 positive. a small subset of lymphocytes (B-1 lymphocytes) which may increase in number in auto-immune conditions. widely expressed .CD68 . . neurofilbrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease.lymphoid activation gene and is part of the nerve growth factor/TNF superfamily. some peripheral T cell lymphomas.11)(q21. T cells. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. most B cell lymphomas. Langerhans' cells and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis . Plasma cells also stain. very broad expression .axonal microtubule-associated proteins and potent promoters of tubulin assembly. osteoclasts.q23)45. sympathetic paraganglionoma (5/5). some adenocarcinomas of the stomach (weakly in 1/10). some Hodgkin's disease . true histiocytic lymphomas. neoplastic mast cells. Reacts with normal secretory epithelia but not stratified squamous epithelium.CD56 NCAM is a membrane glycoprotein homophilic cell adhesion molecule .CD163 . Bcells of marginal zone.CD30 (Ber-H2) .Reacts with normal secretory epithelia but not stratified squamous epithelium. myeloid precursors (KP1 not PG-M1). Large granular lymphocyte leukaemia . cerebellar neuroblastoma (5/5). Granulocytic sarcoma. Reed-Sternberg cells and mononuclear Hodgkin's cells. Some anaplastic large cell lymphomas. large lymphocytes.monocyte-macrophages. although downregulated in the terminal differentiation of plasma cells. some ALCL.SWC3 (CD172a) .CD74 . staining about 80% of cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma11.CAM5.CD49e (integrin a5) FMDV receptor .follicle centre lymphocytes and other B lymphocytes. interdigitating reticulum cell sarcomas.CD25 IL-2 receptor.CD21 C3d complement receptor. B cells and macrophages. Most plasma cells in the bone marrow are negative2.transmembrane protein involved in B-cell activation. some monocytoid B cell lymphoma .CD11d . originally isolated on the basis of its role in neural cell adhesion. monocytes. germinal centres and mantle zones stain2. Most adenocarcinoma . highly expressed by tissue macrophages and to a lesser extent by circulating monocytes. not KP1).expressed through B lineage development. some B cells. megakaryocytes and activated platelets .CD14 . neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach (4/6). It is expressed early in B-cell ontogeny with loss of expression in terminal B-cell differentiation. Not by: gastrointestinal leiomyomas (0/5).macrophage marker.2 . monocytic leukaemia. brain. some myelomas . NK cells. all mature B lymphocytes but not plasma cells. gonads. some T cell lymphomas. NK cell neoplasms.CD61-IIIa . tissue macrophages. The popcorn cell in nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma are usually negative for CD15. hairy cell leukaemia. Positivity in B-ALL is associated with t(4. B lymphocytes. T-cells and macrophages are reliably negative. others .CD150 (SLAM) . Almost all cases of CML are positive.CD103 . activated T cells. In the spleen. hairy cell leukaemia.CD19 . basophils. some cases of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. mast cell (PG-M1. although sometimes weakly. liver. adrenal cortex and leucocytes5. peripheral schwannoma (0/4)1. rare T-cell lymphomas2. widely expressed in adenocarcinomas and SCCs. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC). some suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. Some T cells. adult T cell ALL associated with HTLV. placenta.CD45RO (UCHL1) . rarely pulmonary adenocarcinomas . some histiocytes .CD11c monocytes.CD34 (QBEND10) . monocytes. not KP1). monocytes. choroid plexus. widely expressed . some peripheral B cell lymphomas.isoform of CD45 that is found on thymocytes and T-cells.CD51 (integrin aV) FMDV receptor .CD4 .CD10 .
