control of column of distillation

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[Cecil Smith] Distillation Control an Engineering(BookSee.org)

control of column of distillation

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( :OiUlIlIh ;lIld (:tlt'lIli{ ;1 1 R e; lct()r ....

BOUrJll·IIHllllh. L"f.\. I~};-';Ii

BINARY TRAY-DISTILLATION COLUMNS

J. B. Edwards* and M. H. N. Tabrizi**

' '/)1'/1111'/1111'11/ vI COII/ro/ ElIgillenillg, Ullil'frsi/y IIf Sheffield, UK

""COII/I'O/ CI'I//rl'. L'lIil'ersit\' oI MIII/ clies/fr, il/s/i/u/e IIf

S\'.I/I'III,I

S,.il'll(l' & Tee/lIlO/og)·. UK

Abstrac t

Starting from famil iar assumptions for dynamic analysis , a transfer-fun c ti on-matrix

(T .F.M) model for long, symmetrical, binary distillation columns is derived

completely analytically. The model relates twin output composition changes to

perturbations in the internal liquid and vapour flow rates. The model is intended for

use in controller design and, being expressed in terms of plant parameters and operating

cond itions should provide useful common ground between con tr ol engineer and plant

designer . Though derived precisely for a symmetrical plant , it is expected that the

model should apply more ge nerally as a good approximation. Experimental data is given

supporting this claim. Inverse Nyquis t loci are generated in precise and approximate

form and compare favou r ably with computed step responses . They accord broadly with

previous, part - empirical, part-numerical research results. A second companion paper

is devoted to packed-co lumn analysis .

Keywords. Chemical variab l es control , Distillation, Fluid composition contr ol, Freq.~esp

~, Modelling , ttultivariab le system~,Nyquist criterion, fartial differential equations.

n12r,t ~~,r;Hi1eters

and operat i ng conditions).

The accurate calculation of transfer - function mat-

rices (THI' s) f or the composition dynamics of col - In the present papers we mode l the primary driving

umns, by completely a nalytical methods , has not forces only , i.e. those thermodynamic dri ves which

been achieved hitherto despite several decades of make the column distil rather than secondary phen-

column resear ch worldwide. TFlI ' s have been ei ther en" such as heat loss and hydrodynamics . He there-

experimen tall y or part-analytically derived. foremodel i deal co l umns bu t, having stated our

Experimental data has been used to ove rcome diffi - initial idealing assumptions, we proceed without

cult steps in the analysis so that the range of further app r oximation to generate what we believe

mode l application to vary i ng plan t s and operating are important benchmark mode l s for small- signal

conditions is l imited. It is common experience (i.e . linear) behaviour. Space restrictions allow

that dif feren t co lumn s differ enormous l y, ye t uS to inc lu de only a few intermediate results of

inexplicably, in their behaviour, especially if the straightforward but lengthy manipulations .

trials are allowed to run for the full settling- (Edwards and Tabrizi, 1986) .

time. The difficulties arise from the complexity

of the expressions which develops early in the ana- 2. SYSTEM EQUATIONS AND IDEALISATIONS

lysis of even the simplest hypothetical system

because of nonline arity, spatial distribution and 2.1 Equilibrium assump ti ons

from the two-sta ge construction of co lumns and the

associated boundary conditions. To simplify the We approximate the mixture's equilibrium curve by

equations, apparently small terms are often discar - the two s trai ght lines:

ded but this can be disasterous because their effe-

rectifier (1)

cts cannot be properly judged a pri ori. Column dyn -

am i cs are driven by small differences in large and y' = a X ' , stripping sect i on (2)

terms . Other, late, approximations may involve e

where Ye is the equi l ibrium vapour mol -fraction of

lumping of spatial variables and relaxation of

~e light component associated with a l iquid of

boundary conditions. Reasonable ag reement with

mol - fraction

experiment has been achieved on trials on one - off

X whi l st Xe ' is the equilibrium liquid mol -

plants but it can be difficult to tell whether

frac tion associated with a vapour of mol - fraction

success is due t o the quality of the analysis or

the incorporation of empirical data often derived y'. Slope parameter a is chosen such that l < ~ < B =

from the same, or similar plant to that used for the relative volatility and the lines cross on the

final mo del valida tion. -45 0 line . Such piecewise linearisation has often

been used in earlier dynamic analyses, and notably

by Wilkinson and Armstrong (1957) et al . In tray

Despite the difficulties of derivation, the need

columns it is usuall y assumed that theoretical

for paramet ri c TFX's remain for fou r main reasons:

trays ope rat e in equilibrium so tha t

(a) to test detailed column simulations (which are

fraught with numerical pitfal ls). Y(h;t) = Ye( h ;t) (3) and X\h', t ) = X~( h',t) (4)

