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Critical Thinking Questions intense light.

7. (d) The instantaneous values of emf and current in

V 100

1. (a) For dc, R 100 inductive circuit are given by E E 0 sint

i 1

V 100

For ac, Z 200 and i i0 sin t respectively.

i 0.5 2

Z R 2 (L)2

So, Pinst Ei E 0 sint i0 sin t

2

200 (100)2 4 2 (50)2 L2

L 0.55 H

E 0i0 sint sint cos cost sin

2 2

E0 i0 R

2. (c) P E rmsirms cos

2 2 Z E 0i0 sint cost

E0 E0 R E 02 R 1

E 0i0 sin2t

Z

P 2

2 Z 2 2Z 2

(sin2t 2 sint cost)

E 02

Given X L R so, Z 2R P Hence, angular frequency of instantaneous

4R power is 2 .

P 60 8. (b)

3. (a) Current through the bulb i 6A

V 10 V 50 2 sin100t cos100t 50sin200t

60W,

10V L

i V0 50Volts and 100Hz

10 V VL 9. (b) In RC series circuit voltage across the

i

capacitor leads the voltage across the

100V, 50Hz resistance by

2

V VR2 VL2

10. (d) The voltage VL and VC are equal and

(100)2 (10)2 VL2 VL 99.5 Volt opposite so voltmeter reading will be zero.

Also VL iX L i (2L)

So i 2 2

R

30

8A

L 0.052 H R (X L X C )

V 60sin200t

Since VL VC hence V VR 200 V

Vmax 60V and 100Hz

5. (c) V 2 VR2 (VL VC )2 VR V 220 V

12. (d) Z (R)2 (X L X C )2 ;

220

Also i 2.2 A

100

6. (a) When a bulb and a capacitor are connected in R 10, X L L 2000 5 103 10

series to an ac source, then on increasing the

frequency the current in the circuit is

increased, because the impedance of the 1 1

XC 10 i.e. Z 10

C 2000 50 106

97 Alternating Current

V0 20 Vrms

Maximum current i0 2A irms

Z 10 1

2

......(i)

R2

2 C

Hence irms 1.4 A

2 irms Vrms Vrms

2 2 9

and Vrms 4 1.41 5.64 V R2

Also 1 2C 2

2

R

13. (a) Capacitance of wire

C

3

C 0.014 106 200 2.8 106 F 2.8F ......(ii)

From equation (i) and (ii) we get

For impedance of the circuit to be minimum

1

1

X L X C 2L 5 3 XC 3

2C 3R2 2 2 C R 5

C R 5

X L XC X X

1 1 18. (d) tan tan60o L C

L R R R R

4 2 2C 4(3.14)2 (5 103)2 2.8 10 6

X L XC 3R

0.35 103 H 0.35mH

i.e. Z R 2 (X L X C )2 R

2 4 4

i dt 2 (4t)dt 42 t dt

14. (c) i2 V2 200 200

4

2 So average power P =

dt 2 dt R 100

400 W

4

t2

2 t 2 4

2 12

19. (b) R

P

240

15

2 2 2

irms 16

irms i2 12 2 3 A V 100

Z 25

x0 i 4

15. (b) 1. rms value =

2 Now X L Z2 R 2 (25)2 (15)2 20

2. 20 1

2L 20 L Hz

x0 x 2 50 5

x0 sint cost sin2t rmsvalue 0

2 2 2 20. (b) X L R, X C R / 2

3.

R

R

X XC 2 1

x x

2 2

tan L

x0 sint x0 cost rmsvalue 0 0 R R 2

2 2

tan1(1 / 2)

x02 x0

R2 5

16. (c) Given X L X C 5, this is the condition of

Also Z R 2 (X L X C )2 R2 R

4 2

resonance. So VL VC , so net voltage across 21. (d) At resonance net voltage across L and C is

L and C combination will be zero. zero.

17. (a) At angular frequency , the current in RC 90 90

circuit is given by 22. (c) iL 3 A, iC 4.5 A

30 20

Alternating Current 98

Net current through circuit and for fr to , Z increases. This is justified by

i iC iL 1.5 A graph c.

2. (b) At t = 0, phase of the voltage is zero, while

V 90

Z 60

i 1.5 phase of the current is i.e., voltage leads

2

1 T 2 T2

23. (c) irms 0 i dt

T 5 by

2

24. (a) Yes, in AC if branch AB has R, BC has a

capacitor C, and BD has a pure inductance L 3. (c) At A : X C X L

C

At B : X C X L

15 A

At C : X C X L

10 A B

A

4. (c) IL lags behind IR by a phase of , while IC

5A 2

D

leads by a phase of .

25. (d) Current will be maximum in the condition of 2

V V 5. (d) As explained in solution (1) for frequency

resonance so imax A

R 10 0 fr , Z decreases hence (i V / Z),

1 2 increases and for frequency fr , Z

Energy stored in the coil WL Li max

2 increases hence i decrees.

2

1 E 1

L (a) Vrms

T 2

2 10 6.