It mediates cell-matrix interactions.alpha-1 antitrypsin histiocytes. parenchymal and vascular smooth muscle.nestin Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein. skeletal muscle.5 .inner mitochondrial membrane protein which inhibits apoptosis .phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ . eccrine glands. carcinoma. binding integrins and CD44.Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT-1) member of the mammalian facultative glucose transporter (GLUT) family. synovial sarcoma may be focally positive . stronger in the secretory phase. stromal and thecal cells. myoepithelial cells of salivary gland tumours.BMP2 . mesothelioma. meningioma. gastrointestinal Schwannoma.ERBB1 . endometrium. corpora lutea2 and the rete ovary. meningioma.Mart-1 . 30-80% of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes.SATB1 .antigen present in the membrane of mesothelial cells. glomus tumours.osteopontin . myofibrosarcoma of bone. Some cases of other low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma.MUM-1 .protein 4. primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Monoclonal antibodies against osteocalcin have about 70% sensitivity and almost total specificity for osteoblastic differentiation . including breast. the convoluted tubules of the kidneys. In colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. melanoma.proapoptotic tumour suppressor gene . follicle centre cell lymphoma .MITF-1 . mesothelium.lymphocyte-specific transcriptional factor. adrenal cortex. limited expression by normal tissues: erythrocytes8. the keratinising superficial layer of the pilar infundibulum.osteocalcin .SMAD6 .PNL2 antibody useful melanocytic marker . It is not expressed by brain.beta III tubulin . to which S-100 also belongs. neuroectodermal stem cells.Calretinin is a 29 kD calcium-binding protein and a member of the family to EF-hand proteins. renal tubules.epithelial membrane antigen . Overexpression seems to enhance tumour dissemination. Mesothelioma.anti-UVssDNA . paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma.secreted glycoprotein which modifies cell-extracellular matrix interactions It induces expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor and various matrix metalloproteins which are implicated in the degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. MUM1 is through to contribute to the regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression in the final step (late centrocyte) of B-cell differentiation within germinal centre light zones.Bcl10 (151) . and in melanoma.DERL1 (Derlin-1) .p63 sensitive and specific marker of myoepithelial cells . follicular cysts2. melanoma.WC1 . central and peripheral nervous system: neurones and nerve fibres.ACM1 . colorectum. reticulum cells.calponin . processes essential to tumour invasion and metastasis.NF2 . . myoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinoma of soft tissue.Calponin is a smooth muscle-specific protein which binds strongly to actin in a calcium-independent manner. heart. Leydig and Sertoli cells of testes and the epithelium of the rete testis.intraosseous protein associated with osteoblasts.protein gene product 9. osteonectin is expressed by tumour-associated stromal cells but not by tumour cells themselves. myometrial mast cells. Increased expression correlates with high stage and poor prognosis in non-small cell carcinoma of lung and other malignancies. Frequently in monocytoid B cell lymphoma. kidney or pancreas . glioma. liver.HBME-1 .SLIT2 .gadd45 .identification of neuroendocrine differentiation. Germ cells of the ovary and testis. retina. breast.Calretinin . perineurium8. bladder. head and neck.phospho-Akt .MRP2 . Neurothekeoma (nerve sheath myxoma). smooth muscle tumours. mesothelioma . Its function is thought to be to buffer intracellular calcium.Bcl2 (124) . testicular germinal cells. a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family.TERT . renal cell and lung. early skeletal muscle cells. gastrointestinal granular cell tumour . angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. osteosarcoma and MFH. overexpressed in carcinomas of lung. It is expressed by a range of carcinomas. keratinising epithelial cells of the thymus. ovarian surface epithelium. but not nodular goitre or nodular hyperplasia1 . but its specificity is low. endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier vessels and placenta (trophoblast and capillaries). . but not resting oocytes. broadly expressed .epidermal growth factor receptor . but less commonly in carcinoma . spleen.MIG6 . gliomas. reported in various malignancies including breast carcinoma. lung.c-erbB2 . adipocytes. chordoma.Oct4 Undifferentiated pluripotent cells. initiated by centrocyte-follicular dendritic cell contact . GIST. mantle cell lymphoma. follicular and papillary carcinoma of thyroid. medulloepithelioma.LTBP4 .. cardiac myxomas.osteonectin . known to play a role in the regulation of gene expression in response to interferons and other cytokines.Dolichos biflorus (DBA)-lectin Almost all cases of hairy cell leukaemia. Overexpression correlates with tumour progression and metastasis and inversely with patient survival .alpha(v)beta3 integrin adhesion molecule.LSP1 .doublecortin (DCX) .1B .p53 prognostic significance (greater expression worse prognosis) . stomach and ovary. myofibroblasts of desmoplastic stroma.
monocyte to red pulp macrophage differentiation .macrophage scavenger receptor class A .brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) . corpora lutea (3/37) and luteomas of pregnancy (7/77.red pulp and white pulp macrophages . Testicular Leydig cell tumours and Sertoli cell tumours. placental trophoblast. epithelioid sarcoma. It acts as a bridge between collagen type IV in the basement membrane and the glycosaminoglycans of the surrounding matrix. some carcinomas . ovarian granulosa cells.perforin - . 2/221).ED1/ ED2 .tropomyosin-related kinase-B (Trk-B) . Trophoblast and decidua .GATA-4 . theca interna and limited staining of theca externa.F4/80 . smooth muscle and Schwann cells: antibodies against laminin and collagen IV are useful for the identification of these lineages .HER2 .Wilms' tumor 1 suppressor gene .B cells ranging from bone marrow B cells up to. complete basement membranes form around endothelial.laminin important component of basement membranes.hCG .2 .Mac 2 .myelohistiocytic antigen .claudin-1 components of the tight junction..trypsinogen/ amylase/ chymotrypsin +.UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus I agglutinin) lectin Vascular tumours: sensitivity is high but specificity is low. but not including.somatostatin . 3/74).(INH.PAX5 . testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells. breast tissue.neurofilament markers (NR4 and 2F11) . pepsinogen .surfactant proteins C and B+ .HMWK .a-fetoprotein .) suppresses FSH secretion.cytokeratin 5. plasma cells .lysozyme .inhibin.myelin basic protein (mbp) . Uterine tumours with sex cord differentiation(1/23.NF-200 . epithelia and perineural cells .
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