(b) as a base for cont r o l system design.

where h ' is the distance from the top and bottom of

(c) t o check coa r se TFM models obtained theoreti -

ca ll y or by exper i ment, and the tower respectively. As in introductory texts

(d) t o allow contro l design to influence plant (Judson King, 1971) on steady- state design, each

189

190 J. B. Ec!l"ards a nd M. H. :"I. Tabrizi

librium can have important dynamic results however,

as shown in the companion paper. (11)

so that the quiescent comp osition gradients are

2.2 Heat-and mass-balances

constant, giving uniform loading throughout each

The plant variables and parameters are shown in section; a good operating condition. Furth e rmore,

Fig.l. For the heat balance, we neglect sensible for

heat changes, vapour compression and assume adiabatic

- aY/ oh ' = aX' /a h' = G constant > 0 ( 12)

operation as in introductory steady-state analyses

des i gned to yield insight rather than to generate then, nominally, V =L (~V) , V =L (13)

r 5 s r

detail. With equal latent heats per mol of the two

components theref o re,rates of evaporation and con- and vapour and liquid feeds must equate, i.e.

densation on any given tray will balance so that the F = F (~ F) (14)

vapour and liquid flow rates Vr,Vs,L r and Ls will be v t

independent of h': The well kn own cons tant-molar- yielding equa l output r~ te s, Vr - Lr.and .Ls - Vs =

overflow used by many in vestigators including F at t op and bottom. Flnally t o avold plnch effe-

Jawson (1965) Voetter (1957) Rosenbrock (1966), cts, the feed mixture should be in equilibrium as

Friedly (1974), Edwards (1977) . In common with regards both sections, i.e. satisfy Eq. (1) and (2)

others, we neglect vapour capacitance in comparison so that vapour and liquid feed compositions z and

to the molar liquid capacitances H£o h and Hioh of Z should be:

each rectifier and stripping section tray. The mass

z = a /(l +o)and Z = 1/(1+ 0) (15)

balance for the li ghter component . on a typical tray

therefore yields a simple differential equation in- Solution is thus confined to a range of spe cial

volving finite differences w.r.t h", to which Taylor's cases but this is not unduly restrictive as it is

theorem may be applied assuming a large number of a range of ideals for whi ch pra c tic a l desi gn should

trays at small spacing oh. This, and eliminating strive. Even tray-loading is but one attribute of

X(h' ,t) in favour of Y(h' ,t ) using Eq. 1 gives the this special- case range and is a condition which

partial differential equation (pde) has often been assumed implicitly in other column

studies, both dynamic and steady-state .

a(H t Y) ay

~ ~

oh+! (aLr+V r )

oh= -( a Lr-V r ) 2.5 Normalisation

2

a y (O h/ (5) Inserting the forego in g operating conditions in

( ah' )2 pde's (7) and (8) and normalising by setting

whi lst f or the stripping section we deduce: h = h' / oh , T = t /T (16)

n

a(H ' x' ) ax' where base time T is the time for liquid to tr a vel

_ £_ - oh (L - a V ) ~ oh+I(Ls+ aV ) base- distance oh ~.e.

at s s s

2 T aH oh / V = Ht oh / L ( 17)

a x' 2 ( oh) 2 (6)

n t r

we obtain the greatly simplified forms

(ah' )

2 2

ay/h a Y/a h - (G / V) (v - af) (18)

Criteria for the implied long column assumption (i.e.

2 2

trunkating at Sh 2 are investigated in Section 4. and ax'/ a, a x'/ ah + (G / V) (£- ov) (19)

2.3 Linearisation for small perturbations Their solution requires knowledge of inputs vC,)

and £(,) and also stead y- state composition gradient

Linearisation of non linear pde's (5) and (6) is

G (see Section 2.7) and the process boundary

essential at the outset for T.F.M ' s derivation.

conditions considered next.