T

0 10 dt 10 V

1 E2 1 1

10 3 10 5 E 2 joule 7. (b) For capacitive circuits X C

2 C

100 2

i

V

VC i

1 1 XC

WC CE 2 2 106 E 2 106 E 2 joule

2 2 T /2

WC 1 8. (c) I av

0

i dt

T /2

t)dt

I0 sin(

T /2 0

WL 5 0

dt T /2

T /2

Graphical Questions 2I 0 cos t

2 T

0

1

1. (c) Z R 2 2fL

2 fC

T

cos

From above equation at f = 0 z 2I0 2 cos0o

T

1

f

When (resonant frequency)

2 LC

2I0

Z R [ cos cos0o ]

T

1

For f Z starts increasing. 2I 0 2I

2 LC [1 1] 0

2

i.e., for frequency 0 – fr, Z decreases

9. (b) (1) For time interval 0 < t < T/2

99 Alternating Current

I kt, where k is the slope 16. (b) For anti-resonant circuit current is minimum at

resonant frequency and at frequencies other

For inductor as we know, induced voltage than resonant frequency current rises with

frequency.

di

V L 1

dt 17. (c) We have X C and X L L 2f

C 2f

V1 KL

1

18. (d) Reactance X X L X C 2fL

T 2fC

(2) For time interval t T

2

1 1 1

19. (b) X C i.e. X C

I Kt V2 KL C 2fC f

10. (a) As the current i leads the voltage by , it is an

4

1. (a) At resonant frequency, X L X C Z R

X

RC circuit, hence tan C (minimum) there for current in the circuit is

R maximum.

tan lags behind the emf., by phase of /2,

4 CR

inductive reactance, X L L .2 f.L, so

CR 1 as = 100 rad/sec when frequency increases correspondingly

inductive reactance also increases.

1 3. (a) The capacitive reactance of capacitor is given

CR sec1 .

100 by

From all the given options only option (a) is 1 1

correct. XC

C 2fC

11. (b) From the graph shown below. It is clear that

So this is infinite for dc (f = 0) and has a very

phase lead of N over M is . Since time small value for ac. Therefore a capacitor

2

period (i.e. taken to complete one cycle) = 0.4 blocks dc.

sec.

4. (b) The phase angle for the LCR circuit is given by

1

Hence frequency 2.5 Hz X L XC L 1 / C

T tan

R R

M N

/2 Where XL, XC are inductive reactance and

capacitive reactance respectively when XL >

XC then tan is positive i.e. is positive

(between 0 and /2). Hence emf leads the

12. (d) In purely inductive circuit voltage leads the

current.

current by 90o.

5. (a) If resistor is used in controlling ac supply,

1 1

13. (c) X L 2fL X L f electrical energy will be wasted in the form of

XL f heat energy across the resistance wire.

1 However, ac supply can be controlled with

i.e., graph between and f will be a choke without any wastage of energy. This is

XL

because, power factor (cos) for resistance is

hyperbola.

unity and is zero for an inductance. [P = EI

14. (c) From phasor diagram it is clear that current is cos].

lagging with respect to Erms. This may be

happen in LCR or LR circuit. 6. (a) When frequency of alternating current is

15. (c) At resonance X L X C increased, the effective resistance of the

inductive coil increases. Current

(X L L 2fL) in the circuit containing

Alternating Current 100

inductor is given by I . As angle. In case of circuit containing resistance

XL 2fL

only, phase angle is zero and power factor is

inductive resistance of the inductor increases,

equal to one. Therefore power is maximum in

current in the circuit decreases.

case of circuit containing resistor only.

7. (e) On introducing soft iron core, the bulb will glow

dimmer. This is because on introducing soft 1

14. (a) Capacitive reactance XC . When

iron core in the solenoid, its inductance L C

increases, the inductive reactance, X L L capacitance (C) increases, the capacitive

increases and hence the current through the reactance decreases. Due to decrease in its

bulb decreases. values, the current in the circuit will increases

E

produces magnetic field. But the magnitude I and hence brightness of

R2 XC2

and direction of the field goes on changing

continuously with time. source (or electric lamp) will also increases.

9. (c) Both ac and dc produce heat, which is 15. (b) As both the inductance and resistance are

proportional to square of the current. The joined in series, V

L

reversal of direction of current in ac is hence current

immaterial so far as production of heat is through both will be V

concerned. same. But in case of

10. (a) The effect of ac on the body depends largely resistance, both the

current and potential I

on the frequency. Low frequency currents of 50 VR

to 60 Hz (cycles/sec), which are commonly vary simultaneously,

used, are usually more dangerous than high hence they are in same phase. In case of an

frequency currents and are 3 to 5 times more inductance when current is zero, potential

dangerous than dc of same voltage and difference across it is maximum and when

amperage (current). The usual frequency of 50 current reaches maximum (at t = /2),

cps (or 60 cps) is extremely dangerous as it potential difference across it becomes zero i.e.

corresponds to the fibrillation frequency of the potential difference leads the current by /2 or

myocardium. This results in ventricular current lags behind the potential difference by

fibrillation and instant death. /2, Phase angle in case of LR circuit is given

as tan .

(or emf) during a half, cycle is given by R

Im 0.636I0 (or Em 0.636E0)

16. (b) We can use a capacitor of suitable capacitance

During the next half cycle, the mean value of as a chock coil, because average power

ac will be equal in magnitude but opposite in consumed per cycle in an ideal capacitor is

zero. Therefore, like a choke coil, a condenser

direction.

can reduce ac without power dissipation.

For this reason the average value of ac over a

complete cycle is always zero. So the average

value is always defined over a half cycle of ac.

heating effect of the electric current. Since heat

produced varies as square of current

(H I 2R) . Therefore the division marked on

the scale of ac ammeter are not equally spaced.

P EI cos

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