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Research Practicum

Methods of Research
Prelim Period

Submitted by:
Princess Janine B. Catral

Submitted to:
Engr. Caesar P. Llapitan
Research Practicum 1

I. The Topic of Interest

Below are five topics of interest on which a research can be undergone. The first topic is

the one in which the researcher is interested in:

1. Removal of heavy metals from the soil

2. Wastewater treatment methods

3. Finding an alternative source of energy

4. Air filtration processes

5. Water pollution control

II. Removal of heavy metal from the soil

The Philippines is an agricultural country wherein most of the food that is on every

Filipino’s table comes from the land. However, the quality of the soil in which these crops are

grown has been continuously decreasing due to urbanization and industrialization. Heavy metals

have found their way into the soil thus degrading the soil’s nutrients and endangering the

consumer’s health once contaminated crops are introduced into their diets.

III. Benefits from studying the topic

The topic, once researched can raise awareness of the dangers that are brought about

when heavy metals contaminate the soil. It can be a tool for improving and developing new

methods in combating it.

Research Practicum 2

I. List of Related Researches, Journals, Books and Periodicals

1. Cortez, Leah Amor S. and Johnny A. Ching. "Heavy Metal Concentration of Dumpsite Soil
and Accumulation in Zea mays (corn) Growing in a Closed Dumpsite in Manila, Philippines."
International Journal of Environmental Science and Development (2014).

2. Dos Santos, Wilson J., Edson A. Silva and Taranto Osvaldir P. "Supercritical Fluid Extraction
from Mango (Mangifera indica L.): Experiments and Modeling." Chemical Engineering
Transactions 32 (2013).

3. Yu, Hong-quan, et al. "Extraction of Heavy Metals from Solid Material by Supercritical
Carbon Dioxide." Chem. Res. Chinese Universities (2011): 850-853.

4. Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. Chemical of the Week- Chelates & Chlorophyll. 2008


II. Abstract

Reference 1 discusses the determination of heavy metal concentration in a dumpsite in

Metro Manila, Philippines. From this alone, it can be established that there is heavy metal

contamination proliferating in an urban setting. Reference 2 tackles the supercritical fluid

extraction from mango which indicates that supercritical carbon dioxide can be derived from

organic materials. Reference 3 studies about the extraction of heavy metals from a cellulose

paper through the use of supercritical carbon dioxide and four different chelating agents. It is

discussed here that supercritical carbon dioxide cannot remove the heavy metals without the help

of a chelating agent. Since some of these chelating agents are harmful, the use of chlorophyll as a

chelating agent as stated in Reference 4 can be realized.

Research Practicum 3

I. Main Problem

The researcher aims to study the effectiveness of supercritical CO2 with chlorophyll as

the chelating agent in the removal of heavy metal from soil.

II. Specific Problems

1. What type of soil sample must be taken into account?

2. What are the heavy metals to be extracted from the soil?

3. How much of supercritical CO2 is needed?

4. How much of chlorophyll is needed?

5. What is the control variable for this study?

6. What statistical tool should be used in this study?

III. Why this Study

Supercritical CO2 has been used by several industries in extraction and adsorption

processes. Chlorophyll, as deemed by medical experts, can remove heavy metals inside the body.

Extraction of heavy metals from the soil can yet be another application based on related

applications and properties of these two substances.

IV. The Research Title

Research Title: Extraction of Heavy Metals from the Soil by Supercritical CO2 Adsorption with

Chlorophyll as Chelating Agent