Linearisation about the steady-state , for constant

Ht and H£ ' produces the following p.d.e's relating

2.6 Boundary conditions (large -si gnal)

small variations y and x' in Y and X' to small per-

turbati ons v and £ in vapour and retlux rates viz: 2.6 .1 Accumulator and reboiler. Denoting accumul-

2 ator and r ebo il e r mol-fractions by Y(o), and X(o)

a a a v

aH -l oh = - (aL -v ) -Z,

oh+l ( aL +V ) ~ and Y'(o), X'( o) respectively mass balances on

t at r r ah r r ( ah ') 2 2 these vessels may be written:

ay /Y 2 ( ch)

~ oh (a t -v) + I - - 2 ( oh) (a£+v) (7) a{ H Y(o)} ay IO h

(O h' ) o :t = V {c - EY(O) + ---, } (20)

r ah h'=o

, ,

H' o X

ox' !( 02 ",

t ~h=(Ls -aV s ) ~ oh+ Ls+aV s ) ( ah,)2 and a\lL .X' (o) } I

b L {- X'(o) c+ ~ oh} (21)

2 at s ah h'=o

ax '

+ -dh' oh U - av) +1

a x' 2

( oh) ( t +av) ( 8)

~2 if E = a'-l (22)

and if v and t are kept sufficiently small, steady- normaising to: aI TaY(O) } aYI (23)

s tate values may be substituted for all the capital =E( l-Y (o ) }+-

a, oh h=o

variables in (7) and (8) thus yielding linear rel-

ationships between y,x' and v, t . a {TbX' (o) }

- EX' (0) +~I

ah h=o

(24)

cons train ts

where Ta = Ha / H£O h and Tb = Hb / H6h

Solution of pde's (7) and (8) is practical only if

they and their boundary condi tions are rendered Ha and Hb being t~e molar capacitances of the acc-

symmetrical by appropriate choice of plant para- umulator and r eboller.

meters and quiescent operating condit ions. \~e ther-

2.6.2 Feed-trays. A mass balance on the rectifier

efore make L' and oh the same for the rectifier and

stripping section and set feed tray yields

Y'(L ) - V Y(L)-L ~ IOh (26)

oh = F z+V

Now if, nominally, aLr = Vr and aVs =L s (10)

at s r r ah' h'=L'

then, from (5) and (6), steady state compositions on applying a first - orde r Taylor expansion and from

Binary Tray-Distillation Columns 191

Eq. (10), (13) and (14) we deduce that Eqs. (32) - (36). Their symmetry allows the ready

diagonalisation of the system if we adopt the out-

F ~ E V (27)

put and input vectors:

so that substituting for F and z in (26) gives,

)l(h,C) - x' (h, c)] (37) and

after normalisation q(h, , )

[ y(h,c) + x' (h,,)

~(L) _2_ + x' (L)+ \l-Y(L) }- -aY\

(28)

a, Cl+l h=L oh rv(,) + £(,)l

tiC ,) = Q (3B)

and, similar treatment of the stripping section's - V lv(,) £ (,)J

feed tray yields

Lapla~e transforming the pde's in s w.r.t. h and in

,.z,~. :JL)= _2__ X' (L)- {l-Y(L)} + oX' \ (29) p w.r.t. , gives

h Cl+1 ar;- h=L

justifying symmetry.

where q(s,p) is the double transform of q(h,,),

Subject to boundary Eqs. (23), (24), (28) and (29) .q(o) is tne transform of q(o,,) w.r.t. ,~~ that of

and setting 0 / 0' = 0, the large signal steady state u',) and q(o) that of oq/3h at h = o. The-end

Eqs. (11) may be readily solved to produce the sol- vessel conditions (32) and (33) yield, if Ta=Tb=T,:

ution for Y(h) and X' (h) from which we note the

constant value of slope; T p 3,(0) (40)

G = 2 E/ { ( Cl+l) (2£L+Cl +l) }

and the fact that X' (h) = 1 - Y(h)

(30)

(31)

~

so: (s 2 -p)~ - (s+ E -Tp)~(o)+ s-l [OE 0]-

-(0+1)

~=0(4l)

The results are necessary for substitution in the and inversion back to the h,p domain, and setting

solution to our linearised small-signal model (lB) h L therefore yields

and (19) but have a strong practical appeal in them-

selves . The constancy of G, leading to even tray ilL) - Ql(L)i(o) - Q2(L)~ = 0 (42)

loading, has already been anticipated and discussed where Ql(L) = {ipcosh/p L + (E+Tp)sinh 'pL}!/lp(43)

but equation (31) represents another important att-

ribute of the special case we have adopted. It

indicates that, from a 50/50 mixture of components an d Q2 (L) =

cosh/p L-I

-"-"-::":":"p-'--"-'::'

