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# CHAPTER 19 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

## Exercise 108, Page 307

1. A differential amplifier has an open-loop voltage gain of 150 when the input signals are 3.55 V

## From equation (1), output voltage, V o = A o (V 2 - V 1 ) = 150(3.55 – 3.40)

= (150)(0.15) = 22.5 V

2. Calculate the differential voltage gain of an op amp that has a common-mode gain of 6.0 and a

CMRR of 80 dB

## �differential voltage gain �

20 log10 � dB

� common mod e gain �
CMRR =

## �diferential voltage gain �

20 log10 � �
i.e. 80 = � 6.0 �

## 80 �differential voltage gain �

= log10 � �
from which, 20 � 6.0 �

80
differential voltage gain
10 20 =
Hence, 6.0

## differential voltage gain = 6.0 ( )

4
10 4
and = 6 �10

3. A differential amplifier has an open-loop voltage gain of 150 and a common input signal of

4.0 V to both terminals. An output signal of 15 mV results. Determine the common-mode gain

## and the CMRR.

Vo 15 �10-3
A com = =
Common-mode gain, Vcom 4.0 = 0.00375 or 3.75 �10 -3

## © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 245

�differential voltage gain �
20 log10 � dB

CMRR = � common mod e gain �

� 150 �
20 log10 � dB = 20 log10 40000

= �0.00375 � = 92.04 dB

4. In the inverting amplifier of shown below, R i = 1.5 k and R f = 2.5 k. Determine the output

voltage when the input voltage is: (a) + 0.6 V (b) - 0.9 V

�-R f �
� � Vi
� Ri �
From equation (5), V =
o

�-2500 �
� �
(a) When V i = + 0.4 V, V o = �1500 �(+ 0.6) = - 1.0 V
�-2500 �
� �
(b) When V i = - 1.2 V, V o = �1500 �(- 0.9) = + 1.5 V

5. The op amp shown below has an input bias current of 90 nA at 20C. Calculate (a) the voltage

gain, and (b) the output offset voltage due to the input bias current.

Rf 1.2 �106
- =-
(a) Voltage gain, A = Ri 15 �103 = - 80

## © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 246

�R R � � 15 �103 �1.2 �10 6 �
Vos = I B � i f �= ( 90 �10 -9
) � �
�( 15 �103 ) + ( 1.2 �106 ) �
�R i + R f � � �
(b) Offset voltage,

( 90 �10 ) ( 18 �10 )
-9 9

= 1215000 = 1.33 mV

6. Determine (a) the value of the feedback resistor, and (b) the frequency for an inverting amplifier

to have a voltage gain of 45 dB, a closed-loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and an input resistance of

20 k.

## 20 log10 ( voltage gain )

(a) Gain in decibels =

45
= log10 A
log10 A 20
i.e. 45 = 20 from which,
45

A = 10 = 177.83
20
and

Rf Rf
Ri 3
Also, A= i.e. 177.83 = 20 �10

## from which, feedback resistor, R f = 177.83 �20 �10 = 3.56 M

3

3
(b) Frequency = gain  bandwidth = 177.83  10 �10 = 1.78 MHz

## © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 247

Exercise 109, Page 313

1. If the input voltage for the op amp shown below is – 0.5 V, determine (a) the voltage gain,

## (b) the output voltage.

Rf 15 �103
(a) Voltage gain, A = 1 + R i = 1 + 6.8 �10 = 1 + 2.206 = 3.206 or 3.21
3

� Rf �
Vo = �
1+ �Vi = (3.206)( -0.5)
� Ri �
(b) Output voltage, = - 1.60 V

Vo V1
2. In the circuit shown below, determine the value of the output voltage, , when (a) =+1V

V2 V1 V2
and = + 3 V (b) = + 1 V and =-3V

�V V � � 1 3 �
Vo = - R f � 1 + 2 �= - ( 25 �103 ) � + �
�R1 R 2 � 10 �10 10 �103 �

3
(a) Output voltage,

=

## - ( 25 �103 ) ( 400 �10 -6 )

= = - 10 V
© John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 248
�V V � � 1 -3 �
Vo = - R f � 1 + 2 �= - ( 25 �103 ) � + �
�R1 R 2 � 10 �10 10 �103 �

3
(b) Output voltage,

=

## - ( 25 �103 ) ( -200 �10 -6 )

= =+5V

Vo
3. For the summing op amp shown below, determine the output voltage,

## �V V V � � 0.3 0.5 0.8 �

Vo = -R f � 1 + 2 + 3 �= - ( 60 �103 ) � + + �
�R1 R 2 R 3 � 15 �10 25 �10 32 �103 �

3 3
Output voltage,

## - ( 60 �103 ) ( 20 �10-6 + 20 �10-6 + 25 �10-6 )

=

- ( 60 �103 ) ( 65 �10 -6 )
= = - 3.9 V

## 4. A steady voltage of – 1.25 V is applied to an op amp integrator having component values of

R = 125 k and C = 4.0 F. Calculate the value of the output voltage 120 ms after applying the

## input, assuming that the initial capacitor charge is zero.

1 1
Vo = - �
Vi dt = - ( -1.25 ) dt

Output voltage,
CR ( 4.0 �10 ) ( 125 �103 )
-6

1
( -1.25 ) dt = 2 [ 1.25 t ]
0.5 �
-
= = 2.5 t

## Vo = ( 2.5 ) ( 120 �10-3 )

When time t = 120 ms, output voltage, = 0.3 V

## © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 249

Vo V1
5. In the differential amplifier shown below, determine the output voltage, , if: (a) = 4 mV

## and V2 = 0 (b) V1 = 0 and V2 = 6 mV (c) V1 = 40 mV and V2 = 30 mV (d) V1 = 25 mV and

V2
= 40 mV

Rf �
120 �103 �
Vo = -
Ri
Vi = - �
8 �10
( 4 �10-3 )
3 �
(a) Output voltage, � � = - 60 mV

� R �
� R f � � 120 � � 120 �
Vo = � 3 � �1+ V2 = �
� �
�1+ (
� 6 �10-3 )
(b) Output voltage, �R 2 + R 3 �
� R i � �8 + 120 �
� 8 �

120 �

� � ( 1 + 15) ( 6 �10-3 )
128
=� � = + 90 mV

� Rf � � 120 �
Vo = ( V1 - V2 ) �- �= ( 40 - 30 ) �- mV

V1 V2 � Ri � � 8 � = - 150 mV
(c)  hence, output voltage,

� R �
� Rf �
Vo = ( V2 - V1 ) � 3 � �1+ �
V2 V1 �R2 + R3 �
� Ri �
(d)  hence, output voltage,

120 �
� 120 �
( 40 - 25 ) �
� �
�1+ �
= 128 �
� � 8 �= + 225 mV

## © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 250

© John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 251