- E 0l (44)

(z + Z = 1.0), a symmetrical plant and operating [ o a+lJ

regime produces top and bottom products that are Now the feed Eqs. (36) and (37) may be expressed:

equally pure, nominally. In cases where the feed

o

composition were richer (weaker) then, to avoid

pinch effects, this would be entered nearer to the

+ -

oh i(h) Ih=L = ~i!. (45)

accumulator (reboiler) so approaching a single-

stage situation, capable of easier analysis (e.g.

Armstrong and Wood (1961». ~ereQ3 = ~P+2

o

'J

,p

Q = [0.5E

and ~

0 -0.5(30+.1)

(46) 0J

2.B Small signal boundary conditions. allowing unknown q(L) tobe eliminated between (42)

and (45) giving

These are derived from the large signal boundary

equations (20), (21) and (26) (and a similar equa- ~(o) = Q(o,p)~ (47)

tion for the stripper feed tray) and the assumed G(o,p) relating and compositions to flow rates

(symmetrical) operating conditions. For the acc-

umulator for instance we get, on implicit different-

iation:

"::::,:i:t:;:: :;~ [~-QJQ2 _:~211J -2

h=L

(4B)

a 0 t oh h' =0 r oh h' =0 The matrices of Eq. (4Y) are all diagonal so that

0J

~o

the first-term of the R.H.S. being zero in steady ll(O'P)

state so that normalising we get simply Q(o,p) = (49)

g22(o,P)

T oy(o) = _ EY(O) + Oy\ (32) and knowing Ql ... Q4' we quickly obtain expressions

a o't oh 11=0 for the,transfer fu~ctions gll(o,P) and g22(o,P),

these beIng, respectIvely:

whilst for the stripping section we obtain

h ' (0) _ d (p+2) (cosh/pL-l) /p+(sinh/pL) IIp+0.5} (50)

Tb -0-,-- = - EX' (0)+ OX'

oh

Ih=o (33) {(1+T)p+2+E}cosh/pL+{(p+2) (E+Tp)+p)(sinh/pL)/lp

(0+1) (cosh/p L-l)+(a+l) (sinh/pL)llp+0.5(30+l)

From feed tray Eq. (26) and noting, from the steady (51)

state solution, that: (p(l+T) + EJcosh/p L + Ip(l + E + Tp)sinh/p L

Y' (L) - yeLl = -G(cx+l)/2 (34) the limiting values for p = 0 are:

2

we deduce gll(o,o) = E(L + L + 0.5)/(2EL+o+ 1) (52 )

- - - v + Cl£) - ~I

~2'(L) _ G (- ( Cl+1)

+x' (L)-y(L) (35) and g22(o,o) = -{(o+l)L + 0.5(30 +l)}/E (53)

dT V 2 oh h=L

r

4. PREDICTION OF COLUMN BEHAVIOUR

Similarly, the stripper feed equation is found to

be: A completely analytic T.F.I!. model relating the

~(L) behaviour of y(6,,), x' (0,,) to V(T), q,) has thus

-G {- a v+ - - 1. }- -OX'I

( a+l) +y(L)-x' (L) (36) been derived in terms of normalised complex fre-

dT Vr 2 oh h=L

quency p and normalised column length L, both read-

ily converted to real frequency p' and real length

3. SOLVING FOR THE T. F.11. L' by the formulae

The small signal behaviour of the column given the

flow disturbances v(t), l et) is now completely spe- p' = P L/(H£ oh) (54) and L' Loh (54)

cified by p.d.e's (lB) and (19) and boundary

J. B, Ech,'ards and ~1. H, :\, Tahrizi

The real time constant T' of the end vessels is ob - 4.2 Effect of terminal capacitance

tainable from its normalised value thus:

Since T drops out of the high- frequency analysis

(55) above it follows that only the final portion of the

step - response is influenced by changes in T. This

In terms of y,x , v and ~ , the model may be expressed:

is indeed confirmed by the simulation result of

ry(o,p) - x' (o,pll -Jg ll (o,p) 0JrV(Pl+£(pn Fig.5 fo r E = 0.1, L = 10 with T = 1 , 20 and 50 .

~(o,P)+~ ' (O'P)J =C Vr lo g22(o,P) l;:;(p) -~ (pJ 5. APPROXIMATE ~ruLTIVARIABLE FIRST - ORDER LAC MODEL

(56) One of the motiva t ions for deriving C(o,p) has been

where composition gradient C readily obta~ned from to validate simpler models. Because-the system is

a and L via Eq. (30) . Some aspects of dynamic be - class - O and tends to an integrating process the

haviour are now obvious whilst others require an multivariable first - order lag approximant, CA(O,P)

examination of the formu l ae for gll and g22. Of of Owens (1975) would seem to be applicable-where

the former, we note that, over the entire frequency -1

range, composition - tilt, y(h,T) - X'(h,T) is driven ~A (o,p) = ~l + ~ P (63 )

noninteractively by average circulating flow {v (T) - 1

+ ~ (T) }/2 whilst composition - total y(h,T) + x' (h, T) where ~l = Lim ~ Lim {p- lC-l(o,p)}

' (o,p) and ~

is driven purely by take off rate VeT) - ~ (T). We p-+o Ip I-+<» -

note also that the tilt gain gll(O ,0) is positive l

Here we should strictly replace Ip l-+<» by L- «

whilst g22 0 ,o)is negative and that for low- relative

IpO.s l « 1.0 but the approximant should still app -

volatility mixtures (E « 1.0) requiring long col-

ly for controller design provided excessive gains

umns (L »l.O - see steady state solution), then

are avoided. Now ~l and ~ are readily derived

Igll(o,o) 1«lg22(o,o) I· These findings accord well

analytically. ~l merely involves solution of the

with simulation experience (Rosenbrock, 1966).

small - signal spatial differential equations obtai -

Rademaker ' s deductions (1975) and Shinskey ' s empi -

ned by setting a / aT = 0 in (18) and (19) yielding

rical data (1963) . They, reported that separation

s~tic gain formulae (5 2 ) and (5~) directly. ~ can

is influenced predominantly by Ve T) but our conclu -

be estimated even more simply f rom (18) and (19) by

sions are in close accordance for low- relative

ignoring after transformation all but the p- depend -

volatiles where large reflux ratios are needed , so

ent coefficients of the dependent variables giving

allowing I(v + n l » Iv - £ 1.

I-E, 01 ~, r -1 ~

4.1 Inverse Nyquis t Loci - 1£ ,

Typical loci of gli(O,j w) and g2~(o,j w ) computed

- p -'l -

lo , a +1J

A

--Q

- lo -1 1

- ( a +1) ~

(64)

a = 1.1 ( E = 0.1), L = 10, T = 1 . 0 (corresponding T~I verti c al loci thus obtained for the elements

to a separation 2 CL = 0.46). Their near - vertical gAll(o,j w) and gA~2(o,j w ) of CA1(o,j w) are shown

nature over a wide range of w , predicts a nearly alongside the corresponding elements of C- l(o,j ", )

exponential step response as confirmed by the sim- in Figs, 2 and 3. The agreement is clearly ade -

ulation results of Fig.4. The observed static gains quate over the very wide frequency range considered.

(= 2 . 6 and - 225.0) and time constants (= 25 and ~is is not so with packed columns:). It is inter-

140) accord closely with those predicted by the esting that ~o unlike ~l has not required use of

loci (i.e . gains of 0.37 - 1 and - 0.0048 - 1 and time the boundary conditions for its approximate deter -

constants of 0 . 04 - 1 and 0.0077 - 1 ). The broadly mination above. This indicates that boundary cond-

first - order lag nature of the responses, may be de - itions affect only the low frequency behaviour of

duced analytically from Eqs. (50) and (52) however, the system, in accordance with our observations and

without recourse to precise computation by examin - deductions concerning the effect of terminal c apac -

ation of the expressions for gl l and g22 at large itance in Sect i on 4 . 2.

p: Considering the band

Controllers designed on the basis of the m.v. Ist -

1.0 » l p O.51» l/L (57) order lag derived from simulated asymmetric, tray-

column step responses have been successfully tested

which is (a wide band for long columns), only the

in simulation by Edwards and Owens (1977) for gains

lowest powers of p outside the hyperbolic functions

which increase the speed of response by up to five

need be retained so t hat

or six times .

gll (o,p) -+E {2/p + 1/vp }/{2 + E + 2E//p} (58)

6. CORRELATION WITH PILOT PL~~T DATA

and g22 (0 ,p)-+-( a +l) (l+l//p) /{p(l+T)+E+/p(l +s+Tp) }

(59)

Although the paper is intended prima r ily as a theo-

Now for mix t ures of low S (E « 1.0 and requiri -

retical contribution, some comparison with earlier

ng L »1.0) therefore: experimental data has been possible. Step- tests

-1

gll(o,P) carried out on the 7m, 15 kw, 12-tray, water - etha-

(60) nol pilot column at Sheffield produced the compo -

-1

and g22(o,P) - ap/(l+a) sition changes, shown in Fig . 6, measured on trays 1

and 10 with a liquid feed F = 8.8 mole/min @ Z =

The system therefore tends to integrate over a wide

0 . 16 into tray 6 . The vapour rate changes from 5.0

range of frequency as observed, though its behav -

to 8.0 mole/min at a constant reflux ratio of 2:1

iour does bec ome more complicated at highe r frequ -

making v = 3.0 and 1 = 2.0. Steady- state output

encies. The band considered is wi de since in the

compositions of 0.52 and 0.08 yield an average for

region, L-l« wO. 5 « 1.0

2CL of 0.44 and hence C = 0.0367. from which an

-1 -1 effective value of E = 1.88 (a=2.88) is obtained

Ig (o,j <.; ) I :: ", 1£ and Ig (o , j w) I :: w/2 (61)

ll 22 via Eq. (30). (This suggests an effective relative

and these values are large compared to the static volatility of about 4.0 which produces an ideal

inverse gains equilibriumcurve coarsely approximating the true

ethanol/wat er curve). ~ow for v = 3, ; = 2 we

-1 - -1 -

Igll(o,o)1 - 2/L and Ig (o,o) 1 - E/2L (62) deduce from our linearised model that

22

The near first-order lag nature of the systems

responses is thus predicted quanti t ively , for any y = {- l g22 1+5 Ig11 1}G/2V and x'= ! - l g22 1- 5 jgll ' }C/2V

long column without computation. The predicti~ and calculating the steady - state gains from (52)

accords qualitatively with pcevious experience. and (53), therefore predicts y = zero (the g22 and

gll contributi ons nearly cancelling one another) No , 2 , p. 177 .

and x = - 0.069: in remarkabl y c lose accordance with llc~lorran , P. D. (1971) ' Application of the inverse

the measu red change . ~yquist method t o a distillation column model',

Proc . of 4th [ .K. A.C . Contro l Conven t i on p.122.

The pilot column has l a r ge t ermin a l capac it ances of

Dwens , D.H. (lY75) Firs t and second - order- lik e

some 330 moles yielding a non - normalised value for

s tru ctures in linear multivariable con trol

T' = 62 mins. ~ow whe re end - capaci t ances dominate

system desisn, Proc. l.E.E., 122, (9),

it is readil y shown f r om (50) and (51) that

pp. 935 - 94l.

EL Rademaker, 0 . , Rijnsdorp , J.E. and Maarleveld , A.

Lim {p hl (o,p» ) 2T an d Lim {p g2?(o , P) ' (197 5) ' Dynam i cs a nd control of contin uous

-1 -- 1 -1 - 1-

L » p»T L » p»T dist i lla ti on units ' , Elsevier, Ams terdam.

Rosenb r ock , H.H. and St orey , C. (1966) ' Compu t at -

i onal te chniques for chemical en gineers,

Pe r gammon , Lond on .

Shi n skey , F . G. ( 19 67) Pro cess con tr o l systems (~e w

and f rom this latter formula and th e static ga in

York: McGraw- Hil l).

g22(o , o) , a time con stant of 42 min is predicted

St ai nth orp , F . P . and Searson, H.M . (1973) Trans.

for the x' response . The predicted near - exponen -

Inst . Chem. Eng r s. 51 , 42 .

tial response for x' shown in Fi g . 6 i s clear l y most

Voette r, H. (1Y57) ' Plant and process dynami c

encou r aging as is the ve r y smal l devia ti on of the

charac teri sti c s '. But terwor th s , London.

y- trace, in accord wi th pred i ct i on . The transient

Wilkinson , W. L. and Arms tr ong , W.D. (1957) Chem.

in iti a l reversal of this tra ce i s not unreasonable

Eng. , Sci . , 7(1/2) .

since , in the near coun ter-b a l ance situation bet -

ween the ffects of gl l and g22 ' it is quite poss -

ib l e , with slight parameter- change , fo r the high -

Fi g .l. The comp let e s ys tem

frequency re sponse t o differ in sign t o that of

th e ultimate response.

A TFM model rel a tin g output compos ition chan ges y Accumulator

and x ' to chan ges v and Z in vapour and liquid

flow - rate has been found analytically. It s para-

V - L

meters are derived-functions of plant parameters r r

and opera tin g conditions . Wh il st its purpose is Top

Product

con tr o ller design, it should al l ow dial ogue between

con tr ol engineer and plant designer at an ea rl y Y(6h , t)

s t age in a project. Our assumptions are those fre - h'=o

quent l y made in dynamics studies , (usually implici-

tl y) . These a r e : a piecewise - lin ear equilibrium

curve , spatially independent flow rat es , cons t ant

tray l oadin g and holdup , zero vapou r capacitance ,

tray e quil i brium and symme tr y . The model shou l d

Y(h' , t)

Rectifier

X(h' , t)

I

l'

h'

approxi mation, t o well - desi gned and non-symmetrical

plants . The TFMb e tween [y - x ' , y+x '] and [v+£ ,

v - ~J i s diagonal and the indi vidu a l trans fer - fu n ct -

Y\L ' , t) X(L ' , t )

1

F , Z

ions predict near-first - order lag behaviour and a v

rapid method for dete rmin in g such approx i mants has

bee n demon s tr ated . These findings accord with Feed (vapour and h'=L '

earl i e r, part empirical, r esearch. More complex liquid)

y' (L ' ,t) x' ,L ', t)

behaviour at very high frequency i s , however, pr e -

dicted and a compan i on paper on packed columns

n

s hows t ha t first - orde r lag behaviour is not always

a safe assumption . Terminal ca pa ci t ance is proved

to a ffec t only the low- frequency end of th e system ' s

f r equency r esponse . :Iany more predictions could be ~ L'

basis.

f 6h .1 t

h

,

s

X~h ' =O

8. REFEREKCES y ' (0 . t)

duc t i on t o the the o r e ti cal evalua ti on of the product

frequency re sponse of a di st i lla ti on column to

a change in r eflux fl ow rate ' , Trans . lnstn. L -v

s s

Chem. Engrs. , Vo1.39 pp. 80- 85. - - --- -

Reboi ler

Edwa rds, J.B. and Jassim, H . J . (1977) 'An analy ti -

ca l study of th e dynamics of binary distilla-

ti on col umns ' , Trans . Inst . Chem . Engrs . , 1977,

55 , pp. 17 - 29 .

Edwards, J .B. and Dwens D.H. (1977) First-order

type models for multivariable process control,

Proc. LE.E., 124 , (11) , pp . 1)83 - 1088.

Jawson, M.A. and Smith. W. (1965) Counter curren t

transfer processes in non - steady state, Proc.

~oya l Soc., (London) , A225 , p . 226. ---

Judson King, C. (1971) ' Separation Pr ocesses '

McGraw Hill, New York.

Kim, C. and Friedly , J.C . (1976) ' App r ox i ma t e

dynamic modelling of large stage d systems', Ind.

Eng . , Chem . , Pro ce ss Des. Develop. , Vol. 13,

194 J B. Edwards and M. H . \I . Tabrizi

Fig.2. Accurate and 1st-order lag loci for Fig.4 Unit step responses

gJl-l (o,ju)

Im

10j r

I

I

w = 0.91

Accurate

8u

8

\ (o,p)

- 50

I

I

- .... ... 1st Order la g

!!'w = 0.2

11

L - 10, T '" 1

-100

8j 1 0.72 Im

I -1 50

I 8

22

(O,P)

I 0 •• ) 0 , 039

\

6j

0 .5 4 8

22

0.5

E

240

4j

0.36

2j

r-

:0/ I

-,

I

0.2 0.' Re

S\l

1

0 I

L _ _ -, 4

2.·0

-l( .)

£22 O,Jw

L • 10

Im

-0.01

o 400 800 1200 1600

Re

Y(tray 10)

w = 0.01 O.Olj

I 0.525

1

0.032 I 0.02j 0 . 520

I

+ 0 . 515

I KEY

0.03)

1 measured

I y

- predicted

step applied

X'ltra /

I

L .04j

0.080

I ,

0.085 0.05j

0.010 --------

50 loo , 200

t (min